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Sample records for pretreated rice straw

  1. Enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Thitikorn-amorn, Jitladda; Ou, Bay-Ming; Chen, Shan-He; Huang, Po-Jung [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Hsieh, Jung-Feng [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, Taipei 242 (China); Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Production of bioethanol by the conversion of lignocellulosic waste has attracted much interest in recent years, because of its low cost and great potential availability. The pretreatment process is important for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. Enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was evaluated in this study. The freeze pretreatment was found to significantly increase the enzyme digestibility of rice straw from 48% to 84%. According to the results, enzymatic hydrolysis of unpretreated rice straw with 150 U cellulase and 100 U xylanase for 48 h yielded 226.77 g kg{sup -1} and 93.84 g kg{sup -1} substrate-reducing sugars respectively. However, the reducing sugar yields from freeze pretreatment under the same conditions were 417.27 g kg{sup -1} and 138.77 g kg{sup -1} substrate, respectively. In addition, hydrolyzates analysis showed that the highest glucose yield obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the present study was 371.91 g kg{sup -1} of dry rice straw, following pretreatment. Therefore, the enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was observed in this study. This indicated that freeze pretreatment was highly effective for enzymatic hydrolysis and low environmental impact. (author)

  2. Evaluation of High Solids Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M.; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H2O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H2O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95°C for lime pretreatment and 55°C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95°C, but there was little effect observed at 55°C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  3. Impact of surfactant type for ionic liquid pretreatment on enhancing delignification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Han, Ye-Ju; Potprommanee, Laddawan; Liu, Jing-Yong; Liao, Yu-Ling; Ning, Xun-An; Sun, Shui-Yu; Huang, Qing

    2017-03-01

    This work describes an environmentally friendly method for pretreating rice straw by using 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) assisted by surfactants. The impacts of surfactant type (including nonionic-, anionic-, cationic- and bio-surfactant) on the ionic liquid pretreatment were investigated. The bio-surfactant+IL-pretreated rice straw showed significant lignin removal (26.14%) and exhibited higher cellulose conversion (36.21%) than the untreated (16.16%) rice straw. The cellulose conversion of the rice straw pretreated with bio-surfactant+IL was the highest and the lowest was observed for pretreated with cationic-surfactant+IL. Untreated and pretreated rice straw was thoroughly characterized through SEM and AFM. In conclusion, the results provided an effective and environmental method for pretreating lignocellulosic substrates by using green solvent (ionic liquid) and biodegradable bio-surfactant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

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    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  5. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  6. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

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    Fahriya Puspita Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2. Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production via anaerobic digestion has not been widely adopted because the complicated structure of the plant cell wall makes it resistant to microbial attack. Pretreatment of recalcitrant rice straw is essential to achieve high biogas yield in the AD process. A number of different pretreatment techniques involving using physical pretreatment (hydrothermal and freeze, chemical pretreatment (sodium carbonate – sodium sulfite, hydrogen peroxide, NMMO, alkaline, and dilute acid and biological pretreatment (fungal pretreatment also combined pretretment (microwave irradiation and chemical approaches have been investigated, but there is no report that systematically compares the performance of these pretreatment methods for application on rice straw for biogas production. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of rice straw for delignification, reducing sugar, and conversion to biogas. It describes the AD process, structural and compositional properties of rice straw, and various pretreatment techniques, including the pretreatment process, parameters, performance, and advantages vs. drawbacks.

  7. Efficient bioconversion of rice straw to ethanol with TiO2/UV pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Doman

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is a lignocellulosic biomass that constitutes a renewable organic substance and alternative source of energy; however, its structure confounds the liberation of monosaccharides. Pretreating rice straw using a TiO(2)/UV system facilitated its hydrolysis with Accellerase 1000(™), suggesting that hydroxyl radicals (OH·) from the TiO(2)/UV system could degrade lignin and carbohydrates. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment was an essential step for conversion of hemicellulose to xylose; optimal conditions for this conversion were a TiO(2) concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and an irradiation time of 2 h with a UV-C lamp at 254 nm. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the sugar yields from rice straw pretreated with these parameters were 59.8 ± 0.7% of the theoretical for glucose (339 ± 13 mg/g rice straw) and 50.3 ± 2.8% for xylose (64 ± 3 mg/g rice straw). The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates containing 10.5 g glucose/L and 3.2 g xylose/L with Pichia stipitis produced 3.9 g ethanol/L with a corresponding yield of 0.39 g/g rice straw. The maximum possible ethanol conversion rate is 76.47%. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment can be performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and demonstrates potential in large-scale production of fermentable sugars.

  8. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These

  9. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  10. Microwave Assisted Alkali Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility

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    Renu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, increasing energy demand, and climate change are the conditions that forced the researchers to develop a clean, efficient, renewable, and sustainable source of energy which has a potential to replace fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the attractive and suitable renewable energy resources. In present study, effectiveness of microwave pretreatment in combination with sodium hydroxide (NaOH for increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw has been investigated and under optimum conditions obtained a maximum reducing sugar (1334.79 µg/mL through microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment. Chemical composition analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed that the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and silicon content is more in microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment than the blank sample. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed that the crystallinity index of rice straw treated with microwave assisted alkali (54.55% is significantly high as compared to the blank (49.07%. Hence, the present study proves that microwave assisted alkali pretreatment can effectively enhance enzymatic digestibility of rice straw and it is feasible to convert rice straw for bioethanol production.

  11. Optimization of twin gear-based pretreatment of rice straw for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Rehman, Muhammd Saif Ur; Terán-Hilares, Ruly; Khalid, Saira; Han, Jong-In

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Twin gear reactor is a continuous high solids pretreatment reactor. • RSM was applied to optimize twin gear pretreatment for enzymatic digestibility. • 89% enzymatic digestibility was achieved under optimum conditions. • Thermomechanical pretreatment altered the structural features of rice straw. - Abstract: A laboratory twin-gear reactor (TGR) was investigated as a new means for the pretreatment of high solid lignocelluloses. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken Design was used to optimize the enzymatic digestibility with respect to the pretreatment process variables: temperature of 50–90 °C, NaOH concentration of 2–6% and no. of cycles of 30–60. The results revealed that the TGR-based pretreatment led to the significant structural alterations through increases in pore size, pore volume, cellulose crystallinity and surface area. SEM images also confirmed the surface modifications in the pretreated rice straw. A response surface quadratic model predicted 90% of the enzymatic digestibility, and it was confirmed experimentally and through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well. The TGR extrusion proved to be an effective means for exceedingly high solids lignocellulose.

  12. Optimization of the Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhanced Methane Yield

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    Zilin Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH2 (w/w TS, 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R2 of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters.

  13. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Rong, Wang; Zhiyuan, Ma; Donglei, Long; Hongxiang, Mao; Jiangnan, Wen; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 of straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 of DM, respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in 3 replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P < 0.05) neutral-detergent solubles (NDS) content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P < 0.05) NDS content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P < 0.05) acetate to propionate ratio and lower methane production with a decline of methanogens, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment combines positive effects of urea pretreatment and nitrate supplementation, and can be a potential strategy to improve ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Pretreated by Na2SO3 Over Fe-resin/NaCl

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    YANG Hui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase the conversion of rice straw(RS and the yield of products, we employed three methods, which were ultrasonic wave, steam explosion and Na2SO3 pretreatment to pretreat RS(the treated RS noted as CS-RS, ZQ-RS and Na2SO3-RS, respectively and found that Na2SO3 treatment was the best pretreatment method based on XRD, SEM, elemental analysis and content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The conversion of Na2SO3-RS and the yield of total reducing sugar(TRS and levulinic acid(LA were 97.3%, 29.6% and 13.5%, respectively by 10% Fe-resin in 3.3% NaCl solution under 200 ℃.

  15. Enhanced hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rice straw pretreated by hydrothermal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Leilei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Chunguang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-11-01

    This study tested the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at different peak temperatures (150 °C and 210 °C, i.e. HTT150 and HTT210, respectively) and holding time (0-30 min) on the solubilization of rice straw at total solids (TS) of 20% and then subsequent H2 production from resultant substrates. No obvious degradation was detected in lignin content under all tested HTT conditions which did open up the surface structure and have efficient solubilization effect on rice straw. Soluble carbohydrates produced from straw particles during HTT210 was found to have strongly (r=0.9987) positive correlation with the subsequent H2 yield. The maximum soluble carbohydrates, 80 mg per gram of volatile solids (VS) was achieved under HTT210 and 0 min of holding condition, correspondingly yielding the highest hydrogen production (28 ml/g-VS), about 93-fold higher than the control. Results suggest that holding time is crucial for HTT pretreatment when taking subsequent H2 production into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic detoxification fermentation by Rhodospirillum rubrum for rice straw as feed with moderate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Tu, Fang; Jiang, Ya; Sun, Chuan-Ze

    2018-01-02

    A novel and effective process was put forward for converting rice straw into feed by combining diluted acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100°C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N 2 , CO 2 , and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. The key indexes of feed for fermented materials were estimated and several toxic substances were investigated during the fermentation. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein of rice straw increased from 29 to 143 g kg -1 and the crude fiber decreased from 359 to 136 g kg -1 after fermentation at 0.3 L min -1  L -1 of N 2 flow and a light intensity of 3400 lux; and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 286% and the crude fiber decreased by 52% after fermentation at 0.4 L min -1  L -1 of N 2 flow and a light intensity of 3000 lux. Other key contents were also improved for use as feed, and some toxic substances (i.e., furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, acetic acid, phenol, cresol) produced by the pretreatments could be removed at low levels during the fermentations.

  17. Thermo-chemical pretreatment of rice straw for further processing for levulinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Sasikumar; Agarwal, Bhumica; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2016-10-01

    A variety of pretreatment protocols for rice straw fiber reconstruction were evaluated under mild conditions (upto 0.2%wt. and 121°C) with the object of improving polymer susceptibility to chemical attack while preserving carbohydrate sugars for levulinic acid (LA) production. Each of the protocols tested significantly enhanced pretreatment recoveries of carbohydrate sugars and lignin, and a NaOH protocol showed the most promise, with enhanced carbohydrate preservation (upto 20% relative to the other protocols) and more effective lignin dissolution (upto 60%). Consequently, post-pretreatment fibers were evaluated for LA preparation using an existing co-solvent system consisting of HCl and THF, in addition supplementation of DMSO was attempted, in order to improve final product recovery. In contrast to pretreatment response, H2SO4 protocol fibers yielded highest LA conc. (21%wt. with 36% carbohydrate conversion efficiency) under the modest reaction conditions. Apparent spectroscopic analysis witnessed for fiber destruction and delocalization of inherent constituents during pretreatment protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Free radical induced grafting of acrylonitrile on pre-treated rice straw for enhancing its durability and flame retardancy

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    Aparna Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation highlights the feasibility of a polymer grafting process to enhance the durability and flame retardancy of rice straw towards application as a low cost roofing material. The success of this grafting methodology was perceived to depend upon a bi-step pre-treatment process encompassing delignification and inorganic salts dispersion. Subsequently free radical polymer grafting of acrylonitrile onto rice straw was implemented by immersion mechanism initiated by oxalic acid-potassium permanganate initiator. The percentage of grafting, limiting oxygen index (LOI, biodegradability of the grafted rice straw and grafting yield percentage was estimated to be 57%, 27%, 0.02% and 136.67%, respectively. The weight loss of polymer grafted rice straw implied its less biodegradability over raw straw. Thus, the process of grafting contrived in the present analysis can be a promising and reliable technique for the efficient utilization of rice straw as an inexpensive roofing element through the augmentation of its durability and flame retardancy.

  19. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fahriya Puspita Sari; Budiyono Budiyono

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2). Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD) is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG) from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production v...

  20. Characterization of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During the Chemical Pretreatments of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy

    Production of fuels and chemicals from a renewable and inexpensive resource such as lignocellulosic biomass is a lucrative and sustainable option for the advanced biofuel and bio-based chemical platform. Agricultural residues constitute the bulk of potential feedstock available for cellulosic fuel production. On a global scale, rice straw is the largest source of agricultural residues and is therefore an ideal crop model for biomass deconstruction studies. Lignocellulosic biofuel production involves the processes of biomass conditioning, enzymatic saccharification, microbial fermentation and ethanol distillation, and one of the major factors affecting its techno-economic feasibility is the biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification. Preconditioning of lignocellulosic biomass, using chemical, physico-chemical, mechanical and biological pretreatments, is often practiced such that biomass becomes available to downstream processing. Pretreatments, such as dilute acid and hot water, are effective means of biomass conversion. However, despite their processing importance, preconditioning biomass also results in the production of carbohydrate and lignin degradation products that are inhibitory to downstream saccharification enzymes. The saccharification enzyme cocktail is made up of endo-cellulase, exo-cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes, whose role is to cleave cellulose polymers into glucose monomers. Specifically, endo-cellulase and exo-cellulase enzymes cleave cellulose chains in the middle and at the end, resulting in cellobiose molecules, which are hydrolyzed into glucose by beta-glucosidase. Unfortunately, degradation compounds generated during pretreatment inhibit the saccharification enzyme cocktail. Various research groups have identified specific classes of inhibitors formed during biomass pretreatment and have studied their inhibitory effect on the saccharification cocktail. These various research groups prepared surrogate solutions in an attempt to

  1. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-07-01

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF (+H2O) )→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L -1 . Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L -1 ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process. The NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

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    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  3. Natural deep eutectic solvent mediated pretreatment of rice straw: bioanalytical characterization of lignin extract and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adepu K; Parikh, Bhumika S; Pravakar, Mohanty

    2016-05-01

    The present investigation demonstrated pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rice straw using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), and separation of high-quality lignin and holocellulose in a single step. Qualitative analysis of the NADES extract showed that the extracted lignin was of high purity (>90 %), and quantitative analysis showed that nearly 60 ± 5 % (w/w) of total lignin was separated from the lignocellulosic biomass. Addition of 5.0 % (v/v) water during pretreatment significantly enhanced the total lignin extraction, and nearly 22 ± 3 % more lignin was released from the residual biomass into the NADES extract. X-ray diffraction studies of the untreated and pretreated rice straw biomass showed that the crystallinity index ratio was marginally decreased from 46.4 to 44.3 %, indicating subtle structural alterations in the crystalline and amorphous regions of the cellulosic fractions. Thermogravimetric analysis of the pretreated biomass residue revealed a slightly higher T dcp (295 °C) compared to the T dcp (285 °C) of untreated biomass. Among the tested NADES reagents, lactic acid/choline chloride at molar ratio of 5:1 extracted maximum lignin of 68 ± 4 mg g(-1) from the rice straw biomass, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual holocellulose enriched biomass showed maximum reducing sugars of 333 ± 11 mg g(-1) with a saccharification efficiency of 36.0 ± 3.2 % in 24 h at 10 % solids loading.

  4. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

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    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  6. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  7. Comparing the Bio-Hydrogen Production Potential of Pretreated Rice Straw Co-Digested with Seeded Sludge Using an Anaerobic Bioreactor under Mesophilic Thermophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sattar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three common pretreatments (mechanical, steam explosion and chemical used to enhance the biodegradability of rice straw were compared on the basis of bio-hydrogen production potential while co-digesting rice straw with sludge under mesophilic (37 °C and thermophilic (55 °C temperatures. The results showed that the solid state NaOH pretreatment returned the highest experimental reduction of LCH (lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content and bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The increase in incubation temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C increased the bio-hydrogen yield, and the highest experimental yield of 60.6 mL/g VSremoved was obtained under chemical pretreatment at 55 °C. The time required for maximum bio-hydrogen production was found on the basis of kinetic parameters as 36 h–47 h of incubation, which can be used as a hydraulic retention time for continuous bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The optimum pH range of bio-hydrogen production was observed to be 6.7 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The increase in temperature was found useful for controlling the volatile fatty acids (VFA under mechanical and steam explosion pretreatments. The comparison of pretreatment methods under the same set of experimental conditions in the present study provided a baseline for future research in order to select an appropriate pretreatment method.

  8. Batch and continuous biogas production arising from feed varying in rice straw volumes following pre-treatment with extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, S; Cacciatore, V; Balsari, P

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies the synergistic effects on biogas production obtained when different feedstocks are co-digested with varying proportions of rice straw and explores their behavior at the laboratory scale in continuously stirred digesters. Evaluative measures included methane production, volatile solids degradation, ash accumulation, and extrusion effectiveness. The effect of extrusion on the production of energy was also investigated. Results indicated that continuous stirred digesters fed with substrates composed of 10% or 30% of ensiled rice straw (on total FM) produced 146.1 and 140.0lNCH4kgDM(-1)day(-1), respectively. When extrusion was employed, organic matter degradation was promoted and methane production was significantly raised-by as much as 16%. For the feeds containing 10% rice straw, the increase in obtained energy was higher than the energy needed for the extrusion, but the energy balance was close to zero when the percentage of rice straw was the 30% of the feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic Pretreatment Coupled with the Addition of p-Hydroxyanisole Increased Levulinic Acid Production from Steam-Exploded Rice Straw Short Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Tong; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Bin; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Levulinic acid production, directly from lignocellulosic biomass, resulted in low yields due to the poor substrate accessibility and occurrence of side reactions. The effects of reaction conditions, enzymatic pretreatment, and inhibitor addition on the conversion of steam-exploded rice straw (SERS) short fiber to levulinic acid catalyzed by solid superacid were investigated systematically. The results indicated that the optimal reaction conditions were temperature, time, and solid superacid concentration combinations of 200 °C, 15 min, and 7.5 %. Enzymatic pretreatment improved the substrate accessibility to solid superacid catalyst, and p-hydroxyanisole inhibitor reduced the side reactions during reaction processes, which helped to increase levulinic acid yield. The levulinic acid yield reached 25.2 % under the optimal conditions, which was 61.5 % higher than that without enzymatic pretreatment and inhibitor addition. Therefore, enzymatic pretreatment coupled with the addition of p-hydroxyanisole increased levulinic acid production effectively, which contributed to the value-added utilization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  11. Renewable Silica-Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Use for Reinforcing Synthetic Wood Made of Rice Straw Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Karyasa, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    The current study was aimed to prepare and to characterize a renewable silica-carbon nanocomposite from rice straw ashes. It was purposed also to study the use of the produced nanocomposite as reinforcing material in producing a synthetic wood made of three axial blend of treated rice straw powder, phenolfrmaldehyde resin, and the nanocomposite. A simple preparation route of nanocomposite silica-carbon from rice straw was formulated containing three steps, namely pretreating of rice straw, pr...

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  13. Comparative Properties of Bamboo and Rice Straw Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang; Xing' e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw...

  14. Composition of the enzymatic and acid hydrolyzates of gamma-irradiated rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Banzon, R.B.; Rosa, A. de la

    1989-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was utilized to induce structural changes in rice straw that would enhance the conversion of its cellulose and ligno-cellulosic components to glucose and other reducing sugars. With the appropriate fermentation conditions these sugars can eventually be converted into alcohol. Rice straw materials were irradiated at varying doses (0-500 kgy) and hydrolyzed by the use of a) cellulose enzyme and b) 1% sulfuric acid. The composition of the hydrolyzates of rice straw was studied by thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with the Nelson-Somogyi test for its quantification. Acid hydrolyzates of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 16.46% in its total reducing sugars at 300 Kgy. TLC of the acid hydrolyzates of rice straw revealed the presence of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose. However, it was only with xylose that a significant increase in yield was observed with the non-irradiated straw 12.55% xylose yield was noted while with rice straw-irradiated at 400 Kgy a maximum yield of 15.90% xylose was obtained. Total reducing sugar of the enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 205% at 500 Kgy. TLC revealed that only glucose was present in the enzymatic hydrolyzate. Glucose yield increase from 2.49% (0 Kgy) to 7.31% (500 Kgy). The results showed that radiation pre-treatment of rice straw induces significant increases in reducing sugar for both enzymatic and hydrolyzate. (Auth.). 2 tabs.; 1 fig

  15. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  16. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. production of bioethanol from rice straw using yeast extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The production of bio-ethanol from Rice Straw (Oryza sativa) was carried out using rice straw as a feedstock and a combination of Yeast Extracts Peptone .... ethanol for rice straw bioethanol and for lignocellulosic biomass cellulose and ... The conversion of cellulose biomass to useful substances such as liquid fuels through ...

  18. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  19. Multiple effects of swelling by sodium bicarbonate after delignification on enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, Prihardi; Taku, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shuzo

    2013-12-01

    The multiple effects of pretreatments by chemical delignification using acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and swelling using sodium bicarbonate (SB) for enzymatic saccharification of rice straw in bioethanol production have been investigated in this study. The treatment with the combination of ASC three times (3× ASC) first and SB later resulted in the significant reduction in Klason lignin content up to 90% (wt./wt.). By the saccharification of the pretreated rice straw with cellulase enzymes, it was confirmed that SB treatment was an important step in the pretreatment process not only to disintegrate the cellulose structure but also to facilitate the amorphization of the crystalline cellulose as well as the extended removal of integrated lignin. Furthermore, FTIR analyses revealed that the crystal type of cellulose appeared to be changed from type I to type II by SB treatment, thereby increasing the cellulose surface area and making it more accessible to the cellulase enzyme. Conversion rate to sugar was remarkably increased when 3× ASC + SB treatments were applied to untreated rice straw, even though the saccharification of the treated rice straw was performed at a low enzyme loading (1/100, wt.-enzymes/wt.-substrate). Conclusively, rice straw could be saccharified at high yield in short time at low cellulase loading, enables the enzymatic saccharification to be more feasible for practical bioethanol production using rice straw as a substrate. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  1. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  2. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... the development of cellulosic conversion technology are associated primarily with the complex nature of .... best rice-straw conversion to glucose. This is in agree- ment with the result obtained from .... Ethanol Production from corncob pretreated by ammonia steeping process using genetically engineered ...

  3. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  4. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. A total of 10 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from soils and decayed rice straw. All these isolates were purified and screened for their cellulolytic activity; one strain ...

  5. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... Key words: Rice straw, allelochemicals, antifungal, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, amylase, protease ..... Identification and quantification of compounds in a series of allelopathic and non- allelopathic rice root exudates. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:1647-1662. Timmer LW, Peever TL, Solel Z, ...

  6. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  7. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  8. Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-07-01

    An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  10. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  11. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Membrane separation and characterisation of lignin and its derived products obtained by a mild ethanol organosolv treatment of rice straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moniz, Patrícia; Serralheiro, Cláudia; Matos, Cristina T.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Frissen, Augustinus E.; Duarte, Luís C.; Roseiro, Luísa B.; Pereira, Helena; Carvalheiro, Florbela

    2018-01-01

    An organosolv process using ethanol-water was optimized in order to recover high quality lignin from rice-straw previously pre-treated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C. The results showed a selective and appreciable removal of lignin under very mild conditions and the highest delignification yield

  13. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  14. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  15. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  16. Additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Peripolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral and protein-energy (MPES, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplements (ES, combination of MPES + ES, and straw without supplement (WS on digestibility, fermentation kinetic parameters, cumulative gas production, methane, CO2 production, and volatile fatty acid concentration of rice straw of low and high nutritional value, estimated by in vitro techniques. The experimental design was randomized and factorial 2 × 4: two straws (low and high nutritional value incubated with four supplements (MPES, ES, MPES + ES, and WS and their interactions. Four experimental periods were used, totaling four replications per treatment over time. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of the rice straw with high nutritional value was improved by MPES, while the combination of MPES + ES supplements inhibited the digestibility of this straw. Dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen increased through MPES and MPES + ES supplements resulted in an increase in NH3-N concentration and a decrease in CO2 production due to the microbial mass formation. However, this increase was not enough to improve organic matter degradability parameters, cummulative gas production, gas production kinetics, and acetate:propionate ratio and reduce methane emissions. The straw with high nutritional value showed greater content of nitrogen fraction a, effective degradability, cummulative gas production, and methane and CO2 productions comparing with low-nutritional value straw. The use of MPES and MPES + ES supplements can be used as strategy to mitigate CO2 in ruminant production systems that use rice straw.

  17. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  19. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using rice straw as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Nandita; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.

    2017-06-01

    Phenol is an environmental pollutant; the present study was conducted to examine the adsorption of phenol by rice straw. For this purpose raw (untreated), physically treated (boiled and dried) and thermally treated (heated at 230 °C for 3 h to produce ash) rice straw were selected to determine phenol removal efficiency at different contact times and adsorbent dosages for 1 and Percentage of removal of phenol increased as the adsorbent dose increase. The removal efficiency increase in the order of: raw rice straw ash) rice straw. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm was developed for 1 and ash) treated rice straw. Freundlich isotherm best fit the equilibrium data for 1 mm thermally treated rice straw. The results showed that thermally treated rice straw (ash) can be developed as a potential adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution.

  20. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  1. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  2. Microwave pyrolysis of rice straw: products, mechanism, and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-08-01

    Rice straw is an abundant resource for the production of biofuels and bio-based products. How to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulose effectually is a critical issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the products, mechanism, and kinetics of rice straw pyrolysis by using microwave heating. The highest energy densification ratio of solid residues was achieved at the microwave power level of 300 W. The atomic H/C and O/C ratios of solid residues were much lower than those of rice straw. The primary components of gaseous product were CO, H2, CO2, and CH4, whose molecular fractions were 57%, 21%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. The more gaseous product and the less solid residues were obtained at higher microwave power levels, while the liquid production remained the same and showed a maximum of about 50 wt.%. The kinetic parameters of rice straw pyrolysis were increased with increasing microwave power level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The properties of pellets from mixing bamboo and rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; Xing' e Liu; Benhua Fei; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw pellets are the main type of biomass solid fuel and have great potential as a bioenergy resource of the future in China. But it also showed important problems because of its high content of ashes and its low gross calorific value, reducing the possibility to be used in domestic heating. It was certified that mixing different types of biomass materials was...

  4. production of bioethanol from rice straw using yeast extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    abundant lignocellulosic waste materials in the world. It annually produced about ... organic compounds carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. .... powdered Rice Straw was separately treated with alkali solution to swell the cellulose and make it available for enzyme hydrolysis. The method described by [17] was employed.

  5. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  6. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen...

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  8. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  9. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  10. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  11. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  12. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  13. Ammoniation of rice straw using poultry litter: Effect on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On peut déduire que le traitement de la paille de riz avec la litière de volaille peut améliorer la valeur nutritive et en même temps réduire les microorganismes pathogènes dans la paille traitée. The nutritive value and pathogenic microbial flora of poultry litter treated rice straw in a 5x3x3 factorial trial was conducted at the ...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...... addition of hemicellulase activities to complement the cellulase activities found in Celluclast. Further improving the hydrolysis process in relation to the Babilafuente Bioethanol process might be achieved applying a substrate fed-batch strategy, if optimised in relation to timing of the substrate...

  15. Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Hayam; El-Gendy, Ahmed; El-Haggar, Salah

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb 2+ ) is a heavy metal which is utilized in several industries and can have severe impact on the environment and human health. Research work has been carried out lately on the feasibility of using various low cost materials in the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, the feasibility of utilizing raw rice straw for removal of Pb 2+ from water through biosorption was investigated using batch equilibrium experiments. The effect of several operating parameters on the removal of Pb 2+ using rice straw was studied, revealing the optimum parameters at an initial Pb 2+ concentration of 40 mg/l were: 30 min contact time at a pH of 5.5, particle size 75-150 μm and a dose of 4 g/l. A maximum removal of 94% was achieved under optimum conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the evaluation of the equilibrium experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity of rice straw calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 42.55 mg/g.

  16. Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiencies of fumaric, maleic, and sulfuric acid in wheat straw pretreatment were compared. As a measure for pretreatment efficiency, enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulose was determined. Monomeric glucose and xylose concentrations were measured after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis,

  17. Design of a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor for production of biohydrogen from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Parkhey, Piyush

    2015-06-01

    Rice straw was pretreated using a microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment method. Cellulose recovery was approximately 82 %. This material was hydrolysed in an optimized enzymatic saccharification reaction using cellulase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. This resulted in saccharification of 49 % of cellulosic biomass into glucose. A single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor of volume 2l was built using acrylic plastic sheets with graphite sheet as anode and a stainless-steel mesh as cathode. Shewanella putrefaciens was used as exoelectrogen to oxidize rice straw hydrolysate in the reactor for electrohydrogenesis. The maximum H2 yield obtained was 801 ml H2 g(-1) COD removal. Coulombic efficiency of 88 %, cathodic H2 recovery of 58 % and total H2 recovery of 51 % with an energy efficiency of 74 % were recorded.

  18. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Huang, Dao-You; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Zhu, Han-Hua; Liu, Shou-Long; Luo, Zun-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhong-Xiu; Shen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.

  19. Properties of high-quality long natural cellulose fibers from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2006-10-18

    This paper reports the structure and properties of novel long natural cellulose fibers obtained from rice straw. Rice straw fibers have 64% cellulose with 63% crystalline cellulose, strength of 3.5 g/denier (450 MPa), elongation of 2.2%, and modulus of 200 g/denier (26 GPa), similar to that of linen fibers. The rice straw fibers reported here have better properties than any other natural cellulose fiber obtained from an agricultural byproduct. With a worldwide annual availability of 580 million tons, rice straw is an annually renewable, abundant, and cheap source for natural cellulose fibers. Using rice straw for high-value fibrous applications will help to add value to the rice crops, provide a sustainable resource for fibers, and also benefit the environment.

  20. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, similar to 48% (g g(-1)), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing...

  1. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  2. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  4. Effects of extraction period on yield of rice straw compost humic acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... terms of chemical and spectral characteristics. HA from rice straw compost can be extracted within 24 h and purification can be done in relatively short time without changing their chemical and spectral properties to produce K-humate. Key words: Humic acids, rice straw compost, spectral characteristics, extraction period, ...

  5. Influence of rice straw-based polyols on the morphology, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement of rice straw-based polyols produced closed cell structures suitable for insulation material as revealed in Scanning electron microscope images. Higher percentage of rice straw-based polyols replacement will trigger cell wall structure rapturing that will deteriorate the properties of polyurethane foam.

  6. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Accepted 2 May, 2008. In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size.

  7. Growth of bacteria and yeast on enzymically degraded alkali treated rice and wheat straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.K.; Shirkot, C.K.; Dhawan, S.

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme filtrate of Trichoderma viride QM 9414 was used to saccharify rice and wheat straw. Delignification of the straw by alkali treatment increased the enzymic saccharification of both materials to approximately 70%. The optimum conditions for delignification were autoclaving at 120 degrees for 30 minutes with 2% Sodium Hydroxide. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus megaterium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae grew very well on enriched hydrolyzates of rice and wheat straws. Even nonenriched straw hydrolyzates supported better growth of L. acidophilus, B. megaterium, and E. coli on rice straw than the enriched synthetic medium containing equivalent glucose. S. cerevisiae grown in shake flasks containing 25 mL of enriched rice and wheat straw hydrolyzates yielded 0.595 g and 0.450 g of dry cells, respectively. The corresponding yield was 0.396 g from enriched synthetic medium containing equal amounts of glucose.

  8. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  9. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and characterization of rice straw degrading Streptomyces griseorubens C-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Yang, Qian

    2010-02-01

    To reutilize rice straw generated during the agricultural production process, the actinomycete strain C-5 was isolated from soil that was under the stook for several years in the Heilongjiang province of China by using multiple selective culture media. Strain C-5 was identified as Streptomyces griseorubens by China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC) through morphological and physiological characterization combined with the result of 16S rRNA gene sequence and data analysis. This strain has simultaneous cellulase, laccase, peroxidase, xylanase and pectinase activity. The various chemical composition of rice straw were determined during fermentation process. Simultaneously the biodegradation process of rice straw stem was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is predicted that strain C-5 could decompose rice straw effectively and had promising prospects of being applied in improving the resource utilization of rice straw.

  12. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  13. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2017-04-01

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH 3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Newly isolated Penicillium oxalicum A592-4B secretes enzymes that degrade milled rice straw with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Akihisa; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Matsuura, Akira; Nagai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme producing micro-organism, which can directly saccharify rice straw that has only been crushed without undergoing the current acid or alkaline pretreatment, was found. From the homology with the ITS, 28S rDNA sequence, the strain named A592-4B was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Activities of the A592-4B enzymes and commercial enzyme preparations were compared by Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and Genencore GC220. In the present experimental condition, activity of A592-4B enzymes was 2.6 times higher than that of CTec2 for degrading milled rice straw. Furthermore, even when a quarter amount of A592-4B enzyme was applied to the rice straw, the conversion rate was still higher than that by CTec2. By utilizing A592-4B enzymes, improved lignocellulose degradation yields can be achieved without pre-treatment of the substrates; thus, contributing to cost reduction as well as reducing environmental burden.

  15. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    Full Text Available Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

  16. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...

  17. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Guzmán A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  18. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  19. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  20. The improvement of rice straw quality by urea-molasses treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambak Manurung

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Balai Penelitian Temak Bogor to evaluate the effect of urea-molasses treatment on the quality of rice straw . Five levels of urea were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1 .5% and 2% and 4 levels of molasses were 0%, I%, 2% and 3%. The study was conducted based on factorial completely randomized design with 3 replications . Urea and molasses were mixed with 5 kg chopped rice straw and stored for 21 days in plastic bag . Parameters observed were dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, and silica contents . Nutritive value of rice straw was measured by proximate analysis and its nutrient digestibility by in-vitro using rumen liquid of fistulated Ongole-crossed cattle . The results showed that urea and molasses treatment on rice straw decreased the dry matter and silica contents but increased the crude protein content of rice straw (P<0 .01. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility of rice straw didn't show the significant different among urea treatment but highly significant increased (P<0.01 by the molasses treatment. It was concluded that urea and molasses treatment on rice straw could improve the quality so that by the levels of 1 .5% urea and 3% molasses produced the similar quality with napier grass .

  1. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  2. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  3. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) with a view to analyzing the environment aspects of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. It also compares rice straw-based power generation with that of coal and natural gas. GHG (Greenhouse gas) emission savings were calculated. It finds that rice straw power generation can save GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of about 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal-based and 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh with natural gas based power generation. While the development of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia is still in its early stage, these paddy residues offer a large potential to generate electricity because of their availability. Rice straw power plants not only could solve the problem of removing rice straw from fields without open burning, but also could reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change, acidification, and eutrophication, among other environmental problems. - Highlights: • Overall rice straw preparations contribute 224.48 g CO 2 -eq/kg rice straw. • The most constraints due to GHG (greenhouse gas) emission is from transportation. • Distance collection centre to plant less than 110 km to obtains minimum emissions. • Rice straw can save GHG emissions 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal power. • GHG saving 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to natural gas based power generation

  4. Ethanol production from ensiled rice straw and whole-crop silage by the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2011-03-01

    Silage production from rice straw and whole-plant forage paddy rice is increasing in Japan because of decrease in rice consumption. One potential use for this silage is bioethanol production. In this study, we analyzed the effectiveness of three different commercially available cellulases at saccharification of sun-dried rice straw, ensiled rice straw, and rice whole-crop silage (WCS). Furthermore, the ethanol productivity of the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation process (SSF) from the same plant substrates was analyzed. Among the three kinds of cellulases tested (Novozymes NS50013, Genencor GC220, and Acremonium cellulase), Acremonium cellulase showed the highest ethanol production for the three plant substrates, and the WCS produced the highest ethanol level. Analysis of the enzymatic degradation activity of the cellulases revealed that Acremonium cellulase contained remarkably high glucoamylase and pectinase side activities relative to the other cellulase preparations. The addition of glucoamylase and pectinase to the other two cellulases significantly increased ethanol productivity to levels observed for the Acremonium cellulase preparation, which showed little enhanced performance with the addition of the same enzymes. Finally, we tested whether milling and sterilization had an effect on ethanol production and found that sterilized silage produced higher ethanol levels but that the milling process had no significant effect. These results show that (i) silage made from whole-plant rice can be used for bioethanol production and (ii) the proper selection and combination of commercially available enzymes can make SSF more cost efficient by removing the need for a pre-treatment step. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  6. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  7. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  8. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-01-01

    Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs.

  9. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these

  10. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 ìm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 ...

  11. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  12. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  13. Efficient Hydrolysis of Rice Straw into Xylose and Glucose by a Two-step Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Lu-lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of rice straw into xylose and glucose in dilute sulfuric acid aqueous solution was studied with a two-step process in batch autoclave reactor. The results showed that compared with the traditional one-step acid hydrolysis, both xylose and glucose could be produced in high yields from rice straw by using the two-step acid hydrolysis process. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of rice straw and acid concentration on the hydrolysis of rice straw were systematically studied, and showed that except initial rice straw loading amount, the other parameters had remarkable influence on the products distribution and yields. In the first-step of the hydrolysis process, a high xylose yield of 162.6 g·kg-1 was obtained at 140℃ after 120 min reaction time. When the solid residues from the first step were subjected to a second-step hydrolysis, a glucose yield as high as 216.5 g·kg-1 could be achieved at 180℃ after 120 min. This work provides a promising strategy for the efficient and value-added utilization of agricultural wastes such as rice straw.

  14. Biosorption of aqueous lead (II) on rice straws (oryza sativa) by flash column process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, H.N.; Hassan, M.U.; Jamil, N.; Ahmad, D.; Bushra, H.; Khatoon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb (II) on rice straws has been studied with the variation in the parameters and on modified rice straws by flash column process. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, initial concentration of metal ions, length and width of columns were studied. A comparative study of modification of adsorbent was also done for which rice straws were modified with EDTA, acids, bases, and volatile organic solvents. Base modified adsorbents have shown an increase in adsorption capacity while acid modified adsorbents proved to be the poor adsorbents for metal ions similarly ash of rice straws used as adsorbent given higher adsorption and EDTA modified adsorbents have shown least adsorption of metal ions. Polar volatile organic solvents modified adsorbent gave less adsorption efficiency and non polar adsorbent shown no influence on Pb (II) uptake capacity of rice straws. Rice straws proved to be the best biosorbent for Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  15. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  16. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  17. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation–alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules. - Highlights: • Pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH was investigated. • Irradiation pretreatment can significantly decrease NaOH consumption. • Reducing sugar yield reached 72.67% at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h.

  18. Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase and its wild type (WT were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p0.05 was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05. The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05, but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.

  19. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw.

  20. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  1. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  2. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puad, E.; Wan Asma, I; Shaharuddin, H.; Mahanim, S.; Rafidah, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m 3 . Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  3. The effect of Pleurotus spp. fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M A; Nikkhah, A; Sadeghi, A A; Chamani, M

    2007-08-01

    This study was carried out to test the potentially of using rice straw substrate for the cultivation of four Pleurotus species including Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus and the effect of these species on the chemical composition, cell wall degradation and digestibility of rice straw. Rice straw soaked in water for 24 h and then it was pasteurized at 100 degrees C for 6 h. Rice straw was inoculated with spawns of four Pleurotus fungi (Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus) and packed in the plastic bags and incubated in a fermentation chamber at 23-27 degrees C and 75-85% relative humidity. After 60th day, rice straw samples from all groups were taken and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. The data obtained were analyzed according to the complete randomized design model consisting of four treatments plus one control and four replicates. The results of this study showed that fungal treatment increased (pcaju and Pleurotus ostreatus were higher than the other species in decreasing the hemicellulose, NDF, ADF and ADL contents. The highest Biological Efficiency (BE) was produced by sajor-caju species with 56.02 and the lowest was belong to Pleurotus djamor species with an average 51.17%. All species of fungi incubated on rice straw showed increased (pcaju fungus had the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) with 80.10 and 82.18%, respectively. In general this experiment cleared that treatment with sajor-caju can improve the quality of rice straw to be useful feed for ruminant nutrition.

  4. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  5. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved methane production from corn straw by microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanying; Fu, Shanfei; Yang, Zhiman; Lu, Jun; Guo, Rongbo

    2018-07-01

    Thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment has been proved to be efficient in improving methane production of corn straw in previous studies. In this study, the effect of mesophilic (37 °C) microaerobic pretreatment using Bacillus Subtilis on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was explored. Microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system was beneficial for the anaerobic digestion of corn straw, which obviously improved the methane yield. The maximum methane yield of 270.8 mL/g VS was obtained at the oxygen load of 5 mL/g VS, which was 17.35% higher than that of untreated group. Groups with mesophilic microaerobic pretreatment obtained higher glucose and VFAs concentrations, as well as higher peroxidase activities after 24 h pretreatment. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis displayed the crystallinity indexes of pretreated groups were also decreased. Therefore, microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system (Bacillus Subtilis) is an efficient pretreatment method to enhance the anaerobic digestion efficiency of cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g ethanol /g biomass ), concentrations (5.74 g L −1 ) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L −1 h −1 ) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  8. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  9. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  10. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  11. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  12. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively....... Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation....

  13. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirmal, Chumangalah; Dahman, Yaser [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment). This represented {approx}5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied). Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  14. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...... of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.......5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly...

  15. Effect of gamma ray radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunping; Shen Zhiqiang; Yu Guoce; Wang Jianlong

    2009-01-01

    The effect and aftereffect of radiation pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma ray were studied. It is shown that irradiation can cause significant breakdown of the structure of wheat straw. The mass loss of wheat straw increases and the size distribution after crushing moves to fine particles at elevated irradiation doses. A synergistic effect between irradiation and crushing was observed, with a glucose yield of 10.2% at a dose of 500 kGy with powder of 0.109 mm. The aftereffect of irradiation has important impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The aftereffect of 400 kGy irradiation accounts for 20.1% of the initial effect for glucose production, and the aftereffects of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kGy account for 12.9%, 14.9%, 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively, for reducing sugar production. (authors)

  16. Effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw for producing sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic of corn straw for producing sugar was studied. The relationship between irradiation-dosage and content of reducing sugar was investigated in DNS method. After 1000 kGy irradiation, the content of reducing sugar reached about 317.35%. A synergistic effect between irradiation and enzyme was observed. The reducing sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 20.51% when the corn straw powder (0.15 mm) irradiated with a dose of 1000 kGy. The result shows that the irradiation had significant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. At the 500 kGy pre-irradiation, compared with initial yield, the maximum sugar yield of sample had increased by 13.68% while the irradiated corn straw stored in 20 days. (authors)

  17. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  18. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  19. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-performance removal of acids and furans from wheat straw pretreatment liquid by diananofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueb, Mohd Shafiq Mohd; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-01-01

    Two model solutions and a real stream from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw were subjected to nanofiltration, and permeate flux, retention and resistance to fouling were evaluated. Three commercial NF membranes were tested, and a pressure of 4 bars (range: 1–20 bars) and a temperature...

  1. The improvement of rice straw quality by urea-molasses treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tambak Manurung; Muhammad Zulbardi

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in Balai Penelitian Temak Bogor to evaluate the effect of urea-molasses treatment on the quality of rice straw . Five levels of urea were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1 .5% and 2% and 4 levels of molasses were 0%, I%, 2% and 3%. The study was conducted based on factorial completely randomized design with 3 replications . Urea and molasses were mixed with 5 kg chopped rice straw and stored for 21 days in plastic bag . Parameters observed were dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, c...

  2. Use of sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor for second generation ethanol production: pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Soares Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic biomass yields of forage sorghum BRS 655 presented similar results to other energy crops, producing 9 to 12.6 tons/ha (dry mass of sorghum straw. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lignocellulosic part of this cultivar in terms of its potential in the different unit processes in the production of cellulosic ethanol, measuring the effects of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Three types of pre-treatments for two reaction times were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the pulp for subsequent saccharification. The pulp pretreated by alkali, and by acid followed by delignification, attained hydrolysis rates of over 90%.

  3. Fungal pretreatment: An alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. Changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21 days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. Most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery compared to untreated samples. Glucose yield after 21 days of pretreatment with Poria subvermispora and Irpex lacteus reached 69% and 66% of cellulose available in the wheat straw, respectively, with an ethanol yield of 62% in both cases. Conversions from glucose to ethanol reached around 90%, showing that no inhibitors were generated during this pretreatment. No close correlations were found between ligninolytic enzymes production and sugar yields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced ethanol production from wheat straw by integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoth, Volkmar; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Nair, Harikrishnan A S; Olstorpe, Matilda; Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2013-02-05

    Integrated storage and pre-treatment (ISP) combines biopreservation of moist material under airtight conditions and pre-treatment. Moist wheat straw was inoculated with the biocontrol yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, the xylan degrading yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis or a co-culture of both. The samples and non-inoculated controls were stored at 4 or 15 °C. The non-inoculated controls were heavily contaminated with moulds, in contrast to the samples inoculated with W. anomalus or S. stipitis. These two yeasts were able to grow on wheat straw as sole source of nutrients. When ethanol was produced from moist wheat straw stored for four weeks at 4 °C with S. stipitis, an up to 40% enhanced yield (final yield 0.15 g ethanol per g straw dry weight) was obtained compared to a dry sample (0.107 g/g). In all other moist samples, stored for four weeks at 4 °C or 15 °C, 6-35% higher yields were obtained. Thus, energy efficient bio-preservation can improve the pre-treatment efficiency for lignocellulose biomass, which is a critical bottleneck in its conversion to biofuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes of Soil Chemical Properties during Rice Straw Decomposition in Different Types of Acid Sulphate Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Hairani; Ani Susilawati

    2013-01-01

    Organic residues often exhibit different physico-chemical properties and affect the soil ecosystem in different ways. Hence, the study of their impact on soil is essential to benefit from their potential as amendments and to avoid adverse environmental effects. It is required to study the role of rice straw in the changes of soil properties during decomposition processes in the rice field. The research was conducted on potential acid sulphate soil (PASS) and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS) i...

  6. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  7. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  8. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  9. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  10. Pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw, rice husk, and corncob by TG-MS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut [National Nanotechnology Center, NSTDA, 111 Paholyothin Road, Klong Luang, Pathumtani (Thailand)

    2007-03-15

    The pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw, rice husk, and corncob have been investigated with the TG-MS technique, while paying close attention to the gas formation during the pyrolysis. The weight decreasing profiles and the gas formation rates were significantly different among the samples although their elemental compositions were almost the same. It was found that H{sub 2}O is the main product formed for all the samples. The differences in the gas formation rates were found to be due to their differences in the composition of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. There were significant interactions between cellulose and lignin during the pyrolysis. The interactions between cellulose and lignin during the pyrolysis contributed to a decrease in tar yields but an increase in char yields. From the gas formation data and FTIR analyses of the chars, it may be concluded that the suppression of tar formation during the pyrolysis of biomass was brought about by the cross-linking reactions between lignin and cellulose to form H{sub 2}O and ester groups during the pyrolysis. (author)

  11. Succession of methanogenic archaea in rice straw incorporated into a Japanese rice field: estimation by PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Sugano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession and phylogenetic profiles of methanogenic archaeal communities associated with rice straw decomposition in rice-field soil were studied by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis followed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Nylon bags containing either leaf sheaths or blades were buried in the plowed layer of a Japanese rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season and under flooded conditions after transplanting. In addition, rice straw samples that had been buried in the rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season were temporarily removed during spring plowing and then re-buried in the same rice field under flooded conditions at transplanting. Populations of methanogenic archaea were examined by amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the DNA extracted from the rice straw samples. No PCR product was produced for samples of leaf sheath or blade prior to burial or after burial under drained conditions, indicating that the methanogen population was very small during decomposition of rice straw under oxic conditions. Many common bands were observed in rice straw samples of leaf sheath and blade during decomposition of rice straw under flooded conditions. Cluster analysis based on DGGE patterns divided methanogenic archaeal communities into two groups before and after the mid-season drainage. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands that were commonly present were closely related to Methanomicrobiales and Rice cluster I. Methanomicrobiales, Rice cluster I and Methanosarcinales were major members before the mid-season drainage, whereas the DGGE bands that characterized methanogenic archaeal communities after the mid-season drainage were closely related to Methanomicrobiales. These results indicate that mid-season drainage affected the methanogenic archaeal communities irrespective of their location on rice straw (sheath and blade and the previous history of decomposition

  12. Synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on batch anaerobic digestion of maize straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Shailendra; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Zhang, Wanqin; Li, Jiaxi; Dong, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect of NaOH treatment and Fe dosage to maize straw was investigated. • Combining NaOH treatment and Fe dosing resulted in 57% and 56% higher biogas and methane yield respectively. • Combined treatment shortened the technical digestion time from 48 days to 7 days. • Methane content did not differ significantly among the straw treatments. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated using mesophilic batch reactors. Three straw treatments were investigated as follows: NaOH (4% and 6%) pretreatment, Fe dosage (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and combined NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage. Compared to the control, NaOH pretreatment alone increased methane yield by 3.5% (313.3 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 22.5% (370.9 mL CH 4 /gVS) and shortened the technical digestion time (TDT) from 48 days to 19 days and 10 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. Moreover, Fe dosing (200–1000 mg/L) alone gave a methane yield higher (9.4%) than that obtained from 4% NaOH and 7.5% less than the methane yield from 6% NaOH pretreatment; however, the TDT was 10 days longer. Combining NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage (200–1000 mg/L) significantly increased the methane yield even further to 21.8% (368.8 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 56.2% (472.9 mL CH 4 /gVS), and shortened TDT from 48 days to 13 days and 7 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. This synergistic effect may be attributed to the fact that the alkaline treatment improved accessibility of the biodegradable fraction of the straw while Fe contributed to increased microbial enzyme activity.

  13. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    , while lignin was degraded up to 95% by O3. The loss of biomass after washing could be explained by the amount of lignin degraded. The washing water of pretreated samples (0–7 h) was analyzed for potential fermentation inhibitors. Approximately 30 lignin degradation products and a number of simple...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  14. Effects of rice straw on the speciation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.S.; Du, X.; Weng, L.P.; Zhu, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Four soils were collected from different sites of China in Lechang (LC, Guangdong province), Changsha (CS, Hunan province), Jiaxing UX, Zhejiang province) and Hangzhou (HZ, Zhejiang province), and were spiked with Cu (50 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (5 mg kg(-1)). The effects of rice straw addition (6%) on the

  15. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  16. Rice straw biochar affects water retention and air movement in a sand-textured tropical soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Fauziatu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the current global attention on biochar (BC) as a soil amendment, knowledge is limited on how BC impacts the physical properties of coarse-textured soils (sand > 95%), particularly in tropical regions. A two-season field-study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw BC (3% w...

  17. Mechanisms of the stimulatory effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on rice straw hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; He, Guofu; Xu, Yatong [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, Weimin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant, as an addition to rice straw hydrolysis bioprocess, could not only stimulate the hydrolysis rate, but also reduce the requirement for large amount of cellulases and promote its recycling process. In this article, through the observation of the changes of cellulases, microorganism, substrate and their mutual functions, the mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis were investigated. The study found that the addition of rhamnolipid increases the activity of {beta}-glucosidase but stabilizes Cel7A activity. The observed results might be the main mechanisms triggering the stimulatory effect of adding biosurfactants on rice straw hydrolysis. Meanwhile, zeta potential of the substrate increased, which could make the resistance of the cell attached to the substrate weaker. This in turn could facilitate easy adhesion and better retention of the microbial cell in the media. Moreover, we discovered that lignin content played an important role in the stimulatory effect of adding rhamnolipid. The adsorption of rhamnolipid biosurfactant prevented unproductive binding of enzymes to lignin. This could be another important mechanism responsible for the stimulatory effects of adding rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis. (author)

  18. Fractionation of hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw by combining autohydrolysis and optimised mild organosolv delignification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moniz, Patrícia; Lino, João; Duarte, Luís C.; Roseiro, Luísa B.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Pereira, Helena; Carvalheiro, Florbela

    2015-01-01

    An integrated strategy was followed to valorise rice straw, one of the most relevant biomass feedstocks available worldwide, to selectively recover solubilised hemicelluloses and lignin. The pathway encompassed the use of autohydrolysis to hydrolyse the hemicelluloses and an ethanol-based

  19. Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulose, hemicelluloses, organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were determined before and after 10 days of fermentation. Fermentation has significant (P < 0.01) effect on NDF, but not ADF and ADL contents.

  20. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thy, P.; Jenkins, B.M.; Williams, R.B.; Lesher, C.E.; Bakker, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run durations

  1. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Thomsen, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    The wet oxidation process (water; oxygen and elevated temperature) was investigated under alkaline conditions for fractionation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin from wheat straw. At higher temperature and longer reaction time, a purified cellulose fraction (69% w/w) was produced with high...... with a 15-min reaction time. Under these conditions, 55% of the lignin and 80% of the hemicellulose were solubilized, while 95% of the cellulose remained in the solid fraction. At 185 degrees C, the reaction kinetics was of pseudo first-order. The rate constant for hemicellulose solubilization was higher...... than that for lignin, whereas the rate for cellulose was very low. The cellulose recovery (95-100%) was significantly higher than that for hemicellulose (60%). At temperatures above 185 degrees C, recoveries decreased due to increased degradation. Only half of the COD-content could be accounted...

  2. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolyzed wheat straw by C.tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Westermann, Peter; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    ) and higher productivity. However, very few studies have focused on fermentation of sugars derived from lignocellulogic biomass. The present study investigates butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw. The sugars derived from wheat straw consist mainly of glucose...... with C.tyrobutyricum showed that the strain was capable of producing butyric acid from hydrolyzed wheat straw by simultaneous uptake of glucose and xylose. Maximum yield of butyric acid (0,47g/g sugars, 96% of the theoretical yield) was obtained at a pH between 6 and 7 with higher selectivity (>90......%). However, the xylose uptake rate was much lower than that of glucose, implying that further process development is required. Moreover, reduced cell growth rate was observed at higher metal (K+) concentration added during pH control which could be overcome by in-situ separation of butyric acid....

  3. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absorption and utilization of fertilizer-N and soil-N with mixed application of straw and urea by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinwei; Liu Feng; Ye Shuya; Zhu Hongbin; Ye Chengxin

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen absorption of mixed application of straw and urea by rice was studied by using 15 N isotope tracing technique. The results show that the sole application of straw would result in biological immobilization of available soil N. The insufficient N supply was the limiting factor for rice tiller and spikelets development. Mixed use of straw and urea obviously improved nitrogen supply from both fertilizer and soil, which in turn, promoted the yield of growing rice and increased the soil fertility and productivity of later crop

  5. Sequential processing with fermentative Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis and chemolithoautotrophic Cupriavidus necator for converting rice straw and CO2to polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Kelly, Robert M; Han, Yejun

    2018-02-24

    Unpretreated rice straw was fermented by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, generating solubilized carbohydrates, organic acids, lignin-derived aromatics, H 2 , and CO 2 , which were subsequently used to produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Cupriavidus necator. The fermented liquid significantly enhanced the growth of C. necator, leading to a five-fold cell biomass yield, and a nine-fold PHB yield compared to what was obtained from conventional mineral media. This integrated process utilized all products of lignocellulose fermentation without H (electron) loss and carbon emission, while concomitantly enhancing CO 2 fixation by C. necator for PHB production. The sequential coupling of C. kronotskyensis and C. necator provides not only a new biorefinery paradigm characterized by reduced pretreatment and saccharification requirements but also an efficient way for enhancing CO 2 fixation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enhanced biomass delignification and enzymatic saccharification of canola straw by steam-explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmakhany, Amir Daraei; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Aalami, Mehran; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Khomieri, Mortza; Tabil, Lope G

    2014-06-01

    In recent decades, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) has been extensively investigated. The three main chemical constituents of biomass are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are polysaccharides of primarily fermentable sugars, glucose and xylose respectively. Hemicellulose also includes small fermentable fractions of arabinose, galactose and mannose. The main issue in converting lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for enzymatic breakdown into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam explosion as the pretreatment method for canola straw as lignocellulosic biomass. Result showed that steam explosion treatment of biomass increased cellulose accessibility and it hydrolysis by enzyme hydrolysis. Following 72 h of enzyme hydrolysis, a maximum cellulose conversion to glucose yield of 29.40% was obtained for the steam-exploded sample while the control showed 11.60% glucose yields. Steam explosion pretreatment increased glucose production and glucose yield by 200% and 153.22%, respectively, compared to the control sample. The crystalline index increased from 57.48% in untreated canola straw to 64.72% in steam-exploded samples. Steam explosion pretreatment of biomass increased cellulose accessibility, and enzymatic hydrolysis increased glucose production and glucose yield of canola straw. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: Focus on energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The energy efficiency of microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rape straw for the production of ethanol was investigated. Different microwave energy inputs and solid loadings were tested to find economic pretreatment conditions. The lowest energy consumption was observed when...... solid loading and energy input were fixed at 50% (w/w) and 54kJ (900W for 1min), respectively, and amounted to 5.5 and 10.9kJ to produce 1g of glucose after enzymatic hydrolysis and 1g ethanol after fermentation, respectively. In general, 1g ethanol can produce about 30kJ of energy, and therefore......, the energy input for the pretreatment was only 35% of the energy output. The approach developed in this study resulted in 92.9% higher energy savings for producing 1g ethanol when compared with the results of microwave pretreatments previously reported....

  8. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat...... straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results......-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly...

  9. Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjun; Cai, Zhiyong; Winandy, Jerrold E; Basta, Altaf H

    2010-06-01

    The objective is to evaluate the primary mechanical and physical properties of particleboard made from hammer-milled rice straw particles of six different categories and two types of resins. The results show the performance of straw particleboards is highly dependent upon the straw particle size controlled by the opening size of the perforated plate inside the hammer-mill. The static bending and internal bonding strength of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) resin-bonded boards initially increase then decrease with decreased particle size. The thickness swelling, water absorption, and linear expansion of particleboards decrease with increasing particle size. Compared with pMDI resin-bonded panels, the rice straw particleboard bonded using urea-formaldehyde resin exhibits much poorer performance. The optimized panel properties, obtained when using 4% pMDI and straw particles hammer milled with a 3.18 mm opening perforated plate, exceeded the M-2 specification of American National Standard for Wood Particleboard. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  11. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fuxia [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yaying [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); Chapman, Stephen James [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Khan, Sardar [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Yao, Huaiying, E-mail: hyyao@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using {sup 13}C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ({sup 13}C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO{sub 2} emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg{sup −1} soil h{sup −1}) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and {sup 13}C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in {sup 13}C-labeled straw amended soil than the {sup 13}C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the {sup 13}C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of {sup 13}C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest

  12. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-01-01

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using 13 C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ( 13 C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO 2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg −1 soil h −1 ) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and 13 C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 13 C-labeled straw amended soil than the 13 C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the 13 C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of 13 C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the

  13. Potential of feeding beef cattle with whole corn crop silage and rice straw in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Muhamad Hazim; Halim, Ridzwan Abdul; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Hussin, Ghazali; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara

    2018-02-17

    The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.

  14. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  15. Use of molecular-genetically bred Coprinus cinereus strains for an efficient isolation of cellulose from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Madoka; Ogawa, Kei-ichiro; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kajiwara, Susumu; Shishido, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Molecular-bred Coprinus cinereus monokaryotic strains with high lignin- and xylan-degrading activities were mixed-cultured at 27 degrees C in the liquid medium containing 0.5% (w/v) cut rice straw and 0.025% MnCl2. After 3 weeks, the culture supernatant was extensively treated with crude cellulase, showing the presence in it of 9.3% of the total cellulose of rice straw. When rice straw treated with 0.1 N NaOH or cultured with Ganoderma applanatum were used, the recoveries of the cellulose increased up to 29%. The same experiments were done by using a non-bred control strain, showing the recoveries of the cellulose from the treated or cultured rice straw to be 8%.

  16. Rice straw modified by click reaction for selective extraction of noble metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Rice straw was modified by azide-alkyne click reaction in order to realize selective extraction of noble metal ions. The ability of the modified straw to adsorb Pd(2+) and Pt(4+) was assessed using a batch adsorption technique. It was found that the sorption equilibrium could be reached within 1h and the adsorption capacity increased with temperature for both Pd(2+) and Pt(4+). The maximum sorption capacities for Pd(2+) and Pt(4+) were respectively attained in 1.0 and 0.1 mol/L HCl. The modified straw showed excellent selectivity for noble metal ions in comparison to the pristine straw. In addition, the modified straw was examined as a column packing material for extraction of noble metal ions. It was indicated that 1.0 mL/min was the best flow rate for Pd(2+) and Pt(4+). The modified straw could be repeatedly used for 10 times without any significant loss in the initial binding affinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  18. Rapid preparation of biosorbents with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrodnimitchai, Supitcha

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5-5.0 min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺, and Cr³⁺ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb²⁺ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb²⁺ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  19. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  20. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  1. Properties and Possible Applications for Lignin Streams Obtained from Rice Straw Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of lignin streams recovered from rice straw processing and to study the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from these materials. The evaluated samples included two different cellulignin fermentation residues (FR’s) and an......This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of lignin streams recovered from rice straw processing and to study the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from these materials. The evaluated samples included two different cellulignin fermentation residues (FR......’s) and an acid-precipitated lignin from alkaline-deacetylated black liquor (DBLL). For comparison, a standard lignin sample (Kraft lignin, from Sigma-Aldrich) was also assayed. Besides providing a better understanding about such materials, the obtained results made also possible to propose some potential...... applications for such lignin samples....

  2. Lovastatin-Enriched Rice Straw Enhances Biomass Quality and Suppresses Ruminal Methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that solid state fermentation (SSF of agro-biomass (using rice straw as model; besides, breaking down its lignocellulose content to improve its nutritive values also produces lovastatin which could be used to suppress methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. Fermented rice straw (FRS containing lovastatin after fermentation with Aspergillus terreus was used as substrate for growth study of rumen microorganisms using in vitro gas production method. In the first experiment, the extract from the FRS (FRSE which contained lovastatin was evaluated for its efficacy for reduction in methane (CH4 production, microbial population, and activity in the rumen fluid. FRSE reduced total gas and CH4 productions (P<0.01. It also reduced (P<0.01 total methanogens population and increased the cellulolytic bacteria including Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes (P<0.01, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P<0.05. Similarly, FRS reduced total gas and CH4 productions, methanogens population, but increased in vitro dry mater digestibility compared to the non-fermented rice straw. Lovastatin in the FRSE and the FRS significantly increased the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene that produces HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme for cell membrane production in methanogenic Archaea.

  3. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  4. Integrated gasification combined cycle using Egyptian Maghara coal-rice straw feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, A; Ghallab, A O; Ashour, F H

    2017-06-01

    Rice straw is an agricultural waste that causes an annoying problem in Egypt if it is not well exploited. This study focuses on using this waste in power generation by co-gasification of Egyptian Maghara coal and rice straw blends using entrained flow gasifier technology. Aspen Plus was used to conduct a parametric study for investigation of the effect of changing the inputs to the gasifier on the produced gas composition. Three different input parameters, influencing the performance of the gasifier, including the percentage of coal to rice straw in the blend, the fraction of added water to the blend, and the mass percentage of oxygen with respect to the mass of the blend fed to the gasifier were analysed. Two alternative power production schemes (with and without carbon capturing) have been investigated. The obtained optimum feed conditions are: 40% coal in the feed blend, 20% water concentration in the feed slurry, and 80% oxygen with respect to the dry feed blend to the gasifier. For (10 0000 kg per hour) of the feed blend, the power generated was 270.1 MW in the case of non-carbon capturing, while in the case of carbon capturing, 263.52 MW was generated. Although it produces less power, applying carbon capturing techniques means handling less flue gas and thus using smaller gas turbines and results in more environmentally friendly emissions.

  5. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sune T; Londoño, Jorge E G; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Heiske, Stefan; Kádár, Zsofia; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly. The combination of the L. buchneri ensiling and C. subvermispora WRF treatment provided a significant improvement in the pretreatment effect on WS. This combined biopretreatment produced particularly promising results for ethanol production.

  6. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  7. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  9. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  10. Ethanol production from rape straw by a two-stage pretreatment under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; López-Linares, Juan C; Delgado, Yaimé; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio

    2015-08-01

    The growing interest on rape oil as raw material for biodiesel production has resulted in an increasing availability of rape straw, an agricultural residue that is an attractive renewable source for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Pretreatment is one of the key steps in such a conversion process. In this work, a sequential two-stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid (130 °C, 60 min, 2% w/v H2SO4) followed by H2O2 (1-5% w/v) in alkaline medium (NaOH) at low temperature (60, 90 °C) and at different pretreatment times (30-90 min) was investigated. The first-acid stage allows the solubilisation of hemicellulose fraction into fermentable sugars. The second-alkaline peroxide stage allows the delignification of the solid material whilst the cellulose remaining in rape straw turned highly digestible by cellulases. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 15% (w/v) delignified substrate at 90 °C, 5% H2O2 for 60 min, led to a maximum ethanol production of 53 g/L and a yield of 85% of the theoretical.

  11. TiO2 assisted photo-oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awais, Muhammad; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    -catalytic oxidation. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a photo-catalyst that in its rutile and anatase forms presents the property to enhance the photo-oxidation of lignin-containing substrates. Due to lignin is one of the major obstacles in methane production from lignocellulosic biomass, its destruction is a necessary step...... microscopy (SEM) images of the pretreated wheat straw that showed augmented damaged areas and development of pits after the pretreatment. In addition, the products of oxidation were also measured, as it was expected the lignin to be oxidized into phenolic acids. For instance, vanillic acid was found...... to be markedly higher in the pretreated samples that were exposed for 180min with 1.5 wt% and 2 wt% of TiO2 compared to the untreated wheat straw. Moreover, it was concluded that the products of lignin oxidation and also, the presence of TiO2 did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, UV treatment or TiO2 alone...

  12. Continuous co-production of ethanol and xylitol from rice straw hydrolysate in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Omid; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2016-05-01

    The present study was set to develop a robust and economic biorefinery process for continuous co-production of ethanol and xylitol from rice straw in a membrane bioreactor. Acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, detoxification, yeast strains selection, single and co-culture batch fermentation, and finally continuous co-fermentation were optimized. The combination of diluted acid pretreatment (3.5 %) and enzymatic conversion (1:10 enzyme (63 floating-point unit (FPU)/mL)/biomass ratio) resulted in the maximum sugar yield (81 % conversion). By concentrating the hydrolysates, sugars level increased by threefold while that of furfural reduced by 50 % (0.56 to 0.28 g/L). Combined application of active carbon and resin led to complete removal of furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid. The strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3090 with 66.4 g/L ethanol production and Candida tropicalis NCIM 3119 with 9.9 g/L xylitol production were selected. The maximum concentrations of ethanol and xylitol in the single cultures were recorded at 31.5 g/L (0.42 g/g yield) and 26.5 g/L (0.58 g/g yield), respectively. In the batch co-culture system, the ethanol and xylitol productions were 33.4 g/L (0.44 g/g yield) and 25.1 g/L (0.55 g/g yield), respectively. The maximum ethanol and xylitol volumetric productivity values in the batch co-culture system were 65 and 58 % after 25 and 60 h, but were improved in the continuous co-culture mode and reached 80 % (55 g/L) and 68 % (31 g/L) at the dilution rate of 0.03 L per hour, respectively. Hence, the continuous co-production strategy developed in this study could be recommended for producing value-added products from this hugely generated lignocellulosic waste.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of carbon-silica hybrid catalyst from rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Safie, N. N.; Siambun, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    The hybrid-carbon catalyst has been studied because of its promising potential to have high porosity and surface area to be used in biodiesel production. Silica has been used as the support to produce hybrid carbon catalyst due to its mesoporous structure and high surface area properties. The chemical synthesis of silica-carbon hybrid is expensive and involves more complicated preparation steps. The presence of natural silica in rice plants especially rice husk has received much attention in research because of the potential as a source for solid acid catalyst synthesis. But study on rice straw, which is available abundantly as agricultural waste is limited. In this study, rice straw undergone pyrolysis and functionalized using fuming sulphuric acid to anchor -SO3H groups. The presence of silica and the physiochemical properties of the catalyst produced were studied before and after sulphonation. The catalytic activity of hybrid carbon silica acid catalyst, (H-CSAC) in esterification of oleic acid with methanol was also studied. The results showed the presence of silica-carbon which had amorphous structure and highly porous. The carbon surface consisted of higher silica composition, had lower S element detected as compared to the surface that had high carbon content but lower silica composition. This was likely due to the fact that Si element which was bonded to oxygen was highly stable and unlikely to break the bond and react with -SO3H ions. H-CSAC conversions were 23.04 %, 35.52 % and 34.2 7% at 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. From this research, rice straw can be used as carbon precursor to produce hybrid carbon-silica catalyst and has shown catalytic activity in biodiesel production. Rate equation obtained is also presented.

  14. Effects of Continuous Flooding in No-rice Growing Season on CH4 and CO2 Emissions of Rice Growing Season with Straw Returning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xiang-yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Straw returning is a straw utilization pattern which is widely promoted in China. It can increase the soil organic carbon and fertility, but straw returning also increase the CH4 and CO2 emissions. The effects of continuous flooding in no rice growing season on CH4 and CO2 emission in rice season with straw returning is not clear. This study was conducted with two different water managements in no rice growing season, one was the middle rice-natural drainage (RD and another was the middle rice-continuous flooding (RW. The aim was to investigate the characteristic of CH4 and CO2 emission flux in rice season under different water management with straw returning, and to provide data support for accurate assessment of paddy greenhouse gas emissions. The results showed that RD significantly reduced the CH4 accumulation emission flux in rice growing season compared with the RW, and 80% total CH4 emission flux in rice growing season was emission before the first drainage whether RD or RW. RW could cutdown the CO2 accumulation emission flux in rice growing season compared with RD, and about 60% total CO2 emission flux in rice growing season was emission after the first drainage whether RD or RW. RW reduced the soil NO3--N, NH4+-N and DOC concentration in rice growing season, and decreased the Eh value at 10 cm soil layer, but increased the acetic acid concentration. This might be the main reason of increasing the CH4 accumulation emission flux from RD.

  15. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet oxidation (oxygen pressure, alkaline conditions, elevated temperature) or hydrothermal processing (without oxygen) in order to solubilize the hemicellulose, facilitating bio-conversion. The effect of oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate addition on hemicellulose....... Of five different thermophilic bacteria used in this study only two strains produced ethanol with xylan as substrate, one of them being the strain A3 isolated from an Icelandic hot-spring. Probably other degradation products formed in the presence of oxygen might act as inhibitors. Adaptation...

  16. Nutrient Potency of Rice Straw Processed with Amofer as Cattle Feed Stuff in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage demand can be supplied from rice straw which processed with certain feed technology innovation. Some advantages can be derived under this technology i.e. increasing nutrient content, optimizing the utilization, improving the efficiency and reducing production cost by minimizing feed cost. Ammoniation fermentation (amofer as an applied technology could give solution over the limitation of rice straw availability. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of rice straw processed with amofer (amofer-rice straw as raw material to formulate complete feed. The experiment was carried out with randomized block design with three treatments and six replications. Amofer treatment was carried out by adding urea 3% from the total material and then placed into plastic jar +12 liter and then incubated under an-aerobic process for 18 days. Fermentation material i.e. biology starter by 1% of total material was added at the ninth day. Dry Matter (DM content resulted from each treatments was 87,28%, 85,96% and 84,61% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Crude Protein (CP content was T1=24,48%, T2=21,04%; and T3=24,46%, Crude Fiber (CF content was T1=31,30%; T2=31,30%; and T3=31,39%. Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN for version 1 was  T1=57,29; T2=56,19; and T3=56,89 and version 2 was T1=53,11%; T2=52,28%; and T3=51,10%. The average value of Non Nitrogen Free Extract (NNFE was T1=23,49%; T2=28,08%; and T3=26,57%. The utilization of amofer as applicable technology is considered as the most appropriate method to increase the quality of rice straw by significantly increase nutrient content in term of crude protein (CP and reduce crude fiber (CF content. This increasing quality can be seen from the result of proximate analysis, NNFE and TDN content

  17. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  18. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    Only little research on butyric acid fermentation has been carried out in relationship to bio-refinery perspectives involving strain selection, development of adapted strains, physiological analyses for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. However, a major step towards the development......’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid is considered as a potential chemical building-block for the production of chemicals for e.g. polymeric compounds and the aim of this work was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces less acetic...... acid (higher selectivity), has a higher yield and a higher productivity of butyric acid from pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass. Pre-treated wheat straw was used as the main carbon source. After one year of serial adaptation and selection a mutant strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. This new...

  19. Design considerations for a farm-scale biogas plant based on pilot-scale anaerobic digesters loaded with rice straw and piggery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Garuti, Gilberto; Giordano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Two pilot-scale (1 m 3 ) digesters filled with untreated rice straw and co-digested with raw pig wastewater were operated to obtain design parameters for a farm-scale biogas plant. Both digesters contained 50 kg of dry straw mixed with diluted pig wastewater to create dry digestion conditions (20% TS) and operated for 189 days with leachate recirculation. Digester A was designed for optimum performance (150 L of pig wastewater and mesophilic temperatures) while Digester B was designed to establish minimum inputs (60 L of pig wastewater at ambient temperatures). The pig wastewater provided sufficient buffering capacity to maintain appropriate pH values (between 7.0 and 8.1) and nutrient balances (TOC to TKN ratios of 20 in Digester A and 32 in Digester B). Total biogas production was 22,859 L in Digester A and 1420 L from Digester B, resulting in specific methane yields of 231 and 12 L CH 4 /kgVS added, respectively. Gas production in Digester A was directly correlated with temperature, but the overall lack of methanogenic activity was caused primarily by the reduced wastewater volume. Two theoretical farm-scale scenarios (considering both untreated and pretreated rice straw) were developed for a 100-ha rice farm. Either scenario can produce 100,000 m 3 CH 4 per year, yielding 328 MWh. Major differences including heat input, space requirements, loading frequency, digester volume, engine size, wastewater quantities, and additives are quantitatively defined. The appropriate choice for a farm-scale operation is the simplest model using untreated rice straw without additives, although six times more heat and twice as much reactor volume is required. -- Highlights: ► The co-digestion of untreated rice straw and piggery wastewater is investigated. ► Gas production increases with the volume of pig wastewater added and temperature. ► Pig wastewater alone can provide appropriate buffering capacity and nutrient balance. ► Pilot-scale results are used to establish

  20. Adding distiller's grains and molasses on fermentation quality of rice straw silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ensilage is a simple and low-cost strategy to enable long term preservation and environmentally friendly utilization of agricultural by-products, such as straws and distiller's grains (DG for ruminants. Effect of mixing different proportions of DG and rice straw (i.e. 0, 10, 20 or 30% of DG with or without 5% molasses addition on fermentation and chemical variables of silages was evaluated. The study was conducted as a randomized blocks design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three replications, using laboratory silos of 1L capacity (n=24. Despite a significant interaction (P<0.01 between DG and molasses addition was observed for most variables, in general the increased addition of DG linearly decreased the pH value, acetic acid (AA, butyric acid (BA and ammonia N concentration (P<0.01, and increased the lactic acid (LA concentration (P<0.01. Exception was the propionic acid concentration which linearly decreased without molasses addition and linearly increased with molasses addition at increased proportion of DG (P<0.01. In both silages with or without molasses the addition of DG increased the dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates and crude protein (P<0.01, and decreased the NDF content (P<0.01. Based on the perspective of maximum utilization of rice straw, the mixture of 10% of DG associated to 5% molasses at ensilage process is recommended.

  1. Production of levulinic acid from steam exploded rice straw via solid superacid, S2O8(2-)/ZrO2-SiO2-Sm2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Yu, Bin; Jin, Shengying

    2011-02-01

    In this study, solid superacid was employed to catalyze the decomposition of steam exploded rice straw (SERS) for the production of levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The results revealed that solid superacid, S(2)O(8)(2-)/ZrO(2)-SiO(2)-Sm(2)O(3), could be used as a substitute for homogenous acid to catalyze the production of LA from SERS and LA yield increased with the addition of solid superacid. It was also found that steam explosion combined with superfine grinding of rice straw could effectively increase LA yield for reducing particle size of rice straw and enhancing the accessibility of cellulose. Under optimal conditions of 200°C, 10 min, 13.3% of solid superacid to pretreated rice straw, and 1:15 of solid-liquid ratio, LA yield of the superfine grinding SERS was 70% of the theoretical yield, which was equivalent with the homogeneous acid-catalyzed production of LA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha(-1)) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1)) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. 'Shennong 265') was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha(-1) biochar. There were no differences in CO2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g(-1) and 11.69 mg g(-1) (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1) biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g(-1). The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites by a Quick Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Kalantari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs with were successfully synthesized on the surface of rice straw using the quick precipitation method in the absence of any heat treatment. Ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O, ferrous chloride (FeCl2·4H2O, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and urea (CH4N2O were used as Fe3O4-NPs precursors, reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The rice straw fibers were dispersed in deionized water, and then urea was added to the suspension, after that ferric and ferrous chloride were added to this mixture and stirred. After the absorption of iron ions on the surface layer of the fibers, the ions were reduced with NaOH by a quick precipitation method. The reaction was carried out under N2 gas. The mean diameter and standard deviation of metal oxide NPs synthesized in rice straw/Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCs were 9.93 ± 2.42 nm. The prepared rice straw/Fe3O4-NCS were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT‒IR. The rice straw/Fe3O4-NCs prepared by this method have magnetic properties.

  4. Tween 40 pretreatment of unwashed water-insoluble solids of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water to obtain high concentrations of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Li, Xuezhi; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-11-09

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. In our previous study, high ethanol concentration and ethanol yield were obtained from water-insoluble solids (WIS) of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with LHW by using fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF). However, high cellulase loading and the large amount of wash water possibly limit the practical application of LHW pretreatment. To decrease cellulase loading and the amount of wash water, we performed Tween 40 pretreatment before WIS was subjected to bioethanol fermentation. Results showed that the optimum conditions of Tween 40 pretreatment were as follows: Tween 40 concentration of 1.5%, WIS-to-Tween 40 ratio of 1:10 (w/v), and pretreatment time of 1 hour at ambient temperature. After Tween 40 pretreatment, cellulase loading could be greatly reduced. After Tween 40 pretreatment, the residual liquid could be recycled for utilization but slightly affected ethanol concentration and yield. The unwashed WIS could obtain a high ethanol concentration of 56.28 g/L (reed straw) and 52.26 g/L (corn stover) by Tween 40 pretreatment using fed-batch S-SSF. Ethanol yield reached a maximum of 69.1% (reed straw) and 71.1% (corn stover). Tween 40 pretreatment was a very effective and less costly method with unwashed WIS. This pretreatment could greatly reduce cellulase loading and save wash water. Higher ethanol concentration was obtained almost without reducing ethanol yield.

  5. The Survey of Chemical Paper Pulp Properties Produced from Rice Straw Based on Formaldehyde Sulfide Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Mohammadzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde addition to Sodium Sulfide cooking liquor for chemical Pulp Production from rice straw. Rice straw (oryza sativa was collected from the rice field of Salmanshahr and was carried to the laboratory of wood and paper in Gorgan University. Digestion conditions of pulp included cooking temperature of 160 °C, digestion times of 30, 60 and 90 min and useing chemical (16, 18 and, 20% Sodium sulfite and 4 and 6% formaldehyde based on oven dry dosages weight of raw material. Four different treatments, at a Kappa number ranges of 12 - 14 were selected from each pulp In order to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde added based on Kappa number and pulp yield relations. Hand sheets with grammage of 60 g/m2 were prepared from each of pulp samples and their properties were measured using the related Tappi standard. The results indicated that the addetion of formaldehyde in sulfite liquor increased the pulp yield at the same Kappa number, accelerated delignification rate and improved delignification selectiving as well as improving the mechanical properties of paper

  6. Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS and urea-treated (3% rice straw (UTRS, and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR and chopped (4 cm rice straw (CHR. The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p0.05, except propionic acid (C3 was increased (p<0.05 in UTRS fed group. Nitrogen (N balance was affected by urea treatment (p<0.05. Microbial protein synthesis (MCP synthesis were greater by UTRS and CHR group (p<0.05. The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was greater for UTRS than for RS (p<0.05. From these results, it can be concluded that using the long form combined with urea treatment of rice straw improved feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial N synthesis in crossbred dairy steers.

  7. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif R. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency.

  8. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  9. Effect of source and level of protein supplementation on rice straw utilization by Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, J C; Sawyer, J E; Wickersham, T A

    2017-01-01

    Seven ruminally cannulated Brahman steers were used in a 7 × 4 incomplete block design to determine the effects of cottonseed meal (CSM; 43.9% CP, 82.9% RDP) or dried distillers' grains (DDG; 27.5% CP, 43.6% RDP) supplementation on rice straw utilization (47 g/kg CP and 681 g/kg NDF). Treatments consisted of a negative control receiving no supplement (control) and 3 levels (60, 120, and 180 mg N/kg BW) of either CSM or DDG. Periods were 14 d with 8 d for adaptation and 6 d for data collection. Steers had ad libitum access to rice straw and were fed supplements daily. Increased supplementation resulted in a linear increase ( ≤ 0.06) in forage OM intake from 13.5 g/kg BW by controls to 15.5 and 16.1 g/kg BW for 180 mg N/kg BW of DDG and CSM, respectively. No differences between sources were observed ( = 0.84). Total digestible OM intake was increased by supplementation (linear, supplement (g DM/d) to achieve isonitrogenous treatment levels. Total tract OM digestion tended to increase with DDG supplementation (linear, = 0.08) but not CSM supplementation ( = 0.19). Both supplements did not affect NDF digestion ( > 0.40) or calculated forage NDF digestibility ( > 0.40). Ruminal ammonia concentrations peaked 4 h after supplementation/feeding with the greatest concentration (4.0 m) observed for 180 mg N/kg BW of CSM and the lowest concentration at 4 h observed in the control (0.8 m). Provision of CSM resulted in a linear increase ( supplementation. Total VFA production linearly increased for both CSM and DDG supplementation ( = 0.09 and = 0.01, respectively). Protein supplements containing high and low levels of RDP were effective at improving intake and utilization of rice straw by Brahman steers.

  10. Phosphate dynamics on the application of rice straw compost-biochar and phosphate fertilization in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ania Citraresmini; Taufiq Bachtiar

    2016-01-01

    Soil productivity is determined by soil characteristics itself, which consist of physical, chemical and biological character. The linkage between these three properties can be represented by a single indicator, namely the carbon content in the soil. One of the effects of soil organic matter fulfillment is the availability of soil nutrients, especially to the nutrient that limits the lowland rice production. In this case, P (phosphorus) nutrient become a limiting factor because their numbers are often in abundance but in a form that can not be used by plants. Experiments were carried out with the aim of studying the impact of straw compost application that integrates with Biochar, to the availability of P in lowland soil. The interaction of straw compost + Biochar with PSB inoculation and P sources, become the treatment that being tested in the experiment. Randomized Block Design with factorial pattern is applied as design experiment. As the first factor is the application dose of straw compost + Biochar, consists of 5 levels of treatment : 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 t ha -1 . Second factor is several sources of P, consist of 5 levels of treatment : without P sources (p 0 ); 100 kg ha -1 SP-36 fertilizer (p1); rock phosphate at the dose of 163 kg ha -1 (p 2 ); PSB inoculation at the inoculation dose of 2 kg ha -1 (p 3 ); and rock phosphate inoculated with PSB (p 4 ). The experiment done in the green house of PAIR-BATAN experimental station, Jakarta, on March-July 2014. Phosphorus dynamic as a result of the tested treatments, determined by using radioisotope 32 P technology at the activity of 30 mCi and described clearly on the plant P uptake data of Sidenuk rice plant variety. The experiment result showed that the treatments applied is causing significantly different response on the soil C-organic, the number of PSB populations, 32 P plant counting and plant P uptake derived from several P sources in the plant. (author)

  11. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  12. Curing characteristics tensile and physical properties of rice straw filled standard Malaysian rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaid, A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, O. S.; Hamzah, R.; Adam, T.; Al-Samarrai, M. N.; Mohammed, M.; Azlan, U. A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, the effects of Rice Straw (RS) reinforced Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMRL) on curing characteristics, tensile properties and physical properties were investigated. All compounds were prepared using two roll mill at five different RS loading (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 phr). In addition, two different size of RS, fine size (FS) at 300 μm and coarse size (CS) at 10 mm were used. The properties such as cure characteristics, tensile properties and physical properties were determined. Results indicated that the fine size of RS filled SMRL contributed to the better properties such as tensile, hardness and crosslink density compare to coarser size of RS filled SMRL at same loading.

  13. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-...

  14. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Jenkins, Brian; Williams, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run...... areas between bed particles, ultimately led to bed agglomeration. The interfaces and the presence of gas bubbles in the cement suggest a bonding material with a high surface tension and a liquid state. The cement films originate by filling of irregularities on individual and partially agglomerated bed...

  15. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid-statenucle......Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid...

  16. Comparison of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment for ethanol production from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-qin; Xiong, Xing-yao; Chen, Jing-ping; Chen, Liang; Su, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    It was evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment on the components and the water-soluble sugars of rice straw. Compared with the steam explosion pretreated rice straw, cellucose, hemicellucose and lignin for irradiation pretreated rice sample were much more greatly degraded and the relative content of glucose was significantly enhanced from 6.58% to 47.44%. Interestingly, no glucuronide acid was detected in irradiation pretreated rice straw, while glucuronide acid with the content from 8.5 mg/g to 9.2 mg/g was obtained in steam explosion pretreated sample. Followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, higher concentration of reducing sugars (including glucose and xylose) of irradiation pretreated rice sample (90.3 mg/g) was obtained, which was approximately 2.4- and 1.1- fold higher of the unpretreated (37.2 mg/g) and of steam explosion pretreated sample (85.4 mg/g). To further verify the effectiveness of irradiation pretreatment, characterizations of rice straw, corn stalk and bagasse by an integrated process of dilute acid/enzymatic hydrolysis and irradiation pretreatment were also investigated. -- Highlights: ► We compare irradiation and steam explosion pretreatments for bioethanol production. ► We examine changes in compositions of the components and the water-soluble sugars. ► No glucuronide acid was detected in gamma irradiation pretreated rice straw. ► We evaluate an integrated method of acid/enzyme-hydrolyzed irradiation pretreatment.

  17. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  18. Unravelling the capability of Pyrenophora phaeocomes S-1 for the production of ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktail and simultaneous bio-delignification of rice straw for enhanced enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shubhangi; Soni, Raman; Kaur, Jaspreet; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-12-01

    A natural variant of Pyrenophora phaeocomes isolated from natural biodiversity was able to grow on various agricultural residues by co-producing laccase, xylanase and mannanase. Solid state fermentation of rice straw induced the highest productivities corresponding to 10,859.51±46.74, 22.01±1.00 and 10.45±0.128IUgds -1 for laccase, xylanase and mannanase respectively after 4days. Besides producing the ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktail, 40days cultivation of P. phaeocomes S-1 on rice straw brought about the 63 and 51% degradation of lignin and hemicellulose. These components were further removed with mild alkali extraction revealing the overall losses amounting to 78 and 60% respectively for lignin, and hemicellulose. The biologically pretreated straw upon enzymatic hydrolysis revealed 50% saccharification efficiency releasing 470mgg -1 sugars. Application of this knowledge will lead to efficient management of waste rice straw with low cost production of industrially important enzymes cocktail and its biological delignification for effective enzymatic hydrolysis to free sugars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  20. [Effects of Phosphate Rock and Decomposed Rice Straw Application on Lead Immobilization in a Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Hu, Hong-qing; Su, Xiao-juan; Fu, Qing-ling; Zhu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The soils treated with phosphate rock (PR) and oxalic acid activated phosphate rock (APR) mixed with decomposed rice straw were incubated in different moisture conditions for 60 days to study the effect on the basic property of the soil and on the speciation variation of Pb. The results showed that all these three types of immobilizing materials increased the pH, the Olsen-P, the exchangeable Ca and the soil cation exchange capacity, and APR showed more obvious effect; the pH and the exchangeable Ca of soil in the flooding treatment were higher than those in normal water treatment (70%), but the Olsen-P of soil in normal water treatment was a little bit more. These materials reduced exchangeable Ph fraction, and converted it into unavailable fraction. But the APR was better than raw PR in immobilizing lead, and the exchangeable Pb fraction was reduced by 40.3% and 24.2%, compared with the control, respectively, and the immobilization effect was positively correlated with the dosage. Decomposed rice straw could transform the exchangeable Ph fraction in soil into organic-bound fraction, while the flooding treatment changed it into the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and residue fractions.

  1. THIOGLYCOLIC ACID ESTERIFIED IN TO RICE STRAW FOR REMOVING LEAD FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiol rice straw (TRS was prepared by esterifying thioglycolic acid onto rice straw in the medium of acetic anhydride and acetic acid with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The sorption of lead (Pb on TRS from aqueous solution was subsequently investigated. The batch experiments showed that Pb removal was dependent on initial pH, sorbent dose, Pb concentration, contact time, and temperature. The maximum value of Pb removal appeared at pH 5. For 100 mg/L of Pb solution, a removal ratio of greater than 98% could be achieved with 2.0 g/L or more of TRS. The isothermal data of Pb sorption conformed well to the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption capacity (Qm of TRS for Pb was 104.17 mg/g. The equilibrium of Pb removal was reached within 120 min. The Pb removal process could be described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the Pb removal process was spontaneous and endothermic.

  2. Optimisation of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme systems for efficient rice straw hydrolysis using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Arnthong, Jantima; Paemanee, Atchara; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Champreda, Verawat

    2012-09-01

    Synergistic enzyme system for the hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated rice straw was optimised based on the synergy of crude fungal enzyme extracts with a commercial cellulase (Celluclast™). Among 13 enzyme extracts, the enzyme preparation from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC 199 exhibited the highest level of synergy with Celluclast™. This synergy was based on the complementary cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities of the BCC 199 enzyme extract. A mixture design was used to optimise the ternary enzyme complex based on the synergistic enzyme mixture with Bacillus subtilis expansin. Using the full cubic model, the optimal formulation of the enzyme mixture was predicted to the percentage of Celluclast™: BCC 199: expansin=41.4:37.0:21.6, which produced 769 mg reducing sugar/g biomass using 2.82 FPU/g enzymes. This work demonstrated the use of a systematic approach for the design and optimisation of a synergistic enzyme mixture of fungal enzymes and expansin for lignocellulosic degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of rice straw mulching on N2O emissions and maize productivity in a rain-fed upland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao Hong; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xiao Li; Yin, Chun Mei; Hou, Hai Jun

    2018-03-01

    In the hilly areas of southern China, uplands and paddies are located adjacent to each other. Using rice straw as mulch for upland soil may improve crop production and partially replace chemical fertilizers, which may mitigate N 2 O emissions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of rice straw mulching for mitigating N 2 O emissions and increasing crop production. The treatments included no mulching (CK), 5000 kg ha -1 of straw mulching (SM5), and 10,000 kg ha -1 of straw mulching (SM10). Moreover, all the treatments received equivalent amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from chemical fertilizers plus rice straw. Relative to CK, cumulative N 2 O emissions decreased by 23.1 and 33.5% with SM5 and SM10, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between N 2 O fluxes and soil water-filled pore space (WPFS) (r 2  = 0.495, P mulching, while achieving improved crop yield. This management strategy has great potential, and this study provides an important reference for low-carbon agriculture.

  5. Increasing the Performance of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Using Mixed Crude Cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Winardi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the Performance of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Using Mixed Crude Cellulases fromTrichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of mixed crudeenzyme cellulase from T. reesei and A. niger with commercial enzyme from A. niger, and to investigate effect ofenzyme to substrate ratio to performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. The commercial enzyme from FlukaBiochemica was used, and crude enzyme were prepared by solid fermentation with simple media. Before hydrolized,the rice straw was grinded and sieved and then heated at 85 oC with 2% sodium hydroxide for six hours. Hydrolysis wasconducted in 300 mL beaker flask equipped with mechanical stirrer. Samples were analyzed by dinitrosalicylic acidmethod and measured by spectrophotometer. Both of commercial and mixed crude enzyme show that, the higherenzyme to substrate ratio was higher the glucose concentration obtained. However, ratio of glucose obtained to enzymeused become smaller. The mixture of crude enzyme from T. reesesi dan A. niger that produced in this work was twofold more effective to hydrolyze rice straw than using cellulase enzyme of A. niger from Fluka Biochemika

  6. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  7. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  8. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadde, Butchaiah [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Menke, Christoph [University of Applied Sciences Trier, Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology, Schneidershof, D-54293 Trier (Germany); Wassmann, Reiner [Rice and Climate Change Consortium, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions. (author)

  9. Effects of rice straw, biochar and mineral fertiliser on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a rain-fed lowland rice soil of Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Duong, Quynh Vu; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    -control, rice straw (RS) and biochar (BC). Compound fertiliser was applied to all treatments. Rice was grown in columns packed with a paddy soil from Cambodia. Results revealed faster mineralisation of organic carbon (RS and BC) when applied in water-saturated conditions lasting for 2 weeks instead of flooding...

  10. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat...... straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h(-1)) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol....... The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 degrees C for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial...

  11. Pretreating wheat straw by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production at high solid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Ma, Lunjie; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Hu, Yaodong

    2017-08-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation at high solid loadings. Results indicated solid loading could reach 20% with 77.4% cellulose-glucose conversion and glucose concentration of 164.9g/L in hydrolysate, it even was promoted to 25% with only 3.4% decrease on cellulose-glucose conversion as the pretreated-wheat straw was dewatered by air-drying. 72.9% cellulose-glucose conversion still was achieved as the minimized enzyme input of 20mg protein/g cellulose was employed for hydrolysis at 20% solid loading. In the corresponding conditions, 100g wheat straw can yield 11.2g ethanol with concentration of 71.2g/L by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Thus, PHP-pretreatment benefitted the glucose or ethanol yield at high solid loadings with lower enzyme input. Additionally, decreases on the maximal cellulase adsorption and the direct-orange/direct-blue indicated drying the PHP-pretreated substrates negatively affected the hydrolysis due to the shrinkage of cellulase-size-accommodable pores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different levels of corn steep liquor addition on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the proper mixing ratio of fresh rice straw to corn steep liquor (CSL to obtain a high protein content silage feed. The following experimental silages were generated: the control (C1, composed of fresh rice straw without CSL additive, mixed with CSL in the ratios of 4:1 (C4, 3:1 (C3 and 2:1 (C2. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant was applied at the rate of 50 mL/kg (fresh basis of forage to achieve a final application rate of 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh matter (FM. Duplicate silos for each treatment were opened after 0, 3, 7, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 d for microbiological and chemical analysis. The results showed that the addition of CSL significantly increased crude protein (CP contents, and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents of treatments after 60 d of ensiling (P < 0.05. The lactic acid contents in C4 and C3 were significantly higher than that in C1 (P < 0.05. In summary, mixing fresh rice straw with CSL at addition levels of 4:1 (C4 and 3:1 (C3 can improve the fermentation quality and nutrient composition of fresh rice straw silage. However, a large proportion of CSL (C3 had a negative impact on the aerobic stability of fresh rice straw.

  13. [Composition of organic carbon/elemental carbon and water-soluble ions in rice straw burning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Liu, Gang; Yang, Meng; Xu, Hui; Li, Jiu-hai; Chen, Hui-yu; Huang, Ke; Yang, Wei-zong; Wu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Six types of rice straw were selected in China in this paper, the homemade biomass combustion devices were used to simulate the outdoor burning. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (C) and water-soluble ions in particular matter produced by the flaming and smoldering were analyzed using Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer (Model 2001A) and Ion Chromatography(ISC 2000/ISC 3000). The results showed that the mean value of OC (EFoc) and EC (EFEC) emission factors were (6.37 +/- 1.86) g x kg(-1) and (1.07 +/- 0.30) g x kg(-1) under the flaming conditions, respectively, while under the smoldering conditions the two mean values were (37.63 +/- 6.26) g x kg(-1) and (4.98 x 1.42) g x kg(-1). PM, OC and EC emitted from the same kind of rice straw had similar change trends. The average values of OC/EC under flaming and smoldering were 5.96 and 7.80, and the value of OC/PM was almost unchanged along with the combustion state. Nevertheless, the values of EC/PM under flaming and smoldering were 0.06-0.08 and 0.08-0.11, respectively. The trend of combustion state could be determined using the ratio of EC/PM and the RZ of emitted OC and EC through those two types of combustion reached 0. 97, which was significantly correlated at the 0. 01 level. Among the anions, Cl- showed the highest concentration, the results indicated that the average value of of Cl- emission factor was (0.246 +/- 0.150) g x kg(-1) under flaming, while it was (0.301 +/- 0.274) g x kg(-1) under smoldering. However, A big difference between flaming and smoldering was found in the average value of K+ emission factor, where (0.118 +/- 0.051) g x kg(-1) of the former was significantly higher than the latter (0.053 +/- 0.031) g x kg(-1). When it came to Na, the result of smoldering was significantly higher than that of flaming. The correlation between water-soluble ions in flaming was more significant than smoldering. Rice straw burning could be distinguished from fossil fuels and some other

  14. Optimizing Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide (PHP) Pretreatment on Wheat Straw by Response Surface Method for Enzymatic Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Qing; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Song, Chun

    2017-03-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H 3 PO 4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H 3 PO 4 proportion, and time. H 3 PO 4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery. Increasing H 3 PO 4 proportion can improve enzymatic hydrolysis; however, reduction on cellulose recovery results in decrease of glucose yield. Extra high temperature or long time for pretreatment was not beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose yield. Based on the criterion for minimizing H 3 PO 4 usage and maximizing glucose yield, the optimized pretreatment conditions was 40 °C, 2.0 h, and H 3 PO 4 proportion of 70.2 % (H 2 O 2 proportion of 5.2 %), by which glucose yielded 299 mg/g wheat straw (946.2 mg/g cellulose) after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis.

  15. Spent mushroom substrate biochar as a potential amendment in pig manure and rice straw composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Sun, Jian; Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Wang, Yin

    2017-07-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a bulky waste byproduct of commercial mushroom production, which can cause serious environmental problems and, therefore, poses a significant barrier to future expansion of the mushroom industry. In the present study, we explored the use of SMS as a biochar to improve the quality of bio-fertilizer. Specifically, we performed a series of experiments using composting reactors to investigate the effects of SMS biochar on the physio-chemical properties of bio-fertilizer. Biochar was derived from dry SMS pyrolysed at 500°C and mixed with pig manure and rice straw. Results from this study demonstrate that the addition of biochar significantly reduced electrical conductivity and loss of organic matter in compost material. Nutrient analysis revealed that the SMS-derived biochar is rich in fertilizer nutrients such as P, K, Na, and N. All of these findings suggest that SMS biochar could be an excellent medium for compost.

  16. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  17. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermentedwith some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as SplitPlot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and thesub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productionswas in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L.fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Controltreatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  18. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahmanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermented with some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as Split Plot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and the sub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productions was in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L. fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Control treatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  19. Biological pretreatment with a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain of Trametes versicolor enhances the biofuel potential of canola straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canam, Thomas; Town, Jennifer R; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim A; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2011-11-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor as a biological pretreatment for canola straw was explored in the context of biofuel production. Specifically, the effects on the straw of a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH)-deficient strain (m4D) were investigated. The xylose and glucose contents of the straw treated with 52J were significantly reduced, while only the xylose content was reduced with m4D treatment. Lignin extractability was greatly improved with fungal treatments compared to untreated straw. Saccharification of the residue of the m4D-treated straw led to a significant increase in proportional glucose yield, which was partially attributed to the lack of cellulose catabolism by m4D. Overall, the results of this study indicate that CDH facilitates cellulose access by T. versicolor. Furthermore, treatment of lignocellulosic material with m4D offers improvements in lignin extractability and saccharification efficacy compared to untreated biomass without loss of substrate due to fungal catabolism. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m 3 bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m 3 /(m 3 ·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). Biogas production rate was 323m 3 /t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH 4 + -N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of polyols on thermostability of xylanase from a tropical isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans and its application in prebleaching of rice straw pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankeeree, Wichanee; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Chaiareekij, Somporn; Eveleigh, Douglas E; Kim, Seung Wook; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to find a thermostable xylanase enzyme for potential application in the pretreatment prior to H2O2 bleaching of paper pulp for industry, an extracellular xylanase from Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684 was purified 17.3-fold to apparent homogeneity with a recovery yield of 13.7%. Its molecular mass was approximately 72 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature for activity of the purified enzyme were pH 6.0 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme was relatively stable at 50°C, retaining more than half of its original activity after 3-h incubation. The thermostability of the enzyme was improved by the addition of 0.75 mM sorbitol prolonging the enzyme's activity up to 10-fold at 70°C. When the potential of using the enzyme in pretreatment of rice straw pulp prior to bleaching was evaluated, the greatest efficiency was obtained in a mixture containing xylanase and sorbitol. Treatment of the rice straw pulp with xylanase prior to treatment with 10% (v/v) H2O2 and production of hand sheets increased the ISO sheet brightness by 13.5% and increased the tensile and tear strengths of the pulp by up to 1.16 and 1.71-fold, respectively, compared with pulps treated with H2O2 alone. The results suggested the potential application of the enzyme before the bleaching process of paper pulp when the maintenance of high temperature and enzyme stability are desirable.

  2. TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Awais, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of an advanced oxidation process combining UV irradiation in the presence of the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an effective pretreatment method of wheat straw as means for increasing its biodegradability for increased biogas production by a...... and the products of lignin oxidation did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, a simplified energy assessment showed that all pretreatment conditions become feasible when amounts of substrate to be treated are greater than the threshold value of 1.15 g....

  3. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-09-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  5. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  6. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds of rice straw formed by saccharification during ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiahui; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Xiubing; Cui, Shouqing; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, it was found that the type of phenolic acids derived from rice straw was the major factor affecting ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on ethanol fermentation with rice straw. Different cellulases produced different ratios of free phenolic acids to soluble conjugated phenolic acids, resulting in different fermentation efficiencies. Free phenolic acids exhibited much higher inhibitory effect than conjugated phenolic acids. The flow cytometry results indicated that the damage to cell membranes was the primary mechanism of inhibition of ethanol fermentation by phenolic acids. The removal of free phenolic acids from the hydrolysates increased ethanol productivity by 2.0-fold, indicating that the free phenolic acids would be the major inhibitors formed during saccharification. The integrated process for ethanol and phenolic acids may constitute a new strategy for the production of low-cost ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  8. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  9. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  10. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  11. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  12. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil Content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in Rice Straw Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penglin; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Rongxiu; Zhong, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90°C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99% methyl ester content and about 95% biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation. PMID:21318171

  13. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  14. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  15. Genetic Control of a Transition from Black to Straw-White Seed Hull in Rice Domestication1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Jingjie Zhu, Yan Zhou; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication. PMID:21263038

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality, and crop productivity from a mono-rice cultivation system as influenced by fallow season straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hussain, Saddam; Wu, Lishu; Qin, Ziguo; Li, Xiaokun; Lu, Jianwei; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Straw management during fallow season may influence crop productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice field. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in central China to examine the influence of different fallow season straw management practices on rice yield, soil properties, and emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a mono-rice cultivation system. The treatments comprised an unfertilized control (CK), inorganic fertilization (NPK), rice straw burning in situ (NPK + RSB), rice straw mulching (NPK + RSM), and rice straw strip mulching with green manuring (NPK + RSM + GM). The maximum rice yield, soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and available potassium were observed in NPK + RSM + GM treatment. Compared with NPK, the NPK + RSM + GM recorded 9% higher grain yield averaged across 3 years. However, NPK + RSM and NPK + RSB were statistically similar with NPK regarding grain yield. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM recorded significantly higher CH4 emission during rice growing season as well as winter fallow; however, the response of N2O emissions was variable. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM were statistically similar for annual cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions. The NPK + RSM + GM recorded 103 and 72% higher straw-induced net economic benefits and soil organic carbon sequestration rate, and reduced net global warming potential by 27% as compared with NPK + RSM. Considering the benefits of soil fertility, higher crop productivity, and environmental safety, the NPK + RSM + GM could be the most feasible and sustainable option for mono-rice cultivation system in central China.

  17. The Incorporation of Chromium in Rice Straw Fermented with Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agustin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate chromium incorporation by Ganoderma lucidum in rice straw substrate supplemented with chromium chloride. Treatments were combination of Cr level (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 25000, and 3000 ppm and fermentation time (0, 2, 3, and 4 wk. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 7 x 4 and allocated in completely randomized design with three replications. G. lucidum was grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium for 10 days and was inoculated to the substrate which have been sterilized and mixed with CrCl3.6H2O. The moisture of substrate was maintained at 70%. Fiber and protein components of growth media of G. lucidum was determined and analyzed for their Cr content. The finding result showed that addition of Cr up to 3000 ppm into the substrate stimulated the G. lucidum growth. Chromium was incorporated into the fiber and protein components of the growth substrate of G. lucidum during fermentation. Incorporation of Cr into the protein of substrate containing 3000 ppm Cr was highest when fermented for 4 wk. Protein component of substrate contained 9.29% Cr while in NDF and ADF was 27.20% and 10.55% Cr, respectively. It is concluded that Cr was incorporated into the G. lucidum cells during fermentation.

  18. Extraction of microcrystalline cellulose from rice straw and its effect on polyvinyl alcohol biocomposites film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwok-Mern; Ting, Sam Sung; Lin, Ong Hui; Owi, Wei Tieng

    2017-07-01

    The poor management and underutilization of agricultural wastes had proliferated interest of researchers around the world to find alternatives to utilize them as potential value-added products. One of the green alternatives is by extracting cellulose from these waste materials and incorporating them in polymer as reinforcement fillers. The surging amount of plastic waste also posed major issues to the environment due to its recalcitrance to degrade. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC-RS) was extracted from rice straw through cyclic alkaline and bleaching treatment to remove hemicellulose and lignin respectively. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was chosen as the matrix and different ratios of PVOH / MCC-RS films were prepared (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0wt% of MCC) through solution casting method and its tensile, thermal and morphological properties were studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed increased crystallinity of MCC-RS after chemical treatment (from 44.5% to 60.8%) due to the successful removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which was then confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. For the biocomposites, both tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films increased with increasing MCC-RS content up until 7.5wt%, supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results which depicted improvement in the interfacial adhesion between MCC-RS and PVOH. From the overall results, the improvement in properties of biocomposite from cellulose-based microfiller had shown promising future in application of the water soluble plastic packaging industry.

  19. NH(4)OH-KOH pulping mechanisms and kinetics of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-04-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of NH(4)OH-KOH mixture pulping rice straw were studied. When aqueous ammonia was mixed with a small amount of caustic potash (ratio of 1:5), three distinct delignification phases were observed in the pulping process: a bulk delignification phase from the beginning of the cooking period to 100 degrees C, a supplementary delignification phase from 100 degrees C to 155 degrees C lasting a further 45 min, and a residual delignification phase until the end of the cooking period. There were two silica removal phases; the first phase was from the beginning of the cooking period to 100 degrees C and the second phase was from 100 degrees C to the end of the cooking period. The rate of delignification reaction was first order with respect to residual lignin and 0.3 order with respect to [OH(-)]. The silica removal was pseudo-first-order with respect to residual silica and 0.6 order with respect to [OH(-)]. The activation energies of the delignification and removal of silica reactions were 35.6 and 30.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  1. Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw pellets and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yunhui; McMillan, Oliver; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Ni 2+ on four-standard biochars produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP550, WSP700) and rice husk (RH550, RH700) at 550 and 700 °C, respectively, were investigated. The kinetic results show that the adsorption of Ni 2+ on the biochars reached an equilibrium within 5 min. The increase of the solid to liquid ratio resulted in an increase of Ni 2+ removal percentage but a decrease of the adsorbed amount of Ni 2+ per weight unit of biochar. The Ni 2+ removal percentage increased with the increasing of initial solution pH values at the range of 2-4, was relatively constant at the pH range of 4-8, and significantly increased to ≥98% at pH 9 and stayed constantly at the pH range of 9-10. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Ni 2+ for the biochars follow the order of WSP700 > WSP550 > RH700 > RH550. Both cation exchange capacity and pH of biochar can be a good indicator of the maximum adsorption capacity for Ni 2+ showing a positively linear and exponential relationship, respectively. This study also suggests that a carefully controlled standardised production procedure can make it reliable to compare the adsorption capacities between different biochars and investigate the mechanisms involved.

  2. Hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw by a novel consolidated bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Antwi, Philip

    2018-04-01

    A novel consolidated bioprocess for hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw without exogenous enzymes involved was developed by co-fermentation of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess was approved by batch fermentations, with the optimum pH of 6.5. Fed-batch fermentation with a constant pH of 6.5 at 55 °C could enhance the butyric acid yield to a remarkable 33.9 g/L with a selectivity as high as 78%. Metabolic analysis of the co-culture indicated that sugars liberated by C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 were effectively converted to butyric acid by C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Secondary metabolism of C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 also contributed to the hyper-production of butyric acid, resulting in the re-assimilation of by-products such as acetic acid and ethanol. This work provides a more effective fermentation process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Rice Straw Extract and Alkali Lignin on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiahtul Zulkafli; Norinsan Kamil Othman; Irman Abdul Rahman; Azman Jalar

    2014-01-01

    A paddy residue based corrosion inhibitor was prepared by treating finely powdered rice straw with aqueous ethanol under acid catalyst (0.01 M H 2 SO 4 ). Commercial alkali lignin was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Prior to the corrosion test, the extraction yield and alkali lignin was characterized via FTIR to determine the functional group. The effect of paddy residue extract and commercial alkali lignin on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated through the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract and alkali lignin at different immersion times (3 h, 24 h and 42 h) was evaluated. The results show that the paddy waste extract exhibited lesser weight loss of carbon steel in the acidic medium in comparison to the commercial alkali lignin, suggesting that the paddy residue extract is more effective than the commercial alkali lignin in terms of its corrosion inhibition properties. The results obtained proves that the extract from paddy residue could serve as an effective inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic mediums. (author)

  4. Monosaccharide yields and lignin removal from wheat straw in response to catalyst type and pH during mild thermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    pretreatment at pH 1 gave the highest yield of saccharides in the liquid fraction, the solid fraction was more susceptible to enzymatic attack when pretreated at pH 13. The highest yields were obtained after pretreatment with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, and with sodium hydroxide at pH 13 when enzymatic...... hydrolysis was employed. A two-step pretreatment strategy at pH 1 (hydrochloric acid) and subsequently at pH 13 (sodium hydroxide) released 69 and 95% of the theoretical maximal amounts of glucose and xylose, respectively. Furthermore, this two-step pretreatment removed 68% of the lignin from the straw...

  5. Process analysis of superheated steam pre-treatment of wheat straw and its relative effect on ethanol selling price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Barchyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.

  6. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  7. The utilization of alkali-treated rice straw supplemented with cheap non-protein nitrogen in buffalo production in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Karunaratne, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feeding value of rice straw, with special emphasis on rumen function, on swamp buffalo in Sri Lanka. In Experiment 1 three rumen-fistulated buffaloes of average live weight 240 kg were used to compare three rations containing straw supplemented with 4% urea, straw 'ensiled' for 21 days with a solution of 4% urea (urea/ammonia treatment) and straw treated with a 4% solution of sodium hydroxide. The urea-ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatments were superior to urea supplementation in increasing apparent digestibility of the diet, total volatile fatty acid concentrations and acetate production rate in the rumen. In Experiment 2 three treatments were compared using the same three fistulated buffaloes. Treatments 1 and 2 were as in Experiment 1, but for treatment 3, to 4% urea ensiled straw as in Experiment 1 was added 5 wt% finely chopped, fresh glyricidia leaves prior to ensiling to supply urease, enhancing ammonia production from urea. The digestibility of the glyricidia-containing ration was similar to that of the ration with straw treated for 21 days. Acetate production and total volatile fatty acid concentration were also similar for the two treatments. The increased digestibility of the diet and the apparent increased volatile fatty acid production in the rumen explain the increases in live weight gain and milk production in cattle and buffalo fed urea-ammonia treated rice straw. Adding glyricidia at the commencement of ensiling can be recommended to reduce the ensiling time of treated straw. (author)

  8. Effects of protein levels in concentrate and rice straw or urea-treated rice straw on growth performance, carcass characteristics and consumer acceptance of meat from goat and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanpoomi, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effect of protein levels in concentrate and rice straw or urea-treated rice straw on growth performance, carcass characteristics and consumer acceptance of meatfrom goat and sheep. Sixteen male goats and sixteen male sheep, with the initial weight of 20-25 kg, were randomly assigned to an individual pen and received the experimental diets. A 2x2x2 factorial experiment in completely randomized design (CRD was applied with 4 replicates per treatment. The treatments werecombined by two animal species (goat and sheep, two levels of crude protein (CP in concentrate (14 or 16% CP and two types of roughages (rice straw or 5% urea-treated rice straw. The diets were fed ad libitum foreach animal and the feeding trial lasted for 91 days. The results showed that average daily gain among treatment groups were not significantly different (P>0.05 but that of goat and sheep receiving urea-treated ricestraw was higher (P0.05 across treatments. Total feed intake of sheep was higher than of goat (964.5VS 749.9 g/d. Total feed intake of goat and sheep receiving urea-treated rice straw were higher than those receiving rice straw (90.1.7 VS 817.4 g/d. Digestion coefficients of dry matter (DM and nutrients weresignificantly different among treatments (P0.05. Percentage of shank and heart in goat (29.4 and 0.63% were higher than that in sheep(24.6 and 0.56%; however, its skin percentage was lower than in sheep (13.87 VS 16.83%. Most wholesale cuts of all treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05. However, percentage of neck cut, shouldercut and shank cut in goat (8.22, 24.07 and 7.77%, respectively was higher than that in sheep (6.79, 21.63 and 5.68%, respectively. Percentage of loin cut and leg cut in sheep (9.64 and 33.24% were higher than that ingoat (7.33 and 29.02%. Carcass length, back fat thickness, shear force and loin eye area of all treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05. Back fat

  9. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  10. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw with the ......The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw...... with the cellulolytic enzyme system, Celluclast (R) 1.5 L, from Trichoderma reesei, supplemented with a beta-glucosidase, Novozym (R) 188, from Aspergillus niger. Addition of glucose (0-40 g/L) significantly decreased the enzyme-catalyzed glucose formation rates and final glucose yields, in a dose-dependent manner......-Menten inhibition models without great significance of the inhibition mechanism. Moreover, the experimental in situ removal of glucose could be simulated by a Michaelis-Menten inhibition model. The data provide an important base for design of novel reactors and operating regimes which include continuous product...

  12. Glucose and xylose co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using mutants of S. cerevisiae TMB3400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-03-10

    Wheat straw was pretreated and fermented to ethanol. Two strains, which had been mutated from the genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400, KE6-12 and KE6-13i, have been used in this study and the results of performance were compared to that of the original strain. The glucose and xylose co-fermentation ability was investigated in batch fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) liquid (undiluted, and diluted 1.5 and 2 times). Both strains showed improved xylose uptake in diluted SPWS liquid, and increased ethanol yields compared with the original TMB3400 strain, although xylitol formation also increased slightly. In undiluted SPWS liquid, however, only KE6-13i performed better than the original strain regarding xylose utilization. Fed-batch fermentation of 1.5 and 2 times diluted liquid was performed by adding the glucose-rich hydrolysates from enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction of SPWS at a constant feed rate after 5 h of fermentation, when the glucose had been depleted. The modified strains showed improved xylose conversion; however, the ethanol yield was not significantly improved due to increased glycerol production. Fed-batch fermentation resulted in faster xylose utilization than in the batch cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of bioethanol and value added compounds from wheat straw through combined alkaline/alkaline-peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Li, Guodong

    2018-07-01

    An efficient scheme was developed for the conversion of wheat straw (WS) into bioethanol, silica and lignin. WS was pre-extracted with 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide at 30 °C for 5 h to remove about 91% of initial silica. Subsequently, the alkaline-pretreated solids were subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment with 40 mg hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )/g biomass at 50 °C for 7 h to prepare highly digestible substrate. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis demonstrated that the sequential alkaline-AHP pretreated WS was efficiently hydrolyzed at 10% (w/v) solids loading using an enzyme dosage of 10 mg protein/g glucan. The total sugar conversion of 92.4% was achieved. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied to produce ethanol from the two-stage pretreated substrate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain. Ethanol with concentration of 31.1 g/L was produced. Through the proposed process, about 86.4% and 54.1% of the initial silica and lignin were recovered, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  15. Artificial intelligence modeling of cadmium(II) biosorption using rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Alaa El Din; Fawzy, Manal; Radwan, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The biosorption efficiency of Cd2+ using rice straw was investigated at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), contact time (2 h) and agitation rate (5 Hz). Experiments studied the effect of three factors, biosorbent dose BD (0.1 and 0.5 g/L), pH (2 and 7) and initial Cd2+ concentration X (10 and 100 mg/L) at two levels "low" and "high". Results showed that, a variation in X from high to low revealed 31 % increase in the Cd2+ biosorption. However, a discrepancy in pH and BD from low to high achieved 28.60 and 23.61 % increase in the removal of Cd2+, respectively. From 23 factorial design, the effects of BD, pH and X achieved p value equals to 0.2248, 0.1881 and 0.1742, respectively, indicating that the influences are in the order X > pH > BD. Similarly, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system indicated that X is the most influential with training and checking errors of 10.87 and 17.94, respectively. This trend was followed by "pH" with training error (15.80) and checking error (17.39), after that BD with training error (16.09) and checking error (16.29). A feed-forward back-propagation neural network with a configuration 3-6-1 achieved correlation ( R) of 0.99 (training), 0.82 (validation) and 0.97 (testing). Thus, the proposed network is capable of predicting Cd2+ biosorption with high accuracy, while the most significant variable was X.

  16. Rhizobium straminoryzae sp. nov., isolated from the surface of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hameed, Asif; Lai, Wei-An; Yen, Wen-Shao; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-09-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CC-LY845(T), was isolated from the surface of rice straw in Taiwan. Cells were non-motile, and no flagellum was detected. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Rhizobium, with closest similarity to Rhizobium pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) (97.6 %), R. rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T) (97.0 %) and R. oryzae LMG 24253(T) (96.7 %); other species showed lower levels of similarity (Rhizobium. The temperature range for growth was 25-42 °C, the pH range was 5.0-9.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 4.0 % (w/v) were tolerated. Strain CC-LY845(T) did not form nodules on four different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c). The polyamine pattern of strain CC-LY845(T) showed spermidine and putrescine as major polyamines. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The DNA G+C content was 68.3±2.4 mol%. Base on its phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-LY845(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium straminoryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain CC-LY845(T) ( = BCRC 80698(T) = JCM 19536(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  17. Characterization of gaseous and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from field burning of rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Tipayarom, Aungsiri; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Simpson, Christopher D.; Hardie, David; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2015-10-01

    Rice straw (RS) field burning, commonly practiced in Asia, produces large amounts of toxic air pollutants but has not been comprehensively characterized. This study conducted field and laboratory measurements for gaseous pollutants and semi-VOCs (16 PAHs, 16 chlorinated pesticides and 14 PCBs) in RS burning smoke to determine emission factors (EFs) and emission concentration profiles. Paddy burning experiments were done following common practices used by farmers in Southeast Asia and EFs were estimated using the carbon balance method. Laboratory hood experiments simulated burning of dry RS (moisture content ∼ 5%) and normal RS (moisture ∼ 23-30%). Semi-VOCs were analyzed separately in the particulate (PM) and gas phases, and the levels measured in smoke were compared with those in the paddy background and in general ambient air to identify enrichment of the compounds. Lower EFs of all pollutants were obtained for hood burning dry RS as compared to hood burning normal RS. EFs of all detected pollutants in the field burning were higher than hood burning. The EFs of field burning in mg kg-1 RS were 760 for benzene, 230 for toluene, 510 for SO2, 490 for NO2, 260 for total PAHs (88% in gas phase), 0.11 for total PCBs (59% in gas phase) and 0.23 for OCPs (62% in gas phase). The EF of aldehydes determined in the hood experiment was 80-150 mg kg-1 RS. As compared to ambient air, RS smoke had significant enrichment of light PAHs, fluoranthene in PM and acenaphthylene in gas phase. Smoke had a higher proportion of benzene in BTEX than roadside air. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and aldehydes were higher in the burning smoke compared to ambient air, but there was no significant enrichment of particular compounds. This study provides appropriate ranges of EFs for developing emission inventory of RS spread field burning.

  18. Exergy based performance analysis of hydrogen production from rice straw using oxygen blown gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Atmadeep; Das, Anirban; Datta, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    An exergetic analysis has been performed on a gasification-based bio-hydrogen generation system consisting of an ASU (air separation unit), a gasifier and a water gas shift reactor. The biomass feed in the system is rice straw. The influences of oxygen percentage in the gasifying agent (in the range 85–99%) and gasifier equivalence ratio (in the range 2–4) on the system exergetic efficiency have been studied. The analysis also investigates the effect of the above mentioned operating parameters on the hydrogen yield and cold gas efficiency. It is observed that, with 95% oxygen in the gasifying agent and with gasifier equivalence ratio of 4.0, the process generates 107.8 g hydrogen per kg of dry biomass (on ash free basis) with a cold gas efficiency of 70%. An increase in gasifier equivalence ratio is found to increase the exergetic efficiency of the system. However, the exergetic efficiency remains almost immune to the change in oxygen percentage in the gasifying agent. The maximum destruction of exergy, in quantitative term, is found to be in the gasifier due to the irreversible chemical reactions occurring there. However, in terms of percentage of exergy input, the highest exergy destruction and exergy loss are observed to occur in the ASU. - Highlights: • Hydrogen generation from biomass gasification analyzed for exergetic performance. • Oxygen-rich stream from air separation used as gasification agent. • Performance evaluated at varying equivalence ratio and % oxygen in gasifying agent. • Component-wise exergy analysis has been done for the system

  19. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IMPACT OF BRACHIARIA, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA, AND POTASSIUM ENRICHED RICE STRAW COMPOST ON ALUMINIUM, POTASSIUM AND STABILITY OF ACID SOIL AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acid soil is commonly grown with cassava, which in general, tolerate low soil  fertility and aluminum (Al toxicity. However, without any improvement efforts such soil will become worse. Intercropping cassava with Brachiaria decumbens (BD which adapts to acid soil and tolerates low fertility soils as well as application of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and organic matters are among the important efforts to rehabilitate this soil. The experiment was conducted to  examine the impact of BD, AM, and potassium (K enriched rice straw compost on exchangeable Al, available K, and stability of soil aggregates. Experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was BD as cassava intercropping, the second factor was AM, and the third factor was 2 t ha-1 rice straw compost enriched with 0 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, and 200 kg KCl ha-1. Brick pots (1 m length x 1 m width x 0.45 m depth filled with Kanhapludult soil was used for growing cassava in which row of BD was planted at 60 cm from cassava stem. K-enriched rice straw compost and AM (10 g per stem were applied around cassava stem at 2 and 12 days after planting, respectively. BD was cut every 30 days and the cutting was returned to the soil. Soil exchangeable Al was analyzed at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP, while Al and K contents as well as aggregate stability were measured at 6 MAP. The results showed that planting BD decreased 33% exchangeable Al, which means that the root exudates of this grass was effective in detoxifying Al3+. Treatment of BD and/or in combination with AM was effective in preserving K added to the soil, increasing total polysaccharides, and improving soil aggregate stability. This indicated that planting BD and applying AM and Kenriched rice straw compost improved acid soil fertility, and therefore can be recommended in cassava cultivation.

  1. Urea-ensiled rice straw as a feed for cattle in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urea, with or without small amounts of salt and/or molasses. The wet straw is covered with a plastic sheet and ensiled for about 3weeks before it is fed to the animals. The urea-treated straw should be removed or the stack opened for one day ...

  2. Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby

    2012-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...

  3. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.

    2014-01-01

    to hydrothermal pretreatment, producing highly digestible (up to 92% glucan-to-glucose conversion) and fermentable (up to 100% glucose-to-ethanol conversion) fiber fractions. Liquid fractions obtained in the pretreatment did not show inhibition towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant differences among...

  4. Preparation and functional evaluation of antihypertensive polypeptides from rice based on ultrasonic pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymolysis was used for preparation of antihypertensive peptide from rice. Following studies were conducted:ultrasonic pretreatment of substrate protein, ultrafilter of hydrolysate and test of anti-digestive enzyme degradation and one-time feeding of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of antihyp...

  5. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  6. Construction of Potent Recombinant Strain Through Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion in Endophytic Fungi for Anticancerous Enzymes Production Using Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; Al-Zahrani, Salha Hassan Mastour; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Among all fungal endophytes isolates derived from different ethno-medical plants, the hyper-yield L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase wild strains Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20 using rice straw under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were selected. The selected strains were used as parents for the intergeneric protoplast fusion program to construct recombinant strain for prompt improvement production of these enzymes in one recombinant strain. Among 21 fusants obtained, the recombinant strain AYA 20-1, with 2.11-fold and 2.58-fold increase in L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase activities more than the parental isolates Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20, respectively, was achieved using rice straw under SSF. Both therapeutic enzymes L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase were purified and characterized from the culture supernatant of the recombinant AYA 20-1 strain with molecular weights of 50.6 and 83.2 kDa, respectively. Both enzymes were not metalloenzymes. Whereas thiol group blocking reagents such as p-chloromercurybenzoate and iodoacetamide totally inhibited L-asparaginase activity, which refer to sulfhydryl groups and cysteine residues involved in its catalytic activity, they have no effect toward L-glutaminase activity. Interestingly, potent anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were detected for both enzymes.

  7. Development of corn silk as a biocarrier for Zymomonas mobilis biofilms in ethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhanakasem, Tatsaporn; Tiwari, Rashmi; Thanonkeo, Pornthap

    2016-01-01

    Z. mobilis cell immobilization has been proposed as an effective means of improving ethanol production. In this work, polystyrene and corn silk were used as biofilm developmental matrices for Z. mobilis ethanol production with rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate. Rice straw was hydrolyzed by dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis. The final hydrolysate contained furfural (271.95 ± 76.30 ppm), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0.07 ± 0.00 ppm), vanillin (1.81 ± 0.00 ppm), syringaldehyde (5.07 ± 0.83 ppm), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB) (2.39 ± 1.20 ppm) and acetic acid (0.26 ± 0.08%). Bacterial attachment or biofilm formation of Z. mobilis strain TISTR 551 on polystyrene and delignified corn silk carrier provided significant ethanol yields. Results showed up to 0.40 ± 0.15 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when Z. mobilis was immobilized on a polystyrene carrier and 0.51 ± 0.13 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when immobilized on delignified corn silk carrier under batch fermentation by Z. mobilis TISTR 551 biofilm. The higher ethanol yield from immobilized, rather than free living, Z. mobilis could possibly be explained by a higher cell density, better control of anaerobic conditions and higher toxic tolerance of Z. mobilis biofilms over free cells.

  8. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  9. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications.

  10. Fermentation Quality and in Vitro Nutrient Digestibility of Fresh Rice Straw-Based Silage Treated with Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of fresh rice straw-based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was the ratio of fresh rice straw (FRS, tofu waste (TW and cassava waste (CW consisted of two levels i.e., 40 : 20 : 40 and 40 : 25 : 35, on dry matter (DM basis. The second factor was the level of LAB inoculant with two levels ie., 0 and 20 mL/kg FM. The treatments were (A FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40, without LAB inoculant; (B FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 + LAB inoculant; (C FRS + TW + CW with the ratio of 40 : 25 : 35, without LAB inoculant; (D FRS + TW + CW with ratio of 40 : 25 : 35 + LAB inoculant. Results showed that addition of LAB inoculant in silage increased lactic acid concentration (P0.05 on chemical composition, fermentation quality of silage and in vitro digestibility. It was concluded that mixture silage with ratio of 40 : 20 : 40 with the addition of LAB inoculant had the best fermentation quality and nutrient digestibility than other silages.

  11. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from 9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation

  12. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  13. Improving anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw for methane production: Combined benefits of mechanical and sodium hydroxide pretreatment for process designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F.; Terzariol, Filippi K.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH pretreatment was tested to improve degradation of SCS for methane production. • Low NaOH concentration accelerated AD of SCS but not increased the methane yield. • Mild and high NaOH concentrations accelerated and increased methane yield of SCS. • NaOH use increased OPEX but provided a higher profitability than the untreated SCS. • Anaerobic reactor price showed a high influence on sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkaline pretreatment method to enhance the degradation kinetics of sugarcane straw (SCS) for methane production was investigated with a special focus on the benefits for designing the anaerobic digestion process. For that, SCS was previously homogenized by milling in 2 mm particle size and pretreated in NaOH solutions at various concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 g NaOH/100 g SCS) and the methane yields were determined in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The obtained experimental data were used to simulate a large-scale semi-continuous process (100 ton SCS day −1 ) according to a first-order reaction model and the main economic indicators were calculated based on cash flows of each pretreatment condition. The BMP tests showed that by increasing the NaOH concentration the conversion of the fibrous fraction of the substrate to methane was not only accelerated (higher α value), but also increased by 11.9% (from 260 to 291 mL CH 4 gVS −1 ). By using the experimental data to simulate the large-scale process these benefits were translated to a reduction of up to 58% in the size of the anaerobic reactor (and consequently in electricity consumption for stirring), while the methane yield increased up to 28%, if the liquid fraction derived from the pretreatment process is also used for methane production. Although the use of NaOH for substrate pretreatment has considerably increased the operational expenditures (from 0.97 up to 1.97 € × 10 6 year −1 ), the pretreatment method was able to

  14. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  15. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  17. Effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on the physical-chemical composition and morphologic structure of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcia Maria de Souza; Perrone, Olavo Micali; Nunes, Christiane da Costa Carreira; Taboga, Sebastião; Boscolo, Maurício; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-11-01

    The present work aimed to study the effect of the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw with microwave irradiation in aqueous and acid glycerol solutions on their chemical composition, fiber structure and the efficiency of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the pretreatment acted mainly on the lignin and hemicellulose fractions of the bagasse, whereas, in the straw, lesser structural and chemical changes were observed. The images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that treating bagasse and straw with acid glycerol solution loosened the cell walls and there was a breakdown in the pit membrane. The treated material was submitted to hydrolysis for 72h and higher yields of reducing sugars were observed compared to the untreated material (250.9mg/g from straw and 197.4mg/g from bagasse). TEM images after hydrolysis confirmed the possible points of access of the enzymes to the secondary cell wall region of the pretreated biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Short-Term Effects of Rice Straw Biochar, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Properties in a Cold Waterlogged Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising management approach to eliminating these obstacles. However, little is known about the performance of biochar when combined with N fertilizer and P fertilizer in cold waterlogged soils. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the main effects and interactive effects of rice straw biochar, N and P fertilizer on rice growth and soil properties in a cold waterlogged paddy field. The field treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two biochar levels (0 and 2.25 t ha−1, two N fertilizer levels (120.0 and 180.0 kg ha−1 and two P fertilizer levels (37.5 and 67.5 kg ha−1 which were arranged in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Results confirmed that biochar application caused a significant increase in the soil pH due to its liming effect, while this application resulted in a significant decrease in soil exchangeable cations, such as exchangeable Ca, Mg, Al and base cations. The interactive effect of N fertilizer, P fertilizer and biochar was significant for soil total N. Moreover, a negative effect of biochar on the internal K use efficiency suggested that K uptake into rice may benefit from biochar application. According to the partial Eta squared values, the combined application of N fertilizer and biochar was as effective as pure P fertilization at increasing straw P uptake. The addition of biochar to farmers’ fertilization practice treatment (180.0 kg N ha−1, 67.5 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 67.5 kg K2O ha−1 significantly increased rice yield, mainly owing to improvements in grains per panicle. However, notable effects of biochar on rice yield and biomass production were not detected

  19. Identification and quantification of phenolic and flavonoid components in straw and seed husk of some rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Mehrabanjoubani, Pooyan; Keshavarzian, Maryam; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Abdolzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays. HPLC analyses showed that the gallic acid, pyrogallol, apigenin and rutin were the main phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all varieties of rice. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Hashemi and Ali Kazemi varieties showed the highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Rice straw and husk of Iranian varieties showed considerable antioxidant activity and Hashemi indicated significantly (P rice straw and seed husk of Iranian varieties shows high antioxidant activities and they contain various types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds that could be use in food and medical industries. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    : A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large.......Conclusion: The combination of the L. buchneri ensiling and C. subvermispora WRF treatment provided a significant improvement in the pretreatment effect on WS. This combined biopretreatment produced particularly promising results for ethanol production....

  1. Lignocellulosic residues for production of electricity, biogas or second generation biofuel: A case study of technical and sustainable potential of rice straw in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dembelé, Filifing; Daou, Ibrahima

    2016-01-01

    Biomass from agricultural residues, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is not only seen as a sustainable biomass source for the production of electricity, but increasingly as a resource for the production of biogas and second generation biofuel in developing countries. Based on empirical research...... in an irrigated rice-growing area, Office du Niger, in Mali, this article builds scenarios for the sustainable potential of rice straw. The paper concludes that there is great uncertainty regarding the size of the sustainable resources of rice straw available for energy, but that the most likely scenario...... to underestimate the uncertainty of resource assessments, and secondly to overestimate the resources available for energy production, mainly due to optimistic residue-to-product ratios and availability factors.© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  3. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively...

  4. Evaluation of Minimal Trichoderma reesei Cellulase Mixtures on Differently Pretreated Barley Straw Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, J

    2007-01-01

    cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) and endo-1,4-beta-glucanases (EGs). Since the original T. reesei strain was isolated from decaying canvas, the T reesei CBH and EG activities might be present in suboptimal ratios for hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. We employed statistically designed combinations...

  5. Evaluation of minimal Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixtures on differently pretreated barley straw substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, Jim

    2007-01-01

    cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) and endo-1,4-beta-glucanases (EGs). Since the original T. reesei strain was isolated from decaying canvas, the T reesei CBH and EG activities might be present in suboptimal ratios for hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. We employed statistically designed combinations...

  6. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and glucose fermentation using a Vertical Ball Mill Bioreactor (VBMB): Impact of operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Rafael C.A.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Roberto, Inês C.

    of spheres at 46 °C. For glucose fermentation, none of the variables influenced the ethanol yield from glucose, which achieved 80% on average. However, for ethanol volumetric productivity, the spheres showed an interactive effect with temperature, being obtained 2.16 g/L.h when both variables were used...... in the lowest level. These results revealed that the glass spheres played an important role during biomass’ fiber liquefaction and yeast’s fermentative performance. Nevertheless, the shear effect caused by the spheres was positive for enzymatic hydrolysis and negative for glucose conversion into ethanol....... By applying the needed adjustments on the levels of the variables for each process (hydrolysis and fermentation), the VBMB can be efficiently used for rice straw bioconversion into ethanol. In addition, the design of this bioreactor would allow its use in different processes, such as simultaneous...

  8. Open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws: primary emissions, photochemical aging, and secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Yanli; Ding, Xiang; Tang, Mingjin; Liu, Tengyu; Hu, Qihou; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyi; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Yele; George, Christian; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural residues are among the most abundant biomass burned globally, especially in China. However, there is little information on primary emissions and photochemical evolution of agricultural residue burning. In this study, indoor chamber experiments were conducted to investigate primary emissions from open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws and their photochemical aging as well. Emission factors of NOx, NH3, SO2, 67 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), particulate matter (PM), organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) under ambient dilution conditions were determined. Olefins accounted for > 50 % of the total speciated NMHCs emission (2.47 to 5.04 g kg-1), indicating high ozone formation potential of straw burning emissions. Emission factors of PM (3.73 to 6.36 g kg-1) and primary organic carbon (POC, 2.05 to 4.11 gC kg-1), measured at dilution ratios of 1300 to 4000, were lower than those reported in previous studies at low dilution ratios, probably due to the evaporation of semi-volatile organic compounds under high dilution conditions. After photochemical aging with an OH exposure range of (1.97-4.97) × 1010 molecule cm-3 s in the chamber, large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were produced with OA mass enhancement ratios (the mass ratio of total OA to primary OA) of 2.4-7.6. The 20 known precursors could only explain 5.0-27.3 % of the observed SOA mass, suggesting that the major precursors of SOA formed from open straw burning remain unidentified. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) signaled that the aged OA contained less hydrocarbons but more oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds than primary OA, and carbon oxidation state (OSc) calculated with AMS resolved O / C and H / C ratios increased linearly (p < 0.001) with OH exposure with quite similar slopes.

  9. SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw with the addition of saccharified or fermented wheat meal in integrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Hancz, Dóra; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-11-29

    Integration of second-generation (2G) bioethanol production with existing first-generation (1G) production may facilitate commercial production of ethanol from cellulosic material. Since 2G hydrolysates have a low sugar concentration and 1G streams often have to be diluted prior to fermentation, mixing of streams is beneficial. Improved ethanol concentrations in the 2G production process lowers energy demand in distillation, improves overall energy efficiency and thus lower production cost. There is also a potential to reach higher ethanol yields, which is required in economically feasible ethanol production. Integrated process scenarios with addition of saccharified wheat meal (SWM) or fermented wheat meal (FWM) were investigated in simultaneous saccharification and (co-)fermentation (SSF or SSCF) of steam-pretreated wheat straw, while the possibility of recovering the valuable protein-rich fibre residue from the wheat was also studied. The addition of SWM to SSF of steam-pretreated wheat straw, using commercially used dried baker's yeast, S. cerevisiae, resulted in ethanol concentrations of about 60 g/L, equivalent to ethanol yields of about 90% of the theoretical. The addition of FWM in batch mode SSF was toxic to baker's yeast, due to the ethanol content of FWM, resulting in a very low yield and high accumulation of glucose. The addition of FWM in fed-batch mode still caused a slight accumulation of glucose, but the ethanol concentration was fairly high, 51.2 g/L, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 90%, based on the amount of glucose added.In batch mode of SSCF using the xylose-fermenting, genetically modified S. cerevisiae strain KE6-12, no improvement was observed in ethanol yield or concentration, compared with baker's yeast, despite the increased xylose utilization, probably due to the considerable increase in glycerol production. A slight increase in xylose consumption was seen when glucose from SWM was fed at a low feed rate, after 48 hours, compared

  10. Anaerobic digestion of straw and corn stover: The effect of biological process optimization and pre-treatment on total bio-methane yield and energy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Serena; Wei, Qiao; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a useful method for producing renewable energy/biofuel. Today, biogas production uses a large amount of energy crops (EC), with the effect of increasing AD costs and creating conflict between food/feed vs. energy use. A partial solution to this might be the substitution of EC with agricultural wastes, e.g. straw. Straw and corn stover are widely available in the world and approximately 1600millionMgyear -1 of these substrates are available. Straw can be useful used for biogas production but its characteristics limit its performance so that sometimes the energetic balance can be negative. In this review, the limits for the conversion of this substrate into biogas were investigated and solutions/proposals for getting higher straw biogas production performance are reported. In addition, energetic balances for untreated and pre-treated substrates are reported, giving indicative evaluations of the sustainability of straw and corn stover use for biogas production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fate of Fertilizer-Derived N Applied to Enhance Rice Straw Decomposition in a Paddy Field during the Fallow Season under Cool Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen (N derived from fertilizer (fertilizer-derived N applied to a paddy field after rice harvesting to promote rice straw decomposition during the fallow season, and to determine its effect on soil N fertility in northern Japan. A frame containing soil mixed with rice straw and 15N-labeled fertilizer (4.3 g N m−2 ammonium sulfate [AS] or lime-nitrogen [LN] was placed into a paddy field on a gray lowland soil during the fallow season (October–April, and the following rice-growing season (May–September. Before cultivation (April, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in soil + straw were higher for LN (55–72% than for AS (41–63%. At the harvesting stage (September, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in plants were significantly higher for LN (4.9–6.2% than for AS (3.4–5.3%, and the percentages in soil were also significantly higher for LN (42–61% than for AS (31–38%. This could be attributed to the nitrification inhibitory effect of LN and result in the suppression of N losses via leaching. Consequently, fertilizer-derived N could contribute to the maintenance of soil N fertility, and this effect could be higher for LN than AS.

  12. Effect of pretreatment severity in continuous steam explosion on enzymatic conversion of wheat straw: Evidence from kinetic analysis of hydrolysis time courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monschein, Mareike; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on continuous steam explosion, the influence of pretreatment severity due to varied acid loading on hydrolysis of wheat straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulases was investigated based on kinetic evaluation of the saccharification of each pretreated substrate. Using semi-empirical descriptors of the hydrolysis time course, key characteristics of saccharification efficiency were captured in a quantifiable fashion. Not only hydrolysis rates per se, but also the transition point of their bi-phasic decline was crucial for high saccharification degree. After 48h the highest saccharification was achieved for substrate pretreated at relatively low severity (1.2% acid). Higher severity increased enzyme binding to wheat straw, but reduced the specific hydrolysis rates. Higher affinity of the lignocellulosic material for cellulases does not necessarily result in increased saccharification, probably because of lignin modifications occurring at high pretreatment severities. At comparable severity, continuous pretreatment produced a substrate more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than the batch process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective saccharification of lignocellulosic barley straw by mechanocatalytical pretreatment using potassium pyrosulfate as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Laura; Haverinen, Jasmiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Lassi, Ulla

    2017-06-01

    The catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is attractive due to the feasible generation of valuable products such as reducing sugars which constitute the basic substrates for chemical and transportation fuel production, as well as the production of renewable hydrogen. This study shows the efficient conversion of lignocellulose, especially hemicellulose, into reducing sugars such as xylose and galactose, by mechanocatalysis using potassium pyrosulfate, K 2 S 2 O 7 , as an effective salt catalyst. Ball milling was performed, introducing a mechanical force which, combined with chemical pretreatment, leads to reducing sugar yields (40%) almost as high as when commonly used sulfuric acid was employed. Kinetic experiments as well as the optimization of the saccharification process are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  15. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  16. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69 ± 0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P  0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P > 0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P  0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats.

  18. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Du, Bo; Zhao, Xuebing; Zhu, J Y; Liu, Dehua

    2017-03-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo 12 ) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo 12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo 12 was simultaneously reduced. In an external liquid flow cell, the reduced PMo 12 was re-oxidized with generation of electricity. The effects of several factors on pretreatment were investigated for optimizing the conditions. Enzymatic conversion of cellulose and xylan were about 80% and 45%, respectively, after pretreatment of wheat straw with 0.25M PMo 12 , at 95°C for 45min. FeCl 3 was found to be an effective liquid mediator to transfer electrons to air, the terminal electron acceptor. By investigating the effects of various operation parameters and cell structural factors, the highest output power density of about 11mW/cm 2 was obtained for discharging of the reduced PMo 12 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Agnesia, Shandy Sarima; Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD). Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD. Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  1. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent's surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  2. {sup 13}C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wei, E-mail: weicao@hqu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used {sup 13}C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. {sup 13}C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that {sup 13}C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  3. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 13 C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13 C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13 C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13 C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  4. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11 mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  5. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  6. Variations in the patterns of soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial communities in response to exogenous application of rice straw and calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Huang, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Ge, Yunhui [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Su, Yirong [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Xu, Xinwen; Wang, Yongdong [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); He, Xunyang, E-mail: hbhpjhn@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The addition of exogenous inorganic carbon (CaCO{sub 3}) and organic carbon has an important influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in karst soil, but the microbial mechanisms underlying the SOC priming effect are poorly understood. We conducted a 100-day incubation experiment involving four treatments of the calcareous soil in southwestern China's karst region: control, {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw addition, {sup 14}C-labeled CaCO{sub 3} addition, and a combination of {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw and CaCO{sub 3}. Changes in soil microbial communities were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Both {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition stimulated SOC mineralization, suggesting that organic and inorganic C affected SOC stability. Addition of straw alone had no significant effect on bacterial diversity; however, when the straw was added in combination with calcium carbonate, it had an inhibitory effect on bacterial and fungal diversity. At the beginning of the experimental period, exogenous additives increased bacterial abundance, although at the end of the 100-day incubation bacterial community abundance had gradually declined. Incubation time, exogenous input, and their interaction significantly affected SOC mineralization (in terms of priming and the cumulative amount of mineralization), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial community abundance and diversity. Moreover, the key factors influencing SOC mineralization were MBC, bacterial diversity, and soil pH. Overall, these findings support the view that inorganic C is involved in soil C turnover with the participation of soil microbial communities, promoting soil C cycling in the karst region. - Highlights: • Different patterns of {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition on positive priming effects of SOC mineralization. • Inorganic C is involved in

  7. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  8. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  9. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  10. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicochemical evolution during rice straw and coal co-pyrolysis and its effect on co-gasification reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Gong, Yan; Guo, Qinghua; Ding, Lu; Wang, Fuchen; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-03-01

    Physicochemical evolution (i.e. pore structure variation, carbon structure change and active AAEM transformation) during rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) co-pyrolysis was quantitatively determined in this work. Moreover, the corresponding char gasification was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and relative reactivity was proposed to quantify the co-pyrolysis impact on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that the development of pore structure in co-pyrolyzed chars was first inhibited and then enhanced with the decrease of SF proportion. The promotion effect of co-pyrolysis on order degree of co-pyrolyzed chars gradually weakened with increasing RS proportion. Co-pyrolysis mainly enhanced active K transformation in co-pyrolyzed chars and the promotion effect was alleviated with increasing RS proportion. The inhibition effect of co-pyrolysis on co-gasification reactivity weakened with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature, which was mainly attributed to the combination of carbon structure evolution and active AAEM transformation in co-pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Valorisation of Vietnamese Rice Straw Waste: Catalytic Aqueous Phase Reforming of Hydrolysate from Steam Explosion to Platform Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huong Giang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions.

  13. Yeast mixture of liquid beer and cassava pulp with rice straw for the growth of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Butcha, Patima; Ritruechai, Viroj; Udchachon, Supachai

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixtures of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and growth of dairy heifers. Sixteen Holstein crossbred heifers (13.8 ± 1.6 months old, 210 ± 23 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly allocated to four feeding treatments with four replications, which were 0:0:100 (RS), 0:70:30 (0%LBY), 20:50:30 (20%LBY), and 50:20:30 (50%LBY), respectively, for LBY/CVP/RS on a fresh matter basis. The heifers were offered conventional concentrate at 1.5% initial body weight daily and fed the treatment diets ad libitum. Average daily gain and feed intake were not significantly different among the treatments. The heifers fed 50%LBY had the highest crude protein (CP) intake and DM, OM, and CP digestibility (P < 0.05). The ruminal pH did not differ significantly among treatments, while NH 3 -N was the highest (P < 0.05) in 50%LBY. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of each VFA were not significantly different among the treatments. Blood urea nitrogen concentrations of 50%LBY were the highest among the treatments (P < 0.05). The results indicated that 50%LBY improved CP digestibility.

  14. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  15. Application of Rice-Straw Biochar and Microorganisms in Nonylphenol Remediation: Adsorption-Biodegradation Coupling Relationship and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Liping; Yao, Lingdan; Cheng, Guanghuan; Wang, Lixiao; He, Yunfeng; Hu, Baolan

    2015-01-01

    Biochar adsorption presents a potential remediation method for the control of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) pollution in the environment. It has been found that HOCs bound on biochar become less bioavailable, so speculations have been proposed that HOCs will persist for longer half-life periods in biochar-amended soil/sediment. To investigate how biochar application affects coupled adsorption-biodegradation, nonylphenol was selected as the target contaminant, and biochar derived from rice straw was applied as the adsorbent. The results showed that there was an optimal dosage of biochar in the presence of both adsorption and biodegradation for a given nonylphenol concentration, thus allowing the transformation of nonylphenol to be optimized. Approximately 47.6% of the nonylphenol was biodegraded in two days when 0.005 g biochar was added to 50 mg/L of nonylphenol, which was 125% higher than the relative quantity biodegraded without biochar, though the resistant desorption component of nonylphenol reached 87.1%. All adsorptive forms of nonylphenol (frap, fslow, fr) decreased gradually during the biodegradation experiment, and the resistant desorption fraction of nonylphenol (fr) on biochar could also be biodegraded. It was concluded that an appropriate amount of biochar could stimulate biodegradation, not only illustrating that the dosage of biochar had an enormous influence on the half-life periods of HOCs but also alleviating concerns that enhanced HOCs binding by biochar may cause secondary pollution in biochar-modified environment.

  16. Hybrid SSF/SHF Processing of SO2Pretreated Wheat Straw-Tuning Co-fermentation by Yeast Inoculum Size and Hydrolysis Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, B; Karhumaa, K; Sànchez I Nogué, V; Lidén, G

    2017-02-01

    Wheat straw is one of the main agricultural residues of interest for bioethanol production. This work examines conversion of steam-pretreated wheat straw (using SO 2 as a catalyst) in a hybrid process consisting of a short enzymatic prehydrolysis step and a subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) step with a xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A successful process requires a balanced design of reaction time and temperature in the prehydrolysis step and yeast inoculum size and temperature in the SSF step. The pretreated material obtained after steam pretreatment at 210 °C for 5 min using 2.5 % SO 2 (based on moisture content) showed a very good enzymatic digestibility at 45 °C but clearly lower at 30 °C. Furthermore, the pretreatment liquid was found to be rather inhibitory to the yeast, partly due to a furfural content of more than 3 g/L. The effect of varying the yeast inoculum size in this medium was assessed, and at a yeast inoculum size of 4 g/L, a complete conversion of glucose and a 90 % conversion of xylose were obtained within 50 h. An ethanol yield (based on the glucan and xylan in the pretreated material) of 0.39 g/g was achieved for a process with this yeast inoculum size in a hybrid process (10 % water-insoluble solid (WIS)) with 4 h prehydrolysis time and a total process time of 96 h. The obtained xylose conversion was 95 %. A longer prehydrolysis time or a lower yeast inoculum size resulted in incomplete xylose conversion.

  17. On alleviation of atrazine and imidacloprid contamination from single component aqueous systems using rice straw biochars: An Optimization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Adsorption of pesticide on adsorbents is considered as the most feasible approach of decontamination. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. Normal (RSBC) and phosphoric acid treated (T-RSBC) rice straw biochars were characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The yield parameters of biochar suggested higher biomass-biochar conversion ratio for the rice biochar. T-RSBC (pH=6.93) was neutral whereas RSBC was alkaline in nature. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the biochars were quite high. Elemental analysis (C, H, N, O) of biochars suggested a higher total carbon content (47.7-49.5%) and degree of aromaticity (H/C 0.62-0.63) indicating increased stability of biochars than the parent feedstocks. Polarity increased when T-RSBC (O/C 0.416) was synthesized from RSBC (O/C 0.410). The surface area, pore volume and micropore volume of the biochars, calculated using BET N2 adsorption method, suggested that RSBC was the most porous biochar (220.2 m2 g-1) amongst the two studied. IR, SEM and XRD analysis of biochars suggested the presence of inorganic minerals, carbonates, aromatic moieties and carboxylic groups. Zeta potential measurement indicated that biochars' surfaces carried negative charges while Boehm titration results suggested abundant presence of surface acidic functional groups on both the biochars. Fairly good atrazine and imidacloprid removal were shown by RSBC (KFads,Atrz = 1363; KFads,Imida =1706) and T-RSBC (KFads,Atrz=2716; KFads,Imida= 3140). Results obtained by fitting the atrazine and imidacloprid adsorption data to the Freundlich

  18. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  19. PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI ALKALI-PRETREATMENT JERAMI PADI DENGAN PROSES SIMULTANEOUS SACHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an agricultural waste which contains 39% cellulose and 27.5% hemicelluloses. Rice straw can be converted into bio ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF process. The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of rice straw pretreatment and operation condition (number of cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces cereviseae for bioethanol production. The bioethanol conversion was devided by 2 steps, there were delignification and SSF. Delignification process was done by soak rice straw in NaOH 2% heated at temperature 85 oC for 1 hour then washed with water. The pretreatment rice straw was used as substrate in SSF. SSF was conducted in the presence of cellulase enzyme (20, 30, and 40 FPU and Sacharomyces Cerevisiae (2,4 and 6 ose for 3 days. The bioethanol concentration produced for 20 FPU, 30 FPU, and 40 FPU in 2 ose S.careviseae are 0,45%, 0,44%, and 0,43% respectively. The addition number of Saccharomyces cereviseae was gave high concentration of bioethanol. The result shown that bioethanol concentration of 2 ose, 4 ose and 6 ose are 0,45%, 0,46% and 1,07%, respectively. In the same concentration of enzyme (20 FPU which pretreatment and non pretretament substrate was increased of bioethanol concentration up to 82,2%. The pretretment process was broken the structure of lignin and made enzyme easy to attached cellulose and converted to glucose.

  20. Improvement in rice straw pulp bleaching effluent quality by incorporating oxygen delignification stage prior to elemental chlorine-free bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Environmental degradation by industrial and other developmental activities is alarming for imperative environmental management by process advancements of production. Pulp and paper mills are now focusing on using nonwood-based raw materials to protect forest resources. In present study, rice straw was utilized for pulp production as it is easily and abundantly available as well as rich in carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Soda-anthraquinone method was used for pulp production as it is widely accepted for agro residues. Bleaching process during paper production is the chief source of wastewater generation. The chlorophenolic compounds generated during bleaching are highly toxic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative in nature. The objectives of study were to use oxygen delignification (ODL) stage prior to elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching to reduce wastewater load and to study its impact on bleached pulp characteristics. ODL stage prior to ECF bleaching improved the optical properties of pulp in comparison to only ECF bleaching. When ODL stage was incorporated prior to bleaching, the tensile index and folding endurance of the pulp were found to be 56.6 ± 1.5 Nm/g and 140, respectively, very high in comparison to ECF alone. A potential reduction of 51, 57, 43, and 53% in BOD 3 , COD, color, and AOX, respectively was observed on adding the ODL stage compared to ECF only. Generation of chlorophenolic compounds was reduced significantly. Incorporation of ODL stage prior to bleaching was found to be highly promising for reducing the toxicity of bleaching effluents and may lead to better management of nearby water resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  2. Batch kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of strontium from aqueous solutions onto low cost rice-straw based carbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yakout

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the feasibility of using waste rice-straw based carbons as adsorbent for the removal of strontium under different experimental conditions. The batch sorption is studied with respect to solute concentration (2.8 - 110 mg/L, contact time, adsorbent dose (2.5 - 20 g/L and solution temperature (25 - 55oC. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were applied to experimental equilibrium data and isotherm constants were calculated using linear regression analysis. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of strontium on rice-straw carbon was evaluated for the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham’s kinetics models. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudosecond-order kinetic model and also followed by intra-particle diffusion model, whereas diffusion is not only the rate-controlling step. The results show that the sorption capacity increases with an increase in solution temperature from 25 to 55 oC. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The positive value of ΔH (40.93 kJ indicated that the adsorption of strontium onto RS1 carbon was endothermic, which result was supported by the increasing adsorption of strontium with temperature. The positive value of ΔS (121.8 kJ/mol reflects good affinity of strontium ions towards the rice-straw based carbons. The results have establishedgood potentiality for the carbons particles to be used as a sorbent for the removal of strontium from wastewater.

  3. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd metals were mainly bound in the soil organic matter fraction. The results demonstrated that the rice straw biochar can effectively immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison and Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Alkaline Pre-Treated Triticale Straw for Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the comparison of the efficiency of two-stage hydrolysis processes, i.e., alkaline pre-treatment and acid hydrolysis, as well as alkaline pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, carried out in order to obtain reducing sugars from triticale straw. For each of the analyzed systems, the optimization of the processing conditions was carried out with respect to the glucose yield. For the alkaline pre-treatment, an optimal catalyst concentration was selected for constant values of temperature and pre-treatment time. For enzymatic hydrolysis, optimal process time and concentration of the enzyme preparation were determined. For the acidic hydrolysis, performed with 85% phosphoric acid, the optimum temperature and hydrolysis time were determined. In the hydrolysates obtained after the two-stage treatment, the concentration of reducing sugars was determined using HPLC. The obtained hydrolysates were subjected to ethanol fermentation. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors are given and their effects on the alcoholic fermentation efficiency are discussed.

  5. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  6. Applications of Trametes versicolor crude culture filtrates in detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolyzates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rajeev Kumar; Rajan, Kalavathy; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2015-01-01

    Laccases have wide range of substrate specificity and find applications from pulp industry to waste water remediation. Laccases have also been used in combined pretreatment of biomass hydrolyzates to remove enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. In this study, laccase production by Trametes versicolor strains isolated from different regions of the United States was induced using copper salts. T. versicolor crude culture filtrates (CCF), without any purification step, were tested for removal of model inhibitor compounds as well as in poplar and rice straw pretreatment hydrolyzates. Phenolic inhibitors were removed by 76% and 94% from the dilute acid hydrolyzates of rice straw and poplar, respectively, when incubated with the CCF for 12h, at room temperature. Xylo-oligosaccharide concentrations present in rice straw hydrolyzates were reduced by 64% when incubated with T. versicolor CCF. T. versicolor CCF could be a low cost technology for decreasing enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Different Pretreatment Strategies for Ethanol Production of West African Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Gonzalez Londono, Jorge Enrique; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-01-01

    (BP), Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia (SAA) and White Rot Fungi pretreatment (WRF), were compared to the high-tech solution of hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT). The pretreatment methods were tested on 11 West African biomasses, i.e. cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa...... husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches. It was found that four biomass’ (plantain peelings, plantain trunks, maize cobs and maize stalks) were most promising for production of cellulosic ethanol with profitable enzymatic conversion...

  8. Impact of rice-straw biochars amended soil on the biological Si cycle in soil-plant ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Struyf, Eric; Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ronsse, Frederik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar used as soil amendment can enhance soil fertility and plant growth. It may also contribute to increase the plant mineralomass of silicon (Si). However, very little studies have focused on the plant Si cycling in biochar amended soils. Here, we study the impact of two contrasting biochars derived from rice straws on soil Si availability and plant Si uptake. Rice plants were grown in a hydroponic device using Yoshida nutrient solution, respectively devoid of H4SiO4 (0 ppm Si: Si-) and enriched with it (40 ppm Si: Si+). After 12 weeks, the plants were harvested for further pyrolysis, conducted with holding time of 1h at 500˚ C. The respective rice-biochars are Si-/biochar and Si+/biochar. They exhibit contrasting phytolith contents (0.3 g Si kg-1 vs. 51.3 g Si kg-1), but identical physico-chemical properties. They were applied in two soils differing in weathering stage: a weathered Cambisol (CA) and a highly weathered Nitisol (NI). We then studied the effects of the amended biochar on CaCl2 extractable Si using a 64-days kinetic approach, on the content of soil biogenic Si, and on the uptake of Si by wheat plants grown for 5 weeks. We also quantified Si mineralomass in plants. We compared the effects of biochars to that of wollastonite (Wo)-(CaSiO3), a common Si-fertilizer. Our results show that Si+/biochar significantly increase the content of BSi in both soils. In CA, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si amounts to 85 mg kg-1 after Si+/biochar amendment, which is below the amount extracted after Wo application (100 mg kg-1). In contrast, in NI, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si is 198 mg kg-1 in the Si+/biochar amended treatment, which is far above the one measured after Wo application (93 mg kg-1). The Si-/biochar has no effect on the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si in either soil type. Biochars and wollastonite increase the biomass of wheat on both soils. The increase is, however, larger in NI than in CA. In terms of Si

  9. Effect of concentrate supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth of Brahman crossbred cattle fed a basal diet of grass and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Do Van; Ba, Nguyen Xuan; Doyle, Peter T; Hai, Dau Van; Lane, Peter A; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Eo; Van, Nguyen Huu; Parsons, David

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that total dry matter (DM) intake and liveweight (LW) gain would increase in a curvilinear manner with increasing amounts of concentrate offered. There were five treatments: a basal diet of Guinea grass fed at 1 % of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum (T0), or this diet supplemented with concentrate at 0.6 (T1), 1.2 (T2), 1.8 (T3), or 2.4 % of LW (T4). The concentrate comprised locally available ingredients, namely cassava chips, rice bran, crushed rice grain, fishmeal, salt, and urea, mixed manually. Concentrate intake increased from T0 to T3, but there was no difference in concentrate intake between T3 and T4. Total feed intake increased in a curvilinear manner from 4.0 to 6.4 kg DM/d as the quantity of concentrate consumed increased. The substitution of concentrate for grass and rice straw increased with increasing consumption of concentrate and was as high as 0.49 kg DM reduction per kg of concentrate consumed. LW gain increased curvilinearly, with significant differences between T0 (0.092 kg/d), T1 (0.58 kg/d) and T2 (0.79 kg/d); but there were no significant differences in LW gain between T2, T3 (0.83 kg/d) and T4 (0.94 kg/d).With increasing amount of concentrate in the diet, the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and crude fat increased, but NDF digestibility decreased. Based on these results, young Vietnamese Brahman-cross growing cattle will respond to a locally-sourced concentrate mix offered at a level of up to 1.2 % of LW.

  10. Process design of SSCF for ethanol production from steam-pretreated, acetic-acid-impregnated wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an important step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Using acetic acid together with steam pretreatment allows the positive effects of an acid catalyst to be retained, while avoiding the negative environmental effects associated with sulphuric acid. Acetic acid is also formed during the pretreatment and hydrolysis of hemicellulose, and is a known inhibitor that may impair fermentation at high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to ...

  11. Effect of peanut shell and wheat straw biochar on the availability of Cd and Pb in a soil-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Chen, Hao-Xiang; Xiang, Qian; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Huang, Dao-You; Zhang, Yang-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Soil amendments, such as biochar, have been used to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted to immobilize the available cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil using peanut shell biochar (PBC) and wheat straw biochar (WBC), and to observe the accumulation of these heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBC and WBC led to significantly higher pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in paddy soil, while the content of MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb was lower than that of untreated soil. MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb showed significant negative correlations with pH, SOC, and CEC (p rice plants. Specially, when compared to the corresponding concentrations in rice grown in control soils, 5% PBC addition lowered Cd and Pb concentrations in grains by 22.9 and 12.2%, respectively, while WBC addition lowered them by 29.1 and 15.0%, respectively. Compared to Pb content, Cd content was reduced to a greater extent in grain by PBC and WBC. These results suggest that biochar application is effective for immobilizing Cd and Pb in contaminated paddy soil, and reduces their bioavailability in rice. Biochar could be used as a soil amendment for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

  12. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain; Cenizas del tamo de arroz como substituto del feldespato en la fabricacion de ceramica blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; Silverio Delvasto, A.; Enrique Sanchez, V.; Vicente Amigo, B.

    2013-02-01

    The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash as substitute of the use of feldspar in the white ware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to as triaxial white ware. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages of CTA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. The porosity and the compressive strength of the fired pieces do increase with additions of up to 75% of CTA in substitution of feldspar. Their mineralogical phases were determined by DRX and SEM; grains of quartz, and needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by CTA in white ware pastes. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  14. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  15. Catalysis of Rice Straw Hydrolysis by the Combination of Immobilized Cellulase from Aspergillus niger on β-Cyclodextrin-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Jung Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized onto β-cyclodextrin-conjugated magnetic particles by silanization and reductive amidation. The immobilized cellulase gained supermagnetism due to the magnetic nanoparticles. Ninety percent of cellulase was immobilized, but the activity of immobilized cellulase decreased by 10%. In this study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was introduced into the hydrolytic process because the original reaction was a solid-solid reaction. The activity of immobilized cellulase was improved from 54.87 to 59.11 U g immobilized cellulase−1 at an ionic liquid concentration of 200 mM. Using immobilized cellulase and ionic liquid in the hydrolysis of rice straw, the initial reaction rate was increased from 1.629 to 2.739 g h−1 L−1. One of the advantages of immobilized cellulase is high reusability—it was usable for a total of 16 times in this study. Compared with free cellulase, magnetized cellulase can be recycled by magnetic field and the activity of immobilized cellulase was shown to remain at 85% of free cellulase without denaturation under a high concentration of glucose (15 g L−1. Therefore, immobilized cellulase can hydrolyze rice straw continuously compared with free cellulase. The amount of harvested glucose can be up to twentyfold higher than that from the hydrolysis by free cellulase.

  16. Adsorption Removal of 17β-Estradiol from Water by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ni; Liu, Yunguo; Jiang, Luhua; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Zhihong; Tian, Sirong; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-11

    Rice straw biochar that produced at three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500 and 600 °C) were used to investigate the adsorption properties of 17β-estradiol (E2). The biochar samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis and BET surface area measurements. The influences of pyrolysis temperature, E2 concentration, pH, ionic strength, background electrolyte and humic acid were studied. Kinetic and isotherm results illustrated that the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Experimental results showed that ionic strength had less influence on the adsorption of E2 by 500 and 600 °C rice straw biochar. Further, multivalent ions had positive impact on E2 removal than monovalent ions and the influence of the pyrolysis temperature was unremarkable when background electrolyte existed in solutions. The adsorption capacity of E2 decreased with the pH ranged from 3.0 to 12.0 and the humic acid concentration from 2 to 10 mg L -1 . Electrostatic attractions and π-π interaction were involved in the adsorption mechanisms. Compared to low-temperature biochar, high-temperature biochar exhibited a better adsorption capacity for E2 in aqueous solution, indicated it had a greater potential for E2 pollution control.

  17. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  18. Changes in heavy metal bioavailability and speciation from a Pb-Zn mining soil amended with biochars from co-pyrolysis of rice straw and swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Tao, Mengming; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming

    2018-03-22

    Biochar has been utilized as a good amendment to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of biochar in metal immobilization depends on biochar properties and metal species. In this study, the biochars produced from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at 400°C were investigated to evaluate their effects on bioavailability and chemical speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a Pb-Zn contaminated soil through incubation experiment. Results showed that co-pyrolysis process significantly change the yield, ash content, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the blended biochars compared with the single straw/manure biochar. The addition of these biochars significantly increased the soil pH, EC, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The addition of biochars at a rate of 3% significantly reduced the CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The exchangeable heavy metals decreased in all the biochar-amended soils whereas the carbonate-bound metal speciation increased. The increase in soil pH and the decrease in the CaCl 2 extractable metals indicated that these amendments can directly transform the highly availability metal speciation to the stable speciation in soils. In conclusion, biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at a mass ratio of 3:1 could most effectively immobilize the heavy metals in the soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of immobilized cellulase enzyme by some microorganisms from the rice straw agro-waste using γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were carried out using 14 fungal cultures screened for their ability to produce cellulase enzymes. A .hortai was selected for the present research as a potent cellulase producer. Cultural and nutritional factors affecting cellulase production were also investigated in order to optimize the fermentation conditions for the maximization of production. The obtained results revealed that, the maximum cellulase production (0.23 U/ml) was achieved after 96 h in a liquid medium (Ph 7.0) inoculated with 10% v/v inoculum size, at temperature 37 ºC, containing (gL -1 ) CMC, 5.0; yeast extract, 0.1; (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 0.5; KH 2 PO 4 , 10.0; MgSO 4 .7H 2 O, 0.1 and NaCl, 0.2. The activity remained almost stable between ph 6.0 and 7.0. The highest cellulase activity (1.18 U/ml) was obtained at a lactose concentration of (5.0 gL -1 ). Partial purification of the crude cellulase by ammonium sulphate 70% saturation showed the highest specific enzyme activity and purification fold (2.3 U/mg protein and 2.12 fold, respectively). Different carriers and methods were used to select the suitable one for cellulase immobilization. Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) prepared by diazotization method increase S.E.A and the amount of immobilized enzyme to be (2.3 U/mg protein and 2.8 mg), respectively. The immobilized cellulase shows better operational stability, including wider ph and thermal ranges. The immobilized cellulase remained fully active up to 60°C. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were determined. The increase of the apparent Km after immobilization clearly indicates an apparent lower affinity of the immobilized enzyme for its substrate than the free enzyme. The resulting immobilized cellulase exhibited good reusability on degradation of rice straw agricultural wastes and also show good storage stability, that it lost only 17 % of its initial activity after 6 weeks.

  20. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Supplementation on in-vivo Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Population in Goats Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan, N.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Four fistulated Boer cross-bred bucks with 25 kg average body weight was used to test the effects of dietary treated rice straw supplemented with A. paniculata and O. stamineus on in-vivo rumen parameters and microbial population in goats. The study was conducted in 4 periods (4 x 4 Latin square design, where each period was for a duration of 22 d; 10 dof adaptation period, 5 dof sampling and 7 dof change-over. The animals were fed once daily at 0800 (3% body weight with 60% of urea-treated rice straw and 40 % of one of four concentrate diets: T1-basal diet + 1% A. paniculata, T2-basal diet + 1% O. stamineus, T3-basal diet + 0.5% of A. paniculata and 0.5% O. stamineus (AO and T4-basal diet without supplementation of herbs. Clean water was provided ad libitum and the animals were individually penned. Rumen contents were sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 hafter the onset feeding and the pH was recorded. Rumen pH, VFA's, concentration of ammonia and microbial population in the rumen fluid were measured. The mean rumen pH was the highest (P<0.05 at 2 h in T3 after the onset feeding while the mean concentration (mg/L of ammonia in the rumen fluid was the lowest at 6 and 12 h in T2 (P<0.05. The molar proportion of valerate was higher (P<0.05 at 6 h in T1. Meanwhile, the acetate to propionate ratio was affected by time where it was significantly higher at 12 h in T3. Significant reduction of total protozoa, methanogens, F. succinogens and R. albus number was observed in the herb-supplemented groups (P<0.05. The results suggest that urea-treated rice straw with herbs supplementation can be fed to goats without impairing their performance. However, further study could be done by increasing the supplementation of herbs in order to observe more effective results.

  1. The Cellulolytic Activity And Volatile Fatty Acid Product Of Rumen Bacteria Of Buffalo And Cattle On Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on The Cellulolytic Activity and Volatile Fatty Acid Product of Rumen Bacteria of Buffalo and Cattle on Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates had been conducted at Feedstuff Laboratory of Animal Science Soedirman University. The basic design  that was used in this experiment was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern of 6 x 3, three replications. The bacteria isolate as the factors were cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo (A1, A2, and A3 and cattle (A4, A5 and A6 while the substrates (second factor  were NDF rice straw (S1, elephant grass (S2, and sesbania leaves (S3 Cell walls. The result of this experiment showed that the interaction between bacteria isolate and substrate  type were significant on pH, NDF digestibility, cellulase activity, pH was  6.28 until 6.43.  The NDF digestibility range was 12.27 until 55.61 percent. The lowers of cellulase activity was 5.11 IU/ml and the higher was 24.47 IU/ml. The range of acetic acid yield was 63.37 to 307.467 mg/100 ml. Range of  propionic production was 15.17 to 352.20 mg/ 100 ml. The production of butiric acid was 8.77 to 40.87 mg/ 100 ml. The cellulase activity  of cellulolytic rumen bacteria of buffalo was higher than cattle, and also their effect on NDF digestibility of rice straw, elephant grass, and sesbania leaves cell walls. The A3 of cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of  buffalo changed cell walls substrat to volatile fatty  acid was more effective than cattle, especially on cell elephant grass. Propionic and butiric  acid that was produced by cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo more higher than cattle (Animal Production 1 (1 : 1-9 (1999 Key Words: Cellulolytic, VFA, Rumen Bacteria, Buffalo, Cattle.

  2. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    ) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  3. The mineral composition and the effect of particle size of carbonized rice straw as colorant of a traditional cake kue jongkong Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtini, E. S.; Yuwono, S. S.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Carbonized rice straw (CRS) is a term defined for the residue of incomplete combustion of rice straw. Utilization of CRS as a natural food coloring agent has been the local Indonesian wisdom. However, study of this local food coloring agent is rare in the literature. This study was aimed to determine the mineral composition of the CRS, and to investigate the effect of particle size of the CRS to the black color intensity of a traditional Indonesian cake called kue jongkong Surabaya. The mineral content of the CRS was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The CRS was grounded and sieved passing through different screen sizes (40, 80, 100, 120 and 200 mesh).The particle size distribution was measured using particle size analyzer. The CRS with different particle sizes were then applied as a natural coloring agent of the kue jongkong, from which the intensity of black color was determined using a color reader. It was found that the dominant minerals of the CRS were SiO2, carbon, and K2O. Other trace elements found were Cl, CaO, Na2O, MgO, P, S, Fe, Al2O3 and Mn. The CRS which passed to the sieve of 40 mesh has particle size distribution of 28μm, 115μm, and 348μm for a standard of D10, D50, and D90, respectively. However, CRS that passing through the sieve of 60-200 mesh have similar particle sizes (D10: 12-14μm, D50: 49-60μm, and D90: 114-145 μm). The smaller of CRS particle size produced a darker color of the kue jongkong due to better molecule dispersion and wider surface area.

  4. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Ethanol production from alkali-treated rice straw via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Babbar, Neha; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Dhaliwal, Sandeep Singh; Kaur, Ujjal; Chadha, B S; Bhargav, Vinod Kumar

    2012-04-01

    In this study, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was employed to produce ethanol from 1% sodium hydroxide-treated rice straw in a thermostatically controlled glass reactor using 20 FPU gds⁻¹ cellulase, 50 IU gds⁻¹ β-glucosidase, 15 IU gds⁻¹ pectinase and a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 strain. Scanning electron micrograph images showed that the size of the P. kudriavzevii cells ranged from 2.48 to 6.93 μm in diameter while the shape of the cells varied from oval, ellipsoidal to elongate. Pichia kudriavzevii cells showed extensive pseudohyphae formation after 5 days of growth and could assimilate sugars like glucose, sucrose, galactose, fructose, and mannose but the cells could not assimilate xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, raffinose, or trehalose. In addition, the yeast cells could tolerate up to 40% glucose and 5% NaCl concentrations but their growth was inhibited at 1% acetic acid and 0.01% cyclohexamide concentrations. Pichia kudriavzevii produced about 35 and 200% more ethanol than the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at 40 and 45°C, respectively. About 94% glucan in alkali-treated rice straw was converted to glucose through enzymatic hydrolysis within 36 h. Ethanol concentration of 24.25 g l⁻¹ corresponding to 82% theoretical yield on glucan basis and ethanol productivity of 1.10 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ achieved using P. kudriavzevii during SSF hold promise for scale-up studies. An insignificant amount of glycerol and no xylitol was produced during SSF. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting ethanol production from any lignocellulosic biomass using P. kudriavzevii.

  6. Influence of enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment for Chinese rice wine on the volatiles generated from extruded rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Li, Hongyan; Wu, Zhengzong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds in enzymatic extruded rice, produced under different conditions of varying barrel temperature (BT), α-amylase concentration (AC) and moisture content (MC), were extracted and identified by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Statistical analyses reflected that the Maillard reaction could be inhibited both by the mild extrusion conditions and the enhanced hydrolysis caused by thermostable α-amylase. Relative amounts of total volatiles in enzymatic extruded rice were far less than those in severe processed extruded rice. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) showed that the amino acids (AAs) involved in Maillrad reaction were utmostly preserved in extruded rice with highest amylase concentration by comparison of total AA content of different extrudates. These results suggest that enzymatic extrusion liquefaction is an effective way to control the generation of volatiles from extruded rice for Chinese rice wine production. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Saumita [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 Maharashtra (India); Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 West Bengal (India); Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 West Bengal (India); Pandey, R.A.; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Satpute, Dewanand; Giri, Balendu Shekher; Mudliar, Sandeep [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 Maharashtra (India)

    2009-12-15

    The pretreatment of rice husk by the wet air oxidation (WAO) technique was investigated by means of a statistically designed set of experiments. Reaction temperature, air pressure, and reaction time were the process parameters considered. WAO pretreatment of rice husk increased the cellulose content of the solid fraction by virtue of lignin removal and hemicellulose solubilization. The cellulose recovery was around 92%, while lignin recovery was in the tune of 8-20%, indicating oxidation of a bulk quantity of lignin. The liquid fraction was found to be rich in hexose and pentose sugars, which could be directly utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation. The WAO process was optimized by multi-objective numerical optimization with the help of MINITAB 14 suite of statistical software, and an optimum WAO condition of 185 C, 0.5 MPa, and 15 min was predicted and experimentally validated to give 67% (w/w) cellulose content in the solid fraction, along with 89% lignin removal, and 70% hemicellulose solubilization; 13.1 gl{sup -1} glucose and 3.4 gl{sup -1} xylose were detected in the liquid fraction. The high cellulose content and negligible residual lignin in the solid fraction would greatly facilitate subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, and result in improved ethanol yields from rice husk. (author)

  8. Biochar and rice straw have different effects on soil productivity, greenhouse gas emission and carbon sequestration in Northeast Thailand paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Thammasom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of biochar (BC made from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., and rice (Orysa sativa L. straw (RS amendments on the soil productivity, carbon sequestration (Cseq and the possibility for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A field trial was conducted with 10 treatments: the control, chemical fertilizer (CF and BC or RS each at four rates of L (6.25 t/ha, ML (12.50 t/ha, MH (18.75 t/ha and H (25.00 t/ha using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results showed that BC and RS not only increased the soil quality but also increased the rice yield (RY. During the growing season, BC and RS applications did not differ in the total CO2 emission. However, the total CH4 emission and total global warming potential significantly decreased in the BC application and significantly increased in the RS application, relative to the control. Soil Cseq increased under the BC application by 1.87–13.37 t C/ha, while the RS application reduced Cseq by 0.92–2.56 t C/ha. The high amount of recalcitrant C molecules in BC probably explained the decreases in the GHG-C loss and increases in Cseq. In contrast, RS had high amounts of labile components that enhanced the GHG-C emission and reduced Cseq. Finally, the GHG intensity of rice production was reduced for both BC and RS meaning that these two amendments can be considered as good options for the mitigation of climate change.

  9. Soil contaminated phyto remediation of Pb and cd metal by using rice straw fermented by trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yullita SL Andini; Hendrawati; Tri Retno Diah Larasati; Nana Mulyana

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is one form of environmental pollution that is harmful to living organisms. One way to resolve this problem by using phyto remediation with rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of Trichoderma viride fermented hay to improve the ability of Pb and Cd accumulation in the root zone of plants sweet corn (Zea Mays). There are three stages in the research process, namely the stages of SSF (Solid State Fermentation), incorporation, and Land farming. The fermentation process is done during the 16-day trial. Furthermore, the results of the SSF (Solid State Fermentation) mixed in soil that has been contaminated with heavy metals showed that administration of straw result SSF real impact on the value of pH, water content of the four treated samples. Results incorporation process and then applied with a crop of sweet corn (Zea Mays). Accumulation of heavy metals in sweet corn plant, analyzed by AAS analysis instrumentation. The measurement results show that the accumulation of Pb in the roots of plants in the sample K amounted to 33.66 mg/Kg, A sample of 26.80 mg/Kg, the sample B of 51.47 mg/kg, and sample C of 55.70 mg/Kg. While the metals Cd uptake in the roots of corn plants in the sample K showed Cd uptake of 269.65 mg/Kg, the sample A of 445.70 mg/Kg, the sample B of 337.17 mg/Kg and sample C of 336.72 mg/Kg. The phyto remediation process takes place based on the fito-stabilization principle. (author)

  10. Results of an experimental campaign of monitoring of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw; Risultati di una campagna sperimentale di monitoraggio della pratica di combustione all`aperto della paglia di riso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, P.; Cerea, E.; Massironi, L.; Nocente, M.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Castellani, C. M.; De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    For the evaluation of environmental impact of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw following harvest an experimental campaign was performed in a field situated near Rive Vercellese (Vercelli, Italy) by burning the amount of rice straw in a 1.2 hectare piece of ground. Four sampling positions were operated, each one composed of a miniaturized impactor and a battery-powered pump, and an optical monitor was also used to measure aerosuspended aerosol concentration continuously. Experimental results show that after field combustion, resulting ash is depleted in cadmium, copper, lead and zinc while manganese and silica remaining almost quantitatively in the ash. Manganese and silica were the only components attributable to field combustion of rice straw in the atmospheric aerosol collected during this monitoring survey. Aerosuspended mass concentration values obtained by means of both optical measurements and gravimetric determinations are presented. Aerosol granulometric distribution, measured in the vicinity of the experimental field and the parameter values of the log-normal distribution obtained with experimental data are also indicated. Finally, a comparison is made between aerosol granulometric data and respirable fraction as defined by international standards.

  11. Optimized simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of rice straw for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyachai, Nopparat; Weerasaia, Khatiya; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Champreda, Verawat; Unrean, Pornkamol

    2013-08-01

    Herein an ethanol production process from rice straw was optimized. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture was carried out to enhance ethanol production. The optimal saccharification solid loading was 5%. Key fermentation parameters for co-culture including cell ratio, agitation rate and temperature was rationally optimized using design of experiment (DoE). Optimized co-culture conditions for maximum ethanol production efficiency were at S. cerevisiae:S. stipitis cell ratio of 0.31, agitation rate of 116 rpm and temperature of 33.1°C. The optimized SSCF process reached ethanol titer of 15.2g/L and ethanol yield of 99% of theoretical yield, consistent with the DoE model prediction. Moreover, SSCF process under high biomass concentration resulted in high ethanol concentration of 28.6g/L. This work suggests the efficiency and scalability of the developed SSCF process which could provide an important basis for the economic feasibility of ethanol production from lignocelluloses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of methane emissions, redox potential, and pH to eucalyptus biochar and rice straw addition in a paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Thammasom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to comprehend the links between soil Eh and pH changes in eucalyptus biochar (BC and rice straw (RS amended soils and CH4 emissions. Increased CH4 emission rates and high total CH4 emissions (TCH4 were found in RS soils. In contrast, higher concentrations of refractory lignin, fixed C and volatile matter in BC suppressed C mineralization and terminal methanogenesis, resulting in low TCH4 . Eh in RS soils decreased more rapidly than in BC soils during the first phase as a single exponential function. This indicated that RS is a fast electron donor for an instant electron acceptor reduction and methanogenesis. During the second phase, Eh in BC soils decreased to very low values, probably because of the higher concentrations of electron donating phenolic compounds coupled with terminal methanogenesis. Meanwhile, hydrogen is consumed via electron acceptor reduction and methanogenesis simultaneously produce OH- corresponded with a rise of pH, a characteristic of reverse single exponential function.

  13. Inoculation with a psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent accelerates onset and promotes maturity of dairy manure-rice straw composting under cold climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Changlong; Wang, Yuqiong; Zhang, Xiqing; Lou, Yujie; Gao, Yunhang

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent (PTCMA) comprised of a psychrotrophic bacterium consortium (PBC) and a thermophilic cellulolytic fungi consortium (TCFC), on composting in a cold climate. Mixtures of dairy manure and rice straw were inoculated with PTCMA, PBC, TCFC and sterile water (control) and composted at an initial ambient temperatures of -2 to 5°C. In compost piles inoculated with PBC or PTCMA, temperatures reached the thermophilic phase (>55°C) faster (8-11d) than piles inoculated with TCFC or control. Furthermore, compost inoculated with TCFC or PTCMA had greater decreases in total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, as well as significant increases in total nitrogen, degradation of cellulose and lignin and germination index than PBC inoculation or Control compost. Consequently, inoculation with both (i.e. PTCMA) accelerated the onset and promoted maturity of composting under cold-climate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination and Visualization of pH Values in Anaerobic Digestion of Water Hyacinth and Rice Straw Mixtures Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Wavelet Transform Denoising and Variable Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy represents a huge supplement for meeting current energy demands. A hyperspectral imaging system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to determine the pH value of anaerobic digestion liquid produced by water hyacinth and rice straw mixtures used for methane production. Wavelet transform (WT was used to reduce noises of the spectral data. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, random frog (RF and variable importance in projection (VIP were used to select 8, 15 and 20 optimal wavelengths for the pH value prediction, respectively. Partial least squares (PLS and a back propagation neural network (BPNN were used to build the calibration models on the full spectra and the optimal wavelengths. As a result, BPNN models performed better than the corresponding PLS models, and SPA-BPNN model gave the best performance with a correlation coefficient of prediction (rp of 0.911 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0516. The results indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to determine pH values during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, a distribution map of the pH values was achieved by applying the SPA-BPNN model. The results in this study would help to develop an on-line monitoring system for biomass energy producing process by hyperspectral imaging.

  15. Excellent N-fixing and P-solubilizing traits in earthworm gut-isolated bacteria: A vermicompost based assessment with vegetable market waste and rice straw feed mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazneen; Singh, Archana; Saha, Sougata; Venkata Satish Kumar, Mattaparthi; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2016-12-01

    Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E. fetida. Therefore, 45 NFB and 34 PSB strains isolated from Eisenia gut were initially screened, their inter-dominance assessed, and 8 prolific strains were identified through 16SrRNA sequencing. Interestingly, two novel N-fixing strains of Kluyvera ascorbata emerged as an efficient biofertilizer candidate. Moreover, both N-fixing and P-solubilizing strains of Serratia and Bacillus were isolated from earthworm gut. All the isolated strains significantly improved soil health and facilitated crop growth as compared to commercial biofertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid co-pyrolysis of rice straw and a bituminous coal in a high-frequency furnace and gasification of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Dai, Zheng-hua; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Chen, Xue-li; Yu, Guang-suo; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-04-01

    Rapid pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SB) separately, and rapid co-pyrolysis of RS/SB blends (mass ratio 1:4, 1:4, and 4:1), were carried out in a high-frequency furnace which can ensure both high heating rate and satisfying contact of fuel particles. Synergies between RS and SB during rapid co-pyrolysis were investigated. Intrinsic and morphological structures of residual char from co-pyrolysis, and their effects on gasification characteristics were also studied. Synergies occurred during rapid co-pyrolysis of RS and SB (RS/SB=1:4) resulting in decreasing char yields and increasing volatile yields. Synergies also happened during gasification of the char derived from co-pyrolysis of RS and SB with mass ratio of 1:4. The increased mass ratio of RS to SB did not only weaken synergies during co-pyrolysis, but significantly reduced the gasification rates of the co-pyrolysis char compared to the calculated values. Results can help to optimize co-conversion process of biomass/coal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  18. Influence of rice straw cooking conditions in the soda-ethanol-water pulping on the mechanical properties of produced paper sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee-Ardeh, S; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Pourjoozi, M

    2004-03-01

    A normalized design was used to examine the influence of independent variables (alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature) in the catalytic soda-ethanol pulping of rice straw on various mechanical properties (breaking length, burst, tear index and folding endurance) of paper sheets obtained from each pulping process. An equation of each dependent variable as a function of cooking variables (independent variables) was obtained by multiple non-linear regression using the least square method by MATLAB software for developing of empirical models. The ranges of alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature were 40-65% (w/w), 150-180 min and 195-210 degrees C, respectively. Three-dimensional graphs of dependent variables were also plotted versus independent variables. The optimum values of breaking length, burst and tear index and folding endurance were 4683.7 (m), 30.99 (kN/g), 376.93 (mN m2/g) and 27.31, respectively. However, short cooking time (150 min), high ethanol concentration (65%) and high temperature (210 degrees C) could be used to produce papers with suitable burst and tear index. However, for papers with best breaking length and folding endurance low temperature (195 degrees C) was desirable. Differences between optimum values of dependent variables obtained by normalized design and experimental data were less than 20%.

  19. Influence of feedstock-to-inoculum ratio on performance and microbial community succession during solid-state thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyu; Xie, Li; Kinh, Co Thi; Suenaga, Toshikazu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Riya, Shohei; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of the feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratio on performance of the solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw inoculated with a solid digestate, and clarified the microbial community succession. A 44-day biochemical methane potential test at F/I ratios of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 at 55 °C and a 35-day large-scale batch test at F/I ratios of 0.5 and 3 at 55 °C were conducted to investigate the effects of F/I ratio on anaerobic digestibility and analyze microbial community succession, respectively. The highest cumulative methane yield was 353.7 m 3 /t VS in the large-scale batch test. Volatile fatty acids did not accumulate at any F/I ratios. The volatile solids reduction rate was highest at a F/I ratio of 0.5. Microbial community structures were similar between F/I ratios of 3 and 0.5, despite differences in digestion performance, suggesting that stable operation can be achieved at these ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  1. Enhanced Solid-State Biogas Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass by Organosolv Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Mirmohamadsadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organosolv pretreatment was used to improve solid-state anaerobic digestion (SSAD for methane production from three different lignocellulosic substrates (hardwood elm, softwood pine, and agricultural waste rice straw. Pretreatments were conducted at 150 and 180°C for 30 and 60 min using 75% ethanol solution as an organic solvent with addition of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The statistical analyses showed that pretreatment temperature was the significant factor affecting methane production. Optimum temperature was 180°C for elmwood while it was 150°C for both pinewood and rice straw. Maximum methane production was 152.7, 93.7, and 71.4 liter per kg carbohydrates (CH, which showed up to 32, 73, and 84% enhancement for rice straw, elmwood, and pinewood, respectively, compared to those from the untreated substrates. An inverse relationship between the total methane yield and the lignin content of the substrates was observed. Kinetic analysis of the methane production showed that the process followed a first-order model for all untreated and pretreated lignocelluloses.

  2. Studies on Properties of Rice Straw/Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polycaprolactone and Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Khandanlou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified rice straw/Fe3O4/polycaprolactone nanocomposites (ORS/Fe3O4/ PCL-NCs have been prepared for the first time using a solution casting method. The RS/Fe3O4-NCs were modified with octadecylamine (ODA as an organic modifier. The prepared NCs were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The XRD results showed that as the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content in comparison with PCL peaks, the Fe3O4-NPs peaks increased from 1.0 to 60.0 wt. %. The TEM and SEM results showed a good dispersion of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL matrix and the spherical shape of the NPs. The TGA analysis indicated thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs increased after incorporation with PCL but the thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NCs decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content. Tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt. % of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs. The antibacterial activities of the ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus by diffusion method using nutrient agar. The results indicated that ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL.

  3. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Chemical composition, cell wall features and degradability of stem, leaf blade and sheath in untreated and alkali-treated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, E; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Emami, M R; Karimi, K

    2013-07-01

    Three dominant morphological fractions (i.e. leaf blade (LB), leaf sheath (LS) and stem) were analysed for chemical composition and ruminal degradability in three rice straw varieties. In one variety treated with alkali, cell wall features were also characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The highest concentrations of cell wall carbohydrates (hemicellulose and cellulose) were observed in LS, whereas the highest concentrations of non-fibre (silica, phenolic compounds and CP) and lignin were recorded for LB. The stem had the lowest silica and hemicellulose contents but intermediate levels of other components. In terms of ruminal degradability, stem ranked higher than LB, which was followed by LS. Hemicellulose was found to be less degradable than either dry matter or cellulose in all the three fractions investigated. FTIR results indicated that the highest levels of hydrogen bonding, esterification and crystallinity within the cell wall components belonged to LS. In the alkaline treatment, these indices decreased to a larger extent for leaf fractions and a greater improvement was achieved in the degradability of LB and LS compared with that of stem. In the 24-h ruminal incubation, the silicified layer of epidermis and the underlying cell walls showed a rigid structure in the control fractions, whereas the treatment with NaOH resulted in crimping of the silicified cuticle layer and the loss of integrity in cell structure. Despite the highest silica and lignin contents observed in LB, LS showed the lowest degradability, which might be due to its high level of hydrogen bonding, crystallinity and esterification within its cell wall components as well as its high hemicellulose content.

  5. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  6. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  7. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  8. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1 t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered...

  9. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  10. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kholif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum with spent rice straw (SRS of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control, 0.25 (SRS25 and 0.45 (SRS45 (w/w, DM basis of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis. The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241 and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021 compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01 digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002 and CP (p = 0.0005 than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001 for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001 concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148, creatinine (p = 0.0150, glucose (p = 0.0002 and cholesterol (p = 0.0016. Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05 milk (p = 0.0330 and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290 yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373 with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  11. Humic-like substances in fresh emissions of rice straw burning and in ambient aerosols in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

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    P. Lin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS are an abundant unresolved mixture of organic compounds present in atmospheric samples. Biomass burning (BB has been recognized as an important primary source of HULIS, but measurements of HULIS in various fresh BB particles are lacking. In this work, HULIS in emissions of rice straw burning was measured in a number of field and chamber experiments. The average HULIS/OC ratio was 0.34±0.05 in μg/μgC, showing small variance among emissions under different burning conditions. The influence of BB on ambient HULIS levels was investigated by examining the spatial and temporal variation of HULIS and other aerosol constituents and interspecies relations in ambient PM2.5. The PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban and a suburban location in the Pearl River Delta (PRD, China over a period of one year. The HULIS concentrations in the ambient PM2.5 were significantly higher in air masses originating from regions influenced by BB. Significant correlations between HULIS and water-soluble K+ concentrations at both sites further support that BB was an important source of HULIS. Ambient concentrations of HULIS also correlated well with those of sulfate, oxalate, and oxidant (the sum of O3 and NO2. The HULIS/OC ratios in BB-influenced ambient aerosols (~0.6 were much higher than those in the fresh BB emissions (0.34, implying that secondary formation was also an important source of HULIS in the atmosphere. The annual average HULIS concentrations were 4.9 μg m−3 at the urban site and 7.1 μg m−3 at the suburban site while the annual average concentrations of elemental carbon were 3.3 μg m−3 and 2.4 μg m−3, respectively. The urban-suburban spatial gradient of HULIS was opposite to that of elemental carbon, negating vehicular exhaust as a significant primary emission source of HULIS.

  12. Defluviitalea raffinosedens sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, saccharolytic bacterium isolated from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shichun; Huang, Yan; Wang, Cong; Fan, Hui; Dai, Lirong; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Xing; Deng, Yu

    2017-05-01

    A thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain A6T, was obtained from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, slightly curved rods with a size of 0.6-1×2.5-8.2 µm, non-motile and produced terminal spores. The temperature, pH and NaCl concentration ranges for growth were 40-60 °C, 6.5-8.0 and 0-15.0 g l-1, with optimum growth noted at 50-55 °C, pH 7.5 and in the absence of NaCl, respectively. Yeast extract was required for growth. d-Glucose, maltose, d-xylose, d-galactose, d-fructose, d-ribose, lactose, raffinose, sucrose, d-arabinose, cellobiose, d-mannose and yeast extract were used as carbon and energy sources. The fermentation products from glucose were ethanol, lactate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, iso-butyrate, iso-valerate, H2 and CO2. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 1, C14 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 N-alcohol and C13 : 0 3-OH. Respiratory quinones were not detected. The polar lipid profile comprised phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain was closely related to Defluviitalea saccharophila DSM 22681T with a similarity of 96.0 %. Based on the morphological, physiological and taxonomic characterization, strain A6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Defluviitalea, for which the name Defluviitalea raffinosedens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A6T (=DSM 28090T=ACCC 19951T).

  13. Optimum proportion of sweet corn by-product silage (SCW and rice straw in total mixed ration using in vitro gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaintip Kraiprom

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas technique was used to study the effects of different proportions of sweet corn by-product silage (SCW and rice straw (RS on in vitro fermentation. The dietary treatments were ratios of SCW and RS all on a on a dry matter (DM basis: T1 = SCW: RS at 60:40; T2 = SCW: RS at 50:50; and T3 = SCW:RS at 40:60. The ration of concentrate and roughage was 60:40 on a DM basis. The DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of SCW were 22.56, 7.11, 1.89, 41.34 and 78.45%, respectively. The results showed that cumulative gas production at 48 h and 72 h after incubation with the ratio of SCW to RS at 60:40 on a DM basis was significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the results from the ratio of SCW to RS at either 50:50 or 40:60 on a DM basis. The proportion of SCW and RS among treatments had no effect on true digestibility parameters. However, the in vitro organic matter digestibility parameters in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 60:40 on a DM basis were higher (p < 0.05 than in the other two treatments. The total volatile fatty acid in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 50:50 and 40:60 on a DM basis were higher (p < 0.05 than in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 60:40 on a DM basis. Acetic acid (C2, propionic acid (C3 butyric acid (C4 and the proportion of C2:C3 were not different (p < 0.05 among treatments. The levels of NH3N in all groups were not significant (p < 0.05 among treatments. It was concluded that the optimum level of SCW:RS was 60:40 on a DM basis.

  14. Influence of gaseous phase, light and substrate pretreatment on fruit-body formation, lignin degradation and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw fermented with Pleurotus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamra, D.N.; Zadrazil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented in the solid state with Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. eryngii at 25 degrees C under different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lower than 20% oxygen in the gaseous phase adversely affected the loss of organic matter, the lignin degradation and the change in straw digestibility with both species of Pleurotus. Higher concentrations (10%-30%) of carbon dioxide, with 20% oxygen in the atmospshere, slightly decreased the loss of lignin and organic matter when compared with the losses under oxygen or air. In spite of better lignin degradation by P. sajor-caju, the process efficiency with P. eryngii was higher, because of lower loss of organic matter during the fermentation. Fruit-bodies were not formed by P. eryngii during the period of experiment in any of the treatments. In P. sajor-caju, fruit-bodies were only formed either in flasks closed with cotton plugs or supplied with a continuous flow of sterile air. Carbon dioxide inhibited the process of primordia initiation and fruit-body development. A short exposure (20 minutes per day) to light was essential for primordia and fruit-body formation. The substrate changes and process efficiency with respect to increase in digestibility were much higher in darkness than in light. Light leads to intensive fruit-body production and a different pattern of substrate degradation. The indigenous microflora of wheat straw inhibited fruit-body formation and caused a higher organic matter loss, accompanied by a decrease in digestibility of the fermented wheat straw. 33 references.

  15. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  16. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  17. Effects of supplementing different levels of sun-dried groundnut foliage on intake, apparent digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in cattle offered a basal diet of a mixture of rice straw and para grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Holtenius, Kjell

    2017-10-01

    Eight male Cambodian yellow cattle, initial body weight (BW) 136 ± 11.9 (±SD) kg; age 20 ± 2.5 (±SD) months, were randomly allocated to treatments in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP) from sun-dried groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) foliage (DGF) on feed intake, apparent digestibility and nitrogen metabolism. All animals were fed a basal diet of rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% of BW. The DGF was offered as a supplement at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g CP/kg BW, denoted DGF0, DGF1, DGF2 and DGF3, respectively. The results showed that the intake of DGF contributed 0, 25, 34 and 42% of total dry matter (DM) intake. Rice straw intake decreased when DGF intake increased. Total intake of DM, organic matter (OM), digestible OM, ash, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre increased with increased level of DGF inclusion but did not differ for the two highest DGF levels. Total DM intake as proportion of BW increased from 2.3% in DGF0 to 2.8% in DGF3. Crude protein digestibility and nitrogen retention improved as DGF intake increased. Daily weight gain of DGF1 cattle was higher than DGF0 but was not further improved at the higher levels of DGF inclusion. Microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of microbial protein production in DGF1 did not differ from DGF0 but both measures were higher in DGF2 and DGF3. The responses were diminished at higher DGF inclusion so it is suggested that DGF supplementation at 1 g CP/kg BW may be the optimal level.

  18. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , after 144 h of enzymatic hydrolysis the cortex had vanished, exposing the heavier lignified vascular tissue. Accumulation of lignin droplets and exposure of residual lignin could be part of the explanation for the decreasing hydrolysis rate. Flattening of macrofibrils after pretreatment together...

  19. Casca de arroz e palhada de soja na compostagem de carcaças de frangos de corte = Rice husks and soy straw as substrate for composting of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atuacao da casca de arroz e da palhada de soja como substrato para compostagem de carcaca de frangos de corte, observando a degradacao dos dois substratos e das carcacas pelo monitoramento da temperatura, peso das carcacas e dos substratos e analise fisicoquimica do produto final. As camaras foram montadas com carcacas de 10 aves recem abatidas, com quatro repeticoes no tempo. Instalou-se em cada camara um termopar para registro da temperatura. O substrato e as carcacas foram pesadas separadamente, no inicio, aos 15 e aos 30 dias de compostagem. Ao final de cada periodo, foram realizadas analises fisico-quimica de amostras de cada camara, avaliando-se o pH e os teores de materia seca, cinzas, P, N, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe e carbono organico. Concluiu-se que a palhada de soja pode ser usada como alternativa para substrato de compostagem de carcacas de aves, atendendo a relacao C/N exigida pela legislacao ao final da terceira reutilizacao. A casca de arroz, da mesma forma, pode ser utilizada na compostagem de carcacas de aves, porem reutilizada por maior numero de vezes. A decomposicao das carcacas foi significativamente maior, em percentual, na palhada de soja aofinal do quarto periodo de compostagem (p „Tƒn0,05.The performance of rice husks and of soy straw were evaluated as substrate for on-farm poultry carcass composting, observing the degradation of the two substrate and of the carcasses through monitoring the temperature, weight of the carcasses and of the substrate and physiochemical analysis of the final product. The piles were arranged with carcasses of 10 recently slaughtered birds, with four repetitions in time. A thermo pair was installed in each pile to register the temperature. The substrate and the carcasses were weighed separately, in the beginning, day 15 and day 30 of composting. At the end of each period, the physiochemical analysis of samples were made from each pile, evaluating the pH, the dry material, ashes, P, N

  20. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Wheat straw, waste tea leaves, dry matter, protein, carbohydrate. INTRODUCTION. Cultivation of edible mushrooms with agricultural residues, such as rice and wheat straw, is a value-added process to convert these materials, which are otherwise considered to be wastes, into human food ...

  1. producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chewing activity, metabolic profile and performance of high- producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw or rice straw. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three periods of 21 days. Cows were ...

  2. Tested R-value for straw bale walls and performance modeling for straw bale homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commins, T.R.; Stone, N.I.

    1998-07-01

    Since the late 1800's, houses have been built of straw. Contrary to nursery rhymes, these houses have proved sturdy and comfortable and not at all easy to blow down. In the last several years, as people have experimented with new and old building materials and looked for ways to halt rice field stubble burning, there has been a resurgence of homes built with straw. Unfortunately, there has been very little testing to determine the thermal performance of straw bale walls or to discover how these walls affect a home's heating and cooling energy consumption. Reported R-values for straw bale walls range from R-17 to R-54, depending on the test procedure, the type of straw used and the type of straw bale wall system. This paper reports on a test set-up by the California Energy Commission (Commission) and conducted in a nationally accredited lab, Architectural Testing Inc. (ATI) in Fresno, California. The paper describes the tested straw bale wall assemblies, the testing process, and problems encountered in the construction and testing of the walls. The paper also gives a reasonable R-value to use in calculating thermal performance of straw bale houses and presents findings that show that straw bale construction can decrease the heating and cooling energy usage of a typical house by up to a third over conventional practice.

  3. Two-dimensional NMR evidence for cleavage of lignin and xylan substituents in wheat straw through hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelle, Daniel J.; Kaparaju, Laxmi-Narasimha Prasad; Hunt, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    correlation spectroscopy, via an heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiment, revealed substantial lignin β-aryl ether cleavage, deacetylation via cleavage of the natural acetates at the 2-O- and 3-O-positions of xylan, and uronic acid depletion via cleavage of the (1 → 2)-linked 4-O....... g., further deacylation revealed by the depletion in ferulate and p-coumarate structures). Supplementary chemical analyses showed that the hydrothermal pretreatment increased the cellulose and lignin concentration with partial removal of extractives and hemicelluloses. The subsequent enzymatic...

  4. Two-stage statistical medium optimization for augmented cellulase production via solid-state fermentation by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 and application of crude cellulase consortium in hydrolysis of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Babbar, Neha; Miglani, Kanupriya; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar

    2013-12-26

    Cellulolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-1 was statistically optimized using Plackett-Burman and central composite design (CCD). Optimum concentrations of 2, 0.40, 0.01, and 0.60 g L (-1) for KH2PO4, urea, trace elements solution, and CaCl2·2H2O, respectively, were suggested by Design-Expert software. The two-stage optimization process led to a 3- and 2-fold increases in the filter paper cellulase (FP) and β-glucosidase activities, respectively. FP, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, exopolygalaturonase, cellobiohydrolase, xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, β-xylosidase, and xylan esterase activities of 36.7 ± 1.54 FPU gds(-1), 252.3 ± 7.4 IU gds(-1), 416.3 ± 22.8 IU gds(-1), 111.2 ± 5.4 IU gds(-1), 8.9 ± 0.50 IU gds(-1), 2593.5 ± 78.9 IU gds(-1), 79.4 ± 4.3 IU gds(-1), 180.8 ± 9.3 IU gds(-1), and 288.7 ± 11.8 IU gds(-1), respectively, were obtained through solid-state fermentation during the validation studies. Hydrolysis of alkali-treated rice straw with crude cellulases resulted in about 84% glucan to glucose, 89% xylan to xylose, and 91% arabinan to arabinose conversions, indicating potential for biomass hydrolysis by the crude cellulase consortium obtained in this study.

  5. Desempenho de novilhos Simental alimentados com silagem de sorgo, cana-de-açúcar e palhada de arroz tratada ou não com amônia anidra Performance of Simental steers fed sorghum silage, sugar cane and straw rice treated or not with anhydrous ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucon César Cardoso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de novilhos alimentados com dietas contendo palhada de arroz amonizada, palhada de arroz + uréia, cana-de-açúcar + uréia e silagem de sorgo. Utilizaram-se 16 novilhos, Simental PO, com peso vivo médio de 400 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. O experimento teve duração de 88 dias, sendo 15 de adaptação e 61 dias de avaliação, divididos em três períodos de 21 dias. O consumo total de MS, que variou de 7,1 a 10,0 kg/dia, diferiu entre as dietas, registrando-se maiores consumos para os animais que receberam dietas contendo palhada de arroz amonizada e silagem de sorgo, que, por sua vez, não diferiram entre si. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre as diferentes dietas, registrando-se valor médio de 6,6. Observou-se maior ganho de peso para os animais que receberam palhada de arroz amonizada (1,59 kg/dia em relação à palhada mais uréia (1,25 kg/dia. O efeito da amonização, melhorando o valor nutritivo da palhada de arroz, resultou em maior consumo voluntário deste volumoso e, conseqüentemente, em maior ganho diário de peso vivo dos animais, em relação à palhada de arroz não-tratada e suplementada com uréia.The performance of steers fed diets using as roughage rice straw treated with anydrous ammonia, rice straw+urea, sugar cane + urea and sorghum silage were evaluated. Sixteen PO Simental steers, averaging 400 kg initial LW, were assigned to a completely randomized design. The experiment last 88 days, 15 days of adaptation and 61 experimental days, divided in three periods of 21 days. Total DM intake, that ranged from 7.1 to 10.0 kg/day, differ among treatments, where higher intakes were observed for the animals fed ammoniated rice straw and sorghum silage, that did not differ. Feed:gain ratio did not differ among different diets, and an average value of 6.6 was recorded. It was observed higherweight gain for the animals fed ammoniated rice straw (1.59 kg/day in

  6. Degradação ruminal da silagem de milho e da palha de arroz utilizando enzimas fibrolíticas exógenas = Ruminal degradation of corn silage and rice straw using exogenous fibrolityc enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Martins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da adição de enzimas fibrolíticas (celulase e xilanase sobre a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose da silagem de milho (SMe da palha de arroz (PA, utilizando seis bovinos fistulados no rúmen. Também foi avaliada a proporção de nitrogênio (N insolúvel em detergente ácido em relação ao N total (NIDA/N total. As enzimas fibrolíticas foram extraídas dos fungos Aspergillus niger eTrichoderma longibrachiatum, sendo fornecido 0,75 g kg-1 de MS animal-1 dia-1, via cânula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação foram: 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h. Os resíduos de incubação foram comparados por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Afração solúvel da MS e da PB da silagem de milho aumentou com a adição de enzimas fibrolíticas. Não houve efeito das enzimas sobre a degradação da parede celular dos volumosos. A adição de enzimas não alterou o teor de NIDA/N total da silagem de milho, porém aumentou esta proporção nos resíduos da palha de arroz incubados durante 12 e 48 h. As observações ao MEV indicaram aumento da colonização bacteriana sobre a parede celular dos volumosos, mas sem efeito sobre a degradação ruminal.This study evaluated the effect of fibrolytic enzyme addition(cellulase and xylanase on the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose in situ degradability of corn silage (CS and rice straw (RS, using six cattle cannulated on the rumen. Acid detergentinsoluble nitrogen (ADIN/total N was evaluated. The fibrolytic enzymes were extracted from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi, supplied at 0.75 g kg-1 of DM animal-1 day-1, through ruminal cannula. The incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The incubation residues were compared by scanning electron micrograph (SEM

  7. Rendimento do arroz e manejo da irrigação e da palha de azevém no sistema mix de pré-germinado Rice yield and management of irrigation and ryegrass straw on flooded rice in no tillage and water seed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González Pinto

    2003-04-01

    limiting factor in many agricultural areas, when high productivity is the objective. Alternative system of crop cultivation using no tillage on flooded water seed system can be used to minimize the problem. Although this system has technical and economical advantages on the production chain, especially on red rice control, anaerobic process of ryegrass straw decomposition may produce toxic substances to rice plants establishment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water irrigation management and the amount of ryegrass straw on grain yield and yield components on paddy rice cultivated. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, during the 1998/99 crop growing season, on Hidromorphy Planosoil, sandy Eutrophic, soil mapping unit "Vacacaí", over ryegrass crop residue at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. The rice cultivar IRGA 417 was used. A completely randomized design factorial (3x3, three water management (with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow over the soil, with drainage and surface water flow and three amount of ryegrass straw (0.0 t ha-1, 3.43 t ha-1 and 6.86 t ha-1. The data demonstrated that a permanent flooding with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow reduce dry matter above ground and grain yield when compared to the treatments with drainage and surface in-out water flow. Increasing the amount of ryegrass straw on the no-tillage water seed system, with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow, on the flooded water the grain yield is reduced.

  8. Avaliação da degradabilidade ruminal in situ da palha de arroz fermentada por Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer e Pycnoporus sanguineus Evaluation of rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer and Pycnoporus sanguineus by in situ ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Endres

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento nutricional da palha de arroz fermentada por Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer e Pycnoporus sanguineus foi avaliado por intermédio da degradação ruminal in situ. A fermentação da palha com T. viride e água por duas semanas aumentou a taxa de degradação ruminal em, aproximadamente, 31,5 e 264%, respectivamente, quando comparada com controle e água e com fermentação da palha por uma semana. Houve, também, redução no tempo de degradação efetiva da matéria seca da palha de arroz no trato digestivo do animal. O tratamento com R. stolonifer e água mostrou aumento de 17,95 e 7,90% da fração potencialmente digestível da matéria seca da palha, respectivamente, quando comparada com controle e fermentação por uma semana. O tratamento da palha de arrroz com P. sanguineus e água mostrou redução de 6,66 e 33,64% na degradação ruminal efetiva da matéria seca da palha após fermentação por uma e duas semanas, respectivamente.The nutritional improvement of rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer and Pycnoporus sanguineus was evaluated using the in situ ruminal degradability technique. The fermentation of the straw with T. viride and water for two weeks increased the degradation rate in 31.5 and 264% when compared with the control and water, and with fermentation of the straw for one week. Also, there was a reduction on the effective degradation time of the straw dry matter in the digestive tract of the animal. The treatment with R. stolonifer and water showed an increase of 17.95 and 7.90% on the potentially digestible fraction of the straw dry matter, respectively, when compared with the control and fermentation by one week. The treatment of straw with P. sanguineus and water showed reduction of 6.66 and 33.64% on the effective ruminal degradability of the straw dry matter after one and two weeks of fermentation, respectively.

  9. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...

  10. Effects of Crop Straw Returning with Lime on Activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in Paddy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Zhong-ying

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw returning is an important measure for increasing soil carbon fixation and soil fertility in China, but it also may result in some risk of raising activity of heavy metals in the soil. In order to understand the effects of different sources of crop straw on heavy metals activity in soil with different pollution levels, and to take appropriate measures to prevent the activation of heavy metals in the soil, both pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of crop straw returning with lime on activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in paddy soil. The experiments were carried out in the soils with both light and heavy pollution of heavy metals. In the pot experiment, three straws, including rice straw with heavy pollution of heavy metals, rice straw with light pollution of heavy metals, and rape straw with light pollution of heavy metals, were tested. Two dosages of lime(0 kg·hm-2 and 750 kg·hm-2were applied. Field experiment had three treatments, ie., control without application of straw and lime, straw returning and straw returning + lime. Soil available heavy metals, accumulation of heavy metals in rice grain, and chemical forms of soil heavy metals were dynamical monitored. The results showed that crop straw returning increased significantly the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and water soluble heavy metals in paddy soils at the early stage of experiment (in first 20 days. The increase in water soluble heavy metals in the soil with heavy pollution of heavy metals was most obvious as compared with the control treatment. After 60th day of the experiment, the effects of straw returning on the activity of heavy metals in the soil decreased gradually with the time, and became no obvious. The concentrations of water soluble heavy metals in the soil treated with rape straw was generally lower than that of rice straw, while those in the soil treated with heavy pollution of rice straw was higher than low pollution of rice

  11. Pengaruh Pretreatment Secara Alkalisasi-Resistive Heating terhadap Kandungan Lignoselulosa Jerami Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Maya Maharani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a potential biomass that is used for bioethanol production and commonly present in agricultural residues like rice straw. Cellulose is an important material to produce glucose and bioethanol, but it is covered by lignin and hemicellulose bonds to form a lignocellulose.  Bioethanol production using basic material containing cellulose requires special attention in the process of pretreatment for lignin degradation process and increase the accessible surface and decrystallize cellulose. The aim of this research was to apply alkalization and resistive heating combine method for rice straw pretreatment process before further being converted into bioethanol and to determine the effects of heating temperature and NaOH concentration on the content of  lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. The reactor had been designed for resistive heating process. Rice straw that was resized into 100 mesh has dissolved with 0.03 M, 0.05 M, and 0.07 M NaOH and heated with resistive heating temperature of 75 oC, 85 oC, and 99 oC. Cellulose is a raw material that will be further converted into glucose. So that, the selected optimum conditions of this study were  pretreatment with the highest increase of cellulose content level until 8.88% and resulted decreasing levels of lignin (1.39% and hemicellulose (4.33% by temperature  75 oC and 0.07 M NaOH concentration. Resistive heating that combine with alkalization can be used for rice straw pretreatment process that reduce lignin and hemicellulose content as well as increasing cellulose content.   ABSTRAK Selulosa merupakan biomassa yang potensial digunakan untuk produksi bioetanol dan banyak ditemukan di residu pertanian seperti jerami padi. Selulosa merupakan material penting yang dapat dikonversi menjadi glukosa kemudian dikonversi menjadi bioetanol, namun selulosa pada alam dilapisi oleh ikatan lignin dan hemiselulosa menjadi lignoselulosa. Pembuatan bioetanol berbasis selulosa membutuhkan proses

  12. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  13. Rice straw recycling problems Проблемы рациональной утилизации рисовой соломы

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a fairly extensive analysis of the state of the cereal crop industry in the Republic of Tajikistan and other regions of East and South-East Asia. Problems of generation of a huge amount of waste in the course of processing of cereals, in particular, rice straw processing by-products, are raised by the authors. The authors propose their original solution to the problems in question. Besides, traditional and original methods of application of rice straw in low-rise construction and production of building materials are presented in the article. The major part of the article covers traditional methods of disposal of rice straw as a raw material used in the production of cellulose, lignin biodegradable plastic, paper, cardboard, wicker products, thermal energy, etc. Another important issue, covered in the article, is the study of the straw/husk burning process, as well as the possibility of generating ash that contains various forms of silica. The fact that the ash content of the straw, according to various sources, varies within the range of16–20 %, and its silica content may be up to 89–91 % make it possible for the authors to state that straw and husk ash can be used as an active mineral additive in the production of effective building materials. It is noteworthy that the problems raised in the article are relevant, and their practical solutions are feasible.Рассмотрены проблемы текущей утилизации и дальнейшего применения рисовой соломы и шелухи. Приведен анализ состояния решений указанных проблем в отрасли, рассмотрены существующие технологии утилизации и повторного использования рисовой соломы и шелухи. По результатам анализа сформулированы предпо

  14. Characterization of a β-1,4-mannanase from a newly isolated strain of Pholiota adiposa and its application for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Zhao, Zongpei; Singh, Raushan; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Choi, Joon-Ho; Kim, Dongwook; Haw, Jung-Rim; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-09-01

    A highly efficient β-1,4-mannanase-secreting strain, Pholiota adiposa SKU0714, was isolated and identified on the basis of its morphological features and sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. P. adiposa β-1,4-mannanase was purified to homogeneity from P. adiposa culture supernatants by one-step chromatography on a Sephacryl gel filtration column. P. adiposa β-1,4-mannanase showed the highest activity toward locust bean gum (V max = 1,990 U/mg protein, K m = 0.12 mg/mL) ever reported. Its internal amino acid sequence showed homology with hydrolases from the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5), indicating that the enzyme is a member of the GH5 family. The saccharification of commercial mannanase and P. adiposa β-1,4-mannanase-pretreated rice straw by Celluclast 1.5L (Novozymes) was compared. In comparison with the commercial Novo Mannaway(®) (113 mg/g-substrate), P. adiposa β-1,4-mannanase-pretreated rice straw released more reducing sugars (141 mg/g-substrate). These properties make P. adiposa β-1,4-mannanase a good candidate as a new commercial β-1,4-mannanase to improve biomass pretreatment.

  15. Manejo da palha de azevém, da adubação de base e da água de drenagem na produção de arroz irrigado Management of ryegrass straw, fertilizer and drainage water, on flooded rice prodution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Swarowsky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas com mínimo revolvimento do solo são favoráveis ao controle de plantas daninhas, à utilização mais intensiva dos solos de várzea e à rentabilidade do orizicultor, mas apresentam algumas limitações, como a produção de substâncias que podem ser tóxicas ao arroz, bem como alterações na disponibilidade de nutrientes em ambientes alagados. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar diferentes sistemas de manejo da palha de azevém, da adubação de base, e da drenagem, no rendimento de grãos de arroz e nos componentes da produção. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Foram avaliados três níveis de manejo da resteva de azevém (planta de azevém em pé, planta de azevém incorporada e sem a planta de azevém, três condições de adubação (sem adubação, adubação do arroz 100% aplicada na semeadura do azevém e adubação do arroz 100% aplicada na semeadura do arroz e dois manejos da água de drenagem (inundação convencional em condições de campo e inundação sem drenagem. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que, na cultura do arroz irrigado por inundação, a incorporação da palha de azevém e a aplicação da adubação para o arroz na semeadura do azevém não afetam o rendimento de grãos e os componentes da produção. Entretanto, a ausência de drenagem interna no solo reduz o rendimento de grãos de arroz, o número de panículas e o número de grãos por panícula.Cultivation systems with minimum tillage are used to minimize red rice incidence, improving crop yield and the agricultural exploration of lowland soils. However, some limitations are present such as toxic substances due to anaerobic straw decomposition (prejudicial to rice plant establishment, as well as alterations on some available nutrients under flooded soil water conditions. The objective of this work was to compare different drainage systems; ryegrass straw management and time of fertilizer application on

  16. Pre-process desilication of wheat straw with citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Effects of treatment time, citrate concentration, temperature, and pH on Si extraction from wheat straw prior to hydrothermal pretreatment were investigated for maximising Si removal and biomass recovery before biomass refining. With citrate, an almost linear negative correlation between Si content...

  17. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  18. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of three kinds of straws/nylon 6 composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiliang; Yin, Qianjuan; Wang, Qianwen; Wang, Pinghua; Liu, Tingguo; Qian, Liwu

    2017-10-01

    After alkali treatment, wheat straw, maize straw and rice straw were mixed with a mixture of nylon 6 (PA6) and prepared into composites using the melt blending method. The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of three kinds of straw fiber/PA6 composites were studied using tensile and impact tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that increasing of the three kinds of straw fibers initially increased the tensile strength of the composites and then decreased, and that the tensile strength reached a maximum value when the wheat straw fiber content was 10%, which was 56.9% higher than that of the pure PA6. The impact strength of the composites initially decreased and then increased, with the maximum impact obtained for the composites with the wheat straw fiber content of 10%, which was 39.2% higher than that of the pure PA6. The introduction of the three kinds of straw fiber also induced the formation of α crystal formed in the PA6. With the increase of the straw fiber content, the grain size of the composite increased continuously, the crystallization temperature (Tc) decreased, the melting temperature (Tm) and crystalline changed slightly, and the maximum degree of crystallinity was obtained when the wheat straw fiber content was 10%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodetoxification of toxins generated from lignocellulose pretreatment using a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, and the consequent ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of the toxic compounds generated in the harsh pretreatment of lignocellulose is an inevitable step in reducing the toxin level for conducting practical enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation processes. Various detoxification methods have been tried and many negative outcomes were found using these methods, such as the massive freshwater usage and wastewater generation, loss of the fine lignocellulose particles and fermentative sugars and incomplete removal of inhibitors. An alternate method, biodetoxification, which degrades the toxins as part of their normal metabolism, was considered a promising option for the removal of toxins without causing the above problems. Results A kerosene fungus strain, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was isolated from the microbial community growing on the pretreated corn stover material. The degradation of the toxins as well as the lignocelluloses-derived sugars was characterized in different ways, and the results show that A. resinae ZN1 utilized each of these toxins and sugars as the sole carbon sources efficiently and grew quickly on the toxins. It was found that the solid-state culture of A. resinae ZN1 on various pretreated lignocellulose feedstocks such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, cotton stalk and rape straw degraded all kinds of toxins quickly and efficiently. The consequent simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation was performed at the 30% (wt/wt solid loading of the detoxified lignocellulosic feedstocks without a sterilization step, and the ethanol titer in the fermentation broth reached above 40 g/L using food crop residues as feedstocks. Conclusions The advantages of the present biodetoxification by A. resinae ZN1 over the known detoxification methods include zero energy input, zero wastewater generation, complete toxin degradation, processing on solid pretreated material, no need for sterilization and a wide lignocellulose feedstock spectrum

  20. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  1. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate...... how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...... composition. The Si concentration in wheat straw differed significantly among genotypes and growth locations. Wheat straw with high Si concentration released less xylose during enzymatic saccharification suggesting inhibition by Si deposited in hemicelluloses. N supply had a distinct effect on Si...

  2. The application of exogenous cellulase to improve soil fertility and plant growth due to acceleration of straw decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; He, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The effects of exogenous cellulase application on straw decomposition, soil fertility, and plant growth were investigated with nylon bag and pot experiments. Cellulase application promoted straw decomposition, and the decomposition rates of rice and wheat straw increased by 6.3-26.0% and 6.8-28.0%, respectively, in the nylon bag experiments. In pot experiments soil-available N and P contents, soil cellulase activity, and growth of rice seedlings increased. Soil respiration rate and microbial population were unaffected. Seventy Ug(-1) was the optimal cellulase concentration for plant growth. The exogenous cellulase persisted in soil for more than 100days. Although the data show that exogenous cellulase application can enhance soil fertility and plant growth in the short-term due to the acceleration of straw decomposition and has the potential to be an environment-friendly approach to manage straw, cellulase application to soil seems currently not economical. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized.

  4. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  5. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE AFFECTED BY SOIL AMENDMENT AND NEMATICIDE IN RAINFED RICE SOILS AT CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wihardjaka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is one of the antropogenic sources of nitrous oxide (N2O emission that is produced by microbiological nitrification-denitrification processes. Incorporating soil amendment in rainfed rice soil attempted to increase soil productivity, while nematicide application aimed to maintain root growth system. Incorporating soil amendment and nematicide application are predicted to suppress N2O production in lowland rice. The objective of this research was to study the interaction of soil organic amendment and nematicide on N2O emission and nitrogen uptake from rainfed lowland rice soils. A field experiment was conducted in rainfed lowland rice soils during 2010/2011 wet season (direct seeded rice and 2011 dry season (transplanted rice. The 3 x 3 factorial trial was arranged in a randomized completely block design with three replications. The first factor was soil amendment consisted of without rice straw, fresh rice straw and composted rice straw. The second factor was nematicide application consisted of without nematicide, neemcake and carbofuran. Variables measured were N2O flux, rice grain yield and nitrogen uptake. Incorporation of fresh and composted rice straws reduced N2O flux about 49.2% and 59.9% in transplanted rice, and 32.9% and 28.2% in direct seeded rice, respectively. The neemcake application reduced N2O emission about 44-50%, while carbofuran application decreased N2O emission by 23-35%. Neemcake has a good potential as nitrification inhibitor of N2O emission, so the neem trees have a prospect to be cultivated intensively. The reduction of N2O emission was effective in direct seeded rice system with the application of neemcake and fresh rice straw, however, in transplanted rice system it was effective with neemcake and composted rice straw applications.

  6. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    how Si influences cell wall composition in cereal straw and, consequently, the enzymatic saccharification efficiency. Considering the importance of Nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereal production, an additional objective was to elucidate the effect of N supply on Si concentration and cell wall...

  7. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  8. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  9. [Synergistic mechanism of steam explosion combined with laccase treatment for straw delignification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-06-01

    Components separation is the key technology in biorefinery. Combination of steam explosion and laccase was used, and synergistic effect of the combined pretreatment was evaluated in terms of physical structure, chemical components and extraction of lignin. The results showed that steam explosion can destroy the rigid structure and increase the specific surface area of straw, which facilitated the laccase pretreatment. The laccase pretreatment can modify the lignin structure based on the Fourier transform infrared test, as a result the delignification of straw was enhanced. Nuclei Growth model with a time dependent rate constant can describe the delignification, and the kinetics parameters indicated that the combined pretreatment improved the reaction sites and made the delignification reaction more sensitive to temperature. The combined pretreatment enhanced delignification, and can be a promising technology as an alternative to the existing pretreatment.

  10. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw through sequential autohydrolysis and alkaline post-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Chen; Zhai, Shengcheng; Liang, Chen; Huang, Caoxing; Lai, Chenhuan; Yong, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a two-step pretreatment process of wheat straw was established by combining autohydrolysis pretreatment and alkaline post-extraction. The results showed that employing alkaline post-extraction to autohydrolyzed wheat straw could significantly improve its enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency from 36.0% to 83.7%. Alkaline post-extraction lead to the changes of the structure characteristics of autohydrolyzed wheat straw. Associations between enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and structure characteristics were also studied. The results showed that the factors of structure characteristics such as delignification, xylan removal yield, crystallinity, accessibility and hydrophobicity are positively related to enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency within a certain range for alkaline post-extracted wheat straw. The results demonstrated that autohydrolysis coupled with alkaline post-extraction is an effective and promising method to gain fermentable sugars from biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J.H.; Colwell, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

  12. Effect of Climate Change on Rice Production in Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean farming experience and farm size were 17.7 years and 1.63 hectares, respectively; and the major perceived causes of climate change were deforestation, bush burning, excessive use of agro-chemicals in rice production, burning of firewood and farm residues (rice straws & husks) and natural phenomena among ...

  13. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  14. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-09-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  15. Allelopathic influence of rice extracts on phenology of various crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, R.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the allelopathic effects of rice straw on different weeds and crops, a lab experiment was conducted at the Weed Science Laboratory, Institute of Plant Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad during 2007 with a factorial arrangement (species and extract concentration) to evaluate the allelopathic effect of various concentrations of rice straw extract on germination percent, mortality percent, and days to germination of different test plants. The rice plants (Basmati super) were collected from experimental fields of National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. The samples were put into water for 48 hours after getting them cleaned, dried, and ground for obtaining the extract. The rice stems and leaves were used for the extraction and concentrations of 0, 50 and 100% rice straw extracts were used for the bioassay. A total of 90 Petri dishes were sterilized in autoclave at 110 -120 degree C for 1 hour. Two filter papers were kept in each Petri dish and ten seeds of each test plant were placed in each Petri dish. All the experimental Petri dishes were kept at room temperature of 20 degree C for 15 days. The results uncovered that 100% rice straw extract convincingly decreased the germination and growth of the test plants, in comparison with the 0 and 50% rice straw extracts. Among the crop plants, Gossypium hirsutum; and among the weeds, Ipomoea batatas, Rumex dentatus and Convolvulus arvensis were mostly affected by the rice straw extracts whereas Helianthus annuus, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Vigna radiata were somewhat resistant to rice straw extract concentrations. Hence, it has been concluded from the results that rice straw can prove to be a good alternative and environment friendly bio-herbicide for weed management in crops. (author)

  16. Fermentation Kinetic of Maize Straw-Gliricidia Feed Mixture Supplemented by Fermentable Carbohydrate Measured by In Vitro Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, D.; Nurhayati

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of crop by-products such as maize straw mixed with legume is expected to be able to overcome the limitation of forage availability during dry season and have similar nutritional value with grass. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate in this diet can be improved fermentability and reduced methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground corn grain or rice bran as fermentable carbohydrate in maize straw-gliricidiamixture. Treatment diets evaluated were: Maize straw + gliricidialeaf meal (Control/RO); Control + 10% ground maize grain (ROC); Control + 10% rice bran (RORB). Maize straw was chopped and ground then mixed with gliricidia leaf meal at ratio 60:40% DM. Maize straw-gliricidia mixture then supplemented either with ground corn grain or rice bran at 10% of DM basal diet (control). Sample was incubated for 48 hours, gas production was recorded at 4, 8,12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Study was conducted in randomized complete design. Results of the study showed that supplementation of fermentable carbohydrate from corn grain or rice bran was able to increased (Pproduction by 24 and 18% respectively. However only in ROC potential gas production was increased (Pproduction was decreased. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation of ground corn grain at 10% in maize straw-gliricidia mixture was able to improve diet fermentation and reduced methane production.

  17. Casca de arroz e palhada de soja na compostagem de carcaças de frangos de corte - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10824 Rice husks and soy straw as substrate for composting of broiler carcasses - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei Coldebella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atuação da casca de arroz e da palhada de soja como substrato para compostagem de carcaça de frangos de corte, observando a degradação dos dois substratos e das carcaças pelo monitoramento da temperatura, peso das carcaças e dos substratos e análise físico-química do produto final. As câmaras foram montadas com carcaças de 10 aves recém abatidas, com quatro repetições no tempo. Instalou-se em cada câmara um termopar para registro da temperatura. O substrato e as carcaças foram pesadas separadamente, no início, aos 15 e aos 30 dias de compostagem. Ao final de cada período, foram realizadas análises físico-química de amostras de cada câmara, avaliando-se o pH e os teores de matéria seca, cinzas, P, N, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe e carbono orgânico. Concluiu-se que a palhada de soja pode ser usada como alternativa para substrato de compostagem de carcaças de aves, atendendo à relação C/N exigida pela legislação ao final da terceira reutilização. A casca de arroz, da mesma forma, pode ser utilizada na compostagem de carcaças de aves, porém reutilizada por maior número de vezes. A decomposição das carcaças foi significativamente maior, em percentual, na palhada de soja ao final do quarto período de compostagem (p ≤ 0,05.The performance of rice husks and of soy straw were evaluated as substrate for on-farm poultry carcass composting, observing the degradation of the two substrate and of the carcasses through monitoring the temperature, weight of the carcasses and of the substrate and physiochemical analysis of the final product. The piles were arranged with carcasses of 10 recently slaughtered birds, with four repetitions in time. A thermo pair was installed in each pile to register the temperature. The substrate and the carcasses were weighed separately, in the beginning, day 15 and day 30 of composting. At the end of each period, the physiochemical analysis of samples were made from each pile, evaluating

  18. Straw Appliqué Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Straw bits and lengths are used in making the related part as described above. Bits of different geometric shapes, sizes, and tones are combined to create the forms from the original photograph on a gum-stay reinforce linen fabric. The straw medium form most part of the human exposed skin while the other.

  19. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  20. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  1. Surface properties correlate to the digestibility of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic Poaceae biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristan Djajadi, Demi; Hansen, Aleksander R.; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    in response to hydrothermal pretreatment at different severities are still not sufficiently understood. Results: Potentially important lignocellulosic feedstocks for biorefining, corn stover (Zea mays subsp. mays L.), stalks of Miscanthus × giganteus, and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) were systematically...

  2. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  3. Technical processing of rapeseed straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentsen, T.; Ravn, T.

    1984-01-01

    From the approx. 150,000 hectars which at present are grown with rapeseed, on an average of about 300,000 tons of straw is available. However, the production capacity attains approx. 700,000 tons but this quantity is not at all available, mainly due to weather conditions in the harvest period and the applied harvest technique. Rapeseed straw is an excellent fuel also when compressed into briquettes. It is nevertheless recommendable to use fly ash or a lignosulphonate as a binder in case of briquetting to avoid a poor briquette quality and slag formation. Rapeseed straw forms a good raw material for semi-chemical pulping and may substitute beech wood when this commodity is in short supply. The fiber fraction of rapeseed straw has been examined in the Eternit roofing production process. It appears that the fibers to some extent have a retarding effect on the cement setting. The inclusion of rapeseed straw particles into an ordinary medium density board of wood chips may be increased from the known 5 to 20 percent provided that an adhesive of polyurethane resin base is applied. In the production of thin particle boards rapeseed straw has proven itself to have a very positive effect. When used with a polyurethane glue the properties of rapeseed straw equal those of ordinary wood chips.

  4. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  5. Degradação ruminal da silagem de milho e da palha de arroz utilizando enzimas fibrolíticas exógenas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6462 Ruminal degradation of corn silage and rice straw using exogenous fibrolityc enzymes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6462

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da adição de enzimas fibrolíticas (celulase e xilanase sobre a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose da silagem de milho (SM e da palha de arroz (PA, utilizando seis bovinos fistulados no rúmen. Também foi avaliada a proporção de nitrogênio (N insolúvel em detergente ácido em relação ao N total (NIDA/N total. As enzimas fibrolíticas foram extraídas dos fungos Aspergillus Níger e Trichoderma longibrachiatum, sendo fornecido 0,75 g kg-1 de MS animal-1 dia-1, via cânula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação foram: 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h. Os resíduos de incubação foram comparados por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A fração solúvel da MS e da PB da silagem de milho aumentou com a adição de enzimas fibrolíticas. Não houve efeito das enzimas sobre a degradação da parede celular dos volumosos. A adição de enzimas não alterou o teor de NIDA/N total da silagem de milho, porém aumentou esta proporção nos resíduos da palha de arroz incubados durante 12 e 48 h. As observações ao MEV indicaram aumento da colonização bacteriana sobre a parede celular dos volumosos, mas sem efeito sobre a degradação ruminal.This study evaluated the effect of fibrolytic enzyme addition (cellulase and xylanase on the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose in situ degradability of corn silage (CS and rice straw (RS, using six cattle cannulated on the rumen. Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN/total N was evaluated. The fibrolytic enzymes were extracted from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi, supplied at 0.75 g/kg of DM/animal/day, through ruminal cannula. The incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The incubation residues were compared by scanning electron micrograph (SEM

  6. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de carvão ativo na destoxificação de hidrolisado de palha de arroz para produção de xilitol Evaluation of different kinds of activated charcoal used for rice straw hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz foi tratado com cinco tipos de carvão ativo (pó e granulado com o objetivo de remover, por adsorção, compostos tóxicos que podem agir como inibidores no processo de bioconversão de xilose em xilitol, por Candida guilliermondii. Os valores máximos de fator de rendimento em xilitol (Y P/S = 0,67g g-1 e produtividade volumétrica (Q P = 0,61g L-1 h-1 foram atingidos quando o hidrolisado foi tratado com carvão ativo em pó de partículas de tamanho pequeno (0,043mm, baixa granulometria (32% retidos em peneira de 325mesh e grande área superficial (860m² g-1, características as quais favoreceram a adsorção dos compostos tóxicos.Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was treated with five kinds of activated charcoal (powdered and granulated in order to remove, by adsorption, toxic compounds that can be act as inhibitors in the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol, by Candida guilliermondii. Maximum values of xylitol yield factor (Y P/S= 0.67g g-1 and volumetric productivity (Q P=0.61g L-1h-1 were provided by powdered activated charcoal with small particles size (0.043mm, low granulometry (32% restrained in 325mesh and large surface area (860m² g-1, characteristics which favoured the toxic compounds adsorption.

  7. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  8. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  9. rice husk as filler rice husk as filler in the production of bricks using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Various agricultural wastes such as Bagasse, Straw, and Groundnut Husk have been used to produce bricks. Falade [3] used Saw dust ash as partial replacement of cement in laterised bricks and found out that the addition of Saw dust ash decreases the compressive strength of the material. Rice husk ash was used to treat ...

  10. Ethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw and the process simulation using artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talebnia, Farid; Mighani, Moein; Rahimnejad, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed straw was utilized as a cheap raw material for ethanol production. Effects of steam explosion on chemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were studied. Changes in the pretreatment conditions showed strong effects on digestib......Rapeseed straw was utilized as a cheap raw material for ethanol production. Effects of steam explosion on chemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were studied. Changes in the pretreatment conditions showed strong effects...... on digestibility of the resulting straw. The optimum results were obtained at 180A degrees C, 10% solid fraction, 1% H2SO4, and 10 min retention time. Under optimal condition, glucose hydrolysis yields of 93 and 89% were obtained for 5 and 10% solid fractions, respectively. The corresponding ethanol yields were 63...

  11. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products.

  12. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  13. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  14. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  16. Treated domestic sewage irrigation significantly decreased the CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from paddy fields with straw incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanshan; Hou, Pengfu; Xue, Lihong; Wang, Shaohua; Yang, Linzhang

    2017-11-01

    Straw incorporation and domestic sewage irrigation have been recommended as an environmentally friendly agricultural practice and are widely used not only in China but also in other countries. The individual effects on yield and environmental impacts have been studied extensively, but the comprehensive effect when straw returning and domestic sewage irrigation are combined together has seldom been reported. This study was conducted to examine the effects of straw returning and domestic sewage irrigation on rice yields, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and ammonia (NH3) volatilization from paddy fields from 2015 to 2016. The results showed that the rice yield was not affected by the irrigation water sources and straw returning under the same total N input, which was similar in both years. Due to the rich N in the domestic sewage, domestic sewage irrigation could reduce approximately 45.2% of chemical nitrogen fertilizer input without yield loss. Compared to straw removal treatments, straw returning significantly increased the CH4 emissions by approximately 7-9-fold under domestic sewage irrigation and 13-14-fold under tap water irrigation. Straw returning also increased the N2O emissions under the two irrigation water types. In addition, the seasonal NH3 volatilization loss was significantly increased by 88.8% and 61.2% under straw returning compared to straw removal in 2015 and 2016, respectively. However, domestic sewage irrigation could decrease CH4 emissions by 24.5-26.6%, N2O emissions by 37.0-39.0% and seasonal NH3 volatilization loss by 27.2-28.3% under straw returning compared to tap water irrigation treatments. Global warming potentials (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensities (GHGI) were significantly increased with straw returning compared with those of straw removal, while they were decreased by domestic sewage irrigation under straw returning compared to tap water irrigation. Significant interactions between straw returning and domestic sewage irrigation on

  17. The Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Rice Technology on Phenotypic Diversity and Population Structure of United States Weedy Rice1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D.; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E.; Gealy, David R.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  18. Assessment of wet explosion as a pretreatment method to enhance methane production from agricultural residues and energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, wet explosion has been studied as a pretreatment method for increasing the methane yield from wheat straw, miscantus and willow. Among the three biomasses tested, wheat straw and miscanthus were the most promising in terms of methane production, yielding around 265 m...... not necessarily imply increased methane yield....

  19. fungal diseases of rice in nursery farms in bayelsa state of nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of fungi association with seed, seedling and straw samples of three rice varieties (Faro 12, Faro 15, and Maliong) obtained from 18 nursery farms in Okuokpoti-Ogbia, a major rice producing community in Ogbia Local Government area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria was investigated. Soil samples from the farms were ...

  20. Hydration properties of briquetted wheat straw biomass feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fredriksson, Maria; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    process with the aim of subsequent processing for 2nd generation bioethanol production. The hydration properties of the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw were characterized for water absorption via low field nuclear magnetic resonance and sorption balance measurements. The water was absorbed more...... isotherms, which showed that the amount of cell wall water was not affected by the briquetting process and that the sugar yield was similar after a combined hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The factors which offset the benefits introduced by the briquetting process need to be further...

  1. Preparation and characterization of long natural cellulose fibers from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2007-10-17

    Long natural cellulose fibers with properties suitable for textile and composite applications have been obtained from wheat straw. This study aims to understand the potential of using wheat straw as a source for long natural cellulose fibers for textile, composite and other fibrous applications. The presence of wax on the outer layer of the straw and a unique zip-like structure that locks individual fibers makes it difficult to obtain fibers from wheat straw using the common methods of fiber extraction. A novel pretreatment with detergent and mechanical force followed by an alkaline treatment was used to obtain high quality fiber bundles. The structure and properties of the fibers are reported in comparison to common cellulose fibers, cotton, linen, and kenaf. Wheat straw fibers have coarser (wider width) single cells and lower crystallinity than cotton, linen, and kenaf. The breaking tenacity (force at break) of wheat straw fibers is similar to kenaf but lower than that of cotton and linen, % breaking elongation is similar to linen and kenaf but lower than cotton, and Young's modulus of the fibers is similar to cotton but lower than that of linen and kenaf.

  2. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  3. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...

  4. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbe Mats

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68% or PWM alone (91%. Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated.

  6. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Barta, Zsolt; Sipos, Bálint; Réczey, Kati; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-07-02

    Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated.

  7. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  8. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) pollen abort in long day and high temperature, and revert to fertility in short day length and low temperature growth conditions. This type of control of rice plant fertility can facilitate production of hybrid rice using two lines (photoperiod- sensitive ...

  9. Using Commercial Enzymes to Produce Cellulose Nanofibers from Soybean Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Martelli-Tosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used commercial enzymes to isolate cellulose nanofibrils (CN and produce sugars from chemically pretreated soybean straw (SS (stem, leaves, and pods by alkali (NaOH 5 or 17.5% v/v at 90°C for 1 h or at 30°C for 15 h and bleaching (NaClO2 3.3% or H2O2 4% pretreatments. Depending on the pretreatment applied to the soybean straw, the yield of CN varied from 6.3 to 7.5 g of CN/100 g of SS regardless of the concentration of the alkaline solution (5 or 17.5%. The CN had diameter of 15 nm, measured over 300 nm in length, and had high electrical stability (zeta potentials ranged from −20.8 to −24.5. Given the XRD patterns, the crystallinity index (CrI of CN ranged from 45 to 68%, depending on the chemical pretreatment the starting material was submitted to. CN obtained from SS treated with NaOH 17.5% and H2O2 (CrI = 45% displayed better thermal stability probably because a lignin-cellulose complex emerged. The soluble fraction obtained in the first step of CN production contained a large amount of reducing sugars (11.2 to 30.4 g/100 g of SS. SS seems to be a new promising industrial source to produce CN via enzymatic-mechanical treatment, leading to large amounts of reducing sugars for use in bioenergy production.

  10. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Y. [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, A.K. [Department of Biology, Guangdong University of Education, Guangzhou 510303 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, R.L., E-mail: eesqrl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cheng, H. [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1}), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg{sup -1}) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg{sup -1}) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. h{sup -1}). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Highlights: > There are significant differences in brown rice Cd concentrations and rates of ROL among the rice cultivars. > The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with concentrations of Cd in brown rice. > Rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL have higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Rice cultivars with high rates of ROL tended to accumulate low Cd in grains.

  11. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  12. Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Katja, E-mail: katja.bogdan@pflern.uni-hannover.d [Institute of Plant Nutrition, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Manfred K., E-mail: schenk@pflern.uni-hannover.d [Institute of Plant Nutrition, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake. During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As{sub (aquaregia)}, pH, grain size fractions, total C, plant available P{sub (CAL)}, poorly crystalline Fe{sub (oxal.)} and plant available Si{sub (Na-acetate)} content that potentially affect As content of rice were determined. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive influence of the total As{sub (aquaregia)} and plant available P{sub (CAL)} content and a negative influence of the poorly crystalline Fe{sub (oxal.)} content of the soil on the As content in polished rice and rice straw. Si concentration in rice straw varied widely and was negatively related to As content in straw and polished rice. - Field selection for total As, poorly crystalline Fe and plant available P in soil might contribute to control As content of paddy rice.

  13. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lopez-Linares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC, acid concentration (2-4% w/v and pretreatment time (30-180 min on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw.

  14. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Linares, J.C.; Cara-Corpas, C.; Ruiz-Ramos, E.; Moya-Vilar, M.; Castro-Galiano, E.; Romero-Pulido, I.

    2015-07-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC), acid concentration (2-4% w/v) and pretreatment time (30-180 min) on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw. (Author)

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lactating Djallonké Ewes Fed Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 7-week feed intake and growth performance study involving thirty lactating Djallonké ewes and their lambs was conducted. The ewes were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups resulting in 10 replications. The ewes were individually housed and offered 1000 g rice straw basal diet daily; Stylosanthes hamata ...

  16. Adoption of Improved Rice Production Technologies among Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study equally indicated that preferences for grains quality and straw yield are some of the reasons for adopting improved rice varieties. Furthermore, income, extension contact and social participation had significant relationship with adoption (p< 0.05). The major constraints identified include pest invasion reported by ...

  17. Characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) produced from Ralstonia eutropha using an alkali-pretreated biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline