WorldWideScience

Sample records for pretreated rice straw

  1. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  2. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  3. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  4. Efficient bioconversion of rice straw to ethanol with TiO2/UV pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Doman

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is a lignocellulosic biomass that constitutes a renewable organic substance and alternative source of energy; however, its structure confounds the liberation of monosaccharides. Pretreating rice straw using a TiO(2)/UV system facilitated its hydrolysis with Accellerase 1000(™), suggesting that hydroxyl radicals (OH·) from the TiO(2)/UV system could degrade lignin and carbohydrates. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment was an essential step for conversion of hemicellulose to xylose; optimal conditions for this conversion were a TiO(2) concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and an irradiation time of 2 h with a UV-C lamp at 254 nm. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the sugar yields from rice straw pretreated with these parameters were 59.8 ± 0.7% of the theoretical for glucose (339 ± 13 mg/g rice straw) and 50.3 ± 2.8% for xylose (64 ± 3 mg/g rice straw). The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates containing 10.5 g glucose/L and 3.2 g xylose/L with Pichia stipitis produced 3.9 g ethanol/L with a corresponding yield of 0.39 g/g rice straw. The maximum possible ethanol conversion rate is 76.47%. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment can be performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and demonstrates potential in large-scale production of fermentable sugars.

  5. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  6. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zhiyuan; Long, Donglei; Mao, Hongxiang; Wen, Jiangnan; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure, while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 dry matter (DM), respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in three replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Primary properties of MDF using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid pretreated rice straw particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Yiqiang Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect the oxalic acid (OA) and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of rice straw medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The results show the IB strength increased about 9.6% and 13.4% for steam-treated MDF (PC) and OA-treated MDF compared with raw control panels, while OA pretreatment has a slight negative effect...

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated rice straw by Trichoderma reesei ZM4-F3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, QiuZhuo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, WeiMin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-12-15

    To minimize the cost of cellulase production, both pretreatment of the rice straw and on-site enzyme production were realized. Rice straw was first pretreated by 2% NaOH, which could increase cellulose by 54.83%, and decreased hemicellulose by 61.07% and lignin by 36.24%, respectively. Detected by SEM, significant morphological changes were observed in the tissue. Through orthogonal experiments, temperature 35 C, initial pH value 4.5 and the rotation speed of shaking bed 180 rpm were determined to be the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw by Trichoderma reesei ZM4-F3. After hydrolysis for 96 h, the production of FPA and reducing sugars could achieve 2.231 g l{sup -1} and 12.92 U ml{sup -1}, respectively. Moreover, T. reesei ZM4-F3 can decompose 68.21% of pretreated rice straw after 120 h of hydrolysis. By GC analysis, it showed that glucose is the main component of the enzymatic hydrolysates, which made GC seem to be more effective than the DNS method for analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysates as it can detect the concentration of each kind of monosaccharide more accurately. (author)

  9. Effects of sodium carbonate pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linfeng; Cao, Jie; Jin, Yongcan; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard; Li, Zhongzheng

    2012-11-01

    The effects of sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic saccharification of rice straw were investigated. The enzymatic digestibility of rice straw is enhanced after pretreatment since pretreated solids show significant delignification with high sugar availability. During pretreatment, an increasing temperature and Na(2)CO(3) charge leads to enhanced delignification, whereas an increased degradation of polysaccharides as well, of which xylan acts more susceptible than glucan. The sugar recovery of enzymatic hydrolysis goes up rapidly with the total titratable alkali (TTA) increasing from 0% to 8%, and then it reaches a plateau. The highest sugar recovery of rice straw after pretreatment, 71.7%, 73.2%, and 76.1% for total sugar, glucan, and xylan, respectively, is obtained at 140°C, TTA 8% and cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-cellulose. In this condition, the corresponding delignification ratio of pretreated solid is 41.8%, while 95% of glucan and 76% of xylan are conserved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of oxalic acid and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of UF-bonded rice straw particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy; Altaf H. Basta

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) and steam-pretreatment on the primary performance of rice straw particleboards. In addition, the effect of various treatment conditions on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles was investigated. The results show that steam- and short durations of OA-treatment significantly improved the mechanical...

  11. Optimization of twin gear-based pretreatment of rice straw for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Rehman, Muhammd Saif Ur; Terán-Hilares, Ruly; Khalid, Saira; Han, Jong-In

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Twin gear reactor is a continuous high solids pretreatment reactor. • RSM was applied to optimize twin gear pretreatment for enzymatic digestibility. • 89% enzymatic digestibility was achieved under optimum conditions. • Thermomechanical pretreatment altered the structural features of rice straw. - Abstract: A laboratory twin-gear reactor (TGR) was investigated as a new means for the pretreatment of high solid lignocelluloses. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken Design was used to optimize the enzymatic digestibility with respect to the pretreatment process variables: temperature of 50–90 °C, NaOH concentration of 2–6% and no. of cycles of 30–60. The results revealed that the TGR-based pretreatment led to the significant structural alterations through increases in pore size, pore volume, cellulose crystallinity and surface area. SEM images also confirmed the surface modifications in the pretreated rice straw. A response surface quadratic model predicted 90% of the enzymatic digestibility, and it was confirmed experimentally and through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well. The TGR extrusion proved to be an effective means for exceedingly high solids lignocellulose.

  12. Black liquor-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chenxi; Zhu, Linfeng; Shen, Feng; Qi, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. The highest TRS yield of 63.4% was achieved at 140°C for 120min, which was much higher than that obtained from crude rice straw under the same reaction conditions (36.6% TRS yield). Overall, this study provides a renewable strategy for the utilization of all components of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of pretreatment using sodium hydroxide and acetic acid to biogas production from rice straw waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is agricultural waste containing high potency to be treated to biogas. However, the usage of rice straw is still limited due to high lignin content that will cause low biodegradability. The aim of this research was to study the effect of pretreatment using NaOH and acetic acid to biogas production from rice straw. NaOH was varied from 2%w, 4%w, and 6%w; and acetic acid was varied from 0,075 M, 0,15 M dan 0,75 M. The rice straw was cut into 1 cm size and submerged for 30 minutes in NaOH and acetic acid solution. The rice straw then filtered and neutralized before sending to anaerobic digestion process using rumen fluid bacteria. Biogas produced was measured using water displacement method. The result showed that the optimum concentration of NaOH solution was 4%w that resulted in biogas volume of 21,1 ml/gTS. Meanwhile, the optimum concentration of acetic acid pretreatment was 0,075 M that produced biogas volume of 14,5 ml/gTS. These results suggest that pretreatment using NaOH solution is more effective for decreasing the lignin content from rice straw.

  14. Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Pretreated by Na2SO3 Over Fe-resin/NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase the conversion of rice straw(RS and the yield of products, we employed three methods, which were ultrasonic wave, steam explosion and Na2SO3 pretreatment to pretreat RS(the treated RS noted as CS-RS, ZQ-RS and Na2SO3-RS, respectively and found that Na2SO3 treatment was the best pretreatment method based on XRD, SEM, elemental analysis and content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The conversion of Na2SO3-RS and the yield of total reducing sugar(TRS and levulinic acid(LA were 97.3%, 29.6% and 13.5%, respectively by 10% Fe-resin in 3.3% NaCl solution under 200 ℃.

  15. Anaerobic detoxification fermentation by Rhodospirillum rubrum for rice straw as feed with moderate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Tu, Fang; Jiang, Ya; Sun, Chuan-Ze

    2018-01-02

    A novel and effective process was put forward for converting rice straw into feed by combining diluted acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100°C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N 2 , CO 2 , and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. The key indexes of feed for fermented materials were estimated and several toxic substances were investigated during the fermentation. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein of rice straw increased from 29 to 143 g kg -1 and the crude fiber decreased from 359 to 136 g kg -1 after fermentation at 0.3 L min -1  L -1 of N 2 flow and a light intensity of 3400 lux; and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 286% and the crude fiber decreased by 52% after fermentation at 0.4 L min -1  L -1 of N 2 flow and a light intensity of 3000 lux. Other key contents were also improved for use as feed, and some toxic substances (i.e., furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, acetic acid, phenol, cresol) produced by the pretreatments could be removed at low levels during the fermentations.

  16. Free radical induced grafting of acrylonitrile on pre-treated rice straw for enhancing its durability and flame retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation highlights the feasibility of a polymer grafting process to enhance the durability and flame retardancy of rice straw towards application as a low cost roofing material. The success of this grafting methodology was perceived to depend upon a bi-step pre-treatment process encompassing delignification and inorganic salts dispersion. Subsequently free radical polymer grafting of acrylonitrile onto rice straw was implemented by immersion mechanism initiated by oxalic acid-potassium permanganate initiator. The percentage of grafting, limiting oxygen index (LOI, biodegradability of the grafted rice straw and grafting yield percentage was estimated to be 57%, 27%, 0.02% and 136.67%, respectively. The weight loss of polymer grafted rice straw implied its less biodegradability over raw straw. Thus, the process of grafting contrived in the present analysis can be a promising and reliable technique for the efficient utilization of rice straw as an inexpensive roofing element through the augmentation of its durability and flame retardancy.

  17. Characterization of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During the Chemical Pretreatments of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy

    Production of fuels and chemicals from a renewable and inexpensive resource such as lignocellulosic biomass is a lucrative and sustainable option for the advanced biofuel and bio-based chemical platform. Agricultural residues constitute the bulk of potential feedstock available for cellulosic fuel production. On a global scale, rice straw is the largest source of agricultural residues and is therefore an ideal crop model for biomass deconstruction studies. Lignocellulosic biofuel production involves the processes of biomass conditioning, enzymatic saccharification, microbial fermentation and ethanol distillation, and one of the major factors affecting its techno-economic feasibility is the biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification. Preconditioning of lignocellulosic biomass, using chemical, physico-chemical, mechanical and biological pretreatments, is often practiced such that biomass becomes available to downstream processing. Pretreatments, such as dilute acid and hot water, are effective means of biomass conversion. However, despite their processing importance, preconditioning biomass also results in the production of carbohydrate and lignin degradation products that are inhibitory to downstream saccharification enzymes. The saccharification enzyme cocktail is made up of endo-cellulase, exo-cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes, whose role is to cleave cellulose polymers into glucose monomers. Specifically, endo-cellulase and exo-cellulase enzymes cleave cellulose chains in the middle and at the end, resulting in cellobiose molecules, which are hydrolyzed into glucose by beta-glucosidase. Unfortunately, degradation compounds generated during pretreatment inhibit the saccharification enzyme cocktail. Various research groups have identified specific classes of inhibitors formed during biomass pretreatment and have studied their inhibitory effect on the saccharification cocktail. These various research groups prepared surrogate solutions in an attempt to

  18. Effect of pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw with laccase-displaying yeast on ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jun Gu; Fukai, Kotaro; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences; Nakatani, Masato [Daiwa Kasei, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    A gene encoding laccase I was identified and cloned from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Ha1. Laccase I contained 10 introns and an original secretion signal sequence. After laccase I without introns was prepared by overlapping polymerase chain reaction, it was inserted into expression vector pULD1 for yeast cell surface display. The oxidation activity of a laccase-I-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst was examined with 2,2{sup '}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and the constructed yeast showed a high oxidation activity. After the pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw (HPRS) with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS, fermentation was conducted with yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase with HPRS. Fermentation of HPRS treated with laccase-I-displaying yeast was performed with 1.21-fold higher activities than those of HPRS treated with control yeast. The results indicated that pretreatment with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS was effective for direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase. (orig.)

  19. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-07-01

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF (+H2O) )→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L -1 . Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L -1 ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process. The NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  1. Chemical Pretreatment-Independent Saccharifications of Xylan and Cellulose of Rice Straw by Bacterial Weak Lignin-Binding Xylanolytic and Cellulolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeravivattanakit, Thitiporn; Baramee, Sirilak; Phitsuwan, Paripok; Sornyotha, Somphit; Waeonukul, Rattiya; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Kosugi, Akihiko; Sakka, Kazuo; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2017-11-15

    Complete utilization of carbohydrate fractions is one of the prerequisites for obtaining economically favorable lignocellulosic biomass conversion. This study shows that xylan in untreated rice straw was saccharified to xylose in one step without chemical pretreatment, yielding 58.2% of the theoretically maximum value by Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 PcAxy43A, a weak lignin-binding trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, endoxylanase/β-xylosidase/arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase. Moreover, xylose yield from untreated rice straw was enhanced to 78.9% by adding endoxylanases PcXyn10C and PcXyn11A from the same bacterium, resulting in improvement of cellulose accessibility to cellulolytic enzyme. After autoclaving the xylanolytic enzyme-treated rice straw, it was subjected to subsequent saccharification by a combination of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase CtCel9R and Thermoanaerobacter brockii β-glucosidase TbCglT, yielding 88.5% of the maximum glucose yield, which was higher than the glucose yield obtained from ammonia-treated rice straw saccharification (59.6%). Moreover, this work presents a new environment-friendly xylanolytic enzyme pretreatment for beneficial hydrolysis of xylan in various agricultural residues, such as rice straw and corn hull. It not only could improve cellulose saccharification but also produced xylose, leading to an improvement of the overall fermentable sugar yields without chemical pretreatment. IMPORTANCE Ongoing research is focused on improving "green" pretreatment technologies in order to reduce energy demands and environmental impact and to develop an economically feasible biorefinery. The present study showed that PcAxy43A, a weak lignin-binding trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, endoxylanase/β-xylosidase/arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase from P. curdlanolyticus B-6, was capable of conversion of xylan in lignocellulosic biomass such as untreated rice straw to xylose in one step without chemical pretreatment. It

  2. Comparison of various pretreatments for ethanol production enhancement from solid residue after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Wei; Xu, Dong; Wang, Bei; Yan, Li; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    The rumen digested residue of rice straw contains high residual carbohydrates, which makes it a potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of applying microwave assisted alkali (MAP), ultrasound assisted alkali (UAP), and ball milling pretreatment (BMP) to enhance ethanol production from two digested residues (2.5%-DR and 10%-DR) after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw at 2.5% and 10.0% solid content. Results revealed that 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR had a cellulose content of 36.4% and 41.7%, respectively. MAP and UAP improved enzymatic hydrolysis of digested residue by removing the lignin and hemicellulose, while BMP by decreasing the particle size and crystallinity. BMP was concluded as the suitable pretreatment, resulting in an ethanol yield of 116.65 and 147.42mgg -1 for 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR, respectively. The integrated system including BMP for digested residue at 2.5% solid content achieved a maximum energy output of 7010kJkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of iron salt type and dosing mode on Fenton-based pretreatment of rice straw for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Si-Li; Dai, Xiao; Wu, Han; Xiong, Zi-Yao; Qin, Yuan-Hang; Ma, Jiayu; Yang, Li; Wu, Zai-Kun; Wang, Tie-Lin; Wang, Wei-Guo; Wang, Cun-Wen

    2018-06-15

    Fenton-based processes with four different iron salts in two different dosing modes were used to pretreat rice straw (RS) samples to increase their enzymatic digestibility. The composition analysis shows that the RS sample pretreated by the dosing mode of iron salt adding into H 2 O 2 has a much lower hemicellulose content than that pretreated by the dosing mode of H 2 O 2 adding into iron salt, and the RS sample pretreated by the chloride salt-based Fenton process has a much lower lignin content and a slightly lower hemicellulose content than that pretreated by the sulphate salt-based Fenton process. The higher concentration of reducing sugar observed on the RS sample with lower lignin and hemicellulose contents justifies that the Fenton-based process could enhance the enzymic hydrolysis of RS by removing hemicellulose and lignin and increasing its accessibility to cellulase. FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O adding into H 2 O 2 is the most efficient Fenton-based process for RS pretreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw.

  6. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  7. Comparing the Bio-Hydrogen Production Potential of Pretreated Rice Straw Co-Digested with Seeded Sludge Using an Anaerobic Bioreactor under Mesophilic Thermophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sattar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three common pretreatments (mechanical, steam explosion and chemical used to enhance the biodegradability of rice straw were compared on the basis of bio-hydrogen production potential while co-digesting rice straw with sludge under mesophilic (37 °C and thermophilic (55 °C temperatures. The results showed that the solid state NaOH pretreatment returned the highest experimental reduction of LCH (lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content and bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The increase in incubation temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C increased the bio-hydrogen yield, and the highest experimental yield of 60.6 mL/g VSremoved was obtained under chemical pretreatment at 55 °C. The time required for maximum bio-hydrogen production was found on the basis of kinetic parameters as 36 h–47 h of incubation, which can be used as a hydraulic retention time for continuous bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The optimum pH range of bio-hydrogen production was observed to be 6.7 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The increase in temperature was found useful for controlling the volatile fatty acids (VFA under mechanical and steam explosion pretreatments. The comparison of pretreatment methods under the same set of experimental conditions in the present study provided a baseline for future research in order to select an appropriate pretreatment method.

  8. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  9. RT-CaCCO process: an improved CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Riki; Park, Jeung-yil; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2011-02-01

    We improved the CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature (RT). We firstly optimized the RT-lime pretreatment for the lignocellulosic part. When the ratio of lime/dry-biomass was 0.2 (w/w), the RT lime-pretreatment for 7-d resulted in an effect on the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and xylan equivalent to that of the pretreatment at 120°C for 1h. Sucrose, starch and β-1,3-1,4-glucan, which could be often detected in rice straw, were mostly stable under the RT-lime pretreatment condition. Then, the pretreatment condition in the conventional CaCCO process was modified by the adaptation of the optimized RT lime-pretreatment, resulting in significantly better carbohydrate recoveries via enzymatic saccharification than those of the CaCCO process (120°C for 1 h). Thus, the improved CaCCO process (the RT-CaCCO process) could preserve/pretreat the feedstock at RT in a wet form with minimum loss of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. ... Optimization of fermentation conditions showed highest cellulolytic enzymes ... using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble ...

  11. Optimization of sodium hydroxide pretreatment and enzyme loading for efficient hydrolysis of rice straw to improve succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawisit, Apichai; Jampatesh, Surawee; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2018-07-01

    Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) before subsequent use for succinate production by Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The NaOH pretreated rice straw was significantly enhanced lignin removal up to 95%. With the optimized enzyme loading of 4% cellulase complex + 0.5% xylanase (endo-glucanase 67 CMC-U/g, β-glucosidase 26 pNG-U/g and xylanase 18 CMC-U/g dry biomass), total sugar conversion reached 91.7 ± 0.8% (w/w). The physicochemical analysis of NaOH pretreated rice straw indicated dramatical changes in its structure, thereby favoring enzymatic saccharification. In batch SSF, succinate production of 69.8 ± 0.3 g/L with yield and productivity of 0.84 g/g pretreated rice straw and 0.76 ± 0.02 g/L/h, respectively, was obtained. Fed-batch SSF significantly improved succinate concentration and productivity to 103.1 ± 0.4 g/L and 1.37 ± 0.07 g/L/h with a comparable yield. The results demonstrated a feasibility of sequential saccharification and fermentation of rice straw as a promising process for succinate production in industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  14. Radiation pre-treating straw hydrolyzed by cellulase resulted from immobilized Trichoderma reesei growing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Minoru Kumakura

    1992-01-01

    Wheat and rice straw was irradiated by electron beam with different dose at the presence of 4% NaOH or without 4% NaOH. The powder fraction above 200 meshes in pretreated rice straw increased with increasing doses and it was more at presence of 4% NaOH than that without 4% NaOH. The pretreated straw was hydrolyzed with 1% cellulase at 40 degree C for 48 h. The glucose yield (%) was given a rise with the increase of irradiation dose and it was 70% and 80% over that of un-pretreated rice and wheat straw, respectively. At the presence of 4% NaOH, the glucose yield increased as the irradiation dose increased from 0 to 5 x 10 5 Gy, reaching a maximum, 35% for wheat straw and 36.6% for rice straw, which increased by about 2.5 times in comparison with un-pretreated straw, then decrease with increasing the irradiation dose to 10 x 10 5 Gy. The glucose yield reached 19% and 22% for rice and wheat straw in 6 days of hydrolysis, respectively

  15. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... The concentration and rate of glucose production was observed to depend on pretreatment of ... cerning reaction rate parameters for rice straw hydrolysis. The generation of such ... The experiment and glucose analysis was ...

  16. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  17. Composition of the enzymatic and acid hydrolyzates of gamma-irradiated rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Banzon, R.B.; Rosa, A. de la

    1989-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was utilized to induce structural changes in rice straw that would enhance the conversion of its cellulose and ligno-cellulosic components to glucose and other reducing sugars. With the appropriate fermentation conditions these sugars can eventually be converted into alcohol. Rice straw materials were irradiated at varying doses (0-500 kgy) and hydrolyzed by the use of a) cellulose enzyme and b) 1% sulfuric acid. The composition of the hydrolyzates of rice straw was studied by thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with the Nelson-Somogyi test for its quantification. Acid hydrolyzates of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 16.46% in its total reducing sugars at 300 Kgy. TLC of the acid hydrolyzates of rice straw revealed the presence of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose. However, it was only with xylose that a significant increase in yield was observed with the non-irradiated straw 12.55% xylose yield was noted while with rice straw-irradiated at 400 Kgy a maximum yield of 15.90% xylose was obtained. Total reducing sugar of the enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 205% at 500 Kgy. TLC revealed that only glucose was present in the enzymatic hydrolyzate. Glucose yield increase from 2.49% (0 Kgy) to 7.31% (500 Kgy). The results showed that radiation pre-treatment of rice straw induces significant increases in reducing sugar for both enzymatic and hydrolyzate. (Auth.). 2 tabs.; 1 fig

  18. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  19. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  1. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  2. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  3. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  4. Production of β-xylosidase from Trichoderma asperellum KIF125 and its application in efficient hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw with fungal cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kitao, Chiaki; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    On-site cellulase and hemicellulase production is a promising way to reduce enzyme cost in the commercialization of the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process. A hemicellulase-producing fungal strain suitable for on-site enzyme production was selected from cultures prepared using wet disc-milling rice straw (WDM-RS) and identified as Trichoderma asperellum KIF125. KIF125 hemicellulase showed uniquely high abundance of β-xylosidase in the xylanolytic enzyme system compared to other fungal hemicellulase preparations. Supplementation of Talaromyces cellulolyticus cellulase with KIF125 hemicellulase was more effective than that with the hemicellulases from other fungal sources in reducing the total enzyme loading for the improvement of xylose yield in the hydrolysis of ball-milling RS, due to its high β-xylosidase dominance. β-Xylosidase in KIF125 hemicellulase was purified and classified as a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 enzyme with relatively high specificity for xylobiose. The production of KIF125 β-xylosidase in the fermentor was estimated as 118 U/g-WDM-RS (2350 U/L culture) at 48 h. These results demonstrate that KIF125 is promising as a practical hemicellulase source to combine with on-site cellulase production using T. cellulolyticus.

  5. Decomposition of Rice Straw and Corn Straw Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw at aerobic and anaerobic condition were investigated under the simulated condition in the lab. Results showed that two stages, i.e. the rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 3 months, and the slow one between 3 and 12 months, of decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw were found under anaerobic and aerobic incubation condition, and more than 55%of rice straw and corn mass was lost at the initial 3 months incubation period. The half times(t1/2of rice straw and corn straw mass lost under aerobic condition were 59.2 d and 52.9 d, which were short than those(72.6 d and 79.9 dunder the anaerobic condition, respectively. Carbon release constants from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.61 and 0.60 per month, which were higher than those (0.55 and 0.57 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The nitrogen release from crop straw followed the same rule as the carbon release from straw. The constants of nitrogen released from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.25 and 2.36 per month, which were higher than those(0.16 and 2.32 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The losses of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were also higher than those under anaerobic condition. In summary, the aerobic environment increases de composition and release of organic and inorganic substances from crop straw.

  6. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  7. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  8. Microbial Activity and Silica Degradation in Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther Jin-kyung

    Abundantly available agricultural residues like rice straw have the potential to be feedstocks for bioethanol production. Developing optimized conditions for rice straw deconstruction is a key step toward utilizing the biomass to its full potential. One challenge associated with conversion of rice straw to bioenergy is its high silica content as high silica erodes machinery. Another obstacle is the availability of enzymes that hydrolyze polymers in rice straw under industrially relevant conditions. Microbial communities that colonize compost may be a source of enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to products because composting systems operate under thermophilic and high solids conditions that have been shown to be commercially relevant. Compost microbial communities enriched on rice straw could provide insight into a more targeted source of enzymes for the breakdown of rice straw polysaccharides and silica. Because rice straw is low in nitrogen it is important to understand the impact of nitrogen concentrations on the production of enzyme activity by the microbial community. This study aims to address this issue by developing a method to measure microbial silica-degrading activity and measure the effect of nitrogen amendment to rice straw on microbial activity and extracted enzyme activity during a high-solids, thermophilic incubation. An assay was developed to measure silica-degrading enzyme or silicase activity. This process included identifying methods of enzyme extraction from rice straw, identifying a model substrate for the assay, and optimizing measurement techniques. Rice straw incubations were conducted with five different levels of nitrogen added to the biomass. Microbial activity was measured by respiration and enzyme activity. A microbial community analysis was performed to understand the shift in community structure with different treatments. With increased levels of nitrogen, respiration and cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activity

  9. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  11. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  12. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  13. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  14. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  15. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  16. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  17. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  18. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  19. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  20. Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH - /kg volatile solids, at 90 0 C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 0 C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemicellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium- and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments

  1. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Membrane separation and characterisation of lignin and its derived products obtained by a mild ethanol organosolv treatment of rice straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moniz, Patrícia; Serralheiro, Cláudia; Matos, Cristina T.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Frissen, Augustinus E.; Duarte, Luís C.; Roseiro, Luísa B.; Pereira, Helena; Carvalheiro, Florbela

    2018-01-01

    An organosolv process using ethanol-water was optimized in order to recover high quality lignin from rice-straw previously pre-treated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C. The results showed a selective and appreciable removal of lignin under very mild conditions and the highest delignification yield

  3. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  4. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  5. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Peripolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral and protein-energy (MPES, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplements (ES, combination of MPES + ES, and straw without supplement (WS on digestibility, fermentation kinetic parameters, cumulative gas production, methane, CO2 production, and volatile fatty acid concentration of rice straw of low and high nutritional value, estimated by in vitro techniques. The experimental design was randomized and factorial 2 × 4: two straws (low and high nutritional value incubated with four supplements (MPES, ES, MPES + ES, and WS and their interactions. Four experimental periods were used, totaling four replications per treatment over time. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of the rice straw with high nutritional value was improved by MPES, while the combination of MPES + ES supplements inhibited the digestibility of this straw. Dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen increased through MPES and MPES + ES supplements resulted in an increase in NH3-N concentration and a decrease in CO2 production due to the microbial mass formation. However, this increase was not enough to improve organic matter degradability parameters, cummulative gas production, gas production kinetics, and acetate:propionate ratio and reduce methane emissions. The straw with high nutritional value showed greater content of nitrogen fraction a, effective degradability, cummulative gas production, and methane and CO2 productions comparing with low-nutritional value straw. The use of MPES and MPES + ES supplements can be used as strategy to mitigate CO2 in ruminant production systems that use rice straw.

  7. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  8. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using rice straw as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Nandita; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.

    2017-06-01

    Phenol is an environmental pollutant; the present study was conducted to examine the adsorption of phenol by rice straw. For this purpose raw (untreated), physically treated (boiled and dried) and thermally treated (heated at 230 °C for 3 h to produce ash) rice straw were selected to determine phenol removal efficiency at different contact times and adsorbent dosages for 1 and Percentage of removal of phenol increased as the adsorbent dose increase. The removal efficiency increase in the order of: raw rice straw ash) rice straw. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm was developed for 1 and ash) treated rice straw. Freundlich isotherm best fit the equilibrium data for 1 mm thermally treated rice straw. The results showed that thermally treated rice straw (ash) can be developed as a potential adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution.

  9. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  10. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  11. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  12. production of bioethanol from rice straw using yeast extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    70% of production cost using less important materials, like agricultural waste ... rice cultivation and wood industries results in the ... method for pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification ... The economic problems consist exclusive of cost.

  13. Saccharification of rice straw by cellulase from a local Trichoderma harzianum SNRS3 for biobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Nooshin; Foo, Hooi Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini; Ariff, Arbakariya; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom

    2014-12-12

    Rice straw has shown to be a promising agricultural by-product in the bioconversion of biomass to value-added products. Hydrolysis of cellulose, a main constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is a requirement for fermentable sugar production and its subsequent bioconversion to biofuels such as biobutanol. The high cost of commercial enzymes is a major impediment to the industrial application of cellulases. Therefore, the use of local microbial enzymes has been suggested. Trichoderma harzianum strains are potential CMCase and β-glucosidase producers. However, few researches have been reported on cellulase production by T. harzianum and the subsequent use of the crude cellulase for cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. For cellulose hydrolysis to be efficiently performed, the presence of the whole set of cellulase components including exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase at a considerable concentration is required. Biomass recalcitrance is also a bottleneck in the bioconversion of agricultural residues to value-added products. An effective pretreatment could be of central significance in the bioconversion of biomass to biofuels. Rice straw pretreated using various concentrations of NaOH was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. The saccharification of rice straw pretreated with 2% (w/v) NaOH using crude cellulase from local T. harzianum SNRS3 resulted in the production of 29.87 g/L reducing sugar and a yield of 0.6 g/g substrate. The use of rice straw hydrolysate as carbon source for biobutanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 resulted in an ABE yield, ABE productivity, and biobutanol yield of 0.27 g/g glucose, 0.04 g/L/h and 0.16 g/g glucose, respectively. As a potential β-glucosidase producer, T. harzianum SNRS3 used in this study was able to produce β-glucosidase at the activity of 173.71 U/g substrate. However, for cellulose hydrolysis to be efficient, Filter Paper Activity at a considerable concentration is also required to initiate the

  14. Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass residues: Comparative study of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Pandey, Nidhi; Bisht, Yashasvi; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-08-01

    Pyrolysis studies on conventional biomass were carried out in fixed bed reactor at different temperatures 300, 350, 400 and 450°C. Agricultural residues such as corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk showed that the optimum temperatures for these residues are 450, 400, 400 and 450°C respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield in case of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk are 47.3, 36.7, 28.4 and 38.1wt% respectively. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. All bio-oils contents were mainly composed of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The higher area percentages of phenolic compounds were observed in the corn cob bio-oil than other bio-oils. From FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups for all bio-oils and distribution of products is different due to differences in the composition of agricultural biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  16. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  17. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  18. Degradation of lignocelluloses in rice straw by BMC-9, a composite microbial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Yuan, Xufeng; Piao, Renzhe; Li, Hulin; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed that rapid degradation occurred from day 0 to day 9, with a peak total biomass bacterium concentration of 3.3 × 10(8) copies/ml on day 1. The pH of the fermentation broth declined initially and then increased, and the mass of rice straw decreased steadily. The highest concentrations of volatile fatty acid contents (0.291 mg/l lactic acid, 0.31 mg/l formic acid, 1.93 mg/l acetic acid, and 0.73 mg/l propionic acid) as well as the highest xylanse activity (1.79 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulase activity (0.37 U/ml) occurred on day 9. The greatest diversity among the microbial community also occurred on day 9, with the presence of bacteria belonging to Clostridium sp., Bacillus sp., and Geobacillus sp. Together, our results indicate that BMC-9 has a strong ability to rapidly degrade the lignocelluloses of rice straw under relatively inexpensive conditions, and the optimum fermentation time is 9 days.

  19. Efficient dark fermentative hydrogen production from enzyme hydrolyzed rice straw by Clostridium pasteurianum (MTCC116).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Srivastava, Manish; Kushwaha, Deepika; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Manikanta, Ambepu; Ramteke, P W; Mishra, P K

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, production of hydrogen via dark fermentation has been carried out using the hydrolyzed rice straw and Clostridium pasteurianum (MTCC116). The hydrolysis reaction of 1.0% alkali pretreated rice straw was performed at 70°C and 10% substrate loading via Fe 3 O 4 /Alginate nanocomposite (Fe 3 O 4 /Alginate NCs) treated thermostable crude cellulase enzyme following the previously established method. It is noticed that under the optimized conditions, at 70°C the Fe 3 O 4 /Alginate NCs treated cellulase has produced around 54.18g/L sugars as the rice straw hydrolyzate. Moreover, the efficiency of the process illustrates that using this hydrolyzate, Clostridium pasteurianum (MTCC116) could produce cumulative hydrogen of 2580ml/L in 144h with the maximum production rate of 23.96ml/L/h in 96h. In addition, maximum dry bacterial biomass of 1.02g/L and 1.51g/L was recorded after 96h and 144h, respectively with corresponding initial pH of 6.6 and 3.8, suggesting higher hydrogen production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  1. Influence of rice straw polyphenols on cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Qin; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we found that during cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei large amounts of polyphenols were released from rice straw when the latter was used as the carbon source. We identified and quantified the phenolic compounds in rice straw and investigated the effects of the phenolic compounds on cellulase production by T. reesei. The phenolic compounds of rice straw mainly consisted of phenolic acids and tannins. Coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were the predominant phenolic acids, which inhibited cellulase production by T. reesei. When the concentrations of CA and FA in the broth increased to 0.06 g/L, cellulase activity decreased by 23% compared with that in the control culture. Even though the rice straw had a lower tannin than phenolic acid content, the tannins had a greater inhibitory effect than the phenolic acids on cellulase production by T. reesei. Tannin concentrations greater than 0.3 g/L completely inhibited cellulase production. Thus, phenolic compounds, especially tannins are the major inhibitors of cellulase production by T. reesei. Therefore, we studied the effects of pretreatments on the release of phenolic compounds. Ball milling played an important role in the release of FA and CA, and hot water extraction was highly efficient in removing tannins. By combining ball milling with extraction by water, the 2-fold higher cellulase activity than in the control culture was obtained. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of single-cell protein from enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, M.; Kometani, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuno, R.; Kamikubo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The components of rice straw, pretreated with sodium chlorite, cellulose and hemicellulose were solubilized with culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa or Trichoderma reesei. The ratio of glucose to total sugar in the solution obtained from the cellulose component with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa was approximately twice that of Trichoderma reesei. Ten yeast strains (Candida utilis, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, Torulopsis xylinus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were cultivated as test organisms for single-cell protein (SCP) production on sugar solutions obtained from the straw, cellulose and hemicellulose components, pretreated with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa. Sugar consumption, in terms of total sugar and cell yield, of the culture with the sugar solution obtained from pretreated straw were; 70% and 6.8 g/l for Candida tropicalis, 56% and 6.4 g/l for Torulopsis xylinus, 76% and 10.1 g/l for Trichosporon cutaneum, and 74% and 7.6 g/l for Candida guilliermondii. In addition, the highest consumption with respect to total sugar (87%) and the best dry cell yield (15.6 g/l) were observed with the culture of Trichosporon cutaneum using the sugar solution obtained from the hemicellulose component. (Refs. 17).

  3. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  4. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  5. Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Hayam; El-Gendy, Ahmed; El-Haggar, Salah

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb 2+ ) is a heavy metal which is utilized in several industries and can have severe impact on the environment and human health. Research work has been carried out lately on the feasibility of using various low cost materials in the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, the feasibility of utilizing raw rice straw for removal of Pb 2+ from water through biosorption was investigated using batch equilibrium experiments. The effect of several operating parameters on the removal of Pb 2+ using rice straw was studied, revealing the optimum parameters at an initial Pb 2+ concentration of 40 mg/l were: 30 min contact time at a pH of 5.5, particle size 75-150 μm and a dose of 4 g/l. A maximum removal of 94% was achieved under optimum conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the evaluation of the equilibrium experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity of rice straw calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 42.55 mg/g.

  6. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-03-07

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44 g/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and rice straw to ethanol without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol concentrations of 9.1, 4.3 and 3.0 g/l, corresponding to 89.2%, 78.8% and 57.4% of the theoretical yield, were obtained when the fungus was grown in a medium containing 20 g/l starch, wheat bran or rice straw, respectively. The fermentation of rice straw pretreated with ball milling led to a small improvement in the ethanol yield: 3.4 g ethanol/20 g ball-milled rice straw. As T. hirsuta is an efficient microorganism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to fermentable sugars and directly converting them to ethanol, it may represent a suitable microorganism in consolidated bioprocessing applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  8. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  9. Urea-ensiled rice straw as a feed for cattle in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    straw. Rice straw contains about 3% crude protein (air- dry basis), 35% crude fiber and 1900kcal DE/kg of straw. Because of its low energy and protein content, ... corn, 9,4 kg soybean meal, 10 kg coconut meal, 2 kg mineral, 2 kg bone meal and 1 kg salt. Table 3 Performance of crossbred heifers fed with different roughages.

  10. Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy; Altaf H. Basta

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the primary mechanical and physical properties of particleboard made from hammer-milled rice straw particles of six different categories and two types of resins. The results show the performance of straw particleboards is highly dependent upon the straw particle size controlled by the opening size of the perforated plate inside the hammer-...

  11. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  13. Influence of rice straw-based polyols on the morphology, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement of rice straw-based polyols produced closed cell structures suitable for insulation material as revealed in Scanning electron microscope images. Higher percentage of rice straw-based polyols replacement will trigger cell wall structure rapturing that will deteriorate the properties of polyurethane foam.

  14. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  15. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  16. Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of solid state fermentation for the improvement of the quality of rice straw as animal feed. Rice straw was fermented using Aspergillus niger (K8) with and without additional nitrogen source (urea). Cellulose, hemicelluloses, organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), acid ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  18. Energy and environmental impact analysis of rice cultivation and straw management in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Sampattagul, Sate; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2018-04-17

    Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation. The data were collected from the rice production cooperative in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, via onsite records and face-to-face questionnaires in 2016. The environmental impacts were evaluated from cradle-to-farm gate. The results showed that the total GHG emissions were 0.64 kg CO 2 -eq per kilogram of paddy rice, the total energy use was 1.80 MJ per kilogram of paddy rice and the PM10 emissions were 0.42 g PM10-eq per kilogram of paddy rice. The results of rice straw management scenarios showed that rice straw open burning had the highest GHG and PM10 emissions. However, rice straw utilization by incorporation into soil and direct combustion for electricity generation could reduce these impacts substantially.

  19. Influence of rice straw amendment on mercury methylation and nitrification in paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Dong, Ji-Xin; Han, Li-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Currently, rice straw return in place of burning is becoming more intensive in China than observed previously. However, little is known on the effect of returned rice straw on mercury (Hg) methylation and microbial activity in contaminated paddy fields. Here, we conduct a microcosm experiment to evaluate the effect of rice straw amendment on the Hg methylation and potential nitrification in two paddy soils with distinct Hg levels. Our results show that amended rice straw enhanced Hg methylation for relatively high Hg content soil, but not for low Hg soil, spiking the same additional fresh Hg. methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was significantly correlated to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and relative abundance of dominant microbes associated with Hg methylation. Similarly, amended rice straw was found to only enhance the potential nitrification rate in soil with relatively high Hg content. These findings provide evidence that amended rice straw differentially modulates Hg methylation and nitrification in Hg contaminated soils possibly resulting from different characteristics in the soil microbial community. This highlights that caution should be taken when returning rice straw to contaminated paddy fields, as this practice may increase the risk of more MeHg production. Main finding: Rice straw amendment enhanced both Hg methylation and nitrification potential in the relatively high, but not low, Hg soil. - Highlights: • Rice straw enhanced Hg methylation in relatively high Hg content paddy soils. • Microbial community directly correlated to the Hg methylation. • Mercury methylation in soils depend on Hg bioavailability and microbial activities. • Hg input affects microbial community associated with decomposition of rice straw.

  20. Effect of straw application on nitrogen uptake and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati.

    1990-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted to know the effect of straw application on the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and growth rice plant. The rice straw was applied at different time i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before tranplanting. Soil without rice straw was used as control. Thirty gram of rice straw having 3.61 percent of N-15 atom excess was incorporated into 6 kg of latosol soil originated from Pasar jumat, in which Atomoita I, a lowland rice variety, was planted. Urea was given once at the tranplanting time. The result showed that the longer the time of the rice straw application prior to the transplanting time, the higher the N-straw uptake efficiency in the rice plant at any different stages. The highest efficiency was 6.14 percent, reached with straw applicaions at 4 weeks before tranplanting. Compared to the control, straw applications 2 weeks or more before tranplanting resulted in higher grain production, while application at or before 2 weeks of tranplanting produced lower production. (authors). 9 refs.; 5 tabs

  1. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  2. Newly isolated Penicillium oxalicum A592-4B secretes enzymes that degrade milled rice straw with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Akihisa; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Matsuura, Akira; Nagai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme producing micro-organism, which can directly saccharify rice straw that has only been crushed without undergoing the current acid or alkaline pretreatment, was found. From the homology with the ITS, 28S rDNA sequence, the strain named A592-4B was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Activities of the A592-4B enzymes and commercial enzyme preparations were compared by Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and Genencore GC220. In the present experimental condition, activity of A592-4B enzymes was 2.6 times higher than that of CTec2 for degrading milled rice straw. Furthermore, even when a quarter amount of A592-4B enzyme was applied to the rice straw, the conversion rate was still higher than that by CTec2. By utilizing A592-4B enzymes, improved lignocellulose degradation yields can be achieved without pre-treatment of the substrates; thus, contributing to cost reduction as well as reducing environmental burden.

  3. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    Full Text Available Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

  4. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  5. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble

  6. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  8. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  9. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) with a view to analyzing the environment aspects of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. It also compares rice straw-based power generation with that of coal and natural gas. GHG (Greenhouse gas) emission savings were calculated. It finds that rice straw power generation can save GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of about 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal-based and 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh with natural gas based power generation. While the development of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia is still in its early stage, these paddy residues offer a large potential to generate electricity because of their availability. Rice straw power plants not only could solve the problem of removing rice straw from fields without open burning, but also could reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change, acidification, and eutrophication, among other environmental problems. - Highlights: • Overall rice straw preparations contribute 224.48 g CO 2 -eq/kg rice straw. • The most constraints due to GHG (greenhouse gas) emission is from transportation. • Distance collection centre to plant less than 110 km to obtains minimum emissions. • Rice straw can save GHG emissions 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal power. • GHG saving 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to natural gas based power generation

  10. The effects of gamma irradiation in combination with NaCl treatment on digestibility of rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Z.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatments have been conducted to increase the nutritive value of rice straw as an animal feed. Rice straw was sprayed by sodiumchloride solution prior to gamma irradiation. The sodiumchloride concentration in straw were 0, 1, and 2% ( gNaCl/100 g rice straw), and irradiation dose were 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mrad. Result indicated that the combined treatments significantly increased (p<0.01) dry matter digestibility of rice straw. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction between gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatment was observed. (authors). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  12. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...... of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0...... increased.Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C.The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw...

  13. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  14. Effect of rice straw on the degradation of 14C-parathion in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, K.P.; Sethunathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    Organic matter, either native or applied, influences the persistence of soil-applied pesticides. The effect of rice straw on the metabolism of parathion in an alluvial soil under flooded condition was investigated. Residues were extracted from the soil at periodic intervals after application of ethoxy 14 C-parathion to rice straw amended and unamended soil employing chloroform-diethyl ether. The radioactivity in the solvent and water fractions were estimated. The activity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in the rice straw amended than in unamended soil indicating enhanced degradation of parathion by rice straw amendment. The autoradiograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase revealed the rapid formation of aminoparathion and an unidentified metabolite possessing P-S bond and ethoxy label in amended soil within 3 days. A polar unidentified metabolite was detected in the water phase of the unamended soil at 14 days. (author)

  15. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  16. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment pro...

  17. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these

  18. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively...

  19. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Álvaro; Delvasto, Silvio; Sánchez, Enrique; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash (RSA) as substitute of the use of feldspar in the whiteware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to...

  20. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 ìm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 ...

  1. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation–alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules. - Highlights: • Pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH was investigated. • Irradiation pretreatment can significantly decrease NaOH consumption. • Reducing sugar yield reached 72.67% at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h.

  3. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  4. Biosorption of aqueous lead (II) on rice straws (oryza sativa) by flash column process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, H.N.; Hassan, M.U.; Jamil, N.; Ahmad, D.; Bushra, H.; Khatoon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb (II) on rice straws has been studied with the variation in the parameters and on modified rice straws by flash column process. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, initial concentration of metal ions, length and width of columns were studied. A comparative study of modification of adsorbent was also done for which rice straws were modified with EDTA, acids, bases, and volatile organic solvents. Base modified adsorbents have shown an increase in adsorption capacity while acid modified adsorbents proved to be the poor adsorbents for metal ions similarly ash of rice straws used as adsorbent given higher adsorption and EDTA modified adsorbents have shown least adsorption of metal ions. Polar volatile organic solvents modified adsorbent gave less adsorption efficiency and non polar adsorbent shown no influence on Pb (II) uptake capacity of rice straws. Rice straws proved to be the best biosorbent for Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  5. Efficient Hydrolysis of Rice Straw into Xylose and Glucose by a Two-step Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Lu-lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of rice straw into xylose and glucose in dilute sulfuric acid aqueous solution was studied with a two-step process in batch autoclave reactor. The results showed that compared with the traditional one-step acid hydrolysis, both xylose and glucose could be produced in high yields from rice straw by using the two-step acid hydrolysis process. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of rice straw and acid concentration on the hydrolysis of rice straw were systematically studied, and showed that except initial rice straw loading amount, the other parameters had remarkable influence on the products distribution and yields. In the first-step of the hydrolysis process, a high xylose yield of 162.6 g·kg-1 was obtained at 140℃ after 120 min reaction time. When the solid residues from the first step were subjected to a second-step hydrolysis, a glucose yield as high as 216.5 g·kg-1 could be achieved at 180℃ after 120 min. This work provides a promising strategy for the efficient and value-added utilization of agricultural wastes such as rice straw.

  6. Fermentation of Rice Straw Uses Mix Inoculum of Anaerobe Facultative Bacteria Isolate from Buffalo Rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasongko, W. T.; Irawan Sugoro

    2004-01-01

    Rice straw quality could be increased as feed by fermentation which has been mixed with bacteria inoculum from buffalo rumen. This experiment used rice straw from Atomita 4, four treatments and one control, i.e. A (rice straw, molasses 5 %, urea 5 %, and inoculum 10 %), B (rice straw, molasses 5 %, and urea 5 %), C (rice straw, molasses 5 %, and inoculum 10 %), D (rice straw and molasses 5 %), and K (control) have been used in this experiment. The parameters were digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, VFA, ammonia and in vitro gas production. The result, showed that the highest gas production, dry matter and organic matter digestibility occurred on A i.e. 17.48 ml/200 mg, 57.78%, and 52.39 %. The highest ammonia occurred on D (32.99 mg/100 ml) and the highest VFA occurred on C (12.36 mmol/100 ml). The concentration of ammonia and VFA of A significant to treatment of D and C). It may be concluded that the A treatment is the best and have potency to be develop. (author)

  7. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  8. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  9. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an important roughage resource for ruminants in many rice-producing countries. In this study, a rice brittle mutant (BM, mutation in OsCesA4, encoding cellulose synthase and its wild type (WT were employed to investigate the effects of a cellulose synthase gene mutation on rice straw morphological fractions, chemical composition, stem histological structure and in situ digestibility. The morphological fractions investigation showed that BM had a higher leaf sheath proportion (43.70% vs 38.21%, p0.05 was detected in neutral detergent fiber (NDFom and ADL contents for both strains. Histological structure observation indicated that BM stems had fewer sclerenchyma cells and a thinner sclerenchyma cell wall than WT. The results of in situ digestion showed that BM had higher DM, NDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose disappearance at 24 or 48 h of incubation (p<0.05. The effective digestibility of BM rice straw DM and NDFom was greater than that of WT (31.4% vs 26.7% for DM, 29.1% vs 24.3% for NDFom, p<0.05, but the rate of digestion of the slowly digested fraction of BM rice straw DM and NDF was decreased. These results indicated that the mutation in the cellulose synthase gene could improve the nutritive value of rice straw for ruminants.

  11. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigations of the in-sacco digestibility of variously pretreated and γ-irradiated wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Ochrimenko, W.I.; Flachowsky, G.; Hennig, A.; Baer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ dry matter loss after rumen incubation of chemically pretreated and γ-irradiated wheat straw was measured using the nylon bag method. Pretreatment consisted of NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 and a mixture of NaOH and KOH (2 and 4% of straw dry matter), and irradiation doses were 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 MGy. Chemical treatment increased the dry matter dissappearance and it was further increased by irradiation. The dose-related effect of γ-rays was influenced by the kind of pretreatment. Increased washout due to solubilizing and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The microbial utilization of H 2 O-insoluble straw dry matter was largely affected by chemical treatment. (author)

  13. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  14. Genetic control of a transition from black to straw-white seed hull in rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Jinjie; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-03-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication.

  15. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  16. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  17. [The influence of straw, particularly rice straw, together with calcium-cyanamide on the microbiological activity of two Portuguese soils (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glathe, H; El Din, A; Scheuer, A

    1976-01-01

    The influence of calcium-cyanamide upon the microbiological activity was tested in pot experiments under controlled conditions in two Portuguese soils (sandy and loamy) after the addition of rice or wheat straw (rice straw 0.275% N, wheat straw 0.307% N). The amount of straw was equalled to 100 dz/ha, the application of calcium-cyanamide to 25, 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In the containers treated with straw the total amount of microorganisms (Koch-method) was higher in sandy than in loamy soil after 30 days, but after 70 days it was higher in loamy soil. The content of active nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) increased, when calcium-cyanamide was added, but decreased after the application of straw. After 70 days sandy soil again showed an increase of active nitrogen. Straw increased the rates of CO2-production considerably, wheat straw was superior to rice straw. Calcium-cyanamide increased the CO2-production more in sandy than in loamy soil or German loess, which was also used for this experiment. Only in the case of rice straw higher doses of calcium-cyanamide had a positive effect. After 70 days the CO2-production rose only when rice straw was applied. The dehydrogenase-activity was increased in both soils, but a superiority of wheat straw occurred in sandy soil only. The microbiological activity in the pots with straw was higher in sandy than in loamy soil, the addition of calcium-cyanamide accelerated it. Doses of 25-50 kg N/ha are sufficient generally. The period of the formation of insoluble organic N-compounds, usually connected with the application of organic matter with a wide N:C-ratio, seems to be reduced by the addition of calcium-cyanamide.

  18. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puad, E.; Wan Asma, I; Shaharuddin, H.; Mahanim, S.; Rafidah, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m 3 . Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  19. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  20. Production and uses of 14C-labelled rice straw in organic matter decomposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capistrano, R.F.; Neue, H.N.U.

    1987-01-01

    A new systematic procedure in labeling rice homogenously with 14 CO 2 to maturity is described. It uses a modified plant growth chamber equipped with provisions for the growth requirements of rice as well as, the decontamination and safety aspects of labeling process. Uses of 14 C-labeled rice straw are described. Sample preparation using a new wet combustion set-up a high vacuum preparation line, concomitant with instruments as liquid scintillation counter, vibrating reed electrometer and radiogaschromatograph is also discussed. The turnover and behavior of 14 C-labeled rice straw in organic matter decomposition experiments on wetland soils, upland soils, greenhouse set-up and controlled laboratory conditions are concurrent researches that make use of the produced 14 C-labeled straw. Initial results are discussed. (Auth.) 16 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( ≥ 35 MPa and ≤ 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  2. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  3. Enhanced Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield in Acid Sulphate Soil by Application of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swampland development such as acid sulphate soil for agricultural cultivation has various problem, including highsoil acidity, fluctuated and unpredictable water flooding and the presence of toxic elements such as Fe whichresulting in low crop yields. The research was conducted at the experimental station Belandean, Barito Kualaregency in dry season 2007. The objective of research was to study the effect of rice straw on the dynamic of soilpH, the concentration of iron and sulphate and yield on tidal land acid sulphate soil at two different water inletchannel. This research was designed in RCBD (Randomized Completely Block Design with five treatments (0, 2.5,5.0, 7.5 and 10 Mg ha-1 and four replications. Dolomite as much as 1 Mg ha-1 was also applied. This research wasdivided into two sub-units experiment i.e. two conditions of different water inlet channel. The first water channelswere placed with limestone and the second inlet was planted with Eleocharis dulcis. The results showed that (i ricestraw application did not affect the dynamic of soil pH, concentration of iron and sulphate, and (ii the highest yieldwas obtained with 7.5 Mg ha-1 of rice straw.

  4. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  5. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirmal, Chumangalah; Dahman, Yaser [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment). This represented {approx}5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied). Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  6. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  7. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  8. Effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw for producing sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic of corn straw for producing sugar was studied. The relationship between irradiation-dosage and content of reducing sugar was investigated in DNS method. After 1000 kGy irradiation, the content of reducing sugar reached about 317.35%. A synergistic effect between irradiation and enzyme was observed. The reducing sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 20.51% when the corn straw powder (0.15 mm) irradiated with a dose of 1000 kGy. The result shows that the irradiation had significant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. At the 500 kGy pre-irradiation, compared with initial yield, the maximum sugar yield of sample had increased by 13.68% while the irradiated corn straw stored in 20 days. (authors)

  9. Effect of gamma ray radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunping; Shen Zhiqiang; Yu Guoce; Wang Jianlong

    2009-01-01

    The effect and aftereffect of radiation pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma ray were studied. It is shown that irradiation can cause significant breakdown of the structure of wheat straw. The mass loss of wheat straw increases and the size distribution after crushing moves to fine particles at elevated irradiation doses. A synergistic effect between irradiation and crushing was observed, with a glucose yield of 10.2% at a dose of 500 kGy with powder of 0.109 mm. The aftereffect of irradiation has important impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The aftereffect of 400 kGy irradiation accounts for 20.1% of the initial effect for glucose production, and the aftereffects of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kGy account for 12.9%, 14.9%, 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively, for reducing sugar production. (authors)

  10. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  13. Combined Mechanical Destruction and Alkaline Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Enhanced Enzymatic Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw was pretreated by combined mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatments to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Four strategies were employed to evaluate the potential of wheat straw as a feedstock for fermentable sugar production. The effects of the pretreatments on the substrate morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, and cellulose crystallinity, along with the subsequent enzymatic digestibility, were investigated. Optical microscope images showed that mechanical pretreatment alone resulted in poor fiber defibrillation, wherein samples mostly consisted of rigid fiber bundles, while integrated mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatment led to relatively good fiber defibrillation. Low temperature NaOH/urea pretreatment can fibrillate the rigid fiber bundles into a relatively loose network and alter the structure of the treated substrate to make cellulose more accessible. The glucan conversion rates were 77% and 95% for integrated mechanical destruction and alkaline pretreatments and mechanical destruction followed by low temperature NaOH/urea and ammonium/urea pretreatments, respectively, after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis with enzyme loadings of 10 FPU cellulase per g of oven-dry substrate.

  14. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment.

  15. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  16. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Factors Causing Farmers Not to Ferment Rice Straw as Cattle Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, S. N.; Saleh, I. M.; Syawal, S.; Syamsinar

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed was to identify the factor of breeders have not done fermentation of rice straw as cattle feed. This research was conducted on August-September 2017 in Patampanua village, Marioriawa sub-district, Soppeng district. This research is descriptive quantitative with Delbeq method. Data collection is qualitative and quantitative. Data sources are primary and secondary data. Data analysis used is frequency distribution. The results showed that farmers have not done the fermentation of rice straw as animal feed that is the motivation of farmers, intensity counseling and lack of knowledge of farmers

  18. What factors influence choice of waste management practice? Evidence from rice straw management in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launio, Cheryll C; Asis, Constancio A; Manalili, Rowena G; Javier, Evelyn F; Belizario, Annabelle F

    2014-02-01

    This study applied a multinomial logit model to understand why farmers choose to burn, incorporate or remove rice straw in the field. Four hundred randomly selected farmers were interviewed in four major rice-producing provinces covering the 2009 wet and 2010 dry seasons. Results of the model with burning as the baseline category indicate farm type, location dummies, number of household members with older than 13 years, cow ownership and distance from farm to house as significant variables influencing farmers' choice of straw incorporation or removal over burning. Significant perception variables are the negative impacts of open-field burning, awareness of environmental regulations and attitude towards incentives. Other factors significantly influencing the decision to incorporate over-burn are training attendance and perceptions of effects of straw incorporation. Income from non-rice farming, total area cultivated, tenure status, presence of burning and solid waste management provincial ordinances are significant factors affecting choice to remove over burn. Continually providing farmers' training in rice production, increasing demand for rice straw for other uses, and increasing awareness of environmental laws and regulations are policy directions recommended.

  19. Structural Changes of Lignin from Wheat Straw by Steam Explosion and Ethanol Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol were evaluated relative to the structural changes of lignin from the pretreated pulp. The lignin from steam explosion pulp (LS, lignin from steam blasting residual liquid (LL, lignin from ethanol pretreatment pulp (LE, lignin from black liquor (LB, and lignin from wheat straw (LW were separated, and the structural characteristics of the lignin fractions were compared based on analyses of Fourier transform-infrared, ultraviolet, thermogravimetric, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The proportions of the three structural units in all lignin fractions clearly changed during the pretreatment process because of inter-conversion reactions. The conjugated structure of lignin was destroyed in the pretreatment process and was also affected by the alkali extraction process. The alcoholic hydroxyl links on the aliphatic side chain were partly transformed into carbonyl groups during ethanol pretreatment. Demethoxylation occurred in all lignin fractions during the ethanol pretreatment and steam explosion process. The thermal stability of the LB fraction was relatively high because of the condensation reaction.

  20. Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min. The delignification yield was 34.1~53%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of 74.0±0.1% cellulose, 10.3±0.1% hemicellulose, and 10.1±0.6% lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to 67.3±2.1 g/L glucose and 9.4±0.5 g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced 30.5±1.2 g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.

  1. Chemical composition and utilization of rice straw by goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuen, A.A.; Mahyuddin Dahan, M.

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the nutritive value of various types of rice straw for use by goats. In Experiment 1, four varieties of rice straw were exposed to heavy rain and sunshine for 10 days to assess the change in chemical composition and degradation in the rumen. The exposure led to a reduction in the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus. The degradation in the rumen of the samples exposed to the above weather conditions varied from 20.9 to 34.5%. In Experiment 2, the intake and digestion of untreated, urea supplemented, and urea treated rice straw of unknown variety were investigated using six male goats. Treating with urea resulted in significantly higher intake (p 3 ) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and negative N retention were obtained when the goats were fed on untreated straw. With urea treated straw, however, higher concentrations of NH 3 and VFAs and positive N retention were obtained. From the isotope dilution measurement it was observed that the amount of dietary P absorbed was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in goats fed untreated straw than in those fed urea treated straw. In Experiment 3, the rate of passage of small particles through the digestive tract of goats fed the diets in Experiment 2 was measured. The mean rumen retention time ranged from 31.2 to 38.7 h. Although not significantly different, there was a tendency for the transit time to be longer in goats fed the urea treated straw than those on other diets. 43 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  2. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  3. Synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on batch anaerobic digestion of maize straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Shailendra; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Zhang, Wanqin; Li, Jiaxi; Dong, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect of NaOH treatment and Fe dosage to maize straw was investigated. • Combining NaOH treatment and Fe dosing resulted in 57% and 56% higher biogas and methane yield respectively. • Combined treatment shortened the technical digestion time from 48 days to 7 days. • Methane content did not differ significantly among the straw treatments. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated using mesophilic batch reactors. Three straw treatments were investigated as follows: NaOH (4% and 6%) pretreatment, Fe dosage (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and combined NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage. Compared to the control, NaOH pretreatment alone increased methane yield by 3.5% (313.3 mL CH_4/gVS) and 22.5% (370.9 mL CH_4/gVS) and shortened the technical digestion time (TDT) from 48 days to 19 days and 10 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. Moreover, Fe dosing (200–1000 mg/L) alone gave a methane yield higher (9.4%) than that obtained from 4% NaOH and 7.5% less than the methane yield from 6% NaOH pretreatment; however, the TDT was 10 days longer. Combining NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage (200–1000 mg/L) significantly increased the methane yield even further to 21.8% (368.8 mL CH_4/gVS) and 56.2% (472.9 mL CH_4/gVS), and shortened TDT from 48 days to 13 days and 7 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. This synergistic effect may be attributed to the fact that the alkaline treatment improved accessibility of the biodegradable fraction of the straw while Fe contributed to increased microbial enzyme activity.

  4. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  5. Biomethanation potential for co-digestion of municipal solid waste and rice straw: A batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Suraj; Dhar, Hiya; Hussain, Athar; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    Rice straw (RS) contains a high amount of lignocellulosic materials which are difficult to degrade without thermal pretreatment. In the present study, co-digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and RS was carried out in three different ratios i.e., 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 to get the maximum biomethanation potential and methane generation rate constant (k). The biogas and methane (CH 4 ) potential increased by 60% and 57%, respectively for MSW and RS in the ratio 2:1 as compared to other combination. The values of k, biochemical methane potential (µ b ) and sludge activity were measured as 0.1 d -1 , 0.99 CH 4 -COD/COD fed and 0.50 g CH 4 -COD/g VSS, respectively. The sludge activity was found to be 100% for 2:1 ratio. Co-digestion of RS with MSW can also optimize the C/N ratio which is an essential parameter in the anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  7. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  8. Expression of Aspergillus niger CAZymes is determined by compositional changes in wheat straw generated by hydrothermal or ionic liquid pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paul; van Munster, Jolanda M; Blythe, Martin J; Ibbett, Roger; Kokolski, Matt; Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Lindquist, Erika; Singan, Vasanth R; Barry, Kerrie W; Lipzen, Anna; Ngan, Chew Yee; Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Pullan, Steven T; Delmas, Stéphane; Waldron, Paul R; Grigoriev, Igor V; Tucker, Gregory A; Simmons, Blake A; Archer, David B

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, to degrade lignocellulose is harnessed in biotechnology to generate biofuels and high-value compounds from renewable feedstocks. Most feedstocks are currently pretreated to increase enzymatic digestibility: improving our understanding of the transcriptomic responses of fungi to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates could help to improve the mix of activities and reduce the production costs of commercial lignocellulose saccharifying cocktails. We investigated the responses of A. niger to untreated, ionic liquid and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw over a 5-day time course using RNA-seq and targeted proteomics. The ionic liquid pretreatment altered the cellulose crystallinity while retaining more of the hemicellulosic sugars than the hydrothermal pretreatment. Ionic liquid pretreatment of straw led to a dynamic induction and repression of genes, which was correlated with the higher levels of pentose sugars saccharified from the ionic liquid-pretreated straw. Hydrothermal pretreatment of straw led to reduced levels of transcripts of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes as well as the derived proteins and enzyme activities. Both pretreatments abolished the expression of a large set of genes encoding pectinolytic enzymes. These reduced levels could be explained by the removal of parts of the lignocellulose by the hydrothermal pretreatment. The time course also facilitated identification of temporally limited gene induction patterns. The presented transcriptomic and biochemical datasets demonstrate that pretreatments caused modifications of the lignocellulose, to both specific structural features as well as the organisation of the overall lignocellulosic structure, that determined A. niger transcript levels. The experimental setup allowed reliable detection of substrate-specific gene expression patterns as well as hitherto non-expressed genes. Our data suggest beneficial effects of using untreated and IL-pretreated

  9. Succession of methanogenic archaea in rice straw incorporated into a Japanese rice field: estimation by PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Sugano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession and phylogenetic profiles of methanogenic archaeal communities associated with rice straw decomposition in rice-field soil were studied by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis followed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Nylon bags containing either leaf sheaths or blades were buried in the plowed layer of a Japanese rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season and under flooded conditions after transplanting. In addition, rice straw samples that had been buried in the rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season were temporarily removed during spring plowing and then re-buried in the same rice field under flooded conditions at transplanting. Populations of methanogenic archaea were examined by amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the DNA extracted from the rice straw samples. No PCR product was produced for samples of leaf sheath or blade prior to burial or after burial under drained conditions, indicating that the methanogen population was very small during decomposition of rice straw under oxic conditions. Many common bands were observed in rice straw samples of leaf sheath and blade during decomposition of rice straw under flooded conditions. Cluster analysis based on DGGE patterns divided methanogenic archaeal communities into two groups before and after the mid-season drainage. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands that were commonly present were closely related to Methanomicrobiales and Rice cluster I. Methanomicrobiales, Rice cluster I and Methanosarcinales were major members before the mid-season drainage, whereas the DGGE bands that characterized methanogenic archaeal communities after the mid-season drainage were closely related to Methanomicrobiales. These results indicate that mid-season drainage affected the methanogenic archaeal communities irrespective of their location on rice straw (sheath and blade and the previous history of decomposition

  10. Trace the exploitation of Egyptian rice straw through spectral and thermal measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat M. Issa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose from rice straw obtained at low sodium hydroxide solution concentration with high quality was used to obtain different cellulose derivatives through xanthation. Cellulose was then treated with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The viscose obtained was characterized with both chemical and instrumental analyses, namely, IR spectra, TGA and DTA analysis as well as SEM (scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  12. Mechanisms of the stimulatory effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on rice straw hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; He, Guofu; Xu, Yatong [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, Weimin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant, as an addition to rice straw hydrolysis bioprocess, could not only stimulate the hydrolysis rate, but also reduce the requirement for large amount of cellulases and promote its recycling process. In this article, through the observation of the changes of cellulases, microorganism, substrate and their mutual functions, the mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis were investigated. The study found that the addition of rhamnolipid increases the activity of {beta}-glucosidase but stabilizes Cel7A activity. The observed results might be the main mechanisms triggering the stimulatory effect of adding biosurfactants on rice straw hydrolysis. Meanwhile, zeta potential of the substrate increased, which could make the resistance of the cell attached to the substrate weaker. This in turn could facilitate easy adhesion and better retention of the microbial cell in the media. Moreover, we discovered that lignin content played an important role in the stimulatory effect of adding rhamnolipid. The adsorption of rhamnolipid biosurfactant prevented unproductive binding of enzymes to lignin. This could be another important mechanism responsible for the stimulatory effects of adding rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis. (author)

  13. Rice straw biochar affects water retention and air movement in a sand-textured tropical soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Fauziatu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the current global attention on biochar (BC) as a soil amendment, knowledge is limited on how BC impacts the physical properties of coarse-textured soils (sand > 95%), particularly in tropical regions. A two-season field-study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw BC (3% w...

  14. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Jenkins, Brian; Williams, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and ru...

  15. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractionation of hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw by combining autohydrolysis and optimised mild organosolv delignification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moniz, Patrícia; Lino, João; Duarte, Luís C.; Roseiro, Luísa B.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Pereira, Helena; Carvalheiro, Florbela

    2015-01-01

    An integrated strategy was followed to valorise rice straw, one of the most relevant biomass feedstocks available worldwide, to selectively recover solubilised hemicelluloses and lignin. The pathway encompassed the use of autohydrolysis to hydrolyse the hemicelluloses and an ethanol-based

  17. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thy, P.; Jenkins, B.M.; Williams, R.B.; Lesher, C.E.; Bakker, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run durations

  18. Utilization of agriculture wastes. part I. production of fungal protein from rice and wheat straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, N.; Hussain, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Agricultural waste of rice and wheat straws were studied for the production of protein and biomass. As these wastes have low protein contents as attempt is made to increase the protein and biomass content of these wastes so as to produce a better product for consumption as food. The studies were conducted using various media and various incubation periods. Some inorganic salts and molasses were added to improve the cultivation of fungi. Aspergillus oryzae produced the results due to its rapid growth which minimized the chance of contamination. Seven days incubation gave the most favourable results in both the agricultural wastes. The maximum production of biomass (33.33%) with a protein value of 20% was obtained with 450 g of rice straw in media no. 2 whereas 400 g of wheat straw on 6 litres of medium produced the best results with 20% biomass and a protein value of 20%. (author)

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    . The work involved evaluation of 1) possible ways to increase the glucose release from the commercial cellulase product Celluclast by boosting with other enzyme activities to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis, 2) comparing differently pretreated feedstock substrates and 3) evaluating a fed-batch substrate...... mixture resulted in a glucose release corresponding to ~84 % of the glucose release from Celluclast. It was therefore suggested that other enzyme activities than the 4 four main cellulase activities in Celluclast are necessary for optimal hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Even though Celluclast...... is a multicomponent cellulase mixture, there are still possibilities for further improvement in terms of providing the most efficient cellulase mixture for lignocellulose hydrolysis. It was shown that substrates evaluated all had some residual hemicellulose in the solid cellulose fraction after pretreatment...

  20. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Estrine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals.

  1. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  3. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  4. Involvement of Fenton chemistry in rice straw degradation by the lignocellulolytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangshan; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Mei; Hector, Stanton B; Liu, Bin; Tong, Chunyi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Jiarui; Gao, Yan; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe 2+  + H 2 O 2  + H +  → Fe 3+  + OH· + H 2 O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P. ananatis Sd-1. After 3 days incubation of unpretreated rice straw with P. ananatis Sd-1, the percentage in weight reduction of rice straw as well as its cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components reached 46.7, 43.1, 42.9, and 37.9 %, respectively. The addition of different hydroxyl radical scavengers resulted in a significant decline ( P  Fenton reagent treatment. In addition to the increased total iron ion concentration throughout the rice straw decomposition process, the Fe 3+ -reducing capacity of P. ananatis Sd-1 was induced by rice straw and predominantly contributed by aromatic compounds metabolites. The transcript levels of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase gene related to hydrogen peroxide production were significantly up-regulated (at least P  Fenton-like reactions. Our results confirmed the Fenton chemistry-assisted degradation model in P. ananatis Sd-1. We are among the first to show that a Fenton-based oxidation mechanism exists in a bacteria degradation system, which provides a new perspective for how natural plant biomass is decomposed by bacteria. This degradative system may offer an alternative approach to the fungi system for lignocellulosic biofuels production.

  5. Absorption and utilization of fertilizer-N and soil-N with mixed application of straw and urea by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinwei; Liu Feng; Ye Shuya; Zhu Hongbin; Ye Chengxin

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen absorption of mixed application of straw and urea by rice was studied by using 15 N isotope tracing technique. The results show that the sole application of straw would result in biological immobilization of available soil N. The insufficient N supply was the limiting factor for rice tiller and spikelets development. Mixed use of straw and urea obviously improved nitrogen supply from both fertilizer and soil, which in turn, promoted the yield of growing rice and increased the soil fertility and productivity of later crop

  6. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  8. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results......: A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large......-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly...

  9. Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Sun; Jay J Cheng [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in this study. The biomass at a solid loading rate of 10% was pretreated at 121 deg C with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%, w/w) and residence times (30, 60, and 90 min). Total reducing sugars, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose in the prehydrolyzate were analyzed. In addition, the solid residues were hydrolyzed by cellulases to investigate the enzymatic digestibility. With the increasing acid concentration and residence time, the amount of arabinose and galactose in the filtrates increased. The glucose concentration in the prehydrolyzate of rye straw was not significantly influenced by the sulfuric acid concentration and residence time, but it increased in the prehydrolyzate of bermudagrass with the increase of pretreatment severity. The xylose concentration in the filtrates increased with the increase of sulfuric acid concentration and residence time. Most of the arabinan, galactan and xylan in the biomass were hydrolyzed during the acid pretreatment. Cellulose remaining in the pretreated feedstock was highly digestible by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei. (Author)

  10. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  11. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-01-01

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using 13 C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ( 13 C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO 2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg −1 soil h −1 ) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and 13 C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 13 C-labeled straw amended soil than the 13 C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the 13 C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of 13 C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the

  12. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fuxia [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yaying [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); Chapman, Stephen James [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Khan, Sardar [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Yao, Huaiying, E-mail: hyyao@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using {sup 13}C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ({sup 13}C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO{sub 2} emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg{sup −1} soil h{sup −1}) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and {sup 13}C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in {sup 13}C-labeled straw amended soil than the {sup 13}C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the {sup 13}C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of {sup 13}C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest

  13. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw. [Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fock, F. [Ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nygaard, I. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark); Maiga, A.; Kone, B.; Kamissoko, F.; Coulibaly, N.; Ouattara, O.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective is to make a first evaluation regarding if it's technically possible, economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a rice straw/hulls fired power plant in Niono in Mali. Based on the available resource of rice straw and the possibilities for connecting to the grid it has been chosen to analyse a 5 MW power plant in the project. For technical reasons the rice straw should be the main fuel, but rice hulls can be used for co-firing. Up to around 20% of the fuel in the plant can be rice hulls instead of rice straw. A number of different biomass power production technologies have been evaluated in the project. This includes: 1) Grate fired boiler. 2) Bubbling fluidised bed. 3) Circulating fluidised bed. 4) Dust fired boiler. 5) Gasification. 6) Stirling engine. 7) Organic Rankine Cycle. Grate firing is the most relevant technology in this case, due to the fuel, the size of the power plant, the demand for electricity only and not heat, the demand for a robust and well proven technology. For a grate fired plant a calculation of the thermodynamic process of the power plant has been carried out in order to determine the electrical efficiency of the plant. The case consists of a 5 MW grate fired power plant with steam turbines and air cooled condenser resulting in an efficiency of 24.6% at full load (20% as yearly average). Investment costs and costs for O and M have been assumed based on experience from Danish power plants but adjusted for local conditions in Mali. The costs for collecting and transporting the rice straw and for the ash disposal have been specifically estimated in this project. The average cost of capital has been estimated based on assumptions on equity, international loans and local loans/bank finance. Based on the investment, the cost of O and M, fuel, ash disposal and the financial assumptions, a cash flow analysis is made in order to calculate the power price resulting in a Net Present Value (NPV) of the

  16. Microbial Protein Production and Nitrogen Balance of Local Steer Fed Ammoniated Rice Straws Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hindratiningrum

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the kind of energy source feedstuffs on nutrient balance and microbial protein synthesis in local male beef cattle fed with ammoniated rice straws Twenty steers Peranakan Ongole (PO with average age 1-2 years old were used. They were divided 5 groups based on initial body weight as block. Therefore, Completely Randomised Block Design (CBRD was used for this experiment. Data were analysed by analysis variance and continued honestly significant different (HSD to test the differences between means. The result showed that the range MCP and eficiency MCP were 154,61 g/d until 226,54 g/d and 54,08 gMCP/kg DOMR until 62,64 gMCP/kg DOMR. The range of nitrogen balance were 72,28 gram until 111,67 gram. MCP and efficiency MCP were not affected (P>0,05 by the treatments but balance of nitrogen was affected (P<0,05. Diet containing fresh cassava waste as energy source (R2 was lower (P<0,05 than R1 and R4 while between R1,R3 and R4 was similar. This results indicate that feed source of energy (rice brand, wet cassava waste, dry cassava waste and corn can be used in steers with rice straw ensilage as forage. (Animal Production 11(2: 116-121 (2009 Key Words : Microbial protein production, nitrogen balance, rice straw, ensilage

  17. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  18. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  19. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Naveed, S.; Yousaf, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  20. Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, V P; Pearce, G R

    1986-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200 degrees C for 5 min and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200 degrees C (1.72 MPa) for 5 min gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200 degrees C resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization.

  1. TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Awais, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    samples and the pretreatment with the best performance was further tested in continuous mode operation. From BMP assays, 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/straw at 3 h of UV light exposure pretreatment resulted in 37% (p CSTRs. It was concluded that the presence of TiO2...

  2. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  3. Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute-acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Kheradmandinia, Shauker; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrolysis of rice straw by dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature and pressure was investigated in one and two stages. The hydrolyses were carried out in a 10-l reactor, where the hydrolysis retention time (3-10 min), pressure (10-35 bar) and acid concentration (0-1%) were examined. Optimization of first stage hydrolysis is desirable to achieve the highest yield of the sugars from hemicellulose and also as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show the ability of first stage hydrolysis to depolymerize xylan to xylose with a maximum yield of 80.8% at hydrolysis pressure of 15 bar, 10 min retention time and 0.5% acid concentration. However, the yield of glucose from glucan was relatively low in first stage hydrolysis at a maximum of 25.8%. The solid residuals were subjected to further dilute-acid hydrolysis in this study. This second-stage hydrolysis without addition of the acid could not increase the yield of glucose from glucan beyond 26.6%. On the other hand, the best results of the hydrolysis were achieved, when 0.5% sulfuric acid was added prior to each stage in two-stage hydrolysis. The best results of the second stage of the hydrolysis were achieved at the hydrolysis pressure and the retention time of 30 bar and 3 min in the second stage hydrolysis, where a total of 78.9% of xylan and 46.6% of glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively in the two stages. Formation of furfural and HMF were functions of the hydrolysis pressure, acid concentration, and retention time, whereas the concentration of acetic acid was almost constant at pressure of higher than 10 bar and a total retention time of 10 min

  4. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment-severity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne R; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal pretreatments could be divided into two groups: 1) Phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium correlated with xylose and arabinose (that is, hemicellulose), and levels of these constituents present in the fiber fraction after pretreatment varied depending on the pretreatment-severity; and 2) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due to pretreatment pH, was developed. Using this equation, the mineral levels could be predicted with R(2) > 0.75; for some with R(2) up to 0.96. Pretreatment conditions, especially pH, significantly influenced the levels of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium in the resulting fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass.

  5. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  6. Properties and Possible Applications for Lignin Streams Obtained from Rice Straw Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of lignin streams recovered from rice straw processing and to study the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from these materials. The evaluated samples included two different cellulignin fermentation residues (FR’s) and an......This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of lignin streams recovered from rice straw processing and to study the extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from these materials. The evaluated samples included two different cellulignin fermentation residues (FR......’s) and an acid-precipitated lignin from alkaline-deacetylated black liquor (DBLL). For comparison, a standard lignin sample (Kraft lignin, from Sigma-Aldrich) was also assayed. Besides providing a better understanding about such materials, the obtained results made also possible to propose some potential...

  7. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials. Part I: conversion of rye straw to valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Thomas; Wörmeyer, Kai; Lima, Juan Carlos Ixcaraguá; Bockemühl, Vera; Antranikian, Garabed; Brunner, Gerd; Smirnova, Irina

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products requires I: a fractionation of the major components hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, II: an efficient method to process these components to higher valued products. The present work compares liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment to the soda pulping process and to the ethanol organosolv pretreatment using rye straw as a single lignocellulosic material. The organosolv pretreated rye straw was shown to require the lowest enzyme loading in order to achieve a complete saccharification of cellulose to glucose. At biomass loadings of up to 15% (w/w) cellulose conversion of LHW and organosolv pretreated lignocellulose was found to be almost equal. The soda pulping process shows lower carbohydrate and lignin recoveries compared to the other two processes. In combination with a detailed analysis of the different lignins obtained from the three pretreatment methods, this work gives an overview of the potential products from different pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  9. Ethanol production from rape straw by a two-stage pretreatment under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; López-Linares, Juan C; Delgado, Yaimé; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio

    2015-08-01

    The growing interest on rape oil as raw material for biodiesel production has resulted in an increasing availability of rape straw, an agricultural residue that is an attractive renewable source for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Pretreatment is one of the key steps in such a conversion process. In this work, a sequential two-stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid (130 °C, 60 min, 2% w/v H2SO4) followed by H2O2 (1-5% w/v) in alkaline medium (NaOH) at low temperature (60, 90 °C) and at different pretreatment times (30-90 min) was investigated. The first-acid stage allows the solubilisation of hemicellulose fraction into fermentable sugars. The second-alkaline peroxide stage allows the delignification of the solid material whilst the cellulose remaining in rape straw turned highly digestible by cellulases. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 15% (w/v) delignified substrate at 90 °C, 5% H2O2 for 60 min, led to a maximum ethanol production of 53 g/L and a yield of 85% of the theoretical.

  10. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and sulfamethoxazole from aqueous solution by rice straw biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan HAN; Cheng-feng LIANG; Ting-qiang LI; Kai WANG; Hua-gang HUANG; Xiao-e YANG

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous sorption behavior and characteristics of cadmium (Cd) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on rice straw biochar were investigated.Isotherms of Cd and SMX were well modeled by the Langmuir equation (R2>0.95).The calculated maximum adsorption parameter (Q) of Cd was similar in single and binary systems (34129.69 and 35919.54 mg/kg,respectively).However,the Q of SMX in a binary system (9182.74 mg/kg)was much higher than that in a single system (1827.82 mg/kg).The presence of Cd significantly promoted the sorption of SMX on rice straw biochar.When the pH ranged from 3 to 7.5,the sorption of Cd had the characteristics of a parabola pattern with maximum adsorption at pH 5,while the adsorption quantity of SMX decreased with increasing pH,with maximum adsorption at pH 3.The amount of SMX adsorbed on biochar was positively correlated with the surface area of the biochar,and the maximum adsorption occurred with d 250 biochar (biochar with a diameter of 150-250 μm).Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the removal of Cd and SMX by rice straw biochar may be attributed to precipitation and the formation of surface complexes between Cd or SMX and carboxyl or hydroxyl groups.The results of this study indicate that rice straw biochar has the potential for simultaneous removal of Cd and SMX from co-contaminated water.

  11. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M.; Said, S. D.

    2018-04-01

    The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia. In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system. Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass (mixed SCP biomass) composition, such as total crude protein (analyzed by kjedhal method) and lignin content (TAPPI method).The results showed that crude protein content in mixed SCP biomassincreases with the increasing in fermentation time, otherwise it decreases with the increasing insubstrate carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Residual lignin content in mixed SCP biomass decreases from 7% to 0.63% during fermentationproceeded of 21 days. The highest crude protein content in mixed SCP biomasswas obtained at substrate C/N ratio 20:1 of 25%.

  12. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction.

  14. Lovastatin-Enriched Rice Straw Enhances Biomass Quality and Suppresses Ruminal Methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that solid state fermentation (SSF of agro-biomass (using rice straw as model; besides, breaking down its lignocellulose content to improve its nutritive values also produces lovastatin which could be used to suppress methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. Fermented rice straw (FRS containing lovastatin after fermentation with Aspergillus terreus was used as substrate for growth study of rumen microorganisms using in vitro gas production method. In the first experiment, the extract from the FRS (FRSE which contained lovastatin was evaluated for its efficacy for reduction in methane (CH4 production, microbial population, and activity in the rumen fluid. FRSE reduced total gas and CH4 productions (P<0.01. It also reduced (P<0.01 total methanogens population and increased the cellulolytic bacteria including Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes (P<0.01, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P<0.05. Similarly, FRS reduced total gas and CH4 productions, methanogens population, but increased in vitro dry mater digestibility compared to the non-fermented rice straw. Lovastatin in the FRSE and the FRS significantly increased the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene that produces HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme for cell membrane production in methanogenic Archaea.

  15. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  16. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  17. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  18. High-performance removal of acids and furans from wheat straw pretreatment liquid by diananofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueb, Mohd Shafiq Mohd; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-01-01

    of 20ºC (range: 20–50ºC) were found to provide the best results in terms of retention. A subsequent nanodiafiltration consisting of five cycles enabled one to recover 90% of the monosaccharides (purity >99%). This result showed that diananofiltration could be a promising strategy for the recovery......Two model solutions and a real stream from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw were subjected to nanofiltration, and permeate flux, retention and resistance to fouling were evaluated. Three commercial NF membranes were tested, and a pressure of 4 bars (range: 1–20 bars) and a temperature...

  19. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif R. Mohamed; Tarek A. El-Desouky; Ahmed M. S. Hussein; Sherif S. Mohamed; Khayria M. Naguib

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alk...

  20. Continuous co-production of ethanol and xylitol from rice straw hydrolysate in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Omid; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2016-05-01

    The present study was set to develop a robust and economic biorefinery process for continuous co-production of ethanol and xylitol from rice straw in a membrane bioreactor. Acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, detoxification, yeast strains selection, single and co-culture batch fermentation, and finally continuous co-fermentation were optimized. The combination of diluted acid pretreatment (3.5 %) and enzymatic conversion (1:10 enzyme (63 floating-point unit (FPU)/mL)/biomass ratio) resulted in the maximum sugar yield (81 % conversion). By concentrating the hydrolysates, sugars level increased by threefold while that of furfural reduced by 50 % (0.56 to 0.28 g/L). Combined application of active carbon and resin led to complete removal of furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid. The strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3090 with 66.4 g/L ethanol production and Candida tropicalis NCIM 3119 with 9.9 g/L xylitol production were selected. The maximum concentrations of ethanol and xylitol in the single cultures were recorded at 31.5 g/L (0.42 g/g yield) and 26.5 g/L (0.58 g/g yield), respectively. In the batch co-culture system, the ethanol and xylitol productions were 33.4 g/L (0.44 g/g yield) and 25.1 g/L (0.55 g/g yield), respectively. The maximum ethanol and xylitol volumetric productivity values in the batch co-culture system were 65 and 58 % after 25 and 60 h, but were improved in the continuous co-culture mode and reached 80 % (55 g/L) and 68 % (31 g/L) at the dilution rate of 0.03 L per hour, respectively. Hence, the continuous co-production strategy developed in this study could be recommended for producing value-added products from this hugely generated lignocellulosic waste.

  1. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  2. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  3. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plants (VSPPs in Thailand. According to the results obtained during the crop season of 2015/2016, approximately 26 Mt of rice straws were generated upon the harvesting process. The net potential of rice straws, including those that were burned and those that were left in the fields, was only about 15% or 3.85 Mt, which could be used for heat and electricity production at 1331 kilotons of oil equivalent (ktoe or 457 MWe. As agro-residues vary by seasonality, the peak season of rice straws was in November, where approximately 1.64 Mt (43% were generated, followed by December, at 1.32 Mt (34%. On the basis of the results, rice straw has the potential to serve as a fuel supply for VSPPs at 14.2%, 21.6%, 26.3%, and 29.0% for the radii of compilation at 24, 36, 48 km and 60 km, respectively.

  4. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pre-treated wheat straw with white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Albino A; Freitas, Gil S; Marques, Guilhermina S M; Sampaio, Ana; Fraga, Irene S; Rodrigues, Miguel A M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Bezerra, Rui M F

    2010-08-01

    Wheat straw was submitted to a pre-treatment by the basidiomycetous fungi Euc-1 and Irpex lacteus, aiming to improve the accessibility of cellulose towards enzymatic hydrolysis via previous selective bio-delignification. This allowed the increase of substrate saccharification nearly four and three times while applying the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively. The cellulose/lignin ratio increased from 2.7 in the untreated wheat straw to 5.9 and 4.6 after the bio-treatment by the basidiomycetes Euc-1 and I. lacteus, respectively, thus evidencing the highly selective lignin biodegradation. The enzymatic profile of both fungi upon bio-treatment of wheat straw have been assessed including laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, avicelase and feruloyl esterase activities. The difference in efficiency and selectivity of delignification within the two fungi treatments was interpreted in terms of specific lignolytic enzyme profiles and moderate xylanase and cellulolytic activities. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of a continuous twin screw-driven process for dilute acid pretreatment of rape straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Ho; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2012-04-01

    Rape straw, a processing residue generated from the bio-oil industry, was used as a model biomass for application of continuous twin screw-driven dilute acid pretreatment. The screw rotation speed and feeding rate were adjusted to 19.7rpm and 0.5g/min, respectively to maintain a residence time of 7.2min in the reaction zone, respectively. The sulfuric acid concentration was 3.5wt% and the reaction temperature was 165°C. The enzymatic digestibility of the glucan in the pretreated solids was 70.9%. The continuous process routinely gave around 28.8% higher yield for glucan digestibility than did the batch processing method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behaviors of rice straw two-step liquefaction with sub/supercritical ethanol in carbon dioxide atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianhua; Wang, Jian; Li, Bingshuo; Kai, Xingping; Xing, Wanli; Li, Rundong

    2018-06-01

    This study extended previous work investigating two-step liquefaction by supercritical ethanol of rice straw under CO 2 atmosphere at temperatures of 270-345 °C. Subcritical CO 2 -subcritical ethanol (SubCO 2 -SubEtOH) pretreatment decreased the content of lignin in the rice stalk from 22.94 to 21.43 wt%. The results showed that although oxygen-transfer reaction, transesterification, carbonylation, and other reactions may occur with the supercritical CO 2 -supercritical ethanol (ScCO 2 -ScEtOH) liquefaction reactions, transesterification was the main reaction. The "de-oxygen-transfer" reaction mainly comprised de-oxygenation and decarboxylation. For temperatures exceeding 320 °C, the bio-oil yield decreased because the effects of esters decreased. The residence time affected the H/C and O/C ratios to a minor extent. It was shown that the nucleophilic and hydrolytic functions of ethanol might be strengthened, generating higher amounts of ester, phenolic, acidic, and hydrocarbon derivatives in the bio-oil fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  9. Design considerations for a farm-scale biogas plant based on pilot-scale anaerobic digesters loaded with rice straw and piggery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Garuti, Gilberto; Giordano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Two pilot-scale (1 m 3 ) digesters filled with untreated rice straw and co-digested with raw pig wastewater were operated to obtain design parameters for a farm-scale biogas plant. Both digesters contained 50 kg of dry straw mixed with diluted pig wastewater to create dry digestion conditions (20% TS) and operated for 189 days with leachate recirculation. Digester A was designed for optimum performance (150 L of pig wastewater and mesophilic temperatures) while Digester B was designed to establish minimum inputs (60 L of pig wastewater at ambient temperatures). The pig wastewater provided sufficient buffering capacity to maintain appropriate pH values (between 7.0 and 8.1) and nutrient balances (TOC to TKN ratios of 20 in Digester A and 32 in Digester B). Total biogas production was 22,859 L in Digester A and 1420 L from Digester B, resulting in specific methane yields of 231 and 12 L CH 4 /kgVS added, respectively. Gas production in Digester A was directly correlated with temperature, but the overall lack of methanogenic activity was caused primarily by the reduced wastewater volume. Two theoretical farm-scale scenarios (considering both untreated and pretreated rice straw) were developed for a 100-ha rice farm. Either scenario can produce 100,000 m 3 CH 4 per year, yielding 328 MWh. Major differences including heat input, space requirements, loading frequency, digester volume, engine size, wastewater quantities, and additives are quantitatively defined. The appropriate choice for a farm-scale operation is the simplest model using untreated rice straw without additives, although six times more heat and twice as much reactor volume is required. -- Highlights: ► The co-digestion of untreated rice straw and piggery wastewater is investigated. ► Gas production increases with the volume of pig wastewater added and temperature. ► Pig wastewater alone can provide appropriate buffering capacity and nutrient balance. ► Pilot-scale results are used to establish

  10. Preliminary results on optimization of pilot scale pretreatment of wheat straw used in coproduction of bioethanol and electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thygesen, A.; Christensen, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    , and steam pretreatment) with a capacity of 100 kg/h was constructed and tested for pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production. Highest hemicellulose (C5 sugar) recovery and extraction of hemicellulose sugars was obtained at 190 degrees C whereas highest C6 sugar yield was obtained at 200 degrees C....... Lowest toxicity of hydrolysates was observed at 190 degrees C; however, addition of H2O2 improved the fermentability and sugar recoveries at the higher temperatures. The estimated total ethanol production was 223 kg/t straw assuming utilisation of both C6 and C5 during fermentation, and 0.5 g ethanol....../g sugar....

  11. Adding distiller's grains and molasses on fermentation quality of rice straw silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ensilage is a simple and low-cost strategy to enable long term preservation and environmentally friendly utilization of agricultural by-products, such as straws and distiller's grains (DG for ruminants. Effect of mixing different proportions of DG and rice straw (i.e. 0, 10, 20 or 30% of DG with or without 5% molasses addition on fermentation and chemical variables of silages was evaluated. The study was conducted as a randomized blocks design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three replications, using laboratory silos of 1L capacity (n=24. Despite a significant interaction (P<0.01 between DG and molasses addition was observed for most variables, in general the increased addition of DG linearly decreased the pH value, acetic acid (AA, butyric acid (BA and ammonia N concentration (P<0.01, and increased the lactic acid (LA concentration (P<0.01. Exception was the propionic acid concentration which linearly decreased without molasses addition and linearly increased with molasses addition at increased proportion of DG (P<0.01. In both silages with or without molasses the addition of DG increased the dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates and crude protein (P<0.01, and decreased the NDF content (P<0.01. Based on the perspective of maximum utilization of rice straw, the mixture of 10% of DG associated to 5% molasses at ensilage process is recommended.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites by a Quick Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Kalantari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs with were successfully synthesized on the surface of rice straw using the quick precipitation method in the absence of any heat treatment. Ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O, ferrous chloride (FeCl2·4H2O, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and urea (CH4N2O were used as Fe3O4-NPs precursors, reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The rice straw fibers were dispersed in deionized water, and then urea was added to the suspension, after that ferric and ferrous chloride were added to this mixture and stirred. After the absorption of iron ions on the surface layer of the fibers, the ions were reduced with NaOH by a quick precipitation method. The reaction was carried out under N2 gas. The mean diameter and standard deviation of metal oxide NPs synthesized in rice straw/Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCs were 9.93 ± 2.42 nm. The prepared rice straw/Fe3O4-NCS were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT‒IR. The rice straw/Fe3O4-NCs prepared by this method have magnetic properties.

  13. Influence of rice straw burning on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural county of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Kang-Shin; Wang, Hsin-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) size distribution were measured at Jhu-Shan (a rural site) and Sin-Gang (a town site) in central Taiwan during the rice straw burning and non-burning periods. The concentrations of total PAHs accounting for a roughly 58% (34%) increment in the concentrations of total PAHs due to rice-straw burning. Combustion-related PAHs during burning periods were 1.54-2.57 times higher than those during non-burning periods. The mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.88-1.21 microm in the particulate phase suggested that rice-straw burning generated the increase in coarse particle number. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model analyses showed that the primary pollution sources at the two sites were similar. However, rice-straw burning emission was specifically identified as a significant source of PAH during burning periods at the two sites. Open burning of rice straws was estimated to contribute approximately 6.3%-24.6% to total atmospheric PAHs at the two sites.

  14. Influence of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Addition on Silica Membrane Performance Prepared from Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Wardoyo, D. T.; Ichsan, S.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization and modification of silica from rice straw as the main ingredient of adsorbent has been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum composition of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol): silica to produce adsorbents with excellent pore characteristics, optimum adsorption efficiency and optimum pH for methyl yellow adsorptions. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis results showed that straw ash contains 82.12 % of silica (SiO2). SAA (Surface Area Analyzer) analysis showed optimum composition ratio 5:5 of PVA: silica with surface area of 1.503 m2/g. Besides, based on the pore size distribution of PVA: silica (5:5) showed the narrow pore size distribution with the largest pore cumulative volume of 2.8 x 10-3 cc/g. The optimum pH for Methanyl Yellow adsorption is pH 2 with adsorption capacity = 72.1346%.

  15. Enhanced chlorophenol sorption of soils by rice-straw-ash amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jen-Chyi; Tzou, Yu-Min; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Wu, Jeng-Tzung; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wang, Shan-Li

    2010-01-01

    Rice-straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, which results in the accumulation of rice-straw ash (RSA) in paddy soil. Because the occurrence of RSA in soil may affect the fate and transport of contaminants, this study investigated the sorption of 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) on RSA and RSA amended soils to evaluate the sorptive properties of RSA in soils. The results showed that the sorption of 3-CP to RSA proceeds through a surface reaction rather than through partitioning and that the neutral form of 3-CP is preferentially sorbed to the surface when compared to the deprotonated anionic form of 3-CP. The addition of RSA to the soils enhanced the overall 3-CP sorption, indicating that RSA amendment may be applied to retard the movement of 3-CP in contaminated soils. As the RSA content in the soils was increased from 0% to 2%, the Langmuir sorption maximum of the soils increased from 18-80 to 256-274 mg kg -1 . Thus, RSA contributed more to the total sorption of the soils than other major components in the soils. Nonetheless, the 3-CP sorption of the soils containing RSA was less than the combination of pure RSA and the soils, thereby indicating that the 3-CP sorption of RSA was suppressed. This may be attributed to the competition of organic matter or other soil components for the surface binding sites of RSA.

  16. Comparison of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment for ethanol production from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-qin; Xiong, Xing-yao; Chen, Jing-ping; Chen, Liang; Su, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    It was evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment on the components and the water-soluble sugars of rice straw. Compared with the steam explosion pretreated rice straw, cellucose, hemicellucose and lignin for irradiation pretreated rice sample were much more greatly degraded and the relative content of glucose was significantly enhanced from 6.58% to 47.44%. Interestingly, no glucuronide acid was detected in irradiation pretreated rice straw, while glucuronide acid with the content from 8.5 mg/g to 9.2 mg/g was obtained in steam explosion pretreated sample. Followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, higher concentration of reducing sugars (including glucose and xylose) of irradiation pretreated rice sample (90.3 mg/g) was obtained, which was approximately 2.4- and 1.1- fold higher of the unpretreated (37.2 mg/g) and of steam explosion pretreated sample (85.4 mg/g). To further verify the effectiveness of irradiation pretreatment, characterizations of rice straw, corn stalk and bagasse by an integrated process of dilute acid/enzymatic hydrolysis and irradiation pretreatment were also investigated. -- Highlights: ► We compare irradiation and steam explosion pretreatments for bioethanol production. ► We examine changes in compositions of the components and the water-soluble sugars. ► No glucuronide acid was detected in gamma irradiation pretreated rice straw. ► We evaluate an integrated method of acid/enzyme-hydrolyzed irradiation pretreatment.

  17. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  18. Prokaryote community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure, rice straw and industrial clay residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Janet; Theuerl, Susanne; Bergmann, Ingo; Klocke, Michael; Guerra, Gilda; Romero-Romero, Osvaldo

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of rice straw and clay residuals on the prokaryote methane-producing community structure in a semi-continuously stirred tank reactor fed with swine manure. Molecular techniques, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes, were performed. The results showed a positive effect of clay addition on methane yield during the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw. At the digestion of swine manure, the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae, particularly Methanosarcina species, were predominant. During the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw the microbial community changed, and with the addition of clay residual, the phylum Bacteroidetes predominated. The new nutritional conditions resulted in a shift in the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae community as acetoclastic Methanosaeta species became dominant.

  19. Pretreatment of wheat straw by nonionic surfactant-assisted dilute acid for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Benkun; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2010-07-01

    Pretreating wheat straw (WS) with combined use of varied sulfuric acid concentration (0-3%, w/v) and Tween 20 concentration (0-1%) was investigated in an attempt to enhance the hydrolysis and fermentability of pretreated WS. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield of glucan and xylan and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) were significantly affected by the amount of Tween 20 added during acid pretreatment. Any further addition of Tween 20 in either hydrolysis stage or fermentation stage only led to small increase in glucan conversion and ethanol production. Determination of adsorption of cellulases during hydrolysis showed that Tween 20-assisted acid treated straw solution contained more free cellulases than individual acid treated straw solution, indicating that modification of lignin surface by Tween 20 added during pretreatment likely occurred. In addition, the effects of pretreatment conditions on overall recovery of glucose and xylose after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were also investigated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eating behavior of Ongole crossbred and Limousin crossbred steers fed fermented rice straw and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Purnomoadi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on eating behavior of Ongole Crossbred (OC and Limousin Crossbred (LC steers (aged 9 months fed fermented rice straw and concentrate has been carried out. Rice straw and concentrate were given in 60:40 ratio. Rice straw was fermented by commercial starter (BioP 2000 Z, while concentrate was composed of commercial concentrate and soybean pulp (by-product of soy-sauce industry. The diet was set to meet the dry matter (DM requirement at 3.0% of liveweight. Eating behaviour was measured from 3 days continuously observation. Chewing number was accounted by halter equipped with tape-switch in jaw side and was recorded every 1/10 second in connected PC. The results showed that DMI of both OC (3.21 kg and LC (4.18 kg was similar, being 2.8% LW. However, chewing number of OC (133808 chews/d was higher than that of LC (106353 chews/d. Chewing for eating and for rumination in OC (86995 and 46813 chews was higher than of LC (67628 and 38725 chews. Chewing efficiency for eating in OC (0.041 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.066 g DMI/chew. Similar tendency was observed in chewing efficiency for rumination that OC (0.080 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.109 g DMI/chew. The conclusion is LC has a better chewing efficiency than of OC and it was pointed to different jaw size between OC and LC.

  1. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO2 fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg−1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure. PMID:26927136

  2. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  3. Phosphate dynamics on the application of rice straw compost-biochar and phosphate fertilization in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ania Citraresmini; Taufiq Bachtiar

    2016-01-01

    Soil productivity is determined by soil characteristics itself, which consist of physical, chemical and biological character. The linkage between these three properties can be represented by a single indicator, namely the carbon content in the soil. One of the effects of soil organic matter fulfillment is the availability of soil nutrients, especially to the nutrient that limits the lowland rice production. In this case, P (phosphorus) nutrient become a limiting factor because their numbers are often in abundance but in a form that can not be used by plants. Experiments were carried out with the aim of studying the impact of straw compost application that integrates with Biochar, to the availability of P in lowland soil. The interaction of straw compost + Biochar with PSB inoculation and P sources, become the treatment that being tested in the experiment. Randomized Block Design with factorial pattern is applied as design experiment. As the first factor is the application dose of straw compost + Biochar, consists of 5 levels of treatment : 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 t ha -1 . Second factor is several sources of P, consist of 5 levels of treatment : without P sources (p 0 ); 100 kg ha -1 SP-36 fertilizer (p1); rock phosphate at the dose of 163 kg ha -1 (p 2 ); PSB inoculation at the inoculation dose of 2 kg ha -1 (p 3 ); and rock phosphate inoculated with PSB (p 4 ). The experiment done in the green house of PAIR-BATAN experimental station, Jakarta, on March-July 2014. Phosphorus dynamic as a result of the tested treatments, determined by using radioisotope 32 P technology at the activity of 30 mCi and described clearly on the plant P uptake data of Sidenuk rice plant variety. The experiment result showed that the treatments applied is causing significantly different response on the soil C-organic, the number of PSB populations, 32 P plant counting and plant P uptake derived from several P sources in the plant. (author)

  4. The performance of growing goats fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with Incum (Klienhovia hospita foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh, S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of locally available forages such as agricultural by-products and native trees is the crucial thing for goat farmers to obtain good quality feed and to reduce cost of feeding. A study was conducted to investigate the performance of crossbred goats fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with different levels of Klienhovia hospita foliage, in particular to determine the nutrient feeding value of experimental feed diets, evaluate the growth performance, feed intake and digestibility of the diets by goats. The feeding trial conducted was divided into two sections: digestibility and animal performance. The digestibility test was performed using total faecal collection method. The treatment diets were based on urea treated rice straw (RS supplemented with commercial concentrate (C and Klienhovia hospita (KH herbage: T1 with 85% RS and 15% C, T2 with 85% RS and 5% KH and 10% C, T3 with 85% RS, 10% KH and 5% C, and T4 with 85% RS and 15% KH. The feeding trial used 12 6-mo old crossbred male goats divided into 4 groups with the diets offered ad libitum and had access to clean drinking water. The left over feed was removed and weighed daily to determine voluntary DM intake. The initial average body weight of goats used ranged between 20.14�1.03 kg and 20.29�0.18 kg. The animals were placed in individual metabolic crates on slatted floor of 0.8 m above ground for 100 consecutive d. The results showed that there was no significant difference observed on body weight of goats among the treatments. ADG of goats was significantly higher in goats on diets T3 and T4 than those on control diet. Significant higher feed intake was observed in goats fed diet containing KH foliage than those fed with diet T1. Results for ASH, CP and ADF digestibility among different treatments were not significantly different whereas NDF digestibility was significantly higher in T2 treatment in comparison with T1, T3 and T4. The dry matter digestibility values of T1

  5. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Jenkins, Brian; Williams, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run...... areas between bed particles, ultimately led to bed agglomeration. The interfaces and the presence of gas bubbles in the cement suggest a bonding material with a high surface tension and a liquid state. The cement films originate by filling of irregularities on individual and partially agglomerated bed...

  6. Ammonia volatilization and atmospheric N deposition following straw and urea application from a rice-wheat rotation in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Wu, Zhen; Ma, Yuchun; Liu, Yinglie; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-05-01

    Ammonia is a vital component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems in terms of volatilization and deposition. Here, a field experiment was undertaken to simultaneously investigate the effects of rice straw and urea incorporation on ammonia volatilization, atmospheric N deposition, yields and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) under a rice-wheat system in China. The experiment involved four treatments: control (0 N, 0 straw), NS0 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 0 straw), NS1 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 3 t ha-1 yr-1 straw), and NS2 (250 kg N ha-1 season-1, 6 t ha-1 yr-1 straw) in the rice-wheat annual rotation system. The results indicated that the NS0, NS1 and NS2 treatments emitted cumulative ammonia of 14.0%, 16.4%, and 19.2%, respectively in the rice season and 7.6%, 11.1%, and 12.3%, respectively in the wheat season among the total urea-N application. Compared to the NS0 treatment, the NS1 and NS2 treatments significantly increased the cumulative ammonia emissions by 15.5% (p NH4+-N deposition accounted for 56.1% of the total inorganic N deposition during the whole rice-wheat system. The bulk NH4+-N deposition during the period of fertilization contributed 73.9% and 5.7% to the total NH4+-N deposition in the rice and wheat season, respectively. Overall, straw incorporation increased ammonia volatilization, not affecting the crop grain yield or NUE. The seasonal variation in NH4+-N bulk deposition was closely related to N fertilizer application.

  7. Characterization of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by a surplus agricultural waste-Rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Liu Yunguo; Zeng Guangming; Xu Weihua; Li Ting; Xia Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by rice straw, a surplus agricultural byproduct was investigated. The optimal pH was 2.0 and Cr(VI) removal rate increased with decreased Cr(VI) concentration and with increased temperature. Decrease in straw particle size led to an increase in Cr(VI) removal. Equilibrium was achieved in about 48 h under standard conditions, and Cr(III), which appeared in the solution and remained stable thereafter, indicating that both reduction and adsorption played a part in the Cr(VI) removal. The increase of the solution pH suggested that protons were needed for the Cr(VI) removal. A relatively high level of NO 3 - notably restrained the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), while high level of SO 4 2- supported it. The promotion of the tartaric acid modified rice straw (TARS) and the slight inhibition of the esterified rice straw (ERS) on Cr(VI) removal indicated that carboxyl groups present on the biomass played an important role in chromium remediation even though were not fully responsible for it. Isotherm tests showed that equilibrium sorption data were better represented by Langmuir model and the sorption capacity of rice straw was found to be 3.15 mg/g

  8. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    Only little research on butyric acid fermentation has been carried out in relationship to bio-refinery perspectives involving strain selection, development of adapted strains, physiological analyses for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. However, a major step towards the development...... strain could grow in up to 80% pre-treated wheat straw and can ferment both glucose and xylose. The yield of butyric acid without optimization was 0,37±0,051 g butyric acid/g sugar monomers and the acetate yield was 0,06±0,021 g acetic acid/g sugar monomers. Moreover, the strain could grow without...... addition of yeast extract. Further optimization of yield and productivity is under investigation....

  9. Properties comparison of biochars from corn straw with different pretreatment and sorption behaviour of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuchen; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye; Wang, Fangli; Han, Sheng; Geng, Xiaojun

    2013-11-01

    Biochar has been recognised as an efficient pollution control material. In this study, biochars (CS450 and ADPCS450) were produced using corn straw with different pretreatment techniques (without and with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)). The character of the two biochars was compared using elemental analysis, specific surface area (SSA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). ADPCS450 had a higher residue yield and a much larger specific surface area than CS450. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the results fit the Redlich-Peterson equation best. The isothermal sorption parameters indicated that the sorption capacity of atrazine on ADPCS450 was much larger than the sorption capacity of atrazine on CS450. Atrazine sorption was also favoured in acidic solution and under higher temperature conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Degradation of 14C - DDT in soils under moist and flooded conditions with rice straw and green manure amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.; Dubey, P.S.; Kale, S.P.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C - DDT in moist and flooded soils was studied with rice straw and green manure amendments for 100 days. The mineralization of DDT was not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. Rice straw and green manure in flooded soil brought about decrease in extractable 14 C - residues with concomitant increase in soil bound residues. DDT has a very short residence in flooded soils though radiocarbon was more in extractable residues. DDD is the major degradation product in flooded soils. (author)

  11. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  12. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; Silverio Delvasto, A.; Enrique Sanchez, V.; Vicente Amigo, B.

    2013-01-01

    The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash as substitute of the use of feldspar in the white ware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to as triaxial white ware. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages of CTA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. The porosity and the compressive strength of the fired pieces do increase with additions of up to 75% of CTA in substitution of feldspar. Their mineralogical phases were determined by DRX and SEM; grains of quartz, and needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by CTA in white ware pastes. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon derived from rice straw for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Hu, Jingpeng; Wu, Shichao; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Lian, Kun

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are synthesized via a combination of graphitization and activation process with rice straw as the carbon source. The physicochemical properties of the three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are characterized by Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared carbon is a high surface area carbon material (a specific surface area of 3333 m2 g-1 with abundant mesoporous and microporous structures). And it exhibits superb performance in symmetric double layer capacitors with a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, good rate performance with 312 F g-1 under a current density of 5 A g-1 and favorable cycle stability with 6.4% loss after 10000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1 in the aqueous electrolyte of 6M KOH. Thus, rice straw is a promising carbon source for fabricating inexpensive, sustainable and high performance supercapacitors' electrode materials.

  14. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Stability Properties of Modified Rice Straw Fiber Blend with Polycaprolactone Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Khandanlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of modified rice straw (ORS on the mechanical and thermal properties of modified rice straw/polycaprolactone composites (ORS/PCL-Cs. The composites (Cs of polycaprolactone (PCL with ORS were successfully synthesized using the solution-casting method. The RS modified with octadecylamine (ODA as an organic modifier. The prepared composites were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and mechanical properties were investigated. Composites of ORS/PCL showed superior mechanical properties due to greater compatibility of ORS with PCL. The XRD results showed that the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS content from 1.0 to 7.0 wt.% in comparison with PCL peaks. Tensile measurement showed an increase in tensile modulus but a decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break as the ORS contents are increased from 1.0 to 7.0 wt.%; on the other hand, tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt.% of ORS. Thermal stability was decreased with the increase of ORS contents. SEM micrograph indicated good dispersion of ORS into the matrix, and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the interaction between PCL and ORS is physical interaction.

  16. [Effects of Phosphate Rock and Decomposed Rice Straw Application on Lead Immobilization in a Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Hu, Hong-qing; Su, Xiao-juan; Fu, Qing-ling; Zhu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The soils treated with phosphate rock (PR) and oxalic acid activated phosphate rock (APR) mixed with decomposed rice straw were incubated in different moisture conditions for 60 days to study the effect on the basic property of the soil and on the speciation variation of Pb. The results showed that all these three types of immobilizing materials increased the pH, the Olsen-P, the exchangeable Ca and the soil cation exchange capacity, and APR showed more obvious effect; the pH and the exchangeable Ca of soil in the flooding treatment were higher than those in normal water treatment (70%), but the Olsen-P of soil in normal water treatment was a little bit more. These materials reduced exchangeable Ph fraction, and converted it into unavailable fraction. But the APR was better than raw PR in immobilizing lead, and the exchangeable Pb fraction was reduced by 40.3% and 24.2%, compared with the control, respectively, and the immobilization effect was positively correlated with the dosage. Decomposed rice straw could transform the exchangeable Ph fraction in soil into organic-bound fraction, while the flooding treatment changed it into the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and residue fractions.

  17. THIOGLYCOLIC ACID ESTERIFIED IN TO RICE STRAW FOR REMOVING LEAD FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiol rice straw (TRS was prepared by esterifying thioglycolic acid onto rice straw in the medium of acetic anhydride and acetic acid with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The sorption of lead (Pb on TRS from aqueous solution was subsequently investigated. The batch experiments showed that Pb removal was dependent on initial pH, sorbent dose, Pb concentration, contact time, and temperature. The maximum value of Pb removal appeared at pH 5. For 100 mg/L of Pb solution, a removal ratio of greater than 98% could be achieved with 2.0 g/L or more of TRS. The isothermal data of Pb sorption conformed well to the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption capacity (Qm of TRS for Pb was 104.17 mg/g. The equilibrium of Pb removal was reached within 120 min. The Pb removal process could be described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the Pb removal process was spontaneous and endothermic.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass and wheat straw with and without thermo-alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Garfí, Marianna; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass grown in wastewater and wheat straw. To this end, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests were carried out testing different substrate proportions (20-80, 50-50 and 80-20%, on a volatile solid basis). In order to improve their biodegradability, the co-digestion of both substrates was also evaluated after applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment (10% CaO at 75°C for 24h). The highest synergies in degradation rates were observed by adding at least 50% of wheat straw. Therefore, the co-digestion of 50% microalgae - 50% wheat straw was investigated in mesophilic lab-scale reactors. The results showed that the methane yield was increased by 77% with the co-digestion as compared to microalgae mono-digestion, while the pretreatment only increased the methane yield by 15% compared to the untreated mixture. Thus, the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgae and wheat straw was successful even without applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan; Agapol Junpen; Orachorn Kamnoet; Savitri Garivait

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plant...

  20. Ethanol fermentation by xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sugars in a rice straw liquid hydrolysate concentrated by nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sakihama, Yuri; Teramura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    Concentrating sugars using membrane separation, followed by ethanol fermentation by recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an attractive technology. Three nanofiltration membranes (NTR-729HF, NTR-7250, and ESNA3) were effective in concentrating glucose, fructose, and sucrose from dilute molasses solution and no permeation of sucrose. The separation factors of acetate, formate, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, which were produced by dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw, over glucose after passage through these three membranes were 3.37-11.22, 4.71-20.27, 4.32-16.45, and 4.05-16.84, respectively, at pH 5.0, an applied pressure of 1.5 or 2.0 MPa, and 25 °C. The separation factors of these fermentation inhibitors over xylose were infinite, as there was no permeation of xylose. Ethanol production from approximately two-times concentrated liquid hydrolysate using recombinant S. cerevisiae was double (5.34-6.44 g L(-1)) that compared with fermentation of liquid hydrolysate before membrane separation (2.75 g L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimisation of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme systems for efficient rice straw hydrolysis using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Arnthong, Jantima; Paemanee, Atchara; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Champreda, Verawat

    2012-09-01

    Synergistic enzyme system for the hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated rice straw was optimised based on the synergy of crude fungal enzyme extracts with a commercial cellulase (Celluclast™). Among 13 enzyme extracts, the enzyme preparation from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC 199 exhibited the highest level of synergy with Celluclast™. This synergy was based on the complementary cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities of the BCC 199 enzyme extract. A mixture design was used to optimise the ternary enzyme complex based on the synergistic enzyme mixture with Bacillus subtilis expansin. Using the full cubic model, the optimal formulation of the enzyme mixture was predicted to the percentage of Celluclast™: BCC 199: expansin=41.4:37.0:21.6, which produced 769 mg reducing sugar/g biomass using 2.82 FPU/g enzymes. This work demonstrated the use of a systematic approach for the design and optimisation of a synergistic enzyme mixture of fungal enzymes and expansin for lignocellulosic degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monosaccharide yields and lignin removal from wheat straw in response to catalyst type and pH during mild thermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of various low temperature (140 °C) pretreatments, using different acid and alkaline catalysts and different pH values, was studied for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was treated by a standard blend of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188. While pretreat......The influence of various low temperature (140 °C) pretreatments, using different acid and alkaline catalysts and different pH values, was studied for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The pretreated wheat straw was treated by a standard blend of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188. While...... pretreatment at pH 1 gave the highest yield of saccharides in the liquid fraction, the solid fraction was more susceptible to enzymatic attack when pretreated at pH 13. The highest yields were obtained after pretreatment with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, and with sodium hydroxide at pH 13 when enzymatic...... hydrolysis was employed. A two-step pretreatment strategy at pH 1 (hydrochloric acid) and subsequently at pH 13 (sodium hydroxide) released 69 and 95% of the theoretical maximal amounts of glucose and xylose, respectively. Furthermore, this two-step pretreatment removed 68% of the lignin from the straw...

  4. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  5. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h(-1)) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol......In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat....... The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 degrees C for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial...

  6. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Menke, Christoph; Wassmann, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    abstract: Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions.

  7. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  8. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  9. Effects of rice straw, biochar and mineral fertiliser on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a rain-fed lowland rice soil of Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Duong, Quynh Vu; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    -control, rice straw (RS) and biochar (BC). Compound fertiliser was applied to all treatments. Rice was grown in columns packed with a paddy soil from Cambodia. Results revealed faster mineralisation of organic carbon (RS and BC) when applied in water-saturated conditions lasting for 2 weeks instead of flooding...

  10. Optimizing Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide (PHP) Pretreatment on Wheat Straw by Response Surface Method for Enzymatic Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Qing; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Song, Chun

    2017-03-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H 3 PO 4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H 3 PO 4 proportion, and time. H 3 PO 4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery. Increasing H 3 PO 4 proportion can improve enzymatic hydrolysis; however, reduction on cellulose recovery results in decrease of glucose yield. Extra high temperature or long time for pretreatment was not beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose yield. Based on the criterion for minimizing H 3 PO 4 usage and maximizing glucose yield, the optimized pretreatment conditions was 40 °C, 2.0 h, and H 3 PO 4 proportion of 70.2 % (H 2 O 2 proportion of 5.2 %), by which glucose yielded 299 mg/g wheat straw (946.2 mg/g cellulose) after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis.

  11. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  12. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  13. Effect of γ-rays irradiation and alkali solution pretreatment on hydrolyzing enzyme and microcosmic structure of core straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Wang Feng; Li Weiming; Li An; Ha Yiming; Li Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    To increase yield of reducing sugar enzymatic hydrolyzed from corn straw yield of corn stalk on Enzymatic hydrolysis, γ-rays radiation and NaOH solution pretreatment were used. The changes of microstructure of the corn straw before and after pretreatments were characterized by IR, X-rays diffraction and SEM. The results shows that the γ-rays radiation can significantly decrease the essential concentration of NaOH solution and shorten the immersion time, but it could not affected the yield of reducing sugar remarkably. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the sample which was treated at the 200 kGy irradiation dose and NaOH solution circumstance has the biggest surface area increase. The reducing sugar content of enzyme hydrolyzed corn straw treated at 200 kGy irradiation dose and 2% NaOH solution was achieved 48.34%, which provides the theoretical basis for industry ethanol production using enzyme hydrolyzed corn straw. (authors)

  14. Effects of thermo-chemical pretreatment plus microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on saccharification and lignocellulose degradation of corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Wang, Erzhu; Zhu, Qun; Song, Andong; Lu, Fushan

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase corn straw degradation, the straw was kept in the combined solution of 15% (w/w) lime supernatant and 2% (w/w) sodium hydroxide with liquid-to-solid ratio of 13:1 (mL/g) at 83.92°C for 6h; and then added with 3% (v/v) H2O2 for reaction at 50°C for 2h; finally cellulase (32.3 FPU/g dry matter) and xylanase (550 U/g dry matter) was added to keep at 50°C for 48 h. The maximal reducing sugars yield (348.77 mg/g) was increased by 126.42% (Pcellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated corn straw with enzymatic hydrolysis were increased by 40.08%, 45.71% and 52.01%, compared with the native corn straw with enzymatic hydrolysis (P<0.05). The following study indicated that the combined microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis could further increase straw degradation and reducing sugar yield (442.85 mg/g, P<0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methane fermentation and kinetics of wheat straw pretreated substrates co-digested with cattle manure in batch assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishania, M.; Vijay, V.K.; Chandra, R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass contains high percentages of lignin, which is hard to biodegrade and therefore, pretreatment is required to enhance energy recovery yield. In this study, five types of pretreatments, i.e., dilute acid, alkali, acid–alkali combination and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination, and grinding were applied on wheat straw to enhance the efficiency of methane fermentation. Methane fermentation of untreated and pretreated substrates was evaluated at 35 °C temperature in 5 L glass bottle reactors. Cumulative CH 4 yields of these pretreated substrates were found as 0.125 ± 0.002, 0.370 ± 0.02, 0.003 ± 0.005, 0.380 ± 0.017 and 0.241 ± 0.005 m 3 /kg of VS (volatile solids), respectively for, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments compared to that of untreated treatment T0 as 0.191 ± 0.004 m 3 /kg of VS. Alkali (2% NaOH on weight/volume ratio basis) and calcium hydroxide–sodium carbonate combination (3% Ca(OH) 2 + 3% Na 2 CO 3 on weight/volume ratio basis) pretreatments have been found to improve biogas and CH 4 production yields by 94.0% and 99.0%, respectively, in comparison to the untreated wheat straw substrate. Gompertz model used to analyze the kinetic behavior of anaerobic digestion process in present study. Kinetic study indicates that Gompertz equation best describe the cumulative gas production as a function of the digestion time. - Highlights: • H 2 SO 4 , NaOH, H 2 SO 4 + NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 , grinding pretreatments were studied on wheat straw. • Wheat straw co-digestion with cattle manure in 40:60 ratio provided maximum methane yield. • 2% NaOH pretreated substrate found to increase biogas and CH 4 production yields by 94.0%. • 3% Ca(OH) 2 + 3% Na 2 CO 3 pretreatment found to improve biogas and CH 4 production yields by 99.0%

  16. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTAF ALAM NOONARI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  17. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  18. Spent mushroom substrate biochar as a potential amendment in pig manure and rice straw composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Sun, Jian; Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Wang, Yin

    2017-07-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a bulky waste byproduct of commercial mushroom production, which can cause serious environmental problems and, therefore, poses a significant barrier to future expansion of the mushroom industry. In the present study, we explored the use of SMS as a biochar to improve the quality of bio-fertilizer. Specifically, we performed a series of experiments using composting reactors to investigate the effects of SMS biochar on the physio-chemical properties of bio-fertilizer. Biochar was derived from dry SMS pyrolysed at 500°C and mixed with pig manure and rice straw. Results from this study demonstrate that the addition of biochar significantly reduced electrical conductivity and loss of organic matter in compost material. Nutrient analysis revealed that the SMS-derived biochar is rich in fertilizer nutrients such as P, K, Na, and N. All of these findings suggest that SMS biochar could be an excellent medium for compost.

  19. Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yiyun; Wang, Xiahui; Chen, Xingxuan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian; Li, Jixiang

    2017-06-01

    Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification were investigated in this study. All cellulases tested increased the contents of phenolic acids during saccharification. However, few free phenolic acids were detected, as they were present in conjugated form after saccharification when the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger were used. On the other hand, phenolic acids were present in free form when the Acremonium cellulolyticus cellulase was used. Assays of enzyme activity showed that, besides high cellulase activity, the A. cellulolyticus cellulase exhibited high feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity. A synergistic interaction between FAE and cellulase led to the increase in free phenolic acids, and thus an increase in antioxidative and antiradical activities of the phenolic acids. Moreover, a cost estimation demonstrated the feasibility of phenolic acids as value-added products to reduce the total production cost of ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  1. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahmanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermented with some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as Split Plot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and the sub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productions was in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L. fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Control treatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  2. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermentedwith some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as SplitPlot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and thesub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productionswas in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L.fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Controltreatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  3. TiO2 assisted photo-oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awais, Muhammad; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Photo-catalytic oxidation is an advanced oxidation process in which a catalyst is used to absorb light energy and oxidize the target substrates such as organic polymers. A number of metal oxides and metal ions can efficiently increase substrate’s depolymerisation during the process of photo...... to be markedly higher in the pretreated samples that were exposed for 180min with 1.5 wt% and 2 wt% of TiO2 compared to the untreated wheat straw. Moreover, it was concluded that the products of lignin oxidation and also, the presence of TiO2 did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, UV treatment or TiO2 alone......-catalytic oxidation. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a photo-catalyst that in its rutile and anatase forms presents the property to enhance the photo-oxidation of lignin-containing substrates. Due to lignin is one of the major obstacles in methane production from lignocellulosic biomass, its destruction is a necessary step...

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and/or rice straw amendment on methanogenic archaeal communities and methane production from a rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qiongli; Huang, Yizong; Wang, Fenghua; Nie, Sanan; Nicol, Graeme W; Yao, Huaiying; Ding, Longjun

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and returning straw to paddy soil are important factors that regulate CH4 production. To evaluate the effect of rice straw and/or nitrate amendment on methanogens, a paddy soil was anaerobically incubated for 40 days. The results indicated that while straw addition increased CH4 production and the abundances of mcrA genes and their transcripts, nitrate amendment showed inhibitory effects on them. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis based on mcrA gene revealed that straw addition obviously changed methanogenic community structure. Based on mcrA gene level, straw-alone addition stimulated Methanosarcinaceaes at the early stage of incubation (first 11 days), but nitrate showed inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae was also stimulated by straw addition during the first 11 days. Furthermore, Methanosaetaceae were enriched by nitrate-alone addition after 11 days, while Methanocellaceae were enriched by nitrate addition especially within the first 5 days. The transcriptional methanogenic community indicated more dynamic and complicated responses to straw and/or nitrate addition. Based on mcrA transcript level, nitrate addition alone resulted in the increase of Methanocellaceae and the shift from Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae during the first 5 days of incubation. Straw treatments increased the relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae after 11 days. These results demonstrate that nitrate addition influences methanogens which are transcriptionally and functionally active and can alleviate CH4 production associated with straw amendment in paddy soil incubations, presumably through competition for common substrates between nitrate-utilizing organisms and methanogens.

  5. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m 3 bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m 3 /(m 3 ·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). Biogas production rate was 323m 3 /t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH 4 + -N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid-statenucle......), which led to the formation of a glassy char shell, resulting in a preserved particlesize and shape of chars. The high alkali content in the wheat straw resulted in higher char reactivity,whereas the lower silicon content caused variations in the char shape from cylindrical to near...

  8. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  9. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  10. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Minowa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of agricultural residue in Japan as an energy resource, based on the amounts produced and availability. The main agricultural residues in Japan are rice straw and rice husk. Based on a scenario wherein these residues are collected as is the rice product, we evaluate the size, cost, and CO 2 emission for power generation. Rice residue has a production potential of 12 Mt-dry year -1 , and 1.7 kt of rice straw is collected for each storage location. As this is too small an amount even for the smallest scale of power plant available, 2-month operation per year is assumed. Assuming a steam boiler and turbine with an efficiency of 7%, power generation from rice straw biomass can supply 3.8 billion(kW)h of electricity per year, or 0.47% of the total electricity demand in Japan. The electricity generated from this source costs as much as 25 JPY (kW h) -1 (0.21 US$ (kW h) -1 , 1 US$=120 JPY), more than double the current price of electricity. With heat recovery at 80% efficiency, the simultaneous heat supplied via cogeneration reaches 10% of that supplied by heavy oil in Japan. Further cost incentives will be required if the rice residue utilization is to be introduced. It will also be important to develop effective technologies to achieve high efficiency even in small-scale processes. If Japanese technologies enable the effective use of agricultural residue abroad as a result of Japanese effort from the years after 2010, the resulting reduction of greenhouse gas emission can be counted under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol

  11. The Effects of Rice Straw and Biochar Applications on the Microbial Community in a Soil with a History of Continuous Tomato Planting History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial abundance and diversity change constantly in continuous cropping systems, resulting in the prevalence of soil-borne pathogens and a decline in crop yield in solar greenhouses. To investigate the effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial abundance and diversity in soils with a history of continuous planting, three treatments were examined: mixed rice straw and biochar addition (RC, rice straw addition (R, and biochar addition (C. The amount of C added in each treatment group was 3.78 g kg−1 soil. Soil without rice straw and biochar addition was treated as a control (CK. Results showed that RC treatment significantly increased soil pH, available nitrogen (AN, available phosphorus (AP, and potassium (AK by 40.3%, 157.2%, and 24.2%, respectively, as compared to the CK soil. The amount of soil labile organic carbon (LOC, including readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and light fraction organic carbon (LFOC, was significantly greater in the RC, R, and C treatment groups as compared to CK soil. LOC levels with RC treatment were higher than with the other treatments. Both rice straw and biochar addition significantly increased bacterial and total microbial abundance, whereas rice straw but not biochar addition improved soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity. Thus, the significant effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity were attributed to the quantity of DOC in the treatments. Therefore, our results indicated that soil microbial diversity is directly associated with DOC. Based on the results of this study, mixed rice straw and biochar addition, rather than their application individually, might be key to restoring degraded soil.

  12. Differential proteomic analysis of the secretome of Irpex lacteus and other white-rot fungi during wheat straw pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Martínez, Angel T; Tien, Ming; López-Lucendo, María F; García, Francisco; de Los Ríos, Vivian; Martínez, María Jesús; Prieto, Alicia

    2013-08-10

    Identifying new high-performance enzymes or enzyme complexes to enhance biomass degradation is the key for the development of cost-effective processes for ethanol production. Irpex lacteus is an efficient microorganism for wheat straw pretreatment, yielding easily hydrolysable products with high sugar content. Thus, this fungus was selected to investigate the enzymatic system involved in lignocellulose decay, and its secretome was compared to those from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus which produced different degradation patterns when growing on wheat straw. Extracellular enzymes were analyzed through 2D-PAGE, nanoLC/MS-MS, and homology searches against public databases. In wheat straw, I. lacteus secreted proteases, dye-decolorizing and manganese-oxidizing peroxidases, and H2O2 producing-enzymes but also a battery of cellulases and xylanases, excluding those implicated in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation to their monosaccharides, making these sugars poorly available for fungal consumption. In contrast, a significant increase of β-glucosidase production was observed when I. lacteus grew in liquid cultures. P. chrysosporium secreted more enzymes implicated in the total hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and P. ostreatus produced, in proportion, more oxidoreductases. The protein pattern secreted during I. lacteus growth in wheat straw plus the differences observed among the different secretomes, justify the fitness of I. lacteus for biopretreatment processes in 2G-ethanol production. Furthermore, all these data give insight into the biological degradation of lignocellulose and suggest new enzyme mixtures interesting for its efficient hydrolysis.

  13. Historical trend of dioxin and agrochemical in rice straw and their impact on meat and dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, S.; Kameda, Y.; Hamada, H.; Nakanishi, J.

    2002-07-01

    Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB impurities in agrochemicals used previously in paddy fields have fawn out and ultimately precipitated and accumulated in sediments in Japanese bays and lakes. Earlier we reported that the maximum impurities flew out during the 1960s and the 1970s. Meanwhile total daily intake (TDI) study revealed Japanese dioxins daily intake has decreased since 1977, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated di benzofurans (PCDD/DFs) from dairy products and meat and egg products. Besides polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) from fishes and shellfishes also showed similar trend. In this study pesticides and congener specific pattern of PCDD/DFs and co-PCBs in old rice straws were measured in order to find out straw exposure level. In addition, we estimated the daily PCDD/DFs intake from dairy products, meat and eggs originated from impurities in straws. (Author)

  14. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  15. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Ding; Bo Du; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu; Dehua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12...

  16. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  17. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds of rice straw formed by saccharification during ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiahui; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Xiubing; Cui, Shouqing; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, it was found that the type of phenolic acids derived from rice straw was the major factor affecting ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on ethanol fermentation with rice straw. Different cellulases produced different ratios of free phenolic acids to soluble conjugated phenolic acids, resulting in different fermentation efficiencies. Free phenolic acids exhibited much higher inhibitory effect than conjugated phenolic acids. The flow cytometry results indicated that the damage to cell membranes was the primary mechanism of inhibition of ethanol fermentation by phenolic acids. The removal of free phenolic acids from the hydrolysates increased ethanol productivity by 2.0-fold, indicating that the free phenolic acids would be the major inhibitors formed during saccharification. The integrated process for ethanol and phenolic acids may constitute a new strategy for the production of low-cost ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  19. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  20. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  1. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  2. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  3. Improving the mixing performances of rice straw anaerobic digestion for higher biogas production by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Tian, Libin; Yuan, Hairong; Pang, Yunzhi; Chen, Shulin; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xiujin

    2013-10-01

    As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates.

  4. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  5. Structural elucidation and antioxidant activity of lignin isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Lihui; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhao, Huifang; Jin, Yongcan

    2018-05-17

    Alkali‑oxygen cooking of lignocellulose offers lignin many structural properties and bioactivities for biorefinery. In this work, milled wood lignin (MWL) and alkali‑oxygen lignin (AOL) were isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor, respectively. The lignin structure was characterized by spectroscopy and wet chemistry. Antioxidant activity of lignins was assessed by DPPH·and ABTS scavenging ability assay. Results showed the oxidization and condensation of lignin occurred during alkali‑oxygen cooking. The p-hydroxyphenyl was more easily removed from rice straw than guaiacyl and syringyl units. The ester or ether linkages derived from hydroxycynnamic acids, and the main interunit linkages, i.e. β-O-4' bonds, were mostly cleaved. Lignin-xylan complex had high reactivity under alkali‑oxygen condition. Tricin, incorporated into lignin, was detected in MWL but was absent in AOL. Nitrobenzene oxidation showed MWL can well represent the protolignin of rice straw, and the products yield decreased dramatically after alkali‑oxygen cooking. AOL had higher radical scavenging ability than MWL indicating alkali‑oxygen cooking was an effective pathway for the enhancement of antioxidant activity of lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of Microorganisms and Enzymes Involved in High-Solids Decomposition of Rice Straw Using Metagenomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Burd, Helcio; Hadi, Masood; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Thelen, Michael P.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2013-01-01

    High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2) were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production. PMID:24205054

  7. Discovery of microorganisms and enzymes involved in high-solids decomposition of rice straw using metagenomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha P Reddy

    Full Text Available High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C and thermophilic (55°C conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2 were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production.

  8. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil Content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in Rice Straw Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penglin; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Rongxiu; Zhong, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90°C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99% methyl ester content and about 95% biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation. PMID:21318171

  9. Effects of ditch-buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen leaching and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haishui; Xu, Mingmin; Koide, Roger T; Liu, Qian; Dai, Yajun; Liu, Ling; Bian, Xinmin

    2016-03-15

    Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice-wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1-wheat-rice2 rotation. Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha(-1) reduced, but at 1000 kg ha(-1) and at 1500 kg ha(-1) straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha(-1) buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice-wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  11. Characterization of 140 Japanese and world rice collections cultivated in Nihonmatsu-city in Fukushima in terms of radiocesium activity concentrations in seed grains and straws to explore rice cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuhiro Kojima; Djedidi Salem

    2017-01-01

    We studied varietal difference in radiocesium accumulation by using Japanese and World rice collection for future development of low accumulation varieties. As a result, the radiocesium activity concentration varied by 12- and 22-fold in seed grains and straws, respectively. When we examined the seed grain to straw ratio of radiocesium activity concentration, paddy rice cultivars of Japonica sub-species showed a lower result than Indica and Javanica paddy rice cultivars. These observations suggest that the Japonica paddy rice cultivars may have the property of repressing radioactive cesium translocation to edible parts. (author)

  12. Genetic Control of a Transition from Black to Straw-White Seed Hull in Rice Domestication1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Jingjie Zhu, Yan Zhou; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication. PMID:21263038

  13. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  14. Lignocellulosic residues for production of electricity, biogas or second generation biofuel: A case study of technical and sustainable potential of rice straw in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dembelé, Filifing; Daou, Ibrahima

    2016-01-01

    Biomass from agricultural residues, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is not only seen as a sustainable biomass source for the production of electricity, but increasingly as a resource for the production of biogas and second generation biofuel in developing countries. Based on empirical research...... in an irrigated rice-growing area, Office du Niger, in Mali, this article builds scenarios for the sustainable potential of rice straw. The paper concludes that there is great uncertainty regarding the size of the sustainable resources of rice straw available for energy, but that the most likely scenario...

  15. The use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate molasses supplementation to mulberry (morus alba and rice straw mixed diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry foliages have high nutritive value (protein content, digestibility and degradability, therefore it is potential to be used as a supplement to poor quality roughages. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of addition of fermentable energy in the mixed of mulberry and rice straw basal diet. A control diet consisted of either rice straw (RS or urea treated rice straw mixed with mulberry foliage (URS with ratio of 60 : 40%. Treatment was formulated by supplementation of control diet with molasses (as sources of fermentable energy at 3 levels (5, 10 and 15%. The study was conducted in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment, consisted of 2 levels rice straw (untreated and urea treated and 4 levels molasses supplementation (control and 3 levels for molasses. Diets were evaluated using in vitro gas production. The fermentation kinetics was determined from the incubation of 200 mg sample during 96 hours. The calculation of the kinetics based on exponential equation P = A+ B (1-e-ct. A shorter gas production test was carried out to determine truly degradable fermented substrates (in vitro true organic matter degradability/IVTOMD by incubating 500 mg of samples 24 hours. The result showed that there was no significant interaction between rice straw treatment and molasses supplementation on fermentation characteristics, in vitro true dry matter digestibility, fermented substrate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA production. However there was a significant interaction between rice straw treatment on partitioning factor (PF, gas produced, propionic acid production and ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid. Molasses supplementation significantly (P<0.05 decreased gas production and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, and increase PF, propionic acid production in untreated rice straw mulberry (RSM basal diet. It is concluded that molasses supplementation to RSM diet decreased gas production and ratio of C2/C3, and increased PF and

  16. Uranium sorption onto activated carbon prepared from rice straw: Competition with humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakout, S.M.; Metwally, S.S.; El-Zakla, T.

    2013-01-01

    Adsorptive competition between uranium (VI) and humic acids (HA) was investigated using Rice Straw activated carbon modified with KOH (RSK carbon). The investigations were conducted for individual components adsorption along with simultaneous and sequential adsorption of both components. The experimental results showed that the equilibrium data fit well Langmuir equation. It was found that, for single component system, RSK carbon can achieve adsorption of U(VI) ion at 100 mg/g, and HA at 21.1 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption isotherms for multi-component systems were studied. U(VI) showed a decreased adsorbability when it coexisted with HA from the start (41.5 mg/g in simultaneous) compared with the case when U(VI) was added after equilibrium adsorption of HA on activated carbon (11.9 mg/g in sequential). The interactions between uranium ions and HA caused the formation of U–HA complexes that changed the surface interactions of both uranium ions and HA with carbon surface. The underlying mechanism of the difference in the uranium sorption was discussed in the view of absence and presences (sequential and Simultaneous) of HA. It could be concluded that, humic substance is strong inhibitor of uranium binding and should be removed before from waste water treatment for uranium.

  17. Biosorption of clofibric acid and carbamazepine in aqueous solution by agricultural waste rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanguang; Zhou, Xuefei; Chen, Xiaohua; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Yalei

    2013-12-01

    Due to their widespread use, clofibric acid (CA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been frequently detected simultaneously at relatively high concentrations in aquatic environments. In this study, agricultural waste rice straw was employed as a potentially low-cost, effective and easy-to-operate biosorbent (RSB) to remove CA and CBZ. The adsorption of both pharmaceuticals followed pseudo second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion was an important rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherms of both drugs were fit well with Freundlich model. The adsorption of CA onto RSB was exothermic and was more likely to be dominated by physical processes, while the adsorption of CBZ was endothermic. Solution pH was determined to be the most important factor for CA adsorption, such that the adsorption capacity of CA onto RSB increased with the decline of solution pH. In the lower range of solution pH below 3.1, the CA removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of biosorbent dosage. The CBZ removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of RSB dosage without pH control. The maximum adsorption capacities were 126.3 mg/g for CA and 40.0 mg/g for CBZ.

  18. Controlling the synthesis conditions for silica nanosphere from semi-burned rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessien, M.M.; Rashad, M.M.; Zaky, R.R.; Abdel-Aal, E.A.; El-Barawy, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been prepared through dissolution-precipitation process from rice straw ash (RSA) for different electronic applications. The dissolution of silica from RSA was carried out using alkali leaching process by sodium hydroxide. The precipitation of silica from the produced sodium silicate solution was carried out using sulphuric acid at pH 7. The factors affecting the precipitation process of the sodium silicate solution of dissociated RSA; such as; sodium silicate concentration, sulfuric acid concentration and addition of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) on the particle size of the precipitated silica were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), specific surface area S BET and transmission electron microscope (TEM) have been used for the characterization of the produced nano-silica. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the dissolution efficiency of the silica of about 99% was achieved at 100 deg. C for 4 h, and NaOH/SiO 2 molar ratio three. The particle size of the precipitated silica gel was decreased with increasing Na 2 SiO 3 and SDS concentrations, while H 2 SO 4 concentration had insignificant effect. Particle size of about 16 nm can be achieved at 30% Na 2 SiO 3 , 4% H 2 SO 4 and 200 ppm SDS. The produced silica had 99.93% purity, amorphous and nanosphere particles with narrow size distribution. The produced silica can be used in many applications especially for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurries for semiconductors industries.

  19. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  20. Effect of Rice Straw Extract and Alkali Lignin on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiahtul Zulkafli; Norinsan Kamil Othman; Irman Abdul Rahman; Azman Jalar

    2014-01-01

    A paddy residue based corrosion inhibitor was prepared by treating finely powdered rice straw with aqueous ethanol under acid catalyst (0.01 M H 2 SO 4 ). Commercial alkali lignin was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Prior to the corrosion test, the extraction yield and alkali lignin was characterized via FTIR to determine the functional group. The effect of paddy residue extract and commercial alkali lignin on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated through the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract and alkali lignin at different immersion times (3 h, 24 h and 42 h) was evaluated. The results show that the paddy waste extract exhibited lesser weight loss of carbon steel in the acidic medium in comparison to the commercial alkali lignin, suggesting that the paddy residue extract is more effective than the commercial alkali lignin in terms of its corrosion inhibition properties. The results obtained proves that the extract from paddy residue could serve as an effective inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic mediums. (author)

  1. Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw pellets and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yunhui; McMillan, Oliver; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Ni 2+ on four-standard biochars produced from wheat straw pellets (WSP550, WSP700) and rice husk (RH550, RH700) at 550 and 700 °C, respectively, were investigated. The kinetic results show that the adsorption of Ni 2+ on the biochars reached an equilibrium within 5 min. The increase of the solid to liquid ratio resulted in an increase of Ni 2+ removal percentage but a decrease of the adsorbed amount of Ni 2+ per weight unit of biochar. The Ni 2+ removal percentage increased with the increasing of initial solution pH values at the range of 2-4, was relatively constant at the pH range of 4-8, and significantly increased to ≥98% at pH 9 and stayed constantly at the pH range of 9-10. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Ni 2+ for the biochars follow the order of WSP700 > WSP550 > RH700 > RH550. Both cation exchange capacity and pH of biochar can be a good indicator of the maximum adsorption capacity for Ni 2+ showing a positively linear and exponential relationship, respectively. This study also suggests that a carefully controlled standardised production procedure can make it reliable to compare the adsorption capacities between different biochars and investigate the mechanisms involved.

  2. Extraction of microcrystalline cellulose from rice straw and its effect on polyvinyl alcohol biocomposites film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwok-Mern; Ting, Sam Sung; Lin, Ong Hui; Owi, Wei Tieng

    2017-07-01

    The poor management and underutilization of agricultural wastes had proliferated interest of researchers around the world to find alternatives to utilize them as potential value-added products. One of the green alternatives is by extracting cellulose from these waste materials and incorporating them in polymer as reinforcement fillers. The surging amount of plastic waste also posed major issues to the environment due to its recalcitrance to degrade. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC-RS) was extracted from rice straw through cyclic alkaline and bleaching treatment to remove hemicellulose and lignin respectively. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was chosen as the matrix and different ratios of PVOH / MCC-RS films were prepared (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0wt% of MCC) through solution casting method and its tensile, thermal and morphological properties were studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed increased crystallinity of MCC-RS after chemical treatment (from 44.5% to 60.8%) due to the successful removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which was then confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. For the biocomposites, both tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films increased with increasing MCC-RS content up until 7.5wt%, supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results which depicted improvement in the interfacial adhesion between MCC-RS and PVOH. From the overall results, the improvement in properties of biocomposite from cellulose-based microfiller had shown promising future in application of the water soluble plastic packaging industry.

  3. Removal of chromium (VI) from electroplating wastewater using an anion exchanger derived from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Dang, Zhi; Yia, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Chen; Lu, Gui-Ning; Liu, Yun-Feng; Huang, Se-Yan; Zheng, Liu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    An anion exchanger from rice straw was used to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic wastewater and electroplating effluent. The exchanger was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that the quaternary amino group and hydroxyl group are the main functional groups on the fibrous surface of the exchanger. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and pH on the removal of Cr (VI), and adsorption isotherms at different temperature, was investigated. The results showed that the removal of Cr (VI) was very rapid and was significantly affected by the initial pH of the solution. Although acidic conditions (pH = 2-6) facilitated Cr (VI) adsorption, the exchanger was effective in neutral solution and even under weak base conditions. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacities at pH 6.4 were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.38 mmol/g for 15, 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The exchanger was finally tested with real electroplating wastewater, and at sorbent dosage of 10 g/L, the removal efficiencies for Cr (VI) and total Cr were 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively. In addition, the positive relationship between adsorbed Cr (VI) and desorbed Cl- suggested that Cr (VI) was mainly removed by ion exchange with chlorine.

  4. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  5. The Incorporation of Chromium in Rice Straw Fermented with Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agustin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate chromium incorporation by Ganoderma lucidum in rice straw substrate supplemented with chromium chloride. Treatments were combination of Cr level (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 25000, and 3000 ppm and fermentation time (0, 2, 3, and 4 wk. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 7 x 4 and allocated in completely randomized design with three replications. G. lucidum was grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium for 10 days and was inoculated to the substrate which have been sterilized and mixed with CrCl3.6H2O. The moisture of substrate was maintained at 70%. Fiber and protein components of growth media of G. lucidum was determined and analyzed for their Cr content. The finding result showed that addition of Cr up to 3000 ppm into the substrate stimulated the G. lucidum growth. Chromium was incorporated into the fiber and protein components of the growth substrate of G. lucidum during fermentation. Incorporation of Cr into the protein of substrate containing 3000 ppm Cr was highest when fermented for 4 wk. Protein component of substrate contained 9.29% Cr while in NDF and ADF was 27.20% and 10.55% Cr, respectively. It is concluded that Cr was incorporated into the G. lucidum cells during fermentation.

  6. Characterization of Polypropylene Green Composites Reinforced by Cellulose Fibers Extracted from Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Dinh Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP based green composites containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% of cellulose fibers (CFs which were extracted from rice straw were successfully prepared by melt blend method. The CFs washed with H2O2 after alkaline extraction showed lower water absorption than that not washed with H2O2. The thermal, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of composites were also investigated. The 10% weight loss temperature of the composites was decreased with the increasing CFs content, but all the composites showed over 300°C. Young’s modulus and flexural properties of PP were improved by blending PP with CFs. The pure PP showed no degradability, but the PP/CFs composites degraded from about 3 to 23 wt%, depending on CFs content after being buried in soil for 50 days. These PP/CFs composites with high thermal, mechanical properties and biodegradability may be useful as green composite materials for various environmental fields.

  7. Autointoxication mechanism ofOryza sativa : III. Effect of temperature on phytotoxin production during rice straw decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C H; Chiang, Y C; Chfng, H H

    1981-07-01

    The phytotoxicity produced during decomposition of rice straw in soil was evaluated under both constant and changing temperature conditions. Bioassay tests showed that the aqueous extract from a soilstraw mixture after incubation at constant temperature was more than twice as phytotoxic as the extract from soil incubated alone. The phytotoxicity was highest at 20-25 ° C. Temperatures above 25 ° C enhanced rice straw decomposition and also degraded the phytotoxic substances more rapidly. After incubation of soil mixtures under changing temperature regimes in a phytotron, the phytotoxicy of the soil aqueous extracts increased in the following order: soil alone lettuce or rice seedlings was also at the highest at the temperature range of 25-30 ° C irrespective of the direction of temperature changes from either low to high or vice versa. Five phytotoxic phenolics,p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic,p-coumaric, syringic, and ferulic acids, were obtained from both the aqueous extract and residue of the incubated soil samples and were quantitatively estimated by chromatography. The amount of phytotoxins found in various soil mixtures followed the same increasing order as that found by the seed bioassay test. Although no definite distribution pattern of the phenolics in the incubated soil samples can be attributed to temperature variations, the amount of the phenolics was likely higher in the samples incubated at 25 ° C than at either 15 ° C or 35 ° C. The quantity of toxins released during decomposition of rice straw in soil reached highest levels six weeks after incubation and gradually disappeared after twelve weeks.

  8. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  9. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman

    2010-10-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production.

  11. The utilization of alkali-treated rice straw supplemented with cheap non-protein nitrogen in buffalo production in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Karunaratne, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feeding value of rice straw, with special emphasis on rumen function, on swamp buffalo in Sri Lanka. In Experiment 1 three rumen-fistulated buffaloes of average live weight 240 kg were used to compare three rations containing straw supplemented with 4% urea, straw 'ensiled' for 21 days with a solution of 4% urea (urea/ammonia treatment) and straw treated with a 4% solution of sodium hydroxide. The urea-ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatments were superior to urea supplementation in increasing apparent digestibility of the diet, total volatile fatty acid concentrations and acetate production rate in the rumen. In Experiment 2 three treatments were compared using the same three fistulated buffaloes. Treatments 1 and 2 were as in Experiment 1, but for treatment 3, to 4% urea ensiled straw as in Experiment 1 was added 5 wt% finely chopped, fresh glyricidia leaves prior to ensiling to supply urease, enhancing ammonia production from urea. The digestibility of the glyricidia-containing ration was similar to that of the ration with straw treated for 21 days. Acetate production and total volatile fatty acid concentration were also similar for the two treatments. The increased digestibility of the diet and the apparent increased volatile fatty acid production in the rumen explain the increases in live weight gain and milk production in cattle and buffalo fed urea-ammonia treated rice straw. Adding glyricidia at the commencement of ensiling can be recommended to reduce the ensiling time of treated straw. (author)

  12. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructural characterization of rice husk submitted to different pretreatments to optimize its fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhoneux, B de; Gerlache, L; Clemente, A; Roda-Santos, M L; Menaia, J A.G.; Fernandes, T H

    1988-01-01

    Silica distribution in rice husk was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Silica appeared as a solid structure in the outer epidermis and as a dispersed system inside the husk. Pretreatments (steam autoclaving, water autoclaving, alkaline leaching, gamma irradiation, and ultra sound) were applied in order to achieve an improvement in rice husk digestibility. Alkaline leaching removed a significant part of the silica structure, therefore allowing a larger area of exposure of the cell wall polymers to the degrading enzymes. Among the pretreatments, alkaline leaching appeared to be the most useful, while others seemed not to be very successful in attaining the desired effect.

  14. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  15. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Dąbkowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10...

  16. Artificial intelligence modeling of cadmium(II) biosorption using rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Alaa El Din; Fawzy, Manal; Radwan, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The biosorption efficiency of Cd2+ using rice straw was investigated at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), contact time (2 h) and agitation rate (5 Hz). Experiments studied the effect of three factors, biosorbent dose BD (0.1 and 0.5 g/L), pH (2 and 7) and initial Cd2+ concentration X (10 and 100 mg/L) at two levels "low" and "high". Results showed that, a variation in X from high to low revealed 31 % increase in the Cd2+ biosorption. However, a discrepancy in pH and BD from low to high achieved 28.60 and 23.61 % increase in the removal of Cd2+, respectively. From 23 factorial design, the effects of BD, pH and X achieved p value equals to 0.2248, 0.1881 and 0.1742, respectively, indicating that the influences are in the order X > pH > BD. Similarly, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system indicated that X is the most influential with training and checking errors of 10.87 and 17.94, respectively. This trend was followed by "pH" with training error (15.80) and checking error (17.39), after that BD with training error (16.09) and checking error (16.29). A feed-forward back-propagation neural network with a configuration 3-6-1 achieved correlation ( R) of 0.99 (training), 0.82 (validation) and 0.97 (testing). Thus, the proposed network is capable of predicting Cd2+ biosorption with high accuracy, while the most significant variable was X.

  17. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  18. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  19. IMPACT OF BRACHIARIA, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA, AND POTASSIUM ENRICHED RICE STRAW COMPOST ON ALUMINIUM, POTASSIUM AND STABILITY OF ACID SOIL AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acid soil is commonly grown with cassava, which in general, tolerate low soil  fertility and aluminum (Al toxicity. However, without any improvement efforts such soil will become worse. Intercropping cassava with Brachiaria decumbens (BD which adapts to acid soil and tolerates low fertility soils as well as application of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and organic matters are among the important efforts to rehabilitate this soil. The experiment was conducted to  examine the impact of BD, AM, and potassium (K enriched rice straw compost on exchangeable Al, available K, and stability of soil aggregates. Experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was BD as cassava intercropping, the second factor was AM, and the third factor was 2 t ha-1 rice straw compost enriched with 0 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, and 200 kg KCl ha-1. Brick pots (1 m length x 1 m width x 0.45 m depth filled with Kanhapludult soil was used for growing cassava in which row of BD was planted at 60 cm from cassava stem. K-enriched rice straw compost and AM (10 g per stem were applied around cassava stem at 2 and 12 days after planting, respectively. BD was cut every 30 days and the cutting was returned to the soil. Soil exchangeable Al was analyzed at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP, while Al and K contents as well as aggregate stability were measured at 6 MAP. The results showed that planting BD decreased 33% exchangeable Al, which means that the root exudates of this grass was effective in detoxifying Al3+. Treatment of BD and/or in combination with AM was effective in preserving K added to the soil, increasing total polysaccharides, and improving soil aggregate stability. This indicated that planting BD and applying AM and Kenriched rice straw compost improved acid soil fertility, and therefore can be recommended in cassava cultivation.

  20. Production of furfural from rice straw by microbial treatment. (II). Production of furfural from xylose by acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.S.; Yoo, I.S.; Kang, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction conditions and mechanism of furfural production from xylose by acid treatment were studied. The xylose was obtained from rice straw. Furfural yield at batch-isothermal conditions was a function of initial xylose concentration H2SO4 concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time. And when the initial xylose concentration was low, the results were consistent with those of Root's reaction mechanism. Maximum furfural yield was obtained under conditions of H2SO4 concentration 0.2N, initial xylose concentration 0.0067 M, temperature 200 degrees, and reaction time 10 min.

  1. Removal of fermentation inhibitors from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw: Production of butanol from hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii in batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 g L -1 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from alkaline peroxide wheat straw hydrolysate (APWSH) that had not been treated to reduce salt concentration (a neutralization product). However, fermentation was successful after inhibitors (salts) were removed from the hydrolysate by electrodialysis. A control glucose fermentation resulted in the production of 21.37 g L -1 ABE, while salt removed APWSH resulted in the production of 22.17 g L -1 ABE. In the two fermentations, reactor productivities were 0.30 and 0.55 g L -1 h -1 , respectively. A comparison of use of different substrates (corn fiber, wheat straw) and different pretreatment techniques (dilute sulfuric acid, alkaline peroxide) suggests that generation of inhibitors is substrate and pretreatment specific

  2. Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby

    2012-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...

  3. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20......-40% to become approximate to 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis...

  4. Improving anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw for methane production: Combined benefits of mechanical and sodium hydroxide pretreatment for process designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F.; Terzariol, Filippi K.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH pretreatment was tested to improve degradation of SCS for methane production. • Low NaOH concentration accelerated AD of SCS but not increased the methane yield. • Mild and high NaOH concentrations accelerated and increased methane yield of SCS. • NaOH use increased OPEX but provided a higher profitability than the untreated SCS. • Anaerobic reactor price showed a high influence on sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkaline pretreatment method to enhance the degradation kinetics of sugarcane straw (SCS) for methane production was investigated with a special focus on the benefits for designing the anaerobic digestion process. For that, SCS was previously homogenized by milling in 2 mm particle size and pretreated in NaOH solutions at various concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 g NaOH/100 g SCS) and the methane yields were determined in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The obtained experimental data were used to simulate a large-scale semi-continuous process (100 ton SCS day"−"1) according to a first-order reaction model and the main economic indicators were calculated based on cash flows of each pretreatment condition. The BMP tests showed that by increasing the NaOH concentration the conversion of the fibrous fraction of the substrate to methane was not only accelerated (higher α value), but also increased by 11.9% (from 260 to 291 mL CH_4 gVS"−"1). By using the experimental data to simulate the large-scale process these benefits were translated to a reduction of up to 58% in the size of the anaerobic reactor (and consequently in electricity consumption for stirring), while the methane yield increased up to 28%, if the liquid fraction derived from the pretreatment process is also used for methane production. Although the use of NaOH for substrate pretreatment has considerably increased the operational expenditures (from 0.97 up to 1.97 € × 10"6 year"−"1), the pretreatment method was able to

  5. Development of corn silk as a biocarrier for Zymomonas mobilis biofilms in ethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhanakasem, Tatsaporn; Tiwari, Rashmi; Thanonkeo, Pornthap

    2016-01-01

    Z. mobilis cell immobilization has been proposed as an effective means of improving ethanol production. In this work, polystyrene and corn silk were used as biofilm developmental matrices for Z. mobilis ethanol production with rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate. Rice straw was hydrolyzed by dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis. The final hydrolysate contained furfural (271.95 ± 76.30 ppm), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0.07 ± 0.00 ppm), vanillin (1.81 ± 0.00 ppm), syringaldehyde (5.07 ± 0.83 ppm), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB) (2.39 ± 1.20 ppm) and acetic acid (0.26 ± 0.08%). Bacterial attachment or biofilm formation of Z. mobilis strain TISTR 551 on polystyrene and delignified corn silk carrier provided significant ethanol yields. Results showed up to 0.40 ± 0.15 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when Z. mobilis was immobilized on a polystyrene carrier and 0.51 ± 0.13 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when immobilized on delignified corn silk carrier under batch fermentation by Z. mobilis TISTR 551 biofilm. The higher ethanol yield from immobilized, rather than free living, Z. mobilis could possibly be explained by a higher cell density, better control of anaerobic conditions and higher toxic tolerance of Z. mobilis biofilms over free cells.

  6. Minimizing mixing intensity to improve the performance of rice straw anaerobic digestion via enhanced development of microbe-substrate aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkyung; Kim, Byung-Chul; Choi, Yongju; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the differential development of microbe-substrate aggregates at different mixing intensities on the performance of anaerobic digestion of rice straw. Batch and semi-continuous reactors were operated for up to 50 and 300days, respectively, under different mixing intensities. In both batch and semi-continuous reactors, minimal mixing conditions exhibited maximum methane production and lignocellulose biodegradability, which both had strong correlations with the development of microbe-substrate aggregates. The results implied that the aggregated microorganisms on the particulate substrate played a key role in rice straw hydrolysis, determining the performance of anaerobic digestion. Increasing the mixing speed from 50 to 150rpm significantly reduced the methane production rate by disintegrating the microbe-substrate aggregates in the semi-continuous reactor. A temporary stress of high-speed mixing fundamentally affected the microbial communities, increasing the possibility of chronic reactor failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: fermented rice straw extracts interferes with methane production and gene expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Chin, James

    2013-01-01

    Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl CoA) reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE) can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P < 0.01) the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg). In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants.

  8. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: Fermented Rice Straw Extracts Interferes with Methane Production and Gene Expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl CoA reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen. By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P<0.01 the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg. In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants.

  9. Dynamic modeling and analyses of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process to produce bio-ethanol from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jordon; Su, Wen-Jun; Chien, I-Lung; Chang, Der-Ming; Chou, Sheng-Hsin; Zhan, Rui-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The rice straw, an agricultural waste from Asians' main provision, was collected as feedstock to convert cellulose into ethanol through the enzymatic hydrolysis and followed by the fermentation process. When the two process steps are performed sequentially, it is referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The steps can also be performed simultaneously, i.e., simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this research, the kinetic model parameters of the cellulose saccharification process step using the rice straw as feedstock is obtained from real experimental data of cellulase hydrolysis. Furthermore, this model can be combined with a fermentation model at high glucose and ethanol concentrations to form a SSF model. The fermentation model is based on cybernetic approach from a paper in the literature with an extension of including both the glucose and ethanol inhibition terms to approach more to the actual plants. Dynamic effects of the operating variables in the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation models will be analyzed. The operation of the SSF process will be compared to the SHF process. It is shown that the SSF process is better in reducing the processing time when the product (ethanol) concentration is high. The means to improve the productivity of the overall SSF process, by properly using aeration during the batch operation will also be discussed.

  10. Construction of Potent Recombinant Strain Through Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion in Endophytic Fungi for Anticancerous Enzymes Production Using Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; Al-Zahrani, Salha Hassan Mastour; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Among all fungal endophytes isolates derived from different ethno-medical plants, the hyper-yield L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase wild strains Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20 using rice straw under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were selected. The selected strains were used as parents for the intergeneric protoplast fusion program to construct recombinant strain for prompt improvement production of these enzymes in one recombinant strain. Among 21 fusants obtained, the recombinant strain AYA 20-1, with 2.11-fold and 2.58-fold increase in L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase activities more than the parental isolates Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20, respectively, was achieved using rice straw under SSF. Both therapeutic enzymes L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase were purified and characterized from the culture supernatant of the recombinant AYA 20-1 strain with molecular weights of 50.6 and 83.2 kDa, respectively. Both enzymes were not metalloenzymes. Whereas thiol group blocking reagents such as p-chloromercurybenzoate and iodoacetamide totally inhibited L-asparaginase activity, which refer to sulfhydryl groups and cysteine residues involved in its catalytic activity, they have no effect toward L-glutaminase activity. Interestingly, potent anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were detected for both enzymes.

  11. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  12. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications.

  13. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was carried out at different temperatures (450,500,550, and 600°C) at ratio 1:1 by using fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield. As the temperature increased, the pyrolysis oil increased until it reaches certain high temperature (600°C), the pyrolysis oil decreased as of more NCG were produced. The temperature 550°C is considered as the optimum pyrolysis temperature since it produced the highest amount of pyrolysis oil with 36 wt.%. In pyrolysis oil, the calorific value (13.98kJ/g) was low because of the presence of high water content (52.46 wt.%). Main chemicals group from pyrolysis oil were an aldehyde, ketones, acids, aromatics, and phenol and all compound have abundant of hydrogen and carbon were identified. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and PET produced a higher amount of carbon oxides and recycling back the NCG could increase liquid and char yields.

  15. [Impacts of rice straw biochar on organic carbon and CO2 release in arable soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yue-Jin; Hu, Xue-Yu; Yi, Qing; Yu, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of biochar and the effect of biochar when added into soil on soil organic carbon, a 130-day incubation experiment was conducted with rice straw biochar produced at 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C (RBC500 and RBC700) and with addition rates of 0% (control), 3%, 6% and 100% (pure biochar), to detect the change of total organic carbon (TOC), easily oxidized carbon (EOC) and status of CO2 release, following addition of biochar in arable soil. Results showed that: the content of both TOC and EOC in soil increased with biochar addition rates comparing with the control. RBC500 had greater contributions to both TOC and EOC increasing amounts than those of RBC700 under the same biochar addition rate. TOC contents of all treatments decreased during the initial 30 days with the largest decreasing amplitude of 15.8%, and tended to be stable in late incubation stages. Same to that of TOC, EOC contents of all treatments also tended to remain stable after 30 days, but in the 30 days of early incubation, EOC in the soil decreased by 72.4% and 81.7% respectively when the added amount of RBC500 was 3% and 6% , while it was reduced by 61.3% and 69.8% respectively when the added amount of RBC700 was 3% and 6%. EOC contents of soil added with biochar produced at the same temperature were similar in the end of incubation. The reduction of soil EOC content in early incubation may be related to mineralization caused by labile fractions of biochar. During the 130-day incubation, the accumulated CO2 releases showed an order of soil and biochar mixtures soil could reduce CO2 release, the largest reduction amplitude is 41.05%. In a long time scale, biochar as a soil amendment is favorable to the deduction of greenhouse gas release and soil carbon immobilization. Biochar could be used as a soil carbon sequestration carrier.

  16. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  17. Enhanced sugar production from pretreated barley straw by additive xylanase and surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Junhua; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Soininen, Pasi; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve enzymatic sugar production from dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated barley straw for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The effects of additive xylanase and surfactants (polyethylene glycol [PEG] and Tween) in an enzymatic reaction system on straw hydrolysis yields were investigated. By combined application of 2g/100g dry-matter (DM) xylanase and PEG 4000, the glucose yield was increased from 53.2% to 86.9% and the xylose yield was increased from 36.2% to 70.2%, which were considerably higher than results obtained with xylanase or surfactant alone. The ABE fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate produced 10.8 g/L ABE, in which 7.9 g/L was butanol. The enhanced sugar production increased the ABE yield from 93.8 to 135.0 g/kg pretreated straw. The combined application of xylanase and surfactants has a large potential to improve sugar production from barley straw pretreated with a mild acid and that the hydrolysate showed good fermentability in ABE production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  19. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  1. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  3. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.

    2014-01-01

    equipment and avoid inhibition of enzymes and yeast. Composition of the washed biomass was comparable to traditional lignocellulosic biomasses with relatively high glucan and xylan content (26 and 22. g/100. gDM, respectively) but with lower lignin content (7. g/100. gDM). The washed feedstock was subjected...... to hydrothermal pretreatment, producing highly digestible (up to 92% glucan-to-glucose conversion) and fermentable (up to 100% glucose-to-ethanol conversion) fiber fractions. Liquid fractions obtained in the pretreatment did not show inhibition towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant differences among...... the enzymatic convertibility and microbial fermentability of the fibers as well as low xylose recoveries suggest that lower severity pretreatment conditions could be exploited for S. bigelovii. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  5. The Short-Term Effects of Rice Straw Biochar, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Properties in a Cold Waterlogged Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising management approach to eliminating these obstacles. However, little is known about the performance of biochar when combined with N fertilizer and P fertilizer in cold waterlogged soils. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the main effects and interactive effects of rice straw biochar, N and P fertilizer on rice growth and soil properties in a cold waterlogged paddy field. The field treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two biochar levels (0 and 2.25 t ha−1, two N fertilizer levels (120.0 and 180.0 kg ha−1 and two P fertilizer levels (37.5 and 67.5 kg ha−1 which were arranged in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Results confirmed that biochar application caused a significant increase in the soil pH due to its liming effect, while this application resulted in a significant decrease in soil exchangeable cations, such as exchangeable Ca, Mg, Al and base cations. The interactive effect of N fertilizer, P fertilizer and biochar was significant for soil total N. Moreover, a negative effect of biochar on the internal K use efficiency suggested that K uptake into rice may benefit from biochar application. According to the partial Eta squared values, the combined application of N fertilizer and biochar was as effective as pure P fertilization at increasing straw P uptake. The addition of biochar to farmers’ fertilization practice treatment (180.0 kg N ha−1, 67.5 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 67.5 kg K2O ha−1 significantly increased rice yield, mainly owing to improvements in grains per panicle. However, notable effects of biochar on rice yield and biomass production were not detected

  6. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat...

  7. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    solubilization was investigated. The two process parameters had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose. However alkaline conditions affected the furfural formation whereas oxygen had no effect. After pretreatment, the filtrate was used as a fermentation medium for thermophilic anaerobic bacterin...

  8. Development of natural cellulase inhibitor mediated intensified biological pretreatment technology using Pleurotus florida for maximum recovery of cellulose from paddy straw under solid state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Manickam; Ravikumar, Rajarathinam; Thenmozhi, Senniyappan; Kirupa Sankar, Muthuvelu

    2017-11-01

    Inhibitor mediated intensified bio-pretreatment (IMBP) technology using natural cellulase inhibitor (NCI) for maximum cellulose recovery from paddy straw was studied. Pretreatment was carried out under solid state condition. Supplementation of 8% NCI in pretreatment medium improves cellulose recovery and delignification by 1.2 and 1.5-fold respectively, compared to conventional bio-pretreatment due to inhibition of 61% of cellulase activity in IMBP. Further increase in NCI concentration showed negative effect on Pleurotus florida growth and suppress the laccase productivity by 1.1-fold. Laccase activity in IMBP was found to be 2.0U/mL on 19 th day, which is higher than (1.5U/mL) conventional bio-pretreatment. Physico-chemical modifications in paddy straw before and after pretreatment were analysed by SEM, ATR-FTIR, XRD and TGA. According to these findings, the IMBP technology can be a viable eco-friendly technology for sustainable production of bioethanol with maximum cellulose recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Hong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Results In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme β-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1 gene, from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial E1 gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer, with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the E1 protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial E1 enzyme were obtained that expressed the gene at high levels without severely impairing plant growth and development. However, some transgenic plants exhibited a shorter stature and flowered earlier than the wild type plants. The E1 specific activities in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20-fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. A zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the E1 enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid for one hour at 39°C and another hour at 81°C yielded 43% more reducing sugars than wild type rice

  11. Properties important for solid–liquid separations change during the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals provides new challenges for industrial scale processes. One such process, which has received little attention, but is of great importance for efficient product recovery, is solid–liquid separations......, which may occur both after pretreatment and after the enzymatic hydrolysis steps. Due to the changing nature of the solid biomass during processing, the solid–liquid separation properties of the biomass can also change. The objective of this study was to show the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis...... of cellulose upon the water retention properties of pretreated biomass over the course of the hydrolysis reaction. Results Water retention value measurements, coupled with 1H NMR T2 relaxometry data, showed an increase in water retention and constraint of water by the biomass with increasing levels...

  12. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of rice straw and radiation-modified maize starch/acrylonitrile in the treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, S.E.; Gad, Y.H.; Dessouki, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto maize starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator was studied with regard to the various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-maize starch ratio and total dose (kGy). The water absorption of the modified maize starch was measured. The starch modified by acrylonitrile gives low water absorbance. Conversion of the copolymer to the amidoxime form gives high swelling. The gel (%) and the grafting efficiency were measured. An investigation was carried out to study the adsorption of basic violet 7, basic blue 3, direct yellow 50 and acid red 37 from aqueous solutions by the water-insoluble modified starch containing amidoxime groups and rice straw. The effects of initial pH of the solution, pollutant concentration and treatment time on the adsorption were studied and it was found that the maximum adsorption was at 1:2 (starch/acrylonitrile) at irradiation dose 30 kGy

  14. Open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws: primary emissions, photochemical aging, and secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Yanli; Ding, Xiang; Tang, Mingjin; Liu, Tengyu; Hu, Qihou; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyi; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Yele; George, Christian; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural residues are among the most abundant biomass burned globally, especially in China. However, there is little information on primary emissions and photochemical evolution of agricultural residue burning. In this study, indoor chamber experiments were conducted to investigate primary emissions from open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws and their photochemical aging as well. Emission factors of NOx, NH3, SO2, 67 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), particulate matter (PM), organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) under ambient dilution conditions were determined. Olefins accounted for > 50 % of the total speciated NMHCs emission (2.47 to 5.04 g kg-1), indicating high ozone formation potential of straw burning emissions. Emission factors of PM (3.73 to 6.36 g kg-1) and primary organic carbon (POC, 2.05 to 4.11 gC kg-1), measured at dilution ratios of 1300 to 4000, were lower than those reported in previous studies at low dilution ratios, probably due to the evaporation of semi-volatile organic compounds under high dilution conditions. After photochemical aging with an OH exposure range of (1.97-4.97) × 1010 molecule cm-3 s in the chamber, large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were produced with OA mass enhancement ratios (the mass ratio of total OA to primary OA) of 2.4-7.6. The 20 known precursors could only explain 5.0-27.3 % of the observed SOA mass, suggesting that the major precursors of SOA formed from open straw burning remain unidentified. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) signaled that the aged OA contained less hydrocarbons but more oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds than primary OA, and carbon oxidation state (OSc) calculated with AMS resolved O / C and H / C ratios increased linearly (p < 0.001) with OH exposure with quite similar slopes.

  15. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  16. Improving methane production through co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonari, A.A.; Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw) and BD (Buffalo Dung) by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System) at mesophilic (37+-1oC) conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor), which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2. (author)

  17. Fate of Fertilizer-Derived N Applied to Enhance Rice Straw Decomposition in a Paddy Field during the Fallow Season under Cool Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen (N derived from fertilizer (fertilizer-derived N applied to a paddy field after rice harvesting to promote rice straw decomposition during the fallow season, and to determine its effect on soil N fertility in northern Japan. A frame containing soil mixed with rice straw and 15N-labeled fertilizer (4.3 g N m−2 ammonium sulfate [AS] or lime-nitrogen [LN] was placed into a paddy field on a gray lowland soil during the fallow season (October–April, and the following rice-growing season (May–September. Before cultivation (April, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in soil + straw were higher for LN (55–72% than for AS (41–63%. At the harvesting stage (September, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in plants were significantly higher for LN (4.9–6.2% than for AS (3.4–5.3%, and the percentages in soil were also significantly higher for LN (42–61% than for AS (31–38%. This could be attributed to the nitrification inhibitory effect of LN and result in the suppression of N losses via leaching. Consequently, fertilizer-derived N could contribute to the maintenance of soil N fertility, and this effect could be higher for LN than AS.

  18. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  19. Development of over-production strain of saccharification enzyme and biomass pretreatment by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Lee, J. Y.; Song, Y. S.; Lee, S. J.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    When lignocellulosic biomass converts to ethanol, enzyme takes lots of part of whole cost. Therefore, cellulase production is one of the important processes for the successful enzymatic conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Among cellulolytic enzymes, cellulase is multi-complex enzyme containing endo-glucanase, exo-glucanase and β-glucosidase. Cellulolyticfungi, Trichodema reesei is well known to produce the highest yields of cellulase. Especially, suitable cellulase composition was important for the effective saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and strain having high level production of cellulase should be developed for hydrolysis. For efficient ethanol production, hemicellullase of Aspergillus also develop to use xylose generated from saccharification of biomass. In this study, pretreatment process of rice straw using proton beam irradiation (PBI) was carried out for enhancement of enzyme digestibility at different proton beam doses. Also, PBI pretreatment on ammonia soaking treated (SAA, Soaking aqueous ammonia) rice straw was conducted to solve the problem that is micro-structural inhibition of rice straw. Optimal dosages of proton beam on rice straw and SAA treated rice straw for efficient recovery of sugar were 15 KGy and 3 KGy, respectively. Enzymatic saccharification of PBI treated rice straw and SAA rice straw was conducted for the guidance of NREL standard procedure. Analysis using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for crystallinity index was carried out and CrI found to be 33.38% of control and 35.72% of 15 KGy. Also, CrI was determined to be 67.11% of control and approximately 65.58% of 3 kGy dose in PBI pretreatment on SAA treated rice straw. The result of sugar recovery of both was approximately 70 % and 91 % of theoretical glucose contents, respectively. The initial reaction rate was increased from 7.610 -4 g·l -1 ·s -1 of 15 KGy (PBI pretreated rice straw) to 9.710 -4 g·l -1 ·s -1 (3 KGy PBI pretreated SAA rice straw). The selection of

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD. Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  1. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Agnesia, Shandy Sarima; Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD). Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  2. Liquid nitrogen pretreatment of eucalyptus sawdust and rice hull for enhanced enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Rafael; Correa, Vanesa G; de Morais, Gutierrez Rodrigues; de Souza, Cristina G M; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosely A; Peralta-Muniz Moreira, Regina F; Peralta, Rosane M

    2017-01-01

    In this work, liquid nitrogen was used for the first time in the pretreatment of plant biomasses for purposes of enzymatic saccharification. After treatment (cryocrushing), the initial rates of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust and rice hull were increased more than ten-fold. Cryocrushing did not modify significantly the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both eucalyptus sawdust and rice hulls. However, substantial disorganization of the lignocellulosic materials in consequence of the pretreatment could be observed by electron microscopy. Cryocrushing was highly efficient in improving the saccharification of the holocellulose component of the plant biomasses (from 4.3% to 54.1% for eucalyptus sawdust and from 3.9% to 40.6% for rice hull). It is important to emphasize that it consists in a simple operation with low requirements of water and chemicals, no corrosion, no release of products such as soluble phenolics, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural and no waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Rice Straw to Produce Biogas using Semi-Continuous Flow Digester: Effect of Urea Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, A.; Sugara, B. P.; Telaumbanua, M.; Rosadi, R. A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The objective this research was to investigate the effect of urea addition on the biogas yield from co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung using semi-continuous anaerobic digester. The experiment was conducted by using self-made semi-continuous anaerobic digester having a working volume of 30 L. Cow dung was provided from Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Lampung; while rice straw was collected from farmer at Way Galih, Tanjung Bintang, South Lampung. Rice straw was sun-dried to about 12% of moisture content and then ground into fine particles. Cow dung and ground straw were mixed at a dung-to-straw ratio of 3:1 based on total solid (TS) and four different urea additions (0, 0.25, 0.65, and 1.30 g/L) were applied to have a C/N ratio between 20 and 30. The mixture was diluted with water to create TS content of 10%. As much as 30 L of the substrate mixture was introduced into the digester as a starting load. The same substrate was added daily at a loading rate of 0.5 L/d. The experiment was made in triplicate and observation was performed for two months. Total and volatile solids of influent and effluent and daily biogas production were observed. The biogas quality was measured by its methane content using gas chromatography. Results showed that urea addition influenced the biogas yield and its quality. Substrate mixture with urea addition of 0.25 g/L (C/N ratio of 27.3) was the best in terms of biogas yield (434.2 L/kgVSr), methane content (50.12%), and methane yield (217.6 L/kgVSr).

  4. Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF has been recognized as a feasible option for ethanol production from xylose-rich lignocellulosic materials. To reach high ethanol concentration in the broth, a high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed, which creates mixing problems and, furthermore, may decrease xylose uptake. Feeding of substrate has already been proven to give a higher xylose conversion than a batch SSCF. In the current work, enzyme feeding, in addition to substrate feeding, was investigated as a means of enabling a higher WIS content with a high xylose conversion in SSCF of a xylose-rich material. A recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TMB3400 was used for this purpose in fed-batch SSCF experiments of steam-pretreated wheat straw. Results By using both enzyme and substrate feeding, the xylose conversion in SSCF could be increased from 40% to 50% in comparison to substrate feeding only. In addition, by this design of the feeding strategy, it was possible to process a WIS content corresponding to 11% in SSCF and obtain an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.35 g g-1. Conclusion A combination of enzyme and substrate feeding was shown to enhance xylose uptake by yeast and increase overall ethanol yield in SSCF. This is conceptually important for the design of novel SSCF processes aiming at high-ethanol titers. Substrate feeding prevents viscosity from becoming too high and thereby allows a higher total amount of WIS to be added in the process. The enzyme feeding, furthermore, enables keeping the glucose concentration low, which kinetically favors xylose uptake and results in a higher xylose conversion.

  5. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  6. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent's surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  7. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 13 C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13 C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13 C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13 C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  8. {sup 13}C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wei, E-mail: weicao@hqu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used {sup 13}C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. {sup 13}C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that {sup 13}C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  9. Variations in the patterns of soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial communities in response to exogenous application of rice straw and calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shuzhen; Huang, Yuan; Ge, Yunhui; Su, Yirong; Xu, Xinwen; Wang, Yongdong; He, Xunyang

    2016-01-01

    The addition of exogenous inorganic carbon (CaCO 3 ) and organic carbon has an important influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in karst soil, but the microbial mechanisms underlying the SOC priming effect are poorly understood. We conducted a 100-day incubation experiment involving four treatments of the calcareous soil in southwestern China's karst region: control, 14 C-labeled rice straw addition, 14 C-labeled CaCO 3 addition, and a combination of 14 C-labeled rice straw and CaCO 3 . Changes in soil microbial communities were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Both 14 C-rice straw and Ca 14 CO 3 addition stimulated SOC mineralization, suggesting that organic and inorganic C affected SOC stability. Addition of straw alone had no significant effect on bacterial diversity; however, when the straw was added in combination with calcium carbonate, it had an inhibitory effect on bacterial and fungal diversity. At the beginning of the experimental period, exogenous additives increased bacterial abundance, although at the end of the 100-day incubation bacterial community abundance had gradually declined. Incubation time, exogenous input, and their interaction significantly affected SOC mineralization (in terms of priming and the cumulative amount of mineralization), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial community abundance and diversity. Moreover, the key factors influencing SOC mineralization were MBC, bacterial diversity, and soil pH. Overall, these findings support the view that inorganic C is involved in soil C turnover with the participation of soil microbial communities, promoting soil C cycling in the karst region. - Highlights: • Different patterns of 14 C-rice straw and Ca 14 CO 3 addition on positive priming effects of SOC mineralization. • Inorganic C is involved in soil C cycling with the participation of soil microbial

  10. Variations in the patterns of soil organic carbon mineralization and microbial communities in response to exogenous application of rice straw and calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Huang, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Ge, Yunhui [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Su, Yirong [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China); Xu, Xinwen; Wang, Yongdong [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); He, Xunyang, E-mail: hbhpjhn@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huangjiang 547100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The addition of exogenous inorganic carbon (CaCO{sub 3}) and organic carbon has an important influence on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in karst soil, but the microbial mechanisms underlying the SOC priming effect are poorly understood. We conducted a 100-day incubation experiment involving four treatments of the calcareous soil in southwestern China's karst region: control, {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw addition, {sup 14}C-labeled CaCO{sub 3} addition, and a combination of {sup 14}C-labeled rice straw and CaCO{sub 3}. Changes in soil microbial communities were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Both {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition stimulated SOC mineralization, suggesting that organic and inorganic C affected SOC stability. Addition of straw alone had no significant effect on bacterial diversity; however, when the straw was added in combination with calcium carbonate, it had an inhibitory effect on bacterial and fungal diversity. At the beginning of the experimental period, exogenous additives increased bacterial abundance, although at the end of the 100-day incubation bacterial community abundance had gradually declined. Incubation time, exogenous input, and their interaction significantly affected SOC mineralization (in terms of priming and the cumulative amount of mineralization), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and microbial community abundance and diversity. Moreover, the key factors influencing SOC mineralization were MBC, bacterial diversity, and soil pH. Overall, these findings support the view that inorganic C is involved in soil C turnover with the participation of soil microbial communities, promoting soil C cycling in the karst region. - Highlights: • Different patterns of {sup 14}C-rice straw and Ca{sup 14}CO{sub 3} addition on positive priming effects of SOC mineralization. • Inorganic C is involved in

  11. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  12. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper ... 30% hemi-cellulose and 10 – 15% lignin (Sharma et al.,. 2001; Sun and ... Hence, it is the goal of this paper to study the con- .... butanediol from pretreated corn cob by Klebsiella Oxytoca in the.

  13. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  14. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  15. Genetic loci simultaneously controlling lignin monomers and biomass digestibility of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Guifen; Muhammad, Ali; Samad, Rana Abdul; Wang, Youmei; Walton, Jonathan D; He, Yuqing; Peng, Liangcai; Wang, Lingqiang

    2018-02-26

    Lignin content and composition are crucial factors affecting biomass digestibility. Exploring the genetic loci simultaneously affecting lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility is a precondition for lignin genetic manipulation towards energy crop breeding. In this study, a high-throughput platform was employed to assay the lignin content, lignin composition and biomass enzymatic digestibility of a rice recombinant inbred line population. Correlation analysis indicated that the absolute content of lignin monomers rather than lignin content had negative effects on biomass saccharification, whereas the relative content of p-hydroxyphenyl unit and the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit exhibited positive roles. Eight QTL clusters were identified and four of them affecting both lignin composition and biomass digestibility. The additive effects of clustered QTL revealed consistent relationships between lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility. Pyramiding rice lines containing the above four positive alleles for increasing biomass digestibility were selected and showed comparable lignin content, decreased syringyl or guaiacyl unit and increased molar percentage of p-hydroxyphenyl unit, the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit and sugar releases. More importantly, the lodging resistance and eating/cooking quality of pyramiding lines were not sacrificed, indicating the QTL information could be applied to select desirable energy rice lines.

  16. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  17. Valorisation of Vietnamese Rice Straw Waste: Catalytic Aqueous Phase Reforming of Hydrolysate from Steam Explosion to Platform Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huong Giang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions.

  18. Application of gamma rays for increasing the productivity of xylitol from rice straw by candida teleprocess and candida guilieliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouzeid, A.A.; El-zawahry, Y.A.; El-mongy, T.M.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Abd El-aziz, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Irradiating the rice straw with high dose level of gamma rays (100-KGy) after being treated with diluted sulphuric acid increased the xylitol yields from the hydrolysates to 43.2 and 45.0 g/l out of 63.0 g/l xylose by Candida tropical and Candida guilliermondii, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiating C. tropical is and C. guilliermondii with low dose levels (0.25 and 0.5 KGy, respectively) before being inoculated in artificial medium, containing 150 g/l xylose, increased the yields of xylitol by the irradiated species. On the contrary, the produced xylitol was decreased sharply in case of isolates irradiated with 1 KGy especially C. tropical is, which showed less resistance to gamma rays recording. D 1 0, value 1.225 compared with 1.608 for C. guilliermondii. Sub-lethal dose of gamma rays (10 and 8 KGy) shrank C. guilliermondii cells and their sh,ape became irregular while C. tropical is cells formed small cottony fibres structure on the external surface of the cell wall, respectively. Meanwhile, lethal radiation doses-(l l and 9 KGy) caused deformation of the vegetative cells of both isolates. Many cells were enlarged, the cell walls of many others were ruptured and the internal contents were released outside the cells. Complete lyses of some cells-was also observed

  19. REMOVAL OF U(VI) IN MULTI-COMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ADSORPTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM RICE STRAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAKOUT, S.M.; RIZK, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of low cost activated carbon derived from rice straw has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods for radionuclides removal from wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out in multi-component systems. The effects of common cations and anions on uranium uptake were investigated. Different cations under investigation showed marginal effect on the adsorption of uranium, except in case of iron ion where the adsorption was significantly depressed by the addition of Fe ion (R % was 20%). Coexistence of iron ions at high levels may compete strongly for the adsorption sites with uranium ions resulting in a substantial reduction of uranium removal. The prepared activated carbon showed good selectivity in uranium extraction even in the presence of large concentrations (100 ppm) of anionic complexing agents and common electrolyte species.The simultaneous presence of both U(VI) / Th(IV) reduced sorption through competition for sorption sites on carbon surface. It is concluded that multi-species adsorption can be significantly affected by adsorbate interactions. Understanding these interactions needs great attention in adsorption study in the future

  20. On alleviation of atrazine and imidacloprid contamination from single component aqueous systems using rice straw biochars: An Optimization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Adsorption of pesticide on adsorbents is considered as the most feasible approach of decontamination. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. Normal (RSBC) and phosphoric acid treated (T-RSBC) rice straw biochars were characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The yield parameters of biochar suggested higher biomass-biochar conversion ratio for the rice biochar. T-RSBC (pH=6.93) was neutral whereas RSBC was alkaline in nature. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the biochars were quite high. Elemental analysis (C, H, N, O) of biochars suggested a higher total carbon content (47.7-49.5%) and degree of aromaticity (H/C 0.62-0.63) indicating increased stability of biochars than the parent feedstocks. Polarity increased when T-RSBC (O/C 0.416) was synthesized from RSBC (O/C 0.410). The surface area, pore volume and micropore volume of the biochars, calculated using BET N2 adsorption method, suggested that RSBC was the most porous biochar (220.2 m2 g-1) amongst the two studied. IR, SEM and XRD analysis of biochars suggested the presence of inorganic minerals, carbonates, aromatic moieties and carboxylic groups. Zeta potential measurement indicated that biochars' surfaces carried negative charges while Boehm titration results suggested abundant presence of surface acidic functional groups on both the biochars. Fairly good atrazine and imidacloprid removal were shown by RSBC (KFads,Atrz = 1363; KFads,Imida =1706) and T-RSBC (KFads,Atrz=2716; KFads,Imida= 3140). Results obtained by fitting the atrazine and imidacloprid adsorption data to the Freundlich

  1. PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI ALKALI-PRETREATMENT JERAMI PADI DENGAN PROSES SIMULTANEOUS SACHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an agricultural waste which contains 39% cellulose and 27.5% hemicelluloses. Rice straw can be converted into bio ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF process. The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of rice straw pretreatment and operation condition (number of cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces cereviseae for bioethanol production. The bioethanol conversion was devided by 2 steps, there were delignification and SSF. Delignification process was done by soak rice straw in NaOH 2% heated at temperature 85 oC for 1 hour then washed with water. The pretreatment rice straw was used as substrate in SSF. SSF was conducted in the presence of cellulase enzyme (20, 30, and 40 FPU and Sacharomyces Cerevisiae (2,4 and 6 ose for 3 days. The bioethanol concentration produced for 20 FPU, 30 FPU, and 40 FPU in 2 ose S.careviseae are 0,45%, 0,44%, and 0,43% respectively. The addition number of Saccharomyces cereviseae was gave high concentration of bioethanol. The result shown that bioethanol concentration of 2 ose, 4 ose and 6 ose are 0,45%, 0,46% and 1,07%, respectively. In the same concentration of enzyme (20 FPU which pretreatment and non pretretament substrate was increased of bioethanol concentration up to 82,2%. The pretretment process was broken the structure of lignin and made enzyme easy to attached cellulose and converted to glucose.

  2. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  3. Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison and Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Alkaline Pre-Treated Triticale Straw for Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the comparison of the efficiency of two-stage hydrolysis processes, i.e., alkaline pre-treatment and acid hydrolysis, as well as alkaline pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, carried out in order to obtain reducing sugars from triticale straw. For each of the analyzed systems, the optimization of the processing conditions was carried out with respect to the glucose yield. For the alkaline pre-treatment, an optimal catalyst concentration was selected for constant values of temperature and pre-treatment time. For enzymatic hydrolysis, optimal process time and concentration of the enzyme preparation were determined. For the acidic hydrolysis, performed with 85% phosphoric acid, the optimum temperature and hydrolysis time were determined. In the hydrolysates obtained after the two-stage treatment, the concentration of reducing sugars was determined using HPLC. The obtained hydrolysates were subjected to ethanol fermentation. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors are given and their effects on the alcoholic fermentation efficiency are discussed.

  5. Improvement in rice straw pulp bleaching effluent quality by incorporating oxygen delignification stage prior to elemental chlorine-free bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Environmental degradation by industrial and other developmental activities is alarming for imperative environmental management by process advancements of production. Pulp and paper mills are now focusing on using nonwood-based raw materials to protect forest resources. In present study, rice straw was utilized for pulp production as it is easily and abundantly available as well as rich in carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Soda-anthraquinone method was used for pulp production as it is widely accepted for agro residues. Bleaching process during paper production is the chief source of wastewater generation. The chlorophenolic compounds generated during bleaching are highly toxic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative in nature. The objectives of study were to use oxygen delignification (ODL) stage prior to elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching to reduce wastewater load and to study its impact on bleached pulp characteristics. ODL stage prior to ECF bleaching improved the optical properties of pulp in comparison to only ECF bleaching. When ODL stage was incorporated prior to bleaching, the tensile index and folding endurance of the pulp were found to be 56.6 ± 1.5 Nm/g and 140, respectively, very high in comparison to ECF alone. A potential reduction of 51, 57, 43, and 53% in BOD 3 , COD, color, and AOX, respectively was observed on adding the ODL stage compared to ECF only. Generation of chlorophenolic compounds was reduced significantly. Incorporation of ODL stage prior to bleaching was found to be highly promising for reducing the toxicity of bleaching effluents and may lead to better management of nearby water resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  7. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd metals were mainly bound in the soil organic matter fraction. The results demonstrated that the rice straw biochar can effectively immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw by RT-CaCCO process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Poritosh; Tokuyasu, Ken; Orikasa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Japan has set an ambitious goal to produce bioethanol from abundant biomass in views to offset some of her greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study attempts to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from the most common variety of rice straw in Japan (cv. Koshihikari) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Three scenarios are established in the evaluation process. The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs are estimated to determine if environmentally friendly and economically viable bioethanol can be produced from rice straw in Japan. The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs are estimated to be 10.43–11.56 GJ/m 3 , 1106.34–1144.94 kg/L and 88.54–137.55 k¥/m 3 (1 US$≈100¥), respectively depending on the scenarios of this study. This study reveals that despite a bit of environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful unless innovative technologies along with the renewable energy policy and stakeholders participation are considered. A shift in scenarios not only reduces the production cost, but may also minimize the risk of soil degradation and productivity loss and encourage more stakeholder participation and investment in the bioethanol industry in Japan. -- Highlights: ► Three scenarios are considered to evaluate the life cycle of bioethanol produced from rice straw. ► The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production cost are estimated. ► The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production cost are dependent on the scenarios. ► A shift in scenarios reduces the emission and production cost of bioethanol.

  9. Batch kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of strontium from aqueous solutions onto low cost rice-straw based carbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yakout

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the feasibility of using waste rice-straw based carbons as adsorbent for the removal of strontium under different experimental conditions. The batch sorption is studied with respect to solute concentration (2.8 - 110 mg/L, contact time, adsorbent dose (2.5 - 20 g/L and solution temperature (25 - 55oC. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were applied to experimental equilibrium data and isotherm constants were calculated using linear regression analysis. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of strontium on rice-straw carbon was evaluated for the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham’s kinetics models. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudosecond-order kinetic model and also followed by intra-particle diffusion model, whereas diffusion is not only the rate-controlling step. The results show that the sorption capacity increases with an increase in solution temperature from 25 to 55 oC. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The positive value of ΔH (40.93 kJ indicated that the adsorption of strontium onto RS1 carbon was endothermic, which result was supported by the increasing adsorption of strontium with temperature. The positive value of ΔS (121.8 kJ/mol reflects good affinity of strontium ions towards the rice-straw based carbons. The results have establishedgood potentiality for the carbons particles to be used as a sorbent for the removal of strontium from wastewater.

  10. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  11. Impact of rice-straw biochars amended soil on the biological Si cycle in soil-plant ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Struyf, Eric; Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ronsse, Frederik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar used as soil amendment can enhance soil fertility and plant growth. It may also contribute to increase the plant mineralomass of silicon (Si). However, very little studies have focused on the plant Si cycling in biochar amended soils. Here, we study the impact of two contrasting biochars derived from rice straws on soil Si availability and plant Si uptake. Rice plants were grown in a hydroponic device using Yoshida nutrient solution, respectively devoid of H4SiO4 (0 ppm Si: Si-) and enriched with it (40 ppm Si: Si+). After 12 weeks, the plants were harvested for further pyrolysis, conducted with holding time of 1h at 500˚ C. The respective rice-biochars are Si-/biochar and Si+/biochar. They exhibit contrasting phytolith contents (0.3 g Si kg-1 vs. 51.3 g Si kg-1), but identical physico-chemical properties. They were applied in two soils differing in weathering stage: a weathered Cambisol (CA) and a highly weathered Nitisol (NI). We then studied the effects of the amended biochar on CaCl2 extractable Si using a 64-days kinetic approach, on the content of soil biogenic Si, and on the uptake of Si by wheat plants grown for 5 weeks. We also quantified Si mineralomass in plants. We compared the effects of biochars to that of wollastonite (Wo)-(CaSiO3), a common Si-fertilizer. Our results show that Si+/biochar significantly increase the content of BSi in both soils. In CA, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si amounts to 85 mg kg-1 after Si+/biochar amendment, which is below the amount extracted after Wo application (100 mg kg-1). In contrast, in NI, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si is 198 mg kg-1 in the Si+/biochar amended treatment, which is far above the one measured after Wo application (93 mg kg-1). The Si-/biochar has no effect on the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si in either soil type. Biochars and wollastonite increase the biomass of wheat on both soils. The increase is, however, larger in NI than in CA. In terms of Si

  12. Improving the methane yield of maize straw: Focus on the effects of pretreatment with fungi and their secreted enzymes combined with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Zehui; Cai, Yafan; Wen, Boting; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the methane yield, the alkaline and biological pretreatments on anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. Three treatments were tested: NaOH, biological (enzyme and fungi), and combined NaOH with biological. The maximum reducing sugar concentrations were obtained using Enzyme T (2.20 mg/mL) on the 6th day. The methane yield of NaOH + Enzyme A was 300.85 mL/g TS, 20.24% higher than the control. Methane yield obtained from Enzyme (T + A) and Enzyme T pretreatments were 277.03 and 273.75 mL/g TS, respectively, which were as effective as 1% NaOH (276.16 mL/g TS) in boosting methane production, and are environmentally friendly and inexpensive biological substitutes. Fungal pretreatment inhibited methane fermentation of maize straw, 15.68% was reduced by T + A compared with the control. The simultaneous reduction of DM, cellulose and hemicellulose achieved high methane yields. This study provides important guidance for the application of enzymes to AD from lignocellulosic agricultural waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of peanut shell and wheat straw biochar on the availability of Cd and Pb in a soil-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Chen, Hao-Xiang; Xiang, Qian; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Huang, Dao-You; Zhang, Yang-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Soil amendments, such as biochar, have been used to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted to immobilize the available cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil using peanut shell biochar (PBC) and wheat straw biochar (WBC), and to observe the accumulation of these heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBC and WBC led to significantly higher pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in paddy soil, while the content of MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb was lower than that of untreated soil. MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb showed significant negative correlations with pH, SOC, and CEC (p rice plants. Specially, when compared to the corresponding concentrations in rice grown in control soils, 5% PBC addition lowered Cd and Pb concentrations in grains by 22.9 and 12.2%, respectively, while WBC addition lowered them by 29.1 and 15.0%, respectively. Compared to Pb content, Cd content was reduced to a greater extent in grain by PBC and WBC. These results suggest that biochar application is effective for immobilizing Cd and Pb in contaminated paddy soil, and reduces their bioavailability in rice. Biochar could be used as a soil amendment for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

  14. Catalysis of Rice Straw Hydrolysis by the Combination of Immobilized Cellulase from Aspergillus niger on β-Cyclodextrin-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-01-01

    Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized onto β-cyclodextrin-conjugated magnetic particles by silanization and reductive amidation. The immobilized cellulase gained supermagnetism due to the magnetic nanoparticles. Ninety percent of cellulase was immobilized, but the activity of immobilized cellulase decreased by 10%. In this study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) was introduced into the hydrolytic process because the original reaction was a solid-solid reaction. The activity of immobilized cellulase was improved from 54.87 to 59.11 U g immobilized cellulase−1 at an ionic liquid concentration of 200 mM. Using immobilized cellulase and ionic liquid in the hydrolysis of rice straw, the initial reaction rate was increased from 1.629 to 2.739 g h−1 L−1. One of the advantages of immobilized cellulase is high reusability—it was usable for a total of 16 times in this study. Compared with free cellulase, magnetized cellulase can be recycled by magnetic field and the activity of immobilized cellulase was shown to remain at 85% of free cellulase without denaturation under a high concentration of glucose (15 g L−1). Therefore, immobilized cellulase can hydrolyze rice straw continuously compared with free cellulase. The amount of harvested glucose can be up to twentyfold higher than that from the hydrolysis by free cellulase. PMID:25874210

  15. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  16. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  17. Effect of urea level and treating time on ruminal degradability of urea-treated rice straw evaluated by in sacco method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promma, S.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the dry matter disappearance and potential degradability of urea-treated rice straw (UTS. Five kg of non-glutinous rice straw (RS was chopped and treated with urea solution and kept in a double sheet polyethylene bag. The ratio of RS to water was 1:1. The urea concentration was 4, 5 and 6% by weight of RS and the duration of treatment was 7, 14 and 21 days. There were 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The dry and ground UTS were weighted into nylon bags and incubated in 3 fistulated cows. The dry matter disappearance was detected at different incubation times. The result showed that CP content of UTS was higher than RS and the amount increased with the increasing level of urea. The longer treatment duration caused depletion in CP content. Nitrogen was lost as ammonia when UTS was dried, which led to the lower CP than fresh UTS. The duration of treating of 7, 14 and 21 days caused no-significant difference in potential degradability (71.61±2.59, 72.38±2.80 and 72.70±2.44%, respectively, P> 0.05, but 6% UTS has higher potential degradability than 4 % UTS (74.24± 0.53 and 69.84±1.03%, respectively, P< 0.05

  18. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  19. Catalysis of Rice Straw Hydrolysis by the Combination of Immobilized Cellulase from Aspergillus niger on β-Cyclodextrin-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Jung Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized onto β-cyclodextrin-conjugated magnetic particles by silanization and reductive amidation. The immobilized cellulase gained supermagnetism due to the magnetic nanoparticles. Ninety percent of cellulase was immobilized, but the activity of immobilized cellulase decreased by 10%. In this study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was introduced into the hydrolytic process because the original reaction was a solid-solid reaction. The activity of immobilized cellulase was improved from 54.87 to 59.11 U g immobilized cellulase−1 at an ionic liquid concentration of 200 mM. Using immobilized cellulase and ionic liquid in the hydrolysis of rice straw, the initial reaction rate was increased from 1.629 to 2.739 g h−1 L−1. One of the advantages of immobilized cellulase is high reusability—it was usable for a total of 16 times in this study. Compared with free cellulase, magnetized cellulase can be recycled by magnetic field and the activity of immobilized cellulase was shown to remain at 85% of free cellulase without denaturation under a high concentration of glucose (15 g L−1. Therefore, immobilized cellulase can hydrolyze rice straw continuously compared with free cellulase. The amount of harvested glucose can be up to twentyfold higher than that from the hydrolysis by free cellulase.

  20. Adsorption Removal of 17β-Estradiol from Water by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ni; Liu, Yunguo; Jiang, Luhua; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Zhihong; Tian, Sirong; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-11

    Rice straw biochar that produced at three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500 and 600 °C) were used to investigate the adsorption properties of 17β-estradiol (E2). The biochar samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis and BET surface area measurements. The influences of pyrolysis temperature, E2 concentration, pH, ionic strength, background electrolyte and humic acid were studied. Kinetic and isotherm results illustrated that the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Experimental results showed that ionic strength had less influence on the adsorption of E2 by 500 and 600 °C rice straw biochar. Further, multivalent ions had positive impact on E2 removal than monovalent ions and the influence of the pyrolysis temperature was unremarkable when background electrolyte existed in solutions. The adsorption capacity of E2 decreased with the pH ranged from 3.0 to 12.0 and the humic acid concentration from 2 to 10 mg L -1 . Electrostatic attractions and π-π interaction were involved in the adsorption mechanisms. Compared to low-temperature biochar, high-temperature biochar exhibited a better adsorption capacity for E2 in aqueous solution, indicated it had a greater potential for E2 pollution control.

  1. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain; Cenizas del tamo de arroz como substituto del feldespato en la fabricacion de ceramica blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; Silverio Delvasto, A.; Enrique Sanchez, V.; Vicente Amigo, B.

    2013-02-01

    The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash as substitute of the use of feldspar in the white ware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to as triaxial white ware. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages of CTA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. The porosity and the compressive strength of the fired pieces do increase with additions of up to 75% of CTA in substitution of feldspar. Their mineralogical phases were determined by DRX and SEM; grains of quartz, and needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by CTA in white ware pastes. (Author) 22 refs.

  2. Effects of co-inoculating rice straw with ruminal microbiota and anaerobic sludge: digestion performance and spatial distribution of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuying; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    Ruminal microbiota (RM) were co-inoculated with anaerobic sludge (AS) at different ratios to study the digestion of rice straw in batch experiments. The CH 4 yield reached 273.64 mL/g volatile solid (VS) at a co-inoculum ratio of 1:1. The xylanase and cellulase activities were 198.88-212.88 and 24.51-29.08 U/mL in co-inoculated samples, respectively, and were significantly different compared to the results for single inoculum (p rumen did not settle in the co-inoculated system, whereas Clostridiales members became the main polysaccharide degraders. Microbial interactions involving hydrolytic bacteria and acetoclastic methanogens in the residue were considered to be significant for hydrolysis activities and methane production. Syntrophy involving propionate oxidizers with associated methanogens occurred in the liquid phase. Our findings provide a better understanding of the anaerobic digestion of rice straw that is driven by specific microbial populations.

  3. Production of lipopeptides by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XZ-173 in solid state fermentation using soybean flour and rice straw as the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Guoyi; Luo, Yi; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2012-05-01

    This work was aimed to produce lipopeptides by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XZ-173 in solid state fermentation using agro-industrial byproducts. A central composite design was used to get the highest lipopeptides production. Results revealed that the optimal conditions for maximum lipopeptides production were 1.79% starch and 1.91% yeast extract by employing 5.58 g soybean flour and 3.67 g rice straw as the solid substrate with initial pH 7.5, moisture content 55% and a 10% inoculum level at 30°C for 2 days. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of lipopeptides reached 50.01 mg/gds, which was very close to the predicted value (49.91 mg/gds). At high concentration, the lipopeptides extracted from fermented substrates showed strong antibiotic activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Ralstonia solanacearum and certain emulsification but good emulsion stability. This is the first report on lipopeptides production that uses rice straw as a major substrate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in heavy metal bioavailability and speciation from a Pb-Zn mining soil amended with biochars from co-pyrolysis of rice straw and swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Tao, Mengming; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming

    2018-08-15

    Biochar has been utilized as a good amendment to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of biochar in metal immobilization depends on biochar properties and metal species. In this study, the biochars produced from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at 400°C were investigated to evaluate their effects on bioavailability and chemical speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a Pb-Zn contaminated soil through incubation experiment. Results showed that co-pyrolysis process significantly change the yield, ash content, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the blended biochars compared with the single straw/manure biochar. The addition of these biochars significantly increased the soil pH, EC, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The addition of biochars at a rate of 3% significantly reduced the CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The exchangeable heavy metals decreased in all the biochar-amended soils whereas the carbonate-bound metal speciation increased. The increase in soil pH and the decrease in the CaCl 2 extractable metals indicated that these amendments can directly transform the highly availability metal speciation to the stable speciation in soils. In conclusion, biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at a mass ratio of 3:1 could most effectively immobilize the heavy metals in the soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of immobilized cellulase enzyme by some microorganisms from the rice straw agro-waste using γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were carried out using 14 fungal cultures screened for their ability to produce cellulase enzymes. A .hortai was selected for the present research as a potent cellulase producer. Cultural and nutritional factors affecting cellulase production were also investigated in order to optimize the fermentation conditions for the maximization of production. The obtained results revealed that, the maximum cellulase production (0.23 U/ml) was achieved after 96 h in a liquid medium (Ph 7.0) inoculated with 10% v/v inoculum size, at temperature 37 ºC, containing (gL -1 ) CMC, 5.0; yeast extract, 0.1; (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 0.5; KH 2 PO 4 , 10.0; MgSO 4 .7H 2 O, 0.1 and NaCl, 0.2. The activity remained almost stable between ph 6.0 and 7.0. The highest cellulase activity (1.18 U/ml) was obtained at a lactose concentration of (5.0 gL -1 ). Partial purification of the crude cellulase by ammonium sulphate 70% saturation showed the highest specific enzyme activity and purification fold (2.3 U/mg protein and 2.12 fold, respectively). Different carriers and methods were used to select the suitable one for cellulase immobilization. Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) prepared by diazotization method increase S.E.A and the amount of immobilized enzyme to be (2.3 U/mg protein and 2.8 mg), respectively. The immobilized cellulase shows better operational stability, including wider ph and thermal ranges. The immobilized cellulase remained fully active up to 60°C. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were determined. The increase of the apparent Km after immobilization clearly indicates an apparent lower affinity of the immobilized enzyme for its substrate than the free enzyme. The resulting immobilized cellulase exhibited good reusability on degradation of rice straw agricultural wastes and also show good storage stability, that it lost only 17 % of its initial activity after 6 weeks.

  6. Enhancing phosphorus availability in phosphorus-fertilized zones by reducing phosphate adsorbed on ferrihydrite using rice straw-derived biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hao-Jie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Ming Kuang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry; Fu, Ming-Lai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Ci, En [Southwest Univ., Chongquing (China). College of Resources and Environment

    2011-10-15

    Biochar amendments can alter phosphorus (P) availability in soils, though the influencing mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This work investigated the adsorption and desorption of P on ferrihydrite (F, a Fe-oxide widely distributed in surface environments) in order to evaluate the interactions between P and Fe-oxide in the absence or presence of biochar (F or ferrihydrite-biochar (F-B) interaction) in soils. Biochar was produced by pyrolysis of rice straw at 600 C in steel ring furnaces. Two-line ferrihydrite was synthesized by dropwise addition of 1 mol L{sup -1} KOH into Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution until the pH reached 7-8 while stirring vigorously. An F-B complex was prepared under similar conditions, except that a mixture of 10 g biochar and the Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution was used as the starting material instead of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} alone. A batch equilibration method was used to determine sorption or desorption of P. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials were discussed. Adsorption of P on F decreased as the pH was increased from 3.0 to 10, but the adsorption capacity of F decreased by about 30-40% in the presence of biochar. The P chemisorption rates on F also decreased in the presence of biochar. The Freundlich model showed that the active adsorption sites on the surface of the F-B complex were energetically heterogeneous. The desorbability of adsorbed P on F was enhanced by combination with biochar. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials are different. The results showed that the amount and rate of P adsorption on the surface of ferrihydrite decreased with the presence of biochar, and the desorbability of adsorbed P on ferrihydrite can be enhanced when combined with biochar. Thus, the presence of biochar can decrease P adsorption on the Fe-oxides and enhance P availability in soils.

  7. Immobilization of indigenous holocellulase on iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles enhanced hydrolysis of alkali pretreated paddy straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Surender; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Goel, Renu; Nain, Lata

    2017-03-01

    The holocellulase from Aspergillus niger SH3 was characterized and found to contain 125 proteins including cellulases (26), hemicellulases (21), chitinases (10), esterases (6), amylases (4) and hypothetical protein (32). The crude enzyme was immobilized on five different nanoparticles (NPs) via physical adsorption and covalent coupling methods. The enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (ENC) were screened for protein binding, enzymatic activities and immobilization efficiency. Magnetic enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (MENC) showed higher immobilization efficiency (60-80%) for most of the enzymes. MENC also showed better catalytic efficiencies in term of higher V max and lower K m than free enzyme. Saccharification yields from alkali treated paddy straw were higher (375.39mg/gds) for covalently immobilized MENC than free enzyme (339.99mg/gds). The immobilized enzyme was used for two cycles of saccharification with 55% enzyme recovery. Hence, this study for the first time demonstrated the immobilization of indigenous enzyme and its utilization for saccharification of paddy straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The study of applying rice straw resources for ruminant production in Hanzhong city%汉中市水稻秸秆资源在反刍动物生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智鹏; 熊伟曼; 赵玥; 田和平

    2017-01-01

    汉中市水稻秸秆资源丰富,是反刍动物重要的粗饲料来源.在实际生产中,由于缺乏正确的处理方法,没有发挥出应有的营养价值.本文针对水稻秸秆的营养特点,详细阐述了不同处理方法对水稻秸秆品质的影响,在改善秸秆的适口性,提高粗蛋白含量,促进纤维素、半纤维素和木质素的降解等方面有显著的效果.为汉中市水稻秸秆在畜牧业生产中的高效利用提供科学依据.%In Hanzhong city,there are abundant resources of rice straw which are the important source of roughage for ruminants.In practical production,due to the lack of proper treatment,the nutritional value of rice strw cannot be well excavated.In this paper,the effects of different treatment methods on the quality of rice straw were elaborated with respect to the nutritional characteristics of rice straw.Significant effects were found as regard to the improvement in palatability of straw,the increase of the crude protein content,as well as the promotion of degradating cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin.The current paper can provide scientific basis for efficient use of rice straw in the livestock industry in Hanzhong city.

  9. Enhanced ethanol and glucosamine production from rice husk by NAOH pretreatment and fermentation by fungus Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Omidvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from rice husk by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Mucor hiemalis was investigated. To reach the maximum ethanol production yield, the most important influencing factors in the pretreatment process, including temperature (0-100°C, NaOH concentration (1-3 M, and the pretreatment time (30-180 min, were optimized using an experimental design by a response surface methodology (RSM. The maximum ethanol production yield of 86.7 % was obtained after fungal cultivation on the husk pretreated with 2.6 M NaOH at 67°C for 150 min. This was higher than the yield of 57.7% obtained using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control. Furthermore, fermentation using M. hiemalis under the optimum conditions led to the production of a highly valuable fungal biomass, containing 60 g glucosamine (GlcN, 410 g protein, and 160 g fungal oil per each kg of the fungal biomass.

  10. The Cellulolytic Activity And Volatile Fatty Acid Product Of Rumen Bacteria Of Buffalo And Cattle On Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on The Cellulolytic Activity and Volatile Fatty Acid Product of Rumen Bacteria of Buffalo and Cattle on Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates had been conducted at Feedstuff Laboratory of Animal Science Soedirman University. The basic design  that was used in this experiment was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern of 6 x 3, three replications. The bacteria isolate as the factors were cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo (A1, A2, and A3 and cattle (A4, A5 and A6 while the substrates (second factor  were NDF rice straw (S1, elephant grass (S2, and sesbania leaves (S3 Cell walls. The result of this experiment showed that the interaction between bacteria isolate and substrate  type were significant on pH, NDF digestibility, cellulase activity, pH was  6.28 until 6.43.  The NDF digestibility range was 12.27 until 55.61 percent. The lowers of cellulase activity was 5.11 IU/ml and the higher was 24.47 IU/ml. The range of acetic acid yield was 63.37 to 307.467 mg/100 ml. Range of  propionic production was 15.17 to 352.20 mg/ 100 ml. The production of butiric acid was 8.77 to 40.87 mg/ 100 ml. The cellulase activity  of cellulolytic rumen bacteria of buffalo was higher than cattle, and also their effect on NDF digestibility of rice straw, elephant grass, and sesbania leaves cell walls. The A3 of cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of  buffalo changed cell walls substrat to volatile fatty  acid was more effective than cattle, especially on cell elephant grass. Propionic and butiric  acid that was produced by cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo more higher than cattle (Animal Production 1 (1 : 1-9 (1999 Key Words: Cellulolytic, VFA, Rumen Bacteria, Buffalo, Cattle.

  11. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Supplementation on in-vivo Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Population in Goats Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan, N.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Four fistulated Boer cross-bred bucks with 25 kg average body weight was used to test the effects of dietary treated rice straw supplemented with A. paniculata and O. stamineus on in-vivo rumen parameters and microbial population in goats. The study was conducted in 4 periods (4 x 4 Latin square design, where each period was for a duration of 22 d; 10 dof adaptation period, 5 dof sampling and 7 dof change-over. The animals were fed once daily at 0800 (3% body weight with 60% of urea-treated rice straw and 40 % of one of four concentrate diets: T1-basal diet + 1% A. paniculata, T2-basal diet + 1% O. stamineus, T3-basal diet + 0.5% of A. paniculata and 0.5% O. stamineus (AO and T4-basal diet without supplementation of herbs. Clean water was provided ad libitum and the animals were individually penned. Rumen contents were sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 hafter the onset feeding and the pH was recorded. Rumen pH, VFA's, concentration of ammonia and microbial population in the rumen fluid were measured. The mean rumen pH was the highest (P<0.05 at 2 h in T3 after the onset feeding while the mean concentration (mg/L of ammonia in the rumen fluid was the lowest at 6 and 12 h in T2 (P<0.05. The molar proportion of valerate was higher (P<0.05 at 6 h in T1. Meanwhile, the acetate to propionate ratio was affected by time where it was significantly higher at 12 h in T3. Significant reduction of total protozoa, methanogens, F. succinogens and R. albus number was observed in the herb-supplemented groups (P<0.05. The results suggest that urea-treated rice straw with herbs supplementation can be fed to goats without impairing their performance. However, further study could be done by increasing the supplementation of herbs in order to observe more effective results.

  12. 体外法研究氨化处理对稻草发酵特性及其微生物数量的影响%Effects of Ammonium Bicarbonate Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Populations of Ruminal Microbes in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟健; 王翀; 王佳堃; 张显东; 陈小连; 刘建新; 王婷

    2011-01-01

    本试验应用体外产气法研究氨化处理对稻草发酵特性及其微生物数量的影响。研究发现,氨化处理有效提高稻草粗蛋白含量,降低稻草细胞壁多糖组分,提高稻草潜在产气量、氨态氮浓度、微生物蛋白产量、挥发性脂肪酸浓度,增加纤维分解菌的数量及其酶活。结果表明,氨化处理可以提高瘤胃发酵特性及酶活,促进瘤胃微生物的生长与微生物蛋白合成效率,从而有效改善稻草的营养价值。%Effects of ammonium bicarbonate treatments of rice straw on rumen fermentation characteristics and populations of ruminal microbes was investigated using in vitro gas test. The constructual polysaccharides of plant cell wall were decreased and the crude protein was increased by treated with ammonium bicarbonate. The degradation of straw fiber was enhanced by pretreatment through improving potential gas production. Concentration of ammonia nitrogen, microbial protein, volatile fatty acid and carboxymethyl cellulase activities were increased by treated with ammonium bicarbonate. The ammonium bicarbonate treatment also increased the populations of R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes. It was inferred that ammonium bicarbonate treatments can enhance the nutritional value of rice straw through improving tureen fermentation and fibrolytic enzyme activities and has great influences on tureen microbial populations.

  13. The mineral composition and the effect of particle size of carbonized rice straw as colorant of a traditional cake kue jongkong Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtini, E. S.; Yuwono, S. S.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Carbonized rice straw (CRS) is a term defined for the residue of incomplete combustion of rice straw. Utilization of CRS as a natural food coloring agent has been the local Indonesian wisdom. However, study of this local food coloring agent is rare in the literature. This study was aimed to determine the mineral composition of the CRS, and to investigate the effect of particle size of the CRS to the black color intensity of a traditional Indonesian cake called kue jongkong Surabaya. The mineral content of the CRS was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The CRS was grounded and sieved passing through different screen sizes (40, 80, 100, 120 and 200 mesh).The particle size distribution was measured using particle size analyzer. The CRS with different particle sizes were then applied as a natural coloring agent of the kue jongkong, from which the intensity of black color was determined using a color reader. It was found that the dominant minerals of the CRS were SiO2, carbon, and K2O. Other trace elements found were Cl, CaO, Na2O, MgO, P, S, Fe, Al2O3 and Mn. The CRS which passed to the sieve of 40 mesh has particle size distribution of 28μm, 115μm, and 348μm for a standard of D10, D50, and D90, respectively. However, CRS that passing through the sieve of 60-200 mesh have similar particle sizes (D10: 12-14μm, D50: 49-60μm, and D90: 114-145 μm). The smaller of CRS particle size produced a darker color of the kue jongkong due to better molecule dispersion and wider surface area.

  14. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (penergy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  17. Rapid molecular screening of black carbon (biochar) thermosequences obtained from chestnut wood and rice straw: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Schneider, Maximilian P.W.; Schmidt, Michael W.I.

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw and chestnut wood were heated between 200 and 1000 °C (T CHAR ) to produce Black C ‘thermosequences’. The molecular properties of the charred residues were assessed by pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the relation between charring intensity and pyrolysis fingerprint. Samples obtained at T CHAR > 500 °C (wood) or >700 °C (straw) gave low quality pyrograms and poor reproducibility because of high thermal stability, but pyrolysis-GC/MS allowed to track the thermal degradation of the main biocomponents (polysaccharides, lignin, methylene chain-based aliphatics, triterpenoids, chlorophyll and proteins) in the lower temperature range, mostly occurring between T CHAR 250 and 500 °C. With increasing T CHAR , the charred residues of these biocomponents lose characteristic functional groups, aromatise and finally condense into non-pyrolysable biomass. The proportions of the pyrolysis products of unspecific origin (benzene, toluene, PAHs, etc.), increase with charring intensity, while the ratios that reflect the abundance of alkyl cross-linkages between aromatic moieties (e.g. benzene/toluene, naphthalene/alkylnaphthalene) decrease. These results provide the guidelines to using pyrolysis-GC/MS for the molecular characterisation of different components in Black C and biochar, which is an important parameter for predicting Black C/biochar behaviour in soil. Results are consistent with earlier studies of these samples using the BPCA (benzenepolycarboxylic acid) method and the ring current-induced 13 C benzene chemical shift NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) approach. Pyrolysis-GC/MS provides more information on molecular structures in the low temperature range (T CHAR ≤ 500 °C) while the BPCA and NMR ring current methods provide more reliable estimations of charring intensity, especially at higher temperatures (T CHAR ≥ 500 °C). -- Highlights: ► Charred rice straw and chestnut wood (200–1000 °C) analysed by pyrolysis-GC/MS. ► Pyrolysis-GC/MS allows

  18. High-solid anaerobic digestion of corn straw for methane production and pretreatment of bio-briquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Yan, Fang; Li, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Qian, Mingyu; Xu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved. A preferred BB can be obtained with side compressive strength of 863.8 ± 10.8 N and calorific value of 20.21 MJ/kg-BB. The finding of this study indicated that the integrated process could be an alternative way to produce methane and high-quality BB with CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Different Pretreatment Strategies for Ethanol Production of West African Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Gonzalez Londono, Jorge Enrique; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-01-01

    husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches. It was found that four biomass’ (plantain peelings, plantain trunks, maize cobs and maize stalks) were most promising for production of cellulosic ethanol with profitable enzymatic conversion......Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in a West African setting requires smaller scale and less capital expenditure compared to current state of the art. In the present study, three low-tech methods applicable for West African conditions, namely Boiling Pretreatment...... (BP), Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia (SAA) and White Rot Fungi pretreatment (WRF), were compared to the high-tech solution of hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT). The pretreatment methods were tested on 11 West African biomasses, i.e. cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa...

  20. Results of an experimental campaign of monitoring of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw; Risultati di una campagna sperimentale di monitoraggio della pratica di combustione all`aperto della paglia di riso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, P.; Cerea, E.; Massironi, L.; Nocente, M.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Castellani, C. M.; De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    For the evaluation of environmental impact of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw following harvest an experimental campaign was performed in a field situated near Rive Vercellese (Vercelli, Italy) by burning the amount of rice straw in a 1.2 hectare piece of ground. Four sampling positions were operated, each one composed of a miniaturized impactor and a battery-powered pump, and an optical monitor was also used to measure aerosuspended aerosol concentration continuously. Experimental results show that after field combustion, resulting ash is depleted in cadmium, copper, lead and zinc while manganese and silica remaining almost quantitatively in the ash. Manganese and silica were the only components attributable to field combustion of rice straw in the atmospheric aerosol collected during this monitoring survey. Aerosuspended mass concentration values obtained by means of both optical measurements and gravimetric determinations are presented. Aerosol granulometric distribution, measured in the vicinity of the experimental field and the parameter values of the log-normal distribution obtained with experimental data are also indicated. Finally, a comparison is made between aerosol granulometric data and respirable fraction as defined by international standards.

  1. Soil contaminated phyto remediation of Pb and cd metal by using rice straw fermented by trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yullita SL Andini; Hendrawati; Tri Retno Diah Larasati; Nana Mulyana

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is one form of environmental pollution that is harmful to living organisms. One way to resolve this problem by using phyto remediation with rice straw fermented by Trichoderma viride that given exposure 250 gray doses of gamma radiation. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of Trichoderma viride fermented hay to improve the ability of Pb and Cd accumulation in the root zone of plants sweet corn (Zea Mays). There are three stages in the research process, namely the stages of SSF (Solid State Fermentation), incorporation, and Land farming. The fermentation process is done during the 16-day trial. Furthermore, the results of the SSF (Solid State Fermentation) mixed in soil that has been contaminated with heavy metals showed that administration of straw result SSF real impact on the value of pH, water content of the four treated samples. Results incorporation process and then applied with a crop of sweet corn (Zea Mays). Accumulation of heavy metals in sweet corn plant, analyzed by AAS analysis instrumentation. The measurement results show that the accumulation of Pb in the roots of plants in the sample K amounted to 33.66 mg/Kg, A sample of 26.80 mg/Kg, the sample B of 51.47 mg/kg, and sample C of 55.70 mg/Kg. While the metals Cd uptake in the roots of corn plants in the sample K showed Cd uptake of 269.65 mg/Kg, the sample A of 445.70 mg/Kg, the sample B of 337.17 mg/Kg and sample C of 336.72 mg/Kg. The phyto remediation process takes place based on the fito-stabilization principle. (author)

  2. Influence of low energy N+ ions pre-treatment on damage effects of UV-B irradiation on M1 rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuaipeng; Huang Qunce; Chen Xueneng

    2011-01-01

    The seedlings of rice (xindao18) were exposed to UV-B (10.08 kJ/(m 2 ·d 1 )) irradiation following the pretreatment with three different implantation dosages of low-energy N + ions. Changes in the levels of the superoxide (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and soluble sugar were measured. The result showed that the UV-B irradiation on the seedlings of rice pretreated with low-energy ions implantation could lead to increase activities in POD and SOD, and the maximum appeared on the dose of 2.0 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Meanwhile, it made the content of GSH increased, and caused the activity of CAT and the content of MDA to be decreased. But there was no obvious change in soluble sugar. It was suggested that the rice pretreated by low energy ion implantation could enhance the antioxidation capacity and defensive ability when irradiated by UV-B, and the antioxidation system could be induced earlier than carbohydrate system. Therefore,the biological effects of UV-B irradiation on rice pretreated by low energy ion implantation were quite obvious. (authors)

  3. Influence of feedstock-to-inoculum ratio on performance and microbial community succession during solid-state thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyu; Xie, Li; Kinh, Co Thi; Suenaga, Toshikazu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Riya, Shohei; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of the feedstock-to-inoculum (F/I) ratio on performance of the solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of pig urine and rice straw inoculated with a solid digestate, and clarified the microbial community succession. A 44-day biochemical methane potential test at F/I ratios of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 at 55 °C and a 35-day large-scale batch test at F/I ratios of 0.5 and 3 at 55 °C were conducted to investigate the effects of F/I ratio on anaerobic digestibility and analyze microbial community succession, respectively. The highest cumulative methane yield was 353.7 m 3 /t VS in the large-scale batch test. Volatile fatty acids did not accumulate at any F/I ratios. The volatile solids reduction rate was highest at a F/I ratio of 0.5. Microbial community structures were similar between F/I ratios of 3 and 0.5, despite differences in digestion performance, suggesting that stable operation can be achieved at these ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a bifunctional xylanase-cellulase chimera with enhanced activity on rice and barley straws using a modular xylanase and an endoglucanase procured from camel rumen metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Ghadikolaei, Kamran; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    The camel rumen metagenome is an untapped source of glycoside hydrolases. In this study, novel genes encoding for a modular xylanase (XylC) and a cellulase (CelC) were isolated from a camel rumen metagenome and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). XylC with xylanase (Xyn), CBM, and carbohydrate esterase (CE) domains was characterized as a β-1,4-endoxylanase with remarkable catalytic activity on oat-spelt xylan (K cat  = 2919 ± 57 s -1 ). The implication of XylC's modular structure in its high catalytic activity was analyzed by truncation and fusion construction with CelC. The resulting fusions including Cel-CBM, Cel-CBM-CE, and Xyn-CBM-Cel showed remarkable enhancement in CMCase activity with K cat values of 742 ± 12, 1289 ± 34.5, and 2799 ± 51 s -1 compared to CelC with a K cat of 422 ± 3.5 s -1 . It was also shown that the bifunctional Xyn-CBM-Cel with synergistic xylanase/cellulase activities was more efficient than XylC and CelC in hydrolysis of rice and barley straws.

  5. Influence of rice straw cooking conditions in the soda-ethanol-water pulping on the mechanical properties of produced paper sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee-Ardeh, S; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Pourjoozi, M

    2004-03-01

    A normalized design was used to examine the influence of independent variables (alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature) in the catalytic soda-ethanol pulping of rice straw on various mechanical properties (breaking length, burst, tear index and folding endurance) of paper sheets obtained from each pulping process. An equation of each dependent variable as a function of cooking variables (independent variables) was obtained by multiple non-linear regression using the least square method by MATLAB software for developing of empirical models. The ranges of alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature were 40-65% (w/w), 150-180 min and 195-210 degrees C, respectively. Three-dimensional graphs of dependent variables were also plotted versus independent variables. The optimum values of breaking length, burst and tear index and folding endurance were 4683.7 (m), 30.99 (kN/g), 376.93 (mN m2/g) and 27.31, respectively. However, short cooking time (150 min), high ethanol concentration (65%) and high temperature (210 degrees C) could be used to produce papers with suitable burst and tear index. However, for papers with best breaking length and folding endurance low temperature (195 degrees C) was desirable. Differences between optimum values of dependent variables obtained by normalized design and experimental data were less than 20%.

  6. Excellent N-fixing and P-solubilizing traits in earthworm gut-isolated bacteria: A vermicompost based assessment with vegetable market waste and rice straw feed mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazneen; Singh, Archana; Saha, Sougata; Venkata Satish Kumar, Mattaparthi; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2016-12-01

    Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E. fetida. Therefore, 45 NFB and 34 PSB strains isolated from Eisenia gut were initially screened, their inter-dominance assessed, and 8 prolific strains were identified through 16SrRNA sequencing. Interestingly, two novel N-fixing strains of Kluyvera ascorbata emerged as an efficient biofertilizer candidate. Moreover, both N-fixing and P-solubilizing strains of Serratia and Bacillus were isolated from earthworm gut. All the isolated strains significantly improved soil health and facilitated crop growth as compared to commercial biofertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyethylenimine functionalized Fe3O4/steam-exploded rice straw composite as an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Zhikai; Chen, Haoyu; Kai, Chengcheng; Jiang, Man; Wang, Qun; Zhou, Zuowan

    2018-05-01

    Polyethyleneimine functionalized Fe3O4/steam-exploded rice straw composite (Fe3O4-PEI-SERS), which combines magnetic separation with adsorption of PEI functionalized biosorbent, was successfully prepared via a simple glutaraldehyde crosslinking method. Its adsorption potential for the removal of Cr(VI) was systematically studied in batch mode. Results showed that Cr(VI) adsorption on Fe3O4-PEI-SESERS was highly pH-dependent, and the optimum pH was 2.0. The time to reach equilibrium was related to initial Cr(VI) concentration and was 1 and 6 h for 200 and 300 mg/L of Cr(VI), respectively. The adsorption system followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 280.11, 317.46 and 338.98 mg/g at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The competitive uptake from coexisting ions (K+, Na+, Cu2+, Cl- and NO3-) was insignificant except SO42-. After six adsorption/desorption cycles, the adsorbent retained good adsorption capacity. The Cr(VI) removal involved its partial reduction into Cr(III). Due to the properties of high adsorption capacity, strong magnetic responsiveness, good reusability and Cr(VI) detoxification, the Fe3O4-PEI-SESERS has a potential application in Cr(VI) removal from wastewater.

  8. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement; Fabricacion de gres porcelanico empleando ceniza de tamo de arroz en sustitucion del feldespato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-07-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( {>=} 35 MPa and {<=} 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  9. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  10. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  11. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  12. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Studies on Properties of Rice Straw/Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polycaprolactone and Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Khandanlou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified rice straw/Fe3O4/polycaprolactone nanocomposites (ORS/Fe3O4/ PCL-NCs have been prepared for the first time using a solution casting method. The RS/Fe3O4-NCs were modified with octadecylamine (ODA as an organic modifier. The prepared NCs were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The XRD results showed that as the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content in comparison with PCL peaks, the Fe3O4-NPs peaks increased from 1.0 to 60.0 wt. %. The TEM and SEM results showed a good dispersion of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL matrix and the spherical shape of the NPs. The TGA analysis indicated thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs increased after incorporation with PCL but the thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NCs decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content. Tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt. % of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs. The antibacterial activities of the ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus by diffusion method using nutrient agar. The results indicated that ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL.

  14. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis...

  16. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  17. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, A E; Khattab, H M; El-Shewy, A A; Salem, A Z M; Kholif, A M; El-Sayed, M M; Gado, H M; Mariezcurrena, M D

    2014-03-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  18. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  19. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kholif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum with spent rice straw (SRS of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control, 0.25 (SRS25 and 0.45 (SRS45 (w/w, DM basis of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis. The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241 and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021 compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01 digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002 and CP (p = 0.0005 than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001 for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001 concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148, creatinine (p = 0.0150, glucose (p = 0.0002 and cholesterol (p = 0.0016. Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05 milk (p = 0.0330 and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290 yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373 with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  20. Influence of gaseous phase, light and substrate pretreatment on fruit-body formation, lignin degradation and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw fermented with Pleurotus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamra, D.N.; Zadrazil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Wheat straw was fermented in the solid state with Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. eryngii at 25 degrees C under different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lower than 20% oxygen in the gaseous phase adversely affected the loss of organic matter, the lignin degradation and the change in straw digestibility with both species of Pleurotus. Higher concentrations (10%-30%) of carbon dioxide, with 20% oxygen in the atmospshere, slightly decreased the loss of lignin and organic matter when compared with the losses under oxygen or air. In spite of better lignin degradation by P. sajor-caju, the process efficiency with P. eryngii was higher, because of lower loss of organic matter during the fermentation. Fruit-bodies were not formed by P. eryngii during the period of experiment in any of the treatments. In P. sajor-caju, fruit-bodies were only formed either in flasks closed with cotton plugs or supplied with a continuous flow of sterile air. Carbon dioxide inhibited the process of primordia initiation and fruit-body development. A short exposure (20 minutes per day) to light was essential for primordia and fruit-body formation. The substrate changes and process efficiency with respect to increase in digestibility were much higher in darkness than in light. Light leads to intensive fruit-body production and a different pattern of substrate degradation. The indigenous microflora of wheat straw inhibited fruit-body formation and caused a higher organic matter loss, accompanied by a decrease in digestibility of the fermented wheat straw. 33 references.

  1. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  2. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  3. Assessment of hydrothermal pretreatment of various lignocellulosic biomass with CO2 catalyst for enhanced methane and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Monlau, Florian; Barakat, Abdellatif; Ferrer, Ivet; Kaparaju, Prasad; Trably, Eric; Carrère, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of five lignocellulosic substrates (i.e. wheat straw, rice straw, biomass sorghum, corn stover and Douglas fir bark) were conducted in the presence of CO 2 as a catalyst. To maximize disintegration and conversion into bioenergy (methane and hydrogen), pretreatment temperatures and subsequent pressures varied with a range of 26-175 °C, and 25-102 bars, respectively. Among lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, hydrothermal pretreatment caused the highest reduction (23-42%) in hemicelluloses while delignification was limited to only 0-12%. These reductions in structural integrity resulted in 20-30% faster hydrolysis rates during anaerobic digestion for the pretreated substrates of straws, sorghum, and corn stover while Douglas fir bark yielded 172% faster hydrolysis/digestion due to its highly refractory nature in the control. Furans and phenolic compounds formed in the pretreated hydrolyzates were below the inhibitory levels for methane and hydrogen production which had a range of 98-340 ml CH 4 /g volatile solids (VS) and 5-26 ml H 2 /g VS, respectively. Results indicated that hydrothermal pretreatment is able to accelerate the rate of biodegradation without generating high levels of inhibitory compounds while showing no discernible effect on ultimate biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Casca de arroz e palhada de soja na compostagem de carcaças de frangos de corte = Rice husks and soy straw as substrate for composting of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atuacao da casca de arroz e da palhada de soja como substrato para compostagem de carcaca de frangos de corte, observando a degradacao dos dois substratos e das carcacas pelo monitoramento da temperatura, peso das carcacas e dos substratos e analise fisicoquimica do produto final. As camaras foram montadas com carcacas de 10 aves recem abatidas, com quatro repeticoes no tempo. Instalou-se em cada camara um termopar para registro da temperatura. O substrato e as carcacas foram pesadas separadamente, no inicio, aos 15 e aos 30 dias de compostagem. Ao final de cada periodo, foram realizadas analises fisico-quimica de amostras de cada camara, avaliando-se o pH e os teores de materia seca, cinzas, P, N, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe e carbono organico. Concluiu-se que a palhada de soja pode ser usada como alternativa para substrato de compostagem de carcacas de aves, atendendo a relacao C/N exigida pela legislacao ao final da terceira reutilizacao. A casca de arroz, da mesma forma, pode ser utilizada na compostagem de carcacas de aves, porem reutilizada por maior numero de vezes. A decomposicao das carcacas foi significativamente maior, em percentual, na palhada de soja aofinal do quarto periodo de compostagem (p „Tƒn0,05.The performance of rice husks and of soy straw were evaluated as substrate for on-farm poultry carcass composting, observing the degradation of the two substrate and of the carcasses through monitoring the temperature, weight of the carcasses and of the substrate and physiochemical analysis of the final product. The piles were arranged with carcasses of 10 recently slaughtered birds, with four repetitions in time. A thermo pair was installed in each pile to register the temperature. The substrate and the carcasses were weighed separately, in the beginning, day 15 and day 30 of composting. At the end of each period, the physiochemical analysis of samples were made from each pile, evaluating the pH, the dry material, ashes, P, N

  5. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , after 144 h of enzymatic hydrolysis the cortex had vanished, exposing the heavier lignified vascular tissue. Accumulation of lignin droplets and exposure of residual lignin could be part of the explanation for the decreasing hydrolysis rate. Flattening of macrofibrils after pretreatment together...... with more indentations on the surfaces was also observed, possibly caused by a proposed synergistic effect of cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. Keywords: Lignocellulose; Plant tissues; Lignin accumulation; Atomic Force Microscopy; Scanning Electron Microscopy...

  6. Two-dimensional NMR evidence for cleavage of lignin and xylan substituents in wheat straw through hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelle, Daniel J.; Kaparaju, Laxmi-Narasimha Prasad; Hunt, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    correlation spectroscopy, via an heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiment, revealed substantial lignin β-aryl ether cleavage, deacetylation via cleavage of the natural acetates at the 2-O- and 3-O-positions of xylan, and uronic acid depletion via cleavage of the (1 → 2)-linked 4-O....... g., further deacylation revealed by the depletion in ferulate and p-coumarate structures). Supplementary chemical analyses showed that the hydrothermal pretreatment increased the cellulose and lignin concentration with partial removal of extractives and hemicelluloses. The subsequent enzymatic...

  7. A novel ionic liquid-tolerant Fusarium oxysporum BN secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxing; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Lei; Xia, Jun; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Ning; Dai, Benlin; Wu,