WorldWideScience

Sample records for pretreat industrial effluents

  1. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  2. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  3. Effluents Characteristics of Selected Industries in Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater characteristics provide basic information for their possible reuse for agricultural production as irrigation water and for fish culture. Pre-treated wastewater effluents from five industrial establishments were investigated to determine their potential of being used for irrigation and aquaculture. The physico – chemical ...

  4. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  5. Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Francis, K.X.; ManiMurali, R.; Vethamony, P.

    they are released is minimized by pre-treating it. The textile dyeing industries employ various separation techniques including the Reverse Osmosis (RO) to treat the effluents. Though, the RO process is proved to be efficient in treating the effluents, the RO... the luminescence assay were plotted and analyzed using Microsoft excel package 2007. The RO reject samples were collected in clean, 1000 ml capacity polyethylene sampling bottles from different effluent treatment plants of textile dyeing industries and were...

  6. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  7. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  8. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  9. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  10. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO 3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  11. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  13. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the ability of utilizing various chlorophenolic compounds and demonstrates its potentials of degrading high concentration of phenol in industrial effluents. Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, industrial effluent, chlorophenols. INTRODUCTION. Chlorinated phenols are important chemicals ...

  14. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  15. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  16. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  17. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  18. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  19. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical ...

  20. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  1. Pretreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Using Magnetic Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural organic polyelectrolyte of high molecular weight and charge density; obtained from deacetylation of chitin. This study explored the potential and effectiveness of applying chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles as a primary coagulant and flocculent, in comparison with chitosan for pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME. A series of batch coagulation processes with chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles and chitosan under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted, in order to determine their optimum conditions. The performance was assessed in terms of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD reductions. Chitosan-magnetite particles showed better parameter reductions with much lower dosage consumption, compared to chitosan, even at the original pH of POME, i.e. 4.5. At pH 6, the optimum chitosan-magnetite dosage of 250 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity, TSS and COD levels by 98.8%, 97.6% and 62.5% respectively. At this pH, the coagulation of POME by chitosan-magnetite was brought by the combination of charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanism. On the other hand, chitosan seems to require much higher dosage, i.e. 370 mg/L to achieve the best turbidity, TSS and COD reductions, which were 97.7%, 91.7% and 42.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of cationic character of both the chitosan amino group and the magnetite ion in the pre-treatment process for POME brings about enhanced performance for effective agglomeration, adsorption and coagulation.

  2. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  3. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  4. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  5. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos,. Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra.

  6. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents.

  7. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.

  8. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Impact of industrial effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    This study was therefore aimed at revealing the adverse effects of untreated industrial effluents on several parameters of water quality in. Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Oyo state. Materials and Methods. Study site. The location of the five (5) selected sites (Paper Mill,. Industrial Light Packaging Cartons [Interpak], Steel.

  9. Aerobic Bacterial degraders in effluent from Itoku textile industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local textile industry in Itokun village is one major textile industry in Abeokuta Ogun state, known for “adire” production whose processes are not maintained at regulatory standards. This study involves isolating and identifying aerobic microorganisms in waste water effluents from this textile Industry and screening for ...

  10. Evaluation of membrane bioreactor for advanced treatment of industrial wastewater and reverse osmosis pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for pretreatment of reverse osmosis (RO) in order to reuse and reclamation of industrial town wastewater treatment plant was investigated in this study. Performance of MBR effluent through water quality in term of parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total coliform (TC) were measured. Also Silt density index (SDI) was used as indicator for RO feed water. The results of this study demonstrated that MBR produce a high quality permeate water. Approximately 75%, 98%, 74% and 99.9% removal of COD, TSS, TN and TC were recorded, respectively. Also SDI of the permeate effluent from membrane was below 3 for most of the times. It means that pilot yield a high quality treated effluent from the membrane module which can be used as RO feed water. PMID:24355199

  11. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Y.N.; Islam, A.; Quraishi, S.B.; Mustafa, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  12. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  13. A Novel Methylotrophic Bacterial Consortium for Treatment of Industrial Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor. The operating variables of wastewater treatment, viz. COD, BOD, pH, MLSS, MLVSS, SVI, and F/M ratio of these effluents, were also maintained in the permissible range in both batch and continuous reactors. Therefore, formation of the AC consortium has led to the development of an efficient microbial seed capable of treating a variety of industrial effluents containing pollutants generated from their respective industries.

  14. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  15. [Detoxification of textile industry effluents by photocatalytic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrati, L; Idrissi, L Loukili; Mountassir, Y; Nejmeddine, A

    2010-05-01

    In Morocco the textile industry, representing 31% of all Moroccan industries, is accompanied by high water consumption and important wastewater discharges rejected without any treatment. The focus of this study was to characterize the effluent from the textile industry, to test separately the effect of UV light and TiO2 catalyst and to determine the optimum conditions (pH, concentration and reaction time) in photocatalytic treatment to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour. The biodegradability of the effluent was also studied using a toxicity test before and after treatment. After 90 min of reaction time at pH 4 and with 1.5 g F' of TiO2 catalyst, the photocatalytic treatment reached a global removal rate of 53% for COD and 89% for discoloration of the effluent. The relation BOD5/COD increased from around 0 to 0.3. The effluent became accessible to a biological treatment. The toxicity was studied by the Daphnia magna test over 24 hours. The results have shown the important toxicity of these effluents, which are rich in organic matter and other chemical compounds. After treatment by photocatalytic oxidation, the CI50 24 increased from 3.8% to 22.8%. This reduction of toxicity is related to the reduction of COD (53%) and colour (89%). Photocatalytic treatment has been shown to have an environmental benefit and, in combination with a secondary biological treatment, can be important for a significant reduction in the pollution of textile effluents.

  16. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  18. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  19. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  20. WASTEWATER EFFLUENT GENERATED BY GROUT INDUSTRIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Zola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil construction has grown inadvertently in Brazil, and, consequently, its demands for raw material. The production of such materials, as to any industrial process, yields wastewater effluents and has as destination, in general, water resources such as rivers and lakes. Nonetheless, government inspection cannot keep up with the number of starting companies, resulting in impunity due to lack of inspection. In the present work, the first of the kind, some chemical-physics aspects of wastewater effluents samples generated from grout industries were analyzed. The study shows that the pH of these samples lie outside the established limit by the national laws. The extremely alkaline pH and high conductivity of these effluents may cause severe damage to the aquatic environment in which they are disposed.

  1. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt affect on soils. The study assessed the effect of industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and plant tissues in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The degree of pollution was evaluated using Sodium adsorption ratio, pH, cations – Cl ...

  2. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    farms of Osun Abolowojaiye, Majawe and Papa. Adogba village revealed some peculiar strains on the morphological growth of some horticultural crops which were probably due to the dissolved salts in present in the irrigation water resulting from industrial effluent discharge into the upstream surrounding water. Research ...

  3. Effects of industrial effluents and fertilizer applications on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in south-western Nigeria to determine the effects of different fertilizer applications on the growth performance of sunflower when cultivated in an Alfisols contaminated with effluents from a paints industry. This was with a view to assessing the yield and nutrient quality of harvested sunflower ...

  4. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(1) pp. 021-027, January, 2010 ... The cytogenotoxic effects of the industrial effluents from paint (0, 7.2, 18, 36 and 72%) and textile (0, 1.6,. 4, 8 and 16%) manufacturing ... of them lack central waste treat- ment plants and therefore, discharge their wastewater.

  5. Modified natural zeolite as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in treatment of recalcitrants in industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Arimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial effluents with high recalcitrants should undergo post-treatment after biological treatment. The aim of this study was to use cheap and abundantly available natural materials to develop heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of colored recalcitrants in molasses distillery wastewater (MDW. The pellets of zeolite, which is naturally available in many countries, were modified by pre-treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, before embedding on them the ferrous ions. The effects of pH and temperature on heterogeneous Fenton were studied using the modified catalysts. The sulphuric acid-ferrous modified catalysts showed the highest affectivity which achieved 90% color and 60% TOC (total organic carbon removal at 150 g/L pellet catalyst dosage, 2 g/L H2O2 and 25 °C. The heterogeneous Fenton with the same catalyst caused improvement in the biodegradability of anaerobic effluent from 0.07 to 0.55. The catalyst was also applied to pre-treat the raw MDW and increased it's biodegradability by 4%. The color of the resultant anaerobic effluent was also reduced. The kinetics of total TOC removal was found to depend on operation temperature. It was best described by simultaneous first and second order kinetics model for the initial reaction and second order model for the rest of the reaction.

  6. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Studies on acute toxicity of textile effluents, collected from various Textile Dye Industries from Erode industrial area, Tamil Nadu, have been carried out. The juveniles of pink prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) were exposed to a mixture of effluent...

  7. Improved biohydrogen production and treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent through ultrasonication pretreatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Jacqueline Xiao Wen; Wu, Ta Yeong; Juan, Joon Ching; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonication facilitated the reuse of PPME in biohydrogen production. • Ultrasonication at an amplitude of 60% for 45 min produced the highest biohydrogen. • Ultrasonication increased the solubilization of PPME. • Higher net savings were obtained in pretreated PPME compared to raw PPME. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME), a rich cellulosic material, was found to have great potential for biohydrogen production through a photofermentation process. However, pretreatments were needed for degrading the complex structure of PPME before biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the effect of an ultrasonication process on PPME as a pretreatment method and on photofermentative biohydrogen production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB. The ultrasonication amplitudes and times were varied between 30–90% and 15–60 min, respectively, and no dilution or nutrient supplementation was introduced during the biohydrogen production process. A higher biohydrogen yield, rate, light efficiency and COD removal efficiency were attained in conditions using ultrasonicated PPME. Among these different pretreatment conditions, PPME with ultrasonication pretreatment employing an amplitude of 60% and time of 45 min (A60:T45) gave the highest yield and rate of 5.77 mL H 2 /mL medium and 0.077 mL H 2 /mL h, respectively, while the raw PPME without ultrasonication showed a significantly lower yield and rate of 1.10 mL H 2 /mL medium and 0.015 mL H 2 /mL h, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using ultrasonication as a pretreatment for PPME because the yield and rate of biohydrogen production were highly enhanced compared to the raw PPME. Economic analysis was also performed in this study, and in comparison with raw PPME, the highest net saving was $0.2132 for A60:T45.

  8. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  9. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  10. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  11. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  12. Impact of industrial effluents on Alaro river in Oluyole industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, this study was designed to evaluate quality of water around an industrial area in order to assess its suitability for aquatic life and to evolve policies for use and protection of water resources. A total number of thirty (30) water samples were collected from six (6) different sites and were subjected to hydrochemical ...

  13. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  14. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  15. Microbial conversion of Cr (VI) in to Cr (III) in industrial effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacterial strains also take up and reduce Cr (VI) present in industrial effluents, and their reduction potential was not significantly affected in the presence of different metallic salts. Key Words: Cr (VI) reduction, bacteria, industrial effluent, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(11) 2004: 610-617 ...

  16. The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

  17. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  18. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance: Part 1: Paper manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    The applicability of the Whole Effluent Assessment concept for the proof of compliance with the "best available techniques" has been analysed with paper mill wastewater from Germany by considering its persistency (P), potentially bio-accumulative substances (B) and toxicity (T). Twenty wastewater samples from 13 paper mills using different types of cellulose fibres as raw materials have been tested in DIN or ISO standardised bioassays: the algae, daphnia, luminescent bacteria, duckweed (Lemna), fish-egg and umu tests with lowest ineffective dilution (LID) as test result. The potentially bio-accumulative substances (PBS) were determined by solid-phase microextraction and referred to the reference compound 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene. Usually, a primary chemical-physical treatment of the wastewater was followed by a single or multi-stage biological treatment. One indirectly discharged wastewater sample was pre-treated biologically in the Zahn-Wellens test before determining its ecotoxicity. No toxicity or genotoxicity at all was detected in the acute daphnia and fish egg as well as the umu assay. In the luminescent bacteria test, moderate toxicity (up to LIDlb=6) was observed. Wastewater of four paper mills demonstrated elevated or high algae toxicity (up to LIDA=128), which was in line with the results of the Lemna test, which mostly was less sensitive than the algae test (up to LIDDW=8). One indirectly discharged wastewater sample was biodegraded in the Zahn-Wellens test by 96% and was not toxic after this treatment. Low levels of PBS have been detected (median 3.27 mmol L(-1)). The colouration of the wastewater samples in the visible band did not correlate with algae toxicity and thus is not considered as its primary origin. Further analysis with a partial wastewater stream from thermomechanically produced groundwood pulp (TMP) revealed no algae or luminescent bacteria toxicity after pre-treatment of the sample in the Zahn-Wellens test (chemical oxygen demand

  19. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  20. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  1. The effect of industrial effluent stream on the groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the industrial wastewater stream on the groundwater. Wastewater was characterized in terms of inorganic and organic constituents. Inorganic constituents included Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/ K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ coupled with heavy metal elements such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe and In. Organic load of the stream was determined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) contents. Other characteristics were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The correlation coefficients between quality parameter pairs of stream water and groundwater were determined to ascertain the source of groundwater contamination. At station 1, BOD/sub 5/ and COD contents were 20 times and Cr concentration was 10 times higher than the permissible limits for stream water [1]. Contents of these parameters reflected the level of industrial and domestic pollution coming from India. However, large variations in the levels of these parameters at down stream sites of the drain were characteristic of type and nature of industrial effluents and domestic sewage joining the stream. Analysis results of more than one hundred groundwater samples from shallow and deep wells around the drain showed that groundwater of shallow aquifers was contaminated due to drain water. A comparison of the contents of these parameters in shallow wells with WHO standards showed that some parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Na/sup +/, F -and heavy metals like Cr were found higher than the permissible limits. (author)

  2. Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a pretreatment for fouling reduction during nanofiltration of rendering plant secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racar, Marko; Dolar, Davor; Špehar, Ana; Kraš, Ana; Košutić, Krešimir

    2017-08-01

    The treatment and reuse of rendering plant wastewater with membrane processes is a poorly investigated area that could result in substantial water savings. Membrane fouling is still the main obstacle when treating secondary effluents (SEs) with high content of effluent organic matter (EfOM). Thus, the optimization of coagulation with ferric(III) chloride (FeCl 3 ) as a pretreatment for nanofiltration was performed to reduce membrane fouling and achieve higher permeate quality. Coagulation was modeled (total carbon, inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), turbidity, conductivity, and resulting pH) and optimized with response surface methodology (RSM) to remove DOC and turbidity with a pH close to neutral. The effluent after coagulation at optimal conditions (5.58 pH and 26.38 mg L -1 of Fe 3+ ) and sand filtration (SF) was subjected to nanofiltration (NF270, NF, and NF90 membranes). The fouling was compared to evaluate the efficiency of each pretreatment. Coagulation with FeCl 3 reduced the flux decline of nanofiltration membranes 4.2 to 19.3 times while SF barely reduced the fouling. Coagulation increased the flux recovery and chemical cleanliness after the membrane washing. In addition to fouling reduction, higher permeate quality was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling of Far-Field Mixing of Industrial Effluent Plume in Ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was initiated with a view to understanding the mathematical physics of industrial effluent plume dispersion in Ikpoba River which has resulted in the ... This study sought to describe the dynamics of advective and dispersive transport of the effluent plume in the river and also ascertain the extent of its effect from ...

  4. Impact of industrial effluent from an iron and steel company on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of heavy metals in bank soils, bed sediments and water of Kwekwe River, upstream and downstream of the industrial effluent discharge point were examined with the aim of determining the effect of the effluent on the river water quality. Five sampling sites were selected along the river and samples were ...

  5. Germination and early growth response of glycine max varieties in textile and paper industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, I.; Ali, S.M.; Yasmin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out to assay the effects of industrial effluents on different varieties of soybean. For that purpose Textile effluent and Paper and Board effluent were chosen. Concentrations used for both the effluents were 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60%. On the other hand 5 varieties of Glycine max viz., PSC-82, NARC-2, NARC-5, NARC-7 and William-82 were used. Physicochemical characteristics of these effluents revealed that both of them contained high amounts of sulphates, nitrates, calcium, various heavy metals etc., while DO was very low, which confirms their highly polluted conditions. Maximum improvement in seedling length was found in 60% of textile effluent (NARC-2, NARC-7 and Williams-82), and in paper and board effluent (NARC-2, NARC-5 and NARC-7). For others varieties, lower concentrations enhanced the growth. Number of leaves was unaffected and remained same in all concentrations of the two effluents. Overall seedling lengths of PSC-62, NARC-2 and NARC-5 were comparatively longer in paper and board effluent as compared to textile effluent but it was other way round for the varieties NARC-7 and Williams-82, while there was no set pattern for the weight parameters. (author)

  6. Effect of industrial effluents on biota: a case study off Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Harkantra, S.N.; Nair, S.R.S.

    The inshore waters off Mangalore, receiving industrial effluent discharge were studied for phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic populations, from December 1984 to May 1985. Total phytoplankton population varied from 7 to 1195 x 103 cells.l-1...

  7. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE REUSE OF A FOOD INDUSTRY EFFLUENT DEGRADED VIA PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Eliane Marchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effluent reuse in industrial processes is an interesting alternative, especially nowadays, because of the serious environmental problems faced by the population every day. This practice reduces wastewater generation and saves money for the companies. This study aimed to evaluate the possible reuse of a food industry effluent through the use of a photochemical process, with direct UV radiation incidence. The samples of the raw and treated effluent were tested to measure pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC, spectrophotometry, turbidity, total solids, fixed and volatile solids and toxicity. The photochemical treatment caused complete removal of the effluent color, a 92% reduction of the total organic carbon, and a reduction of the levels of acute toxicity, what indicates the efficiency of the photodegradation in removing contaminating agents in industrial effluents. The inorganic carbon value was high, indicating a high concentration of carbonate and bicarbonate dissolved in the effluent. To classify this treated effluent, according to current legislation, it is necessary to monitor other parameters in details. According to the tests performed for this work, it is possible to conclude that a company can make use of an effluent generated on the production line and, in a not very distant future, direct on the production line.

  8. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  9. Technology development of membrane filtration for reactive dye removal from textile industries effluents

    OpenAIRE

    mitra Gholami; simin Nasseri; roya Mirzaee; ghodratollah Shams-khoramabadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Effluents from textile industries contain different types of dyes. One of these dyes used in textile industries is Reactive dye. Because of high molecular weight and complex chemical structures, they show low levels of biodegradability. Hence, the direct disposal of these effluents to municipal wastewater treatment, produce problems in biological treatment processes. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of membrane filtration process for reactive dye removal from text...

  10. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... and some physicochemical parameters such as conductivity, solids, chloride, chromium, alkalinity, sulphide, chemical oxygen demand, COD, and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, of the waste water were determined. ... Keywords: tannery, effluent, pollution, environment

  11. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, parameters investigated includes, growth, photosynthetic pigment content, lipid peroxidation, and metal accumulation. The results showed that treated textile effluent from Nichemtex Company, affected the growth, dry biomass, root development and photosynthetic pigment content of C. argentea.

  12. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  13. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  14. Effect of pre-treatment of Palm oil Mill effluent (POME) and Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way Interaction was not significant in all the parameters measured. Management plans for these effluent streams should consist of well designed pond system, metal tanks equipped with blowers for proper decomposition before disposal.

  15. White-rot fungi pretreatment combined with alkaline/oxidative pretreatment to improve enzymatic saccharification of industrial hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunliang; Gong, Wenbing; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Zuohua; Yan, Li; Hu, Zhenxiu; Peng, Yuande

    2017-11-01

    White-rot fungi combined with alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatments of industrial hemp woody core were proposed to improve enzymatic saccharification. In this study, hemp woody core were treated with only white rot fungi, only A/O and combined with the two methods. The results showed that Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) was the most effective fungus for pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 329mg/g with 30 Filter Paper Unit (FPU)/g cellulase loading when treated 21day. In the A/O groups, the results showed that when treated with 3% NaOH and 3% H 2 O 2 , the yield of reducing sugars was 288mg/g with 30FPU/g cellulase loading. After combination pretreatment with P. eryngii and A/O pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of combined sample increased 1.10-1.29-fold than that of bio-treated or A/O pretreatment sample at the same conditions, suggesting that P. eryngii combined with A/O pretreatment was an effective method to improve enzyme hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effluent-free papermaking: industrial experiences and latest developments in the German paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, U; Schabel, S

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to multiple recirculation of process water, the German paper industry has succeeded in decreasing the specific fresh water demand from an average of 50 m3/t thirty years ago to 13 m3/t today. Although the increasing closure of white water loops creates many problems, it is bound to be part of the German paper industry's ongoing development. For a few years, in the production of packaging paper, two paper mills have been running with a totally closed water system including different process water treatment plants as 'kidneys'. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the pros and cons of closed process water systems followed by significant examples of effluent-free production of corrugating medium and test liner. Additionally, operation experiences and economic aspects are discussed.

  17. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  19. Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Protection Agency (FEPA) Guidelines and World Health Organization (WHO) tolerance limits for domestic uses. The study recommend the need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents by wastewater treatment facilities in selected villages of Kaduna.

  20. Assessment and biological treatment of effluent from textile industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solid (TS), suspended solid (SS), dissolved solid ... Effluents are waste water, unwanted fluids and chemical ... in terms of ground water contamination which can affect the natural hydrologic cycle. Every pro- duction process goes with wastes generation. Traditional.

  1. Characteristics of Effluent from a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 98 effluent samples from different process streams were collected in addition to 8 samples of the domestic wastewater (sewage), which was also generated in the Plant. Samples collected were analyzed for temperature, pH, DO, TSS, TDS, BOD, Urea, residual chlorine, PO4, NO3, P, K, Fe, and Zn using appropriate ...

  2. Effects of industrial effluents on some haematological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of petroleum refinery and fertilizer plant effluents on some haematological parameters (packed cell volume - PCV, Total Leucocyte Counts - TLC and Differential Leucocyte Counts) in two species of cichlids; Sarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guiniensis were studied. This was with a view to assessing the ...

  3. A reduction in mining and industrial effluents in the Blesbokspruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... 1Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, Kingsway Campus, University of Johannesburg,. P O Box 524, Auckland ... The stepwise reduction suggests that the pulping plant within the paper mill, a major source of Na-Cl rich effluent, had ..... magnesium concentrations.

  4. Application of ozonation process in industrial wastewaters: textile, kraft E1 and whey effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assalin, M R; Almeida, E S; Rosa, M A; Moraes, S G; Duran, N

    2004-08-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds can be found in wastewater from industrial processes. In this work, Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) have been applied for the control of water pollution and the ozonation of different effluents was investigated. Wastewater from textile, kraft E1 and cheese manufacturing processes were chosen as examples of industrial effluents. The efficiency of substrate mineralization has been comparatively analyzed by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC), color, and toxicity. The results revealed that the ozonation process can be a method for decolorization of effluent, but it is not effective for TOC reduction. The whey effluent was the most recalcitrant wastewater for ozone treatment which produced no TOC removal.

  5. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda industries generate large proportions of solid wastes and wastewater. The wastes are disposed into the environment untreated leading to pollution. This study was undertaken to examine selected physicochemical parameters of streams that receive effluents from different categories of industries in Nakawa ...

  6. Pollution of Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystems by Industrial Effluents: Effects on Fish Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagwu, S. N.; Kuyoro, E. O.; Agboola, D. M.; Salau, K. S.; Kuyoro, T. O.

    2016-02-01

    Nigeria is uniquely endowed with vast water resources. The near-shore, estuaries, rivers, lakes and pond all taken together, offer tremendous opportunities for fish production. Globally, water bodies are primary means for disposal of waste especially the effluents from industrial, municipal, sewage and agricultural practices near the water body. Studies carried out in most cities in Nigeria has shown that industrial effluent is one of the main sources of water pollution in Nigeria and less than 10% of industries in Nigeria treat their effluents before discharging them into the water bodies. This effluent can alter the physical, chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body resulting in the death of the inhabiting organisms including fish. Untreated industrial waste discharged into water bodies have resulted in eutrophication of aquatic ecosystem as evidence by substantial algal bloom leading to dissolve oxygen depletion and eventually massive mortality of fish and other organisms. Industries like textile producing factory, paper manufacturing plants, oil refinery, brewery and fermentation factory and metal producing industries discharge their wastes into the aquatic ecosystem. These industrial wastes contain pollutants like acids, heavy metals, oil, cyanide, organic chemicals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins etc. Some of these pollutants are carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic while some are poisonous depending on the level of exposure and intake by aquatic organisms and man. These pollutants affect the biological growth and reproduction of fishes in the aquatic ecosystem thereby reducing the amount of captured fishes. Fish and other aquatic lives face total extinction due to destruction of aquatic lives and natural habitats by pollution of water bodies. Effluents and wastes produced by industries should be minimised by using low and non-waste technologies; and effluents should be properly treated before they are discharged into

  7. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the whole effluent assessment approach of OSPAR has been applied for determining persistent toxicity of indirectly discharged wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry. Twenty wastewater samples from the printed circuit board and electroplating industries which indirectly discharged their wastewater to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been considered in the study. In all factories, the wastewater partial flows were separated in collecting tanks and physicochemically treated in-house. For assessing the behaviour of the wastewater samples in WWTPs, all samples were biologically pretreated for 7 days in the Zahn-Wellens test before ecotoxicity testing. Thus, persistent toxicity could be discriminated from non-persistent toxicity caused, e.g. by ammonium or readily biodegradable compounds. The fish egg test with Danio rerio, the Daphnia magna acute toxicity test, the algae test with Desmodesmus subspicatus, the Vibrio fischeri assay and the plant growth test with Lemna minor have been applied. All tests have been carried out according to well-established DIN or ISO standards and the lowest ineffective dilution (LID) concept. Additionally, genotoxicity was tested in the umu assay. The potential bioaccumulating substances (PBS) were determined by solid-phase micro-extraction and referred to the reference compound 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluents were in the range of 30-2,850 mg L(-1) (COD) and 2-614 mg L(-1) (TOC). With respect to the metal concentrations, all samples were not heavily polluted. The

  8. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L −1 , respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Livestock effluent showed strong estrogenic activity due to E2, E1 and EE2. ► EE2 remained in all effluents after gamma-irradiation even at a dose of 10 kGy. ► DOMs in effluents inhibited degradation and activity of estrogenic compounds.

  9. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...... in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid....

  11. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  12. Effect of pre-treatment of Palm oil Mill effluent (POME) and Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Common pre-treatment techniques prior to plant application or disposal could consist of phase separation ... phytotoxicity is a complex property, since more than one compound is responsible for it. Polyphenols are ..... be achieved via a properly designed tank, with installed aeration equipment, such as blowers. No pH.

  13. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  14. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  15. The Process of Coagulation, Flocculation and Advanced Oxidation in Effluent Treatment of Second Refinery Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the industries dependent on oil compounds that play an important role in economy, preserve resources and oil reserves, as well as environmental protection is the secondary refinery Oil industries. The efficiency of Coagulation, flocculation and advanced oxidation process in the Effluent treatment industry was studied.

     

    Methods: This study is a descriptive- quasi-experimental that effluent pollution quality measured with COD. Physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation, by using conventional coagulants and oxidation with ozone for the removal to access environmental discharge effluent standards were studied. Coagulants such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, poly aluminum chloride were evaluated. Jartest was used to determine the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation. Samples were collected from Salafchegan industrial district in Qom. Examination methods were extracted from Standard methods for water and wastewater examination.

     

    Results: Initial experiments showed that BOD, indicating biological treatment wastewater, in comparison with COD, indicating chemical oxygen demand of wastewater is very low. Thus, the application of biological processes of effluent treatment without using chemical processes, not performance and not economic. The experiment showed that the amount of COD in raw effluent was varied from 38000 to 78000mg/l.

    Using advanced oxidation with O3 in pH=11.5 can reach 77.5% and in pH=9 in 57.2 and in pH=3.25 in 21.3 COD removal efficiency respectively.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, advanced oxidation process prior to biological effluent treatment of the second refinery oil industries is effective in eliminating pollutants and toxic substances.

     

  16. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas; Johansson, Eva; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180°C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and ethanol yields was also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180°C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment as well as subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

  18. Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent with filtration leading to a pretreatment technique for membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrenberg, S M; te Kloeze, A M; Janssen, A N; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 the European Union introduced the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is having an ecological and chemical balance for all surface waters in Europe in 2015. The European Commission identified 33 priority substances and their maximum allowable concentrations, FHI-values (Fraunhofer Institute), which are specified in the Annex of the WFD. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of suspended solids, nitrogen and total phosphorus together with priority substances. All these substances will be removed in one filter called a "One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter" i.e. 1-STEP(®) filter. For this purpose a filter pilot plant was tested at the WWTP Horstermeer. The results show that the filter can fulfil the target values in the filtrate water for total nitrogen (2.2 mg Ntotal/L) and total phosphorus (0.15 mg Ptotal/L). The majority of the priority (hazardous) substances in the WWTP effluent are already below the detection limit. Due to the low concentration ranges, the results on the removal of medicine and pesticides are only indicative. A decreasing tendency in the removal efficiency is shown for all measured compounds. The average specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value decrease of the filter is 55% and the final value is always below 5·10(12) m(-2). This indicates that the filtrate water of the filter is very well filterable and can be used as ultrafiltration feedwater.

  19. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... and ethanol yields were also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180 °C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  20. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  1. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  2. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pollution, particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all forms of man's activities that results in contamination of the surface water. Wastewater samples were collected from two (2) ...

  3. Copper based Fenton's System for the Decolourization of Sythetic Dyes and Dye Industry Effluents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, Vishal; Bhatt, Manish; Stopka, P.; Nerud, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 61-64 ISSN 0972-9860 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : synthetic dye * industrial effluent * decolourization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Effect of Indomie industrial effluent discharge on fish fauna of New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Indomie industrial effluent discharge on the fish fauna of New Calabar River was investigated in order to ascertain the influence of BOD, COD, DO, TDS, TSS, pH, salinity, phosphate and temperature on the composition and distribution of fish fauna. The diversity of the fish fauna was found to be poor, only 12 ...

  5. Application of the natural cellulosic supports modified chemically for the treatment of the industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassale, A.; Elbariji, S.; Lacherai, A.; Elamine, M.; Kabli, H.; Albourine, A.

    2009-01-01

    The process of purification and discoloration of industrial waters (and particularly effluents of the textile industry) can meet major difficulties: certain dyes agents get through the devices of purge without being to stop. the cost of equipment and products of purification is prohibitive. Finally, in many cases, the discoloration can be only partial because waters to be treated containing mixtures of dyes of different nature, the material of purification can be effective only screw/screw of some of them. (Author)

  6. Chemical investigation of the effluents of selected chemical industries in NWFP (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.R.; Shah, J.; Shah, H.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of effluents were collected from the waste water drains of selected chemical industries, located at small industries estate Kohat Road Peshawar on monthly basis from November 1994 to October 1995. These samples were studied for physico chemical properties and heavy metals like Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ni using spectroscopic techniques. The results of our investigation are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  8. Process parametric study for COD removal of electroplating industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigated the effects of parameters, like inoculum size (15, 10 and 5% of the working volume of the reactor), gas velocities (0.0027, 0.00342 and 0.0068 m/s), bed heights (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), static bed heights (4.85 and 2.43 cm), sizes of solid media particles (12, 4 mm), and the height to diameter ratio ( H / D : 0.25 and 0.5) onto COD reduction process for electroplating effluent (initial COD values: 1140 ppm) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida . The authors derived simple mathematical correlations representing the entire COD reduction process. The correlation between the inoculum volume and gas velocities was in the form of an equation Y  =  ax 2  +  bx  +  c , as deduced from nonlinear regressions. The correlations were validated, and percentage errors were found out to infer the effects of all parameters in the COD reduction process. The maximum COD reduction was achieved to 28.30 ppm (97.52%), in a batch mode, at 10% inoculum size, 0.0027 m/s low gas velocity and a static bed height of 2.43 cm.

  9. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  10. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  11. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Impact of industrial effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    problem, which considerably increases treatment cost as well as introduction of a wide range of both chemical pollutants and microbial contaminants to water sources (EPA, 1993, 1996; Eikelboom &. Draaijer, 1999; Amir et al., 2004). Presently, industrial waste is the most common source of water pollution due to the fact that ...

  12. An enzymatic method for removal of phenol from industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.; Singh, J. [DN College, Meerut (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogenous. An enzymatic method for removal of phenols from industrial wastewater, using turnip peroxidase, has been developed. Phenol-containing industrial wastewater was treated with immobilized turnip peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the reaction, a number of phenols are oxidized to form the corresponding free radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Free radicals polymerize to form substances that are less soluble in water than the original substances. The precipitates were removed by conventional methods and residual phenol was estimated. The present report describes the immobilization of turnip peroxidase on silica via covalent coupling, and its utility in phenol removal. A comparative study was also carried out with other immobilization techniques, viz., calcium alginate entrapment, polyacrylamide gel entrapment, etc. Peroxidase, covalently bound to silica, showed 95% removal of phenol, whereas naphthol was removed up to 99%.

  13. Potential of biohydrogen production from effluents of citrus processing industry using anaerobic bacteria from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Lilian D M; Pachiega, Renan; Crespi, Marisa S; Nespeca, Maurílio Gustavo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Maintinguer, Sandra I

    2017-01-01

    Citrus crops are among the most abundant crops in the world, which processing is mainly based on juice extraction, generating large amounts of effluents with properties that turn them into potential pollution sources if they are improperly discarded. This study evaluated the potential for bioconversion of effluents from citrus-processing industry (wastewater and vinasse) into hydrogen through the dark fermentation process, by applying anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum. The inoculum was previously heat treated to eliminate H 2 -consumers microorganisms and improve its activity. Anaerobic batch reactors were operated in triplicate with increasing proportions (50, 80 and 100%) of each effluent as substrate at 37°C, pH 5.5. Citrus effluents had different effects on inoculum growth and H 2 yields, demonstrated by profiles of acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and ethanol, the main by-products generated. It was verified that there was an increase in the production of biogas with the additions of either wastewater (7.3, 33.4 and 85.3mmolL -1 ) or vinasse (8.8, 12.7 and 13.4mmolL -1 ) in substrate. These effluents demonstrated remarkable energetic reuse perspectives: 24.0MJm -3 and 4.0MJm -3 , respectively. Besides promoting the integrated management and mitigation of anaerobic sludge and effluents from citrus industry, the biohydrogen production may be an alternative for the local energy supply, reducing the operational costs in their own facilities, while enabling a better utilization of the biological potential contained in sewage sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreatment of industrial phosphoric acid by Algerian filter-aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Setti, Louisa; Chegrouche, Salah

    1993-01-01

    The present work involves the filtration of industrial phosphoric acid by different filter-aids such as kieselguhr, celite and bleaching clay. The retention of substances contained in wet phosphoric acid was determined using the three filter-aids. Thus, the phosphoric acid, obtained by filtration on kieselguhr has the same specifications as technical phosphoric acid produced by Rhone-Poulenc (France) as standard

  15. Removal of colour from effluent of petrochemical industry by fly ash and other agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, M.J.; Farasram, R.P.; Desai, D.H.; Bhatt, M.M. [Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Co. Ltd., Narmadanagar (India). Central Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    Use of fly ash for removal of colour from the effluent of a petro-chemical industry and optimization of process variables were reported earlier. Further studies in the same direction were conducted on various frontiers to reap the benefit of the process of colour removal by fly ash on a large scale. Among the different particle size fractions of fly ash, an intermittent fraction 150-250 exhibited the highest colour removal efficiency due to high proportion of carbonaceous material and lower proportion of silica. Apart from reduction in colour, treatment of waste water with 5% fly ash also resulted in the reduction of suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, and nitrophenol from effluent with no detrimental effect on effluent chemistry. Keeping the variables constants, the efficiency of fly ash and other adsorbents for reducing colour and COD of effluent was found in the order: powder activated charcoal {gt} carbon soot {gt} granular activated carbon {gt} fly ash. The fly ash could reduce the colour of effluent in batch mode (jar test conditions) as well as continuous mode (passing through filter bed). Restriction of flow rate was encountered in the filter bed system. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Genotoxicity of sludges, wastewater and effluents from three different industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, K.; Saravana Devi, S.; Kumar, Koel; Dutta, Dipanwita; Muhil Vannan, S.; Subin, T.S.; Yadav, R.R.; Chakrabarti, T. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Environmental Biotechnology Division, Nagpur (India); Hengstler, J.G.; Hermes, Matthias [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the University of Dortmund (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Many surface waters in Europe, Asia and South America have been reported to be contaminated with genotoxic substances. Therefore, it is important to establish strategies for identification of the most critical sources. In this study, we used a battery of four genotoxicity assays namely chromosomal aberration, DNA strand break, DNA laddering and P53 accumulation tests in mononuclear blood cells. Before cleaning of wastewater high levels of genotoxic contamination could be observed. For instance, we observed an increase in chromosomal aberrations from 2.6{+-}1.1 (aberrant cells in %; control), to 33.6{+-}6.6 in a petrochemical plant, 29.4{+-}3.3 in a petroleum refinery and 14.4{+-}1.8 in a coke plant of steel industry. A good correlation between the four assays was found. The most sensitive and reproducible results were obtained with the chromosomal aberration assay. Interestingly, clear differences in the efficiency of wastewater cleaning in three different treatment plants were observed. The first and second treatment plants in petrochemical industry and coke plant of steel industry completely eliminated genotoxicity of the wastewater. However, the third plant in petroleum refinery could achieve a reduction in genotoxicity but significant genotoxic contaminations were still present. In conclusion, our battery of genotoxicity tests allows the identification of critical sources contributing to contamination of surface waters. (orig.)

  17. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  18. ATV manual: Industrial effluents of the chemical industry, food processing industry, consumer goods industries and public services. 4. ed.; ATV-Handbuch: Industrieabwasser - Dienstleistungs- und Veredelungsindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The book describes liquid effluents of the following industries: Animal and plant production; flesh meal production; sausage casings processing; leather, glue and gelatine production; fish meal production; paper and cellulose production; textile industry; motor car repair shops; railway industry; carwash facilities; military services; tank cleaning; laundries and cleaners'; waste management systems; hospitals. Each chapter contains information on the industry concerned, its capacity and products, including all process stages, technologies, and flowcharts. Effluent-relevant process stages are analyzed, and their environmental relevance is assessed. In each case, the available options for waste treatment are pointed out. Practical example, technical data and cost figures supplement the text. [German] Das vorliegende ATV-Handbuch behandelt die wichtigsten Industriebranchen der Dienstleistungs- und Veredelungsindustrie: Betriebe der Tier- und Pflanzenproduktion - Fleischmehlindustrie - Naturdarmbearbeitungsbetriebe - Lederherstellung, Hautleim- und Gelatineindustrie - Fischmehlfabriken - Papier- und Zellstoffindustrie - Textilindustrie - Kfz-Werkstaetten - Eisenbahn - Kfz-Waesche - Militaer, Entkonservierung - Transportbehaelterinnenreinigung - Gewerbliche Waescherei und Textilreinigung - Sickerwasser aus Abfallanlagen - Krankenhausabwasser. Jedes Kapitel beginnt mit einer Uebersicht ueber die Bedeutung der Branche, ihre Kapazitaet sowie deren Fertigerzeugnisse. Die Produktionsschritte und -techniken werden erlaeutert, wobei in Fliessschemata auch alle beteiligten Stoffstroeme dargestellt sind. Abwasserrelevante Teilstroeme werden analysiert und der immer mehr an Bedeutung zunehmende produktionsintegrierte Umweltschutz entsprechend gewichtet. Die verfahrenstechnischen Moeglichkeiten der Abwasserbehandlung - Vorbehandlung, Indirekt- und Direkteinleitung - werden aufgezeigt. Anwendungsbeispiele aus der Praxis, die neben der Verfahrenstechnik auch Anlagen zu

  19. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  20. Remediation of effluents from paper and cellulose industry: biological and photocatalytic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zamora, P.; Esposito, E.; Reyes, J.; Durán, N.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of the industrial activities to the environmental contamination phenomena is evident. Great efforts are dedicated to the establishment of methodologies which permits an adequate treatment of the produced effluents, as a manner of minimizing the environmental impact of these wastes. The methodologies based on photocatalytic processes are very promise alternatives, because permits degradation of a great number of chemical substances of high toxic potential, without the use of o...

  1. Impact of Industrial effluents on the water quality of Phulleli canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Phulleli canal is one of the main source of irrigation water in lower Sindh. It also supplements the drinking water demand for a number of communities residing on its either banks. A significant proportion of the domestic wastewater and industrial effluents, generated in Hyderabad City, is disposed off into Phulleli canal without any treatment. Therefore, a reduction in the pollution stabilizing capacity of the canal is expected. This paper presents the results of the monitoring programme carried out to investigate the variation in the canal water quality due to wastewater discharges in it. The quality of the canal water and industrial effluents has been studied in terms of pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspends Solids (TSS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chloride, Sulfide and Heavy metals (zinc, nickel, cadmium, lead and copper). The preliminary results have shown that during low canal flow there is a significant decline is dissolved oxygen concentration and increase in almost all the measured pollutants. The pollutant concentrations both in the canal water and industrial effluents have been found exceeding the national and international water quality standards. (author)

  2. Effect of soap industry effluents on soil and ground water in Albageir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, S. O.

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect on soil and ground water produced by the effluent from soap industry discharged from Alsheikh Mustafa Alamin (SMA) factory, in Albageir industrial area, located 45 Km south of Khartoum. Soil samples were taken from the periphery of the effluent pond and from 25 and 50 cm depths from pits at different distances from the pond.The samples were analyzed for the following chemical and physical characteristics PH, EC, sodium, chloride ions and their grain size, in order to investigate any possible soil degradation. The results showed that there is an increase in soil salinity and sodicity resulting from the improper discharge of the liquid waste, and from lack of treatment before the discharge. Hence, there are definitive signs for soil degradation in the study area, which could reach a high magnitude in the long.This situation could be rectified by adopting updated techniques for treatment and disposal of effluent, and by regular inspection, by the authorities in order to make sure that the regulations are not violated. Chemical and physical analyses of ground water samples showed no signs of pollution. However, if the disposal practices are not revised, the possibility of pollution in the near future is likely to occur. A package of measurements is proposed in order to curb the impact of the industry on the environment. (Author)

  3. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-08-14

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  4. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  5. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Treatment and Energy Valorisation of an Agro-Industrial Effluent in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Reactor (UASB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated growth of the population brings with it an increase in the generation of agro-industrial effluents. The inadequate discharge of these effluents significantly affects the quality of water resources. In this way, it becomes important to invest in treatment processes for agro-industrial effluents, particularly low-cost ones. In this context, the present study includes the design and construction of an UASB reactor and optimization of the anaerobic digestion treatment of the raw effluent from sweet chestnut production in the agro-industrial company Sortegel. The efficiency of the system was evaluated through the determination / monitoring of oxygen chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), biogas production rate and quality (% methane). The reactor was fed for 25 weeks and operated under mesophilic conditions (temperature 30-40 °C). Different values were tested for the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and volumetric flow rate (VF): 0.66 days (VF=1509 L.m-3.d-1); 1.33 days (VF=755 L.m-3.d-1); 2.41 d days (VF=415 L.m-3.d-1). The average COD removal efficiency reached values of 69%, 82% and 75%, respectively, and simultaneously the associated BOD5 removal efficiency was 84%, 91% and 70%. As regards TSS, removal values were 78%, 94% and 63%. In addition, high methane production rates were obtained, between 2500 and 4800 L CH4.kg-1 COD removed d-1. For all the hydraulic retention times tested, high concentrations of methane in the biogas were recorded: 66-75%, 70% and 75% for HRT of 0.66, 1.33 and 2.41 days, respectively.

  7. Improvement of conventional parameters of actual industrial effluent by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Silveira, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ordinary process to treat wastewater from the dye, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical and paper mill industries do not degrade easily the coloured substances and organic compounds. A study on the improvement of this treatment using high energy electron irradiation was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from the public Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 80% of wastewater from industrial sources and 20% from domestic sources. A large amount of industrial wastewater comes from chemical and textile industries, which change everyday the quality, quantity and colour these characteristics depend on for the production line of each particular industry. Samples from WTP influent and effluent were collected every 15 days and irradiated in a batch system; the delivered doses were 3.0 kGy, 4.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 8.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. For the non-irradiated and irradiated samples the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fixed and volatile total solids and fixed and volatile suspended solids, absorption spectrum (300-700nm) and gas chromatography. For samples from effluent irradiated with 3.0 kGy dose, the COD value presented a reduction average of 45%, and this result was fixed for higher doses, however the COD of influent sample did not show significant change for all the delivered doses

  8. The conditions for industrial effluent discharges to the municipal sewerage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loigu, E.; Laeaene, A.; Kriis, T.

    1987-01-01

    The industrial waste waters of an urban area are jointly treated with municipal sewage waters. The operation of the municipal sewage treatment plant depends substantially on the quality and quantity of industrial waste water conducted to the treatment plant for joint treatment and drainage. In order to guarantee the normal run of the plant a number of normative documents have been worked out regulating the discharge of industrial effluents to the municipal sewer network. Detailed requirements for individual industrial enterprises have been elaborated on the grounds of these documents by the local bodies of Water Supply and Sewage Management. The local requirements are coordinated with the institutions for the regulation of water utilisation and water conservation under the USSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Conservation and the Ministry of Fisheries and are confirmed by local municipal authorities. Control over the implementation of obligations is exercised by Water Supply and Sewerage Management authorities. The discharges of industrial effluents to municipal sewer network have to meet both general and specific requirements

  9. Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Migid, Hala M; Azab, Yehia A; Ibrahim, Waeel M

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of algal biofilters (BF). Root cells were exposed for 24 h to different dilutions of both raw and treated effluent of a chemical fertilizer factory. Three cytogenetic endpoints were used to assess the mutagenic potencies of the industrial effluent: mitotic inhibition, mitotic chromosome aberrations, and nuclear irregularities in interphase cells. Before algal treatment, the industrial effluent caused strong genotoxic effects represented by severe inhibition in mitotic activity of meristematic cells and high frequency of both chromosome and nucleus abnormalities. After algal treatment, the cytotoxic effects of 30% and 60% concentrations of the treated effluent were comparable to those of 5% and 10% concentrations before treatment, respectively, and the frequency of both chromosome and nuclear abnormalities declined by approximately 50%. Statistical analysis of the data indicates a significant reduction in genotoxicity associated with a remarkable reduction in heavy metal concentrations after bioremediation by algal BF. The Allium and Vicia genotoxicity approach was effective in monitoring bioremediated effluent for toxicity.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of chemical treatment with nanomaterials in improving the quality of different industrial effluents =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Veronica Ines Jesus Oliveira

    Industrial activities are the major sources of pollution in all environments. Depending on the type of industry, various levels of organic and inorganic pollutants are being continuously discharged into the environment. Although, several kinds of physical, chemical, biological or the combination of methods have been proposed and applied to minimize the impact of industrial effluents, few have proved to be totally effective in terms of removal rates of several contaminants, toxicity reduction or amelioration of physical and chemical properties. Hence, it is imperative to develop new and innovative methodologies for industrial wastewater treatment. In this context nanotechnology arises announcing the offer of new possibilities for the treatment of wastewaters mainly based on the enhanced physical and chemical proprieties of nanomaterials (NMs), which can remarkably increase their adsorption and oxidation potential. Although applications of NMs may bring benefits, their widespread use will also contribute for their introduction into the environment and concerns have been raised about the intentional use of these materials. Further, the same properties that make NMs so appealing can also be responsible for producing ecotoxicological effects. In a first stage, with the objective of selecting NMs for the treatment of organic and inorganic effluents we first assessed the potential toxicity of nanoparticles of nickel oxide (NiO) with two different sizes (100 and 10-20 nm), titanium dioxide (TiO2, wastewater (OMW). They were used as catalyst in photodegradation systems (TiO2/UV, Fe2O3/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV and Fe2O3/H2O2/UV). The treatments with TiO2 or Fe2O3 combined with H2O2 were the most efficient in ameliorating some chemical properties of the effluent. Regarding the toxicity to V. fischeri the highest reduction was recorded for the H2O2/UV system, without NMs. Afterwards a sequential treatment using photocatalytic oxidation with NMs and degradation with white-rot fungi was

  11. Sono assisted electrocoagulation process for the removal of pollutant from pulp and paper industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, P; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Sajjadi, Baharak; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Bin Wan

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of the sonication, electrocoagulation, and sono-electrocoagulation process for removal of pollutants from the industrial effluent of the pulp and paper industry was compared. The experimental results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process yielded higher pollutant removal percentage compared to the sonication and electrocoagulation process alone. The effect of the operating parameters in the sono-electrocoagulation process such as electrolyte concentration (1-5 g/L), current density (1-5 A/dm 2 ), effluent pH (3-11), COD concentration (1500-6000 mg/L), inter-electrode distance (1-3 cm), and electrode combination (Fe and Al) on the color removal, COD removal, and power consumption were studied. The maximum color and COD removal percentages of 100 and 95 %, respectively, were obtained at the current density of 4 A/dm 2 , electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, effluent pH of 7, COD concentration of 3000 mg/L, electrode combination of Fe/Fe, inter-electrode distance of 1 cm, and reaction time of 4 h, respectively. The color and COD removal percentages were analyzed by using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer and closed reflux method. The results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process could be used as an efficient and environmental friendly technique for complete pollutant removal.

  12. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL IN VILLAGE DINGI, DISTRICT HARIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asghar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report is an outcome of research work conducted in Dingi village, District Haripur in 2012. The research aimed to assess and analyze the effects of industrial effluents on the soil fertility of the village, investigate contributing factors responsible for soil pollution and underlying causes creating the problems. Data analysis revealed that area had problems pertaining to water and soil quality. The key factors affecting soil fertility were the careless discharge of the untreated industrial effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE into the natural stream passing through village. The results were compared with the soil standards set by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF and European Committee Commission (ECC and all of these were exceeding the permissible limits and affecting the soil fertility. The soils were found not fit for agriculture. The investigation highlighted the need to take some effective steps to manage the monitoring program set for checking of industries by the government according to set rules and regulation.

  14. Fabrication of Flower-like ZnO Micro/Nanostructures for Photodegradation of Pre-treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Wong, Kok-Ann; Sin, Jin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructures were fabricated by a simple and surfactant-free reflux method. X-ray diffraction findings showed that the prepared ZnO product was highly crystallite with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The band gap energy of ZnO sample was measured to be 3.18 eV via an optical reflectance spectrum. The flower-like morphological features of ZnO micro/nanostructures were witnessed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Such micro/nanoparticles could be used in the photodegradation of pre-treated palm oil mil effluent (POME) under UV irradiation.

  15. Technology development of membrane filtration for reactive dye removal from textile industries effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Gholami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effluents from textile industries contain different types of dyes. One of these dyes used in textile industries is Reactive dye. Because of high molecular weight and complex chemical structures, they show low levels of biodegradability. Hence, the direct disposal of these effluents to municipal wastewater treatment, produce problems in biological treatment processes. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of membrane filtration process for reactive dye removal from textile industries effluents. Materials and Methods: In the first step, reactive dye biodegradability was studied through Zahen-Wellens method (ISO9888 1999. In the second step, four types of reactive dyes in 80, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L concentrations passed through spiral wound membrane modules of nanofilter (NFwith a molecular weight cut off (MWCOof 300 and 600 dalton(Da and reverse osmosis(RO of 50 Da in different temperatures and pressures. In each step, permeate flux, rejection coefficient and ADMI (American Dye Manufacturer Institute value were determined. Results: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and rejection coefficient (R% for reactive dye was 25 and 12. 5 reactively. For NF 300, NF600 and RO, COD and R% were obtained (33%, 36%, (33%, 29% and (45%, 99. 6% respectively. The optimum operating condition of 30-35 oC temperature and 4 bar pressure for NF300 & 600Da and 7bar for RO were obtained. Conclusion: according to obtained results, concentration haven any effect on membrane performance. Results also clearly showed higher removal efficiency for the membrane treatment than for biodegradability studies.

  16. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipos, Balint; Reczey, Kati [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Szt. Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kreuger, Emma; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Lund University, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Sven-Erik [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture - Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materials, impregnation with 2% SO{sub 2} followed by steam pretreatment at 210 C for 5 min were found to be the optimal conditions leading to the highest overall yield of glucose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments carried out with optimised pretreatment conditions resulted in ethanol yields of 163 g kg{sup -1} ensiled hemp (dry matter) (71% of the theoretical maximum) and 171 g kg{sup -1} dry hemp (74%), which corresponds to 206-216 l Mg{sup -1} ethanol based on initial dry material. (author)

  17. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  18. Electrolytic recovery of dilute copper from a mixed industrial effluent of high strength COD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellammal, S; Raghu, S; Kalaiselvi, P; Subramanian, G

    2010-08-15

    In this study, the electrochemical treatment has been investigated in the real acidic effluent of copper-phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant. Galvanostatic batch electrolyses have been carried out in an undivided cell using stainless steel as cathode, dimensionally stable anode (DSA) and graphite as anodes at different current densities and temperatures. The influence of these variables on current efficiency, cell voltage, energy consumption and deposit quality was reported. Under optimized conditions, the maximum copper recovery of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 87.3% with the energy consumption of about 11.23 kWh/kg of Cu and 6.08 kWh/kg of COD, respectively at 30 degrees C were achieved in the acidic raw effluent using 2D parallel-plate cathode. While in 3D stainless steel turning cathode reactor, 99.5% of copper can efficiently be recovered from dilute solution with an acceptable current efficiency of about 56.8% with minimum energy consumption of 2.37 kWh/kg of Cu. The experimental results suggested that the efficiency of copper removal is hindered by the presence of organic species in the mixed industrial effluent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States from Municipal and Industrial Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

  20. Nutrient loadings to streams of the continental United States from municipal and industrial effluent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

  1. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  2. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E; Kelderman, P; van der Kwast, J; Irvine, K

    2017-12-09

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  3. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  4. Soil Chemical Changes and Growth of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F) Resulting from Untreated Petroleum Industry Effluent Application

    OpenAIRE

    , ER Orhue; , V Edosa; , V Eleta

    2016-01-01

    This article revealed the results of the impact of untreated petroleum industry effluent on some soil chemical properties and agronomic characters of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis).A completely randomized design was used. In this greenhouse trial, the following rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ml per 5 kg topsoil were used. The chemical properties determined in the soil treated with the effluent appreciated higher when compared to the control. The Exchangeable Acidity however d...

  5. a Study for Remote Detection of Industrial Effluents' Effect on Rice Using Thermal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, S.; Abkar, A. A.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Dehnavi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rice is one of the most important nutritious grains all over the world, so that only in some parts of Asia more than 300 million acres allocated for cultivating this product. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative management of this product is of great importance in commercial, political and financial viewpoints. Rice plant is very influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of irrigation water, due to its specific kind of planting method. Hence, chemically-polluted waters which received by plant can change in live plants and their products. Thus, a very high degree of treatment will be required if the effluent discharges to rice plants. Current waters receive a variety of land-based water pollutants ranging from industrial wastes to excess sediments. One of the most hazardous wastes are chemicals that are toxic. Some factories discharge their effluents directly into a water body. So, what would happen for rice plant or its product if this polluted water flow to paddies? Is there any remotely-based method to study for this effect? Are surface temperature distributions (thermal images) useful in this context? The first goal in this research is thus to investigate the effect of a simulated textile factory's effluent sample on the rice product. The second goal is to investigate whether the polluted plant can be identified by means of thermal remote sensing or not. The results of this laboratory research have proven that the presence of industrial wastewater cause a decrease in plant's product and its f-cover value, also some changes in radiant temperature.

  6. Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parande, Anand K., E-mail: corrparande@yahoo.co.in [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Sivashanmugam, A.; Beulah, H.; Palaniswamy, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-09-15

    Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l{sup -1}, agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l{sup -1} by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l{sup -1} in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

  7. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  8. Biosorption of chromium from electroplating and galvanizing industrial effluents under extreme conditions using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] is a toxic oxidized form and an important metal pollutant in the water bodies. Biosorption of chromium(VI offers a potential alternative to conventional metal removal methods. Dried biomass of Chlorella vulgaris was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents as a function of biosorbent dosage, contact time, pH, salinity and initial metal ion concentration. Batch experiments were conducted for biosorption and the optimum conditions were 1 g/L biomass, 4 h contact time, pH 2 and 2.893 mS/cm of electrical conductivity. The chromium biosorption was strictly pH dependent with a maximum Cr removal of 63.2 mg/L at pH 2. Highest Cr removal at a concentration of 81.3 mg/L was observed at Electrical conductivity (EC value of 2.893 mS/cm. A comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed that Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data based on R2, qmax and standard error values. The results suggest that C. vulgaris biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents. Keywords: Biosorption, Chlorella vulgaris, Microalgae, Hexavalent chromium

  9. Efficiency of chitosan (Poly-[D] Glucosamine as natural organic coagulant in pre-treatment of active carbon effluent in Panacan, Davao City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezel A. Cinco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of environmental friendly coagulant is widened which can be proposed as an imperative option for water treatment. In this study, the efficiency of Chitosan, a natural organic coagulant in pre-treating Active Carbon Effluent (ACE as alternative to conventional metal based coagulants in terms of Turbidity (T, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS was evaluated. Collection of effluent for testing was conducted at the Philippine – Japan Active Carbon Corporation, Panacan, Davao City, Philippines. Chitosan (Deacetylated chitin; Poly- [1- 4] – β- glucosamine was obtained from Qingdao Develop Chemistry Co., Ltd., China. Suspensions added with experimental coagulant dosages (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mgL-1 were made by sediment mixer maintained at pH 5 and analyzed with the following parameters: Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Turbidity (T. The efficiency of the chitosan coagulation was found to be high in terms of turbidity (99.2%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (97.2% in 5 mg/L dose of chitosan and Total Suspended Solid (99.15% in 10 mg/L dose of chitosan. It can be concluded that Chitosan is an effective coagulant which can significantly reduce the level of turbidity, COD and TSS. A further study with different types of effluent and higher Chitosan doses are needed for recommending it for practical application as a natural organic coagulant.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  11. Bioassessment of the Effluents Discharged from Two Export Oriented Industrial Zones Located in Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka Using Erythrocytic Responses of the Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, C K; Pathiratne, A

    2017-10-01

    Complex effluents originating from diverse industrial processes in industrial zones could pose cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards to biota in the receiving ecosystems which cannot be revealed by conventional monitoring methods. This study assessed potential cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of treated effluents of two industrial zones which are discharged into Kelani river, Sri Lanka combining erythrocytic abnormality tests and comet assay of the tropical model fish, Nile tilapia. Exposure of fish to the effluents induced erythrocytic DNA damage and deformed erythrocytes with serrated membranes, vacuolations, nuclear buds and micronuclei showing cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards in all cases. Occasional exceedance of industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits was noted for color and lead which may have contributed to the observed cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of effluents. The results demonstrate that fish erythrocytic responses could be used as effective bioanalytical tools for cytotoxic/genotoxic hazard assessments of complex effluents of industrial zones for optimization of the waste treatment process in order to reduce biological impacts.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  13. Study of the adsorption/oxidation coupling for the processing of industrial gaseous effluents; Etude du couplage adsorption / oxydation pour le traitement des effluents gazeux industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monneyron, P.; Manero, M.H.; Foussard, J.N. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Genie des Procedes Industriels, Lab. d' Ingenierie des Procedes de l' Environnement, 31 - Toulouse (France); Benoit-Marquie, F; Maurette, M.T. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. des Interactions Moleculaires et Reactivite Chimique et Photochimique, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2001-07-01

    This study presents a process for the abatement of the volatile organic compounds of industrial gaseous effluents. This process uses hydrophobous zeolites as adsorbent in order to avoid any risk of ignition during the adsorption of ketones. Adsorption is coupled with oxidation in the same reactor for the regeneration of the adsorbent. Two oxidation processes are evaluated: the regeneration by ozonized air and the UV photo-catalysis. (J.S.)

  14. Soil chemical alterations of a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol treated with an alkaline effluent from a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Esper Neto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from different industrial supply conglomerates are often discarded in the environment without proper treatment. The concern for an economically viable industrial production line, which is both environmentally sound and socially acceptable, is increasing. Some of these effluents are alkaline in nature and may be used as an alternative to chemical conditioners for acidic soils in agricultural systems. This research aimed to evaluate changes in the chemical attributes of a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol after application of an effluent from a pharmaceutical industry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using PVC tubes of 1-m length and a 0.2-m diameter filled with soil and different doses of the effluent. After 3 days, 100 mm of water was applied to each treatment. The PVC tubes were incubated for 30 days; thereafter, the tubes disassembled, and soil chemical analyses were made at different soil depths: 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8, and 0.8-1.0 m. The effluent applications significantly altered the soil elements in the 0-0.2 m layer, increasing the concentrations of K+, P, Mn2+, Na+, Cu2+, H+, Ca2+, Al3+ and the soil pH. In the subsurface layers, the concentration of the elements Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, and Na+ also changed significantly. In general, the application of pharmaceutical industry residue improved soil chemical attributes.

  15. A comparative analysis of selected wastewater pretreatment processes in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczyszyn, Katarzyna; Góra, Wojciech; Dymaczewski, Zbysław; Borowiak, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the classical coagulation with the iron sulphate and adsorption on bentonite for the pretreatment of wastewater in the food industry. As a result of the studies, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) reduction were found to be comparable in both technologies, and a 29% higher total phosphorus removal efficiency by the coagulation was observed. After the coagulation and adsorption processes, a significant difference between mineral and organic fraction in the sludge was found (49% and 51% for bentonite and 28% and 72% for iron sulphate, respectively).

  16. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of marble industry effluent on seed germination, post germinative growth and productivity of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fazal; Hadi, Fazal; Ullah, Zakir; Zia, Muhammad Amir

    2007-11-15

    A green house study was conducted at the University of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of marble industry effluent on soil pH, germination, post germinative growth and productivity of maize. The experiment was conducted in triplicate form for each treatment and tape water was used as control (T0). Effluents were diluted with tap water at concentration of 20% (T1), 40% (T2), 60% (T3), 80% (T4) and also used 100% (T5) concentration in 4 kg soil pot(-1) and plants were grown for 90 days. Results showed that there was a linear increase in pH of soil with increase in effluent concentration while germination, root length and stem girth was enhanced and found maximum at 40% concentration of effluent applied. The shoot length and root dry biomass was depressed as compared to control. It is concluded from the present study that marble industry effluent can be used as a fertilizer in low concentration especially for highly acidic soil but there is still need to carry out series of greenhouse and field trials to ascertain the fertilizer potentials of this effluent for maize crop.

  18. Assessment of the disinfection capacity and eco-toxicological impact of atmospheric cold plasma for treatment of food industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Giltrap, Michelle; Lu, Peng; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2018-08-01

    Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent. This study also investigated the eco-toxicological impact of cold plasma treatment of the effluents using a range of aquatic bioassays. Continuous ACP treatment was applied to synthetic dairy and meat effluents. Microbial inactivation showed treatment time dependence with significant reduction in microbial populations within 120 s, and to undetectable levels after 300 s. Post treatment retention time emerged as critical control parameter which promoted ACP bacterial inactivation efficiency. Moreover, ACP treatment for 20 min achieved significant reduction (≥2 Log 10 ) in Bacillus megaterium endospores in wastewater effluent. Acute aquatic toxicity was assessed using two fish cell lines (PLHC-1 and RTG-2) and a crustacean model (Daphnia magna). Untreated effluents were toxic to the aquatic models, however, plasma treatment limited the toxic effects. Differing sensitivities were observed to ACP treated effluents across the different test bio-assays in the following order: PLHC-1 > RTG-2 ≥ D. magna; with greater sensitivity retained to plasma treated meat effluent than dairy effluent. The toxic effects were dependent on concentration and treatment time of the ACP treated effluent; with 30% cytotoxicity in D. magna and fish cells observed after 24 h of exposure to ACP treated effluent for

  19. Pre-treatment of high oil and grease pet food industrial wastewaters using immobilized lipase hydrolyzation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Bassi, Amarjeet; Nakhla, George

    2006-09-01

    Wastewaters generating from pet food industries contain high concentration of oil and grease (O&G), which is difficult to treat through conventional biological treatment systems. In this study, the hydrolysis of O&G originating from pet food industrial wastewater was evaluated. Candida rugosa lipase was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and applied in the hydrolysis experiment. Results showed that approximately 50% of the O&G was hydrolyzed due to the enzyme activity. A significant increment in COD and VFA production was also observed. The immobilized lipase activity was confirmed with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) before and after O&G hydrolysis. During the 3-day experiment, approximately 65% of the beads were recovered and after the hydrolysis, approximately 70% of the enzyme activity remained in the beads. This study shows the potential of immobilized lipase as a pre-treatment step in biological treatment of pet food manufacturing wastewater.

  20. Pre-treatment of high oil and grease pet food industrial wastewaters using immobilized lipase hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Bassi, Amarjeet; Nakhla, George

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters generating from pet food industries contain high concentration of oil and grease (O and G), which is difficult to treat through conventional biological treatment systems. In this study, the hydrolysis of O and G originating from pet food industrial wastewater was evaluated. Candida rugosa lipase was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and applied in the hydrolysis experiment. Results showed that approximately 50% of the O and G was hydrolyzed due to the enzyme activity. A significant increment in COD and VFA production was also observed. The immobilized lipase activity was confirmed with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) before and after O and G hydrolysis. During the 3-day experiment, approximately 65% of the beads were recovered and after the hydrolysis, approximately 70% of the enzyme activity remained in the beads. This study shows the potential of immobilized lipase as a pre-treatment step in biological treatment of pet food manufacturing wastewater

  1. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  2. Utilization of ALANPOL dosemeter composed by alanine and polyethylene for determination of doses in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina S.; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Pontuschka, Walter M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of traceability and accuracy was performed with the dosimetry system ALANPOL developed by IVHTJ/ Poland that uses alanine as a dosimeter and EPR as the read out system. The dosimeter ALANPOL is a polymer compound that aggregates alanine. The dosimeter has the outside diameter 3 mm, and the length of 25,4 mm (1 inch). In order to use this dosimeter for monitoring the existing real time calorimetry dosimeter system set up in a electron beam waste treatment plant. Electron beam and gamma irradiation experiments with ALANPOL was carried out under demineralized water and industrial effluent. The result show that in the dose range of 1-40 kGy the ALANPOL dosimeter system is suitable underwater monitoring for absorbed dose and can be applied for the evaluation of the on line calorimetry dosimeter system. (author)

  3. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Richard; Brewer, Mark; Ho, Nancy; Sedlak, Miroslav; Dreshel, Richard; Welch, Gary; Dien, Bruce S; Aden, Andy; Ladisch, Michael R

    2005-05-01

    The pretreatment of cellulose in corn fiber by liquid hot water at 160 degrees C and a pH above 4.0 dissolved 50% of the fiber in 20 min. The pretreatment also enabled the subsequent complete enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining polysaccharides to monosaccharides. The carbohydrates dissolved by the pretreatment were 80% soluble oligosaccharides and 20% monosaccharides with industrial trial at 43 gallons per minute (163 L/min) of fiber slurry with a residence time of 20 min illustrates the utility and practicality of this approach for pretreating corn fiber. The added costs owing to pretreatment, fiber, and hydrolysis are equivalent to less than 0.84 dollars/gal of ethanol produced from the fiber. Minimizing monosaccharide formation during pretreatment minimized the formation of degradation products; hence, the resulting sugars were readily fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant hexose and by pentose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) and ethanologenic Escherichia coli at yields >90% of theoretical based on the starting fiber. This cooperative effort and first successful trial opens the door for examining the robustness of the pretreatment system under extended run conditions as well as pretreatment of other cellulose-containing materials using water at controlled pH.

  4. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of membrane bioreactor for treating industrial wastewater: A case study in Isfahan Mourchekhurt industrial estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The MBR technology was used to treat the combined industrial wastewater was efficient, and its effluent can be perfectly used for water reuse. The MBR performance was improved by applying an anaerobic pretreatment unit.

  6. Water resource recovery by means of microalgae cultivation in outdoor photobioreactors using the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor fed with pre-treated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruela, Alexandre; Murgui, Mónica; Gómez-Gil, Tao; Durán, Freddy; Robles, Ángel; Ruano, María Victoria; Ferrer, José; Seco, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of assessing the potential of microalgae cultivation for water resource recovery (WRR), the performance of three 0.55m(3) flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs) was evaluated in terms of nutrient removal rate (NRR) and biomass production. The PBRs were operated outdoor (at ambient temperature and light intensity) using as growth media the nutrient-rich effluent from an AnMBR fed with pre-treated sewage. Solar irradiance was the most determining factor affecting NRR. Biomass productivity was significantly affected by temperatures below 20°C. The maximum biomass productivity (52.3mgVSS·L(-1)·d(-1)) and NRR (5.84mgNH4-N·L(-1)·d(-1) and 0.85mgPO4-P·L(-1)·d(-1)) were achieved at solar irradiance of 395μE·m(-2)·s(-1), temperature of 25.5°C, and HRT of 8days. Under these conditions, it was possible to comply with effluent nutrient standards (European Directive 91/271/CEE) when the nutrient content in the influent was in the range of 40-50mgN·L(-1) and 6-7mg P·L(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible applications of ferrate(VI in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluent in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Bujanović Ljiljana N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effects of ferrate(VI application in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluent in laboratory conditions. Samples used are a mixture of wastewater effluent from various industrial plants whose composition was determined by analyzing samples before the ferrate(VI treatment. Determining physical-chemical characteristics of the samples showed very high chemical oxygen demand (COD and the concentrations of individual pollutants are higher than the maximum allowed. In the tested samples, the COD was from 18 (sample 1 to 580 times (sample 2 greater than allowed (allowed 45 - 150 mg/l, while the concentrations of certain metals were several times higher than allowed (Cu allowed 0,1 mg/l, Zn allowed 0,2 mg/l. Also, a high concentration of total phosphorus content (allowed 2 mg/l and fluoride was found (allowed 20 mg/l, 2-3 times higher than permissible. The applied Na2FeO4 was synthesized by electrochemical method and applied in situ. Physical-chemical testing of samples, after treatment with different amounts (2, 5, 8, and 10 ml of Na2FeO4, concentration of 8 g/l showed that ferrate(VI can be used as a multifunctional agent in the purification of industrial wastewater, where in the amount of contaminating matter is reduced below the maximum permitted level. It was demonstrated the high efficiency of ferrate(VI as a strong oxidant in the removal of total P and suspended materials. Also pointed out was the high sorption power of the generated ferric(IIIhydroxide, which with its developed surface absorbs 95,5% of the F- and removes it from the solution in the form of sludge. Showed a high efficiency of ferrate(VI in the total removal of P (70 to 99,5%, and F- (89 to 95,5%, but depending on the presence of the total COD value or the presence of the total organic substances. At high values of the COD major part of ferrate(VI is consumed in the oxidation of organic material and the formation of Fe(OH3, which accelerate the process

  8. Sequential in situ hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification for the treatment of high-nitrate industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Douglas, Grant B

    2014-11-01

    A sequential process using hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification was evaluated for the treatment of a magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2)-rich effluent (17,000mgNO3(-)-N/L, 13,100mgMg/L) generated from an industrial nickel-mining process. The hydrotalcite precipitation removed 41% of the nitrate (7000mgNO3(-)-N/L) as an interlayer anion with an approximate formula of Mg5Al2(OH)14(NO3)2·6H2O. The resultant solute chemistry was a Na-NO3-Cl type with low trace element concentrations. The partially treated effluent was continuously fed (hydraulic retention time of 24h) into a biological fluidised bed reactor (FBR) with sodium acetate as a carbon source for 33days (1:1 v/v dilution). The FBR enabled >70% nitrate removal and a maximal NOx (nitrate+nitrite) removal rate of 97mg NOx-N/Lh under alkaline conditions (pH 9.3). Overall, this sequential process reduced the nitrate concentration of the industrial effluent by >90% and thus represents an efficient method to treat Mg(NO3)2-rich effluents on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  10. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  11. Peat wetland as a natural filter of effluents from adjacent industrial areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József DEZSO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project is the study of a peat wetland functioning as recipient of effluents from former and present-day industrial activities. The investigation was focused on heavy metal contaminations and their probable mobilization or fixation. The studied peatbog is a typical Eastern European wetland, located in Hungary on the border between medium mountains (Bakony Mountains and a Neogene basin (the Sárrét, an area under nature conservation. Watercourses and prevailing air currents can transport contaminants from industrial areas to the wetland. At first the basic parameters of surface waters and subsurface conditions (soils, groundwater were investigated. These parameters (EC, Cl are possible indicators of contamination. Subsequently, the amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Pb extracted by solution in two steps (HCl, CaCl2 were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The extracted values indicate what amounts of which elements could be mobilized by human impact and/or production of humic acids, which occasionally emerges during the remediation works. The total heavy metal concentrations in the samples were investigated by X-ray fluorescence method. Based on the investigation, the peatbog is claimed to function as a natural filter.

  12. Remediation of DDT-contaminated water and soil by using pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapanajaru, Tunlawit; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Pengthamkeerati, Patthra

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of different pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry to degrade DDT [(1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane] in aqueous solutions and soil slurry. Iron byproducts from automotive manufacturing were pretreated by three different methods (heating, solvent and 0.5N HCl acid washing) prior to experimentation. All pretreated irons were used at 5% (wt v-1) to treat 0.014 mM (5 mgL-1) of DDT in aqueous solution. Among the pretreated irons, acid pretreated iron results in the fastest destruction rates, with a pseudo first-order degradation rate of 0.364 d-1. By lowering the pH of the DDT aqueous solution from 9 to 3, destruction kinetic rates increase more than 20%. In addition, when DDT-contaminated soil slurry (3.54 mg kg-1) was incubated with 5% (wt v-1) acid-pretreated iron, more than 90% destruction of DDT was observed within 8 weeks. Moreover, DDT destruction kinetics were enhanced when Fe(II), Fe(III) or Al(III) sulfate salts were added to the soil slurry, with the following order of destruction kinetics: Al(III) sulfate > Fe(III) sulfate > Fe(II) sulfate. These results provide proof-of concept that inexpensive iron byproducts of the automotive industry can be used to remediate DDT-contaminated water and soil.

  13. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO. The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  14. Marble industry effluents cause an increased bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Mahaseer (Tor putitora) in Barandu River, district Buner, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulk, Shahi; Korai, Abdul Latif; Azizullah, Azizullah; Shahi, Lubna; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2017-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of marble industry effluents on the accumulation of heavy metals in selected tissues of mahaseer (Tor putitora) in Barandu River. Fish samples were collected from three selected sites (upstream (US), effluents/industrial (IS), and downstream (DS) sites) on monthly basis for 8 months. Heavy metal concentrations were determined in fish tissues using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Liver accumulated the highest level of metal concentrations while the lowest concentrations were found in muscles in T. putitora. Among metals, Fe was reported in the highest amount whereas the lowest was Cd in all the fish organs. In all the months, the metal concentrations were significantly higher (P metal concentrations at DS were found significantly higher (P metals in fish tissues at IS compared to US and DS. Furthermore, in many cases, the concentrations at DS were also found significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to US. It is further confirmed by skewness z-score which was found to be higher than 1.96 suggesting the hazardous effects of marble industries on the collective health of the river. It is therefore recommended that all these industries either should be moved away from the bank of River Barandu or must be bound to properly treat their effluents prior to discharge into the river in order to protect the biota of River Barandu from the pollution caused by these marble industries.

  15. Analysis of inlet and outlet industrial wastewater effluents by means of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, E; Tapias, J C; Casas, A; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2010-06-01

    The monitoring of heavy metals in industrial waste water effluents is an important activity in many laboratories. Of special interest is the screening of elemental composition of inlet effluents and quantitative analysis of outlet effluents to study the efficiency of chemical treatment process to eliminate metals and to comply with current established concentration limits, respectively. In this sense, fast analytical methodologies which entail simple sample preparation are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) for the rapid and simple determination of some inorganic impurities (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Sn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in inlet and outlet industrial waste water effluents from metallurgical and tanning leather factories have been tested. An evaluation of different simple sample treatments is presented and it is followed by a discussion of spectral and chemical matrix effects when dealing with this type of samples. Analytical figures of merit such as accuracy, precision and limits of detection have also been carefully studied. Finally, the data obtained by direct TXRF analysis has been compared to that obtained by ICP-OES/ICP-MS after a microwave digestion. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-01-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0 3 , H 3 C 2 00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0 3 medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L -1 ) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 μg L -1 and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 μg L -1 . In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and minimize reagent consumption, as well as

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  18. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  19. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  20. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  1. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  2. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  3. Promoting the Growth of Chlorella vulgaris in Secondary Wastewater Treatment Effluent of Tofu Industry using Azospirillum sp

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyunanto Agung Nugroho; Musthofa Lutfi; Bambang Susilo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of growth promoting bacteria (GPB) Azospirillum sp on the growth of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater of tofu industry as a medium. To observe the influence, about 106 cells/mL of Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in 1 L of wastewater of tofu industry. The wastewater was an effluent of an aerobic treatment. Six different treatments were set regarding to the Azospirillum sp added to the medium. The glass was marked as A0 ...

  4. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of new biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA 72 isolated from dairy industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Andrea S; Coutinho, Joana O P A; Júnior, Ary C; Rosa, Carlos A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Santos, Vera L

    2009-12-01

    The yeast strain CLOA 72 isolated from the effluent of a dairy industry in Brazil and identified as Trichosporon montevideense, was able to grow and produce a glycolipid biosurfactant when cultured on a mineral medium (MM) with sunflower oil as the carbon source. Biosurfactant production was partially growth-associated and maximal emulsification activity was observed at 144 h of cultivation (78.92%). The biosurfactant purified by precipitation with ethanol showed 78.66% emulsifying activity when used in concentrations above 4.5 mg/ml and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to values below 44.9 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.2 mg/ml. The highest emulsifying activity (E(24)) has been observed with vegetable oils, toluene, kerosene, isooctane, cyclohexane, hexane, diesel oil and hexadecane as compared to mineral oil and oleic acid. The biosurfactant also showed good stability during exposure to 100 degrees C for different periods of time (10 to 60 min), to high salinity (30% of NaCl, KCl and NaHCO(3)), and to a wide range of pH values (1-10). The biosurfactant purified by gel filtration chromatography is a glycolipid, with lipid portion containing 16.03% (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, 14.92% hexadecanoic acid, and 9.63% (E) octadec-9-enoic acid and the carbohydrate portion containing mannose (35.29%), xylose (41.99%), arabinose (17.47%), and glucose (5.25%).

  6. Applicability of Fenton Process for Treatment of Industrial Effluents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehali Mehta; Swati Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater and effluent treatment has undergone innovative changes over the years. Traditional wastewater treatment has yielded to modern and path-breaking procedures which are more efficient and effective. The world of difficulties and unknown has opened new avenues and paths to highly feasible effluent treatment procedures, so the vigorous importance of advanced oxidation procedures. This review paper will delineate the increasing importance of various advanced oxidation process...

  7. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    4.1.1.2 Oil-Water Emulsions – Mock Solutions ………………… 20 4.1.1.3 Tannin and Humic Acid Mixture – Mock Solutions …….. 35 4.1.1.4 Silt – Mock...water Influent/ effluent water control Industrial wastewater Pre-treatment for drinking water Oil emulsion breaking Medical waste

  8. Evaluation of changes in effluent quality from industrial complexes on the Korean nationwide scale using a self-organizing map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-04-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment.

  9. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jung Bae

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment.

  10. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  11. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Marco A.; Juárez, Julio César González; Martínez-Gallegos, Sonia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Peralta, Ever; del Campo López, Eduardo Martin; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Miranda, Verónica Martínez; Blancas, Teresa Torres

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high conte...

  12. The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal ≈ 65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale.

  13. Utilization of short chain monocarboxylic acids in an effluent of petrochemical industry by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Preez, J.C.; Toerien, D.F.

    1985-02-01

    The aqueous effluent generated by the Fischer-Tropsch process, containing a total of 13 g/L C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ monocarboxylic acids, was investigated as a potential substrate for the production of single-cell protein (SCP). A bacterial isolate, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, could utilize all the acids in the effluent simultaneously in chemostat cultures, and no residual acids were detected in the culture below a dilution rate of 0.78 h/sup -1/. The critical dilution rate was 1.04 h/sup -1/. The maintenance energy requirement of the cells growing on the monocarboxylic acid mixture was considerably lower than that of cells growing on acetate as the sole carbon source. Enrichment of the effluent with ethanol to increase the biomass concentration was successful and still allowed the simultaneous and efficient utilization of all the carbon sources, but resulted in a decrease of the critical dilution rate by ca. 20%.

  14. The exposure of the EC (European Community) population from nuclear industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, M.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose commitment to the EC population from routine effluents released from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants within the Community in 1978 amounted to approximately 500 man Sv. The collective dose commitments associated with discharges from the nuclear power stations was approximately 50 man Sv, being almost entirely due to airborne carbon-14. The total collective dose commitment from the reprocessing plants was approximately 450 man Sv, about two-thirds of which was due to radiocaesium in the liquid effluent from Sellafield. (UK)

  15. The use of PHP in the radioactive effluent treatment in rare earth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitang, Q.; Ruensheng, W.

    1985-01-01

    Monazite is one of the most important rare earth resources, processing monazite, however, is accompanied by radioactive effluent that needs treatment. A satisfactory treatment should be able not only to insolubilize the radioactive isotopes but also to clarify the suspension quickly and completely. In this study, out of 15 different coagulants, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHP) of molecular weight 1000 has been chosen as the most efficient one for the clarification of the treated effluent in question. Satisfactory performance has been attained in a continuous clarifier

  16. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  17. New procedure for the examination of the degradation of volatile organonitrogen compounds during the treatment of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of 32 volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of industrial effluents with a complex matrix. The procedure, based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus and mass spectrometric detection, was optimized and validated. Optimization of the extraction included the type of extraction and disperser solvent, disperser solvent volume, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time. The procedure based on nitrogen-phosphorus detection was found to be superior, having lower limits of detection (0.0067-2.29 μg/mL) and quantitation as well as a wider linear range. The developed procedure was applied to the determination of content of volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of raw effluents from the production of bitumens in which 13 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 10.86 μg/mL and in samples of effluents treated by various chemical methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Adsorption of chromium species from industrial effluent using magnesium-bentonite clay composite: kinetics, equilibrium and risk assessment study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjia, FH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available from industrial effluent using magnesium-bentonite clay composite: kinetics, equilibrium and risk assessment study F. H. Tjiaa, M. M. Ramakokovhua, and V. Masindi b,c* aDepartment of Chemical, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Tshwane... was investigated. It can be seen from Figure 1 that the rate of Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution increased with an increase in contact time. From the first minute of equilibration, the removal was very rapid and attains equilibrium at 30 mins of shaking...

  19. Electrocatalytic treatment of waste: studies on discoloration of an industrial azo dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Gohil, Mahendra S; Subbarayappa, Adimurthy; Gour, Prem M; Susarla, Venkataramakrishna S; Gadde, Ramachandraiah; Ghosh, Puspito K

    2003-01-01

    A textile dye effluent containing chiefly reactive azo dyes has been treated electrochemically for discoloration and COD (chemical oxygen demand) reduction at different current densities, flow rates and dilution. Experiments have been carried out in a thin electrochemical reactor under single pass conditions using a dimensionally stable catalytic anode (DSA) and a stainless steel cathode.

  20. Towards the design of a zero effluent facility in the pharmaceutical industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of any production facility is to have the least negative effect on the surrounding environment, while still producing the required output. The perfect scenario would be a production facility that produces zero effluents...

  1. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper industry biosludge-long-term reactor performance and effects of thermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, V; Ylä-Outinen, A; Rintala, J

    2015-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment processes produce large volumes of biosludge. Limited anaerobic degradation of lignocellulose has hindered the utilization of biosludge, but the processing of biosludge using anaerobic digestion has recently regained interest. In this study, biosludge was used as a sole substrate in long-term (400 d) mesophilic laboratory reactor trials. Nine biosludge batches collected evenly over a period of one year from a pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment plant had different solid and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements) characteristics. Nutrient characteristics may vary by a factor of 2-11, while biomethane potentials (BMPs) ranged from 89 to 102 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS between batches. The BMPs were enhanced by 39-88% with thermal pretreatments at 105-134 °C. Despite varying biosludge properties, stable operation was achieved in reactor trials with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 d. Hydrolysis was the process limiting step, ceasing gas production when the HRT was shortened to 10 days. However, digestion with an HRT of 10 days was feasible after thermal pretreatment of the biosludge (20 min at 121 °C) due to enhanced hydrolysis. The methane yield was 78 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS for untreated biosludge and was increased by 77% (138 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS) after pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NF-RO Membrane Performance for Treating the Effluent of an Organized Industrial Zone Wastewater Treatment Plant: Effect of Different UF Types

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Uyanık; Oktay Özkan; İsmail Koyuncu

    2017-01-01

    Reuse of water is necessary in Organized Industrial Zones (OIZ) due to excessive use of groundwater in semi-arid Turkey. Membrane treatment of the OIZ wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents should be explored for new treatment options. In this study, three different UF membranes with variable molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) values (4, 10, and 250 kDa) were used to treat the effluent of an OIZ WWTP at laboratory scale. Six different nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes we...

  4. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  6. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  7. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  8. Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L( - 1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L( - 1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L( - 1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L( - 1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L( - 1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field.

  9. Removal of high concentration of sulfate from pigment industry effluent by chemical precipitation using barium chloride: RSM and ANN modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navamani Kartic, D; Aditya Narayana, B Ch; Arivazhagan, M

    2018-01-15

    Sulfate ions pose a major threat and challenge in the treatment of industrial effluents. The sample of wastewater obtained from a pigment industry contained large quantities of sulfate in the form of sodium sulfate which resulted in high TDS. As the removal of sulfate from pigment industry effluent was not reported previously, this work was focused on removing the sulfate ions from the effluent by chemical precipitation using barium chloride. The efficiency of sulfate removal was nearly 100% at an excess dosage of barium chloride, which precipitates the dissolved sulfate ions in the form of barium sulfate. Optimization of the parameters was done using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). This work is the first attempt for modeling the removal of sulfate from pigment industry effluent using RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Prediction by both the models was evaluated and both of them exhibited good performance (R 2 value > 0.99). It was observed that the prediction by RSM (R 2 value 0.9986) was closer to the experimental results than ANN prediction (R 2 value 0.9955). The influence on the pH and conductivity of the solution by dosage of precipitant was also studied. The formation of barium sulfate was confirmed by characterization of the precipitate. Therefore, the sulfate removed from the effluent was converted into a commercially valuable precipitate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe3O4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe3O4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of corresponding

  12. Management of effluents and waste from pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Deschamps

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the management of solid waste and wastewater is a major concern for humanity. In the last decade, traces of pharmaceuticals have been reported in the water cycle and have raised concerns among regulators, water suppliers and the public regarding the potential risks to human health. This study evaluated solid waste management in the state of Minas Gerais and concluded that the main fate of hazardous waste has been incineration, while the non-hazardous waste has been recycled or sent to landfills. However, complaints to the Environmental Agency - FEAM have indicated that a significant number of companies just send their hazardous wastes to landfills or even to garbage dumps, thus highlighting the urgent need for adequate waste management in Minas Gerais. Most of the pharmaceutical companies in Minas Gerais use conventional wastewater treatment. Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS showed that the treatment routes adopted by the two 2 selected pharmaceutical industries were not effective enough since residues and degradation products of antibiotics were detected. The physicochemical analysis of the effluents showed variability in their characteristics, which may influence their treatability. The degradation assay with Fenton's reagent stood out as a promising route in achieving a higher removal capacity compared to the conventional treatment. This study contributes to enhancing our knowledge of the management of wastewater as well as of solid waste from the pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais and points out the need for further research.Atualmente, a gestão de resíduos sólidos e águas residuais é uma grande preocupação para a humanidade. Na ultima década, a detecção de traços de medicamentos no ciclo da água tem sido reportada e tem gerado preocupação entre os agentes reguladores, fornecedores de água e público devido os riscos potenciais para a saúde humana. As empresas farmacêuticas, em Minas Gerais

  13. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-E, E-mail: yechoi@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  14. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  15. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

    2008-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas.

  16. Improving neural network prediction of effluent from biological wastewater treatment plant of industrial park using fuzzy learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Tzu-Yi; Wang, S C; Chiang, C F; Su, H C; Yu, L F; Sung, P J; Lin, C Y; Hu, H C

    2009-10-01

    Three types of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in which the online monitoring parameters served as the input variable were employed to predict suspended solids (SS(eff)), chemical oxygen demand (COD(eff)), and pH(eff) in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant in industrial park. Artificial neural network (ANN) was also used for comparison. The results indicated that ANFIS statistically outperforms ANN in terms of effluent prediction. When predicting, the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 2.90, 2.54 and 0.36% for SS(eff), COD(eff) and pH(eff) could be achieved using ANFIS. The maximum values of correlation coefficient for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) were 0.97, 0.95, and 0.98, respectively. The minimum mean square errors of 0.21, 1.41 and 0.00, and the minimum root mean square errors of 0.46, 1.19 and 0.04 for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) could also be achieved.

  17. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  18. Radiation induced environmental remediation of Cr(VI) heavy metal in aerated neutral solution under simulated industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouider, Fathi; Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are major water contaminants in most industrial effluents, due to their carcinogenicity, while Cr(III) is an important element for human metabolism. In a previous work, we showed that Cr(VI) was radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) by the CO{sub 2}{sup -.} radical at pH 3 N{sub 2}O-saturated solution in the presence of formate. Here in the present work, this removal was investigated by steady state irradiation and pulse radiolysis in aerated solution at neutral pH, which is close to natural conditions in most wastewaters, where the reducing agent is the superoxide radical anion O{sub 2}{sup -.} The degradation of Cr(VI) increased linearly with the absorbed dose and was significantly enhanced by the added formate but not by the radiolitically produced hydrogen peroxide at this pH. The rate constant for this reduction was found to be 1.28 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and the absorption spectrum of Cr(V) transient species was obtained. A partial recovery of Cr(VI) is observed over a period of ca. 5 ms following a second order kinetics with a rate constant 8.0 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These outcomes suggest that gamma-irradiation of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewaters and industrial effluents in presence of formate can be simple, effective and economical means for the remediation of this major contaminant.

  19. Combined treatment of chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial effluents by waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Hosetti, B B

    2002-10-01

    Influent and final effluent was collected from the CMM Ltd., Bethora, Ponda, Goa and were analysed for pH, DO, BOD, enzyme activity and chlorophyll content of the waste stabilization pond for over a period of two years of which the data for one year (pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon periods) is given. The study revealed that the DO was maximum during the pre-monsoon months and least during the monsoon. Maximum removal of BOD and phosphate was observed during the pre-monsoon periods. Enzymatic activity was at its peak during the monsoons than during the other months. Chlorophyll content was maximum during the pre-monsoon months due to increased growth of phytoplankton as the conditions were favourable for their growth. Also depending on the concentration of different chlorophyll pigments, one can come to know the different groups of algae inhabiting the stabilization ponds.

  20. Utilisation of respirometry to assess organic matter reduction of effluents from the Camaçari industrial complex (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment efficiency of industrial effluents, after biological treatment by activated sludge in aeration tanks (AT, was assessed through the utilisation of respirometry tests at the Cetrel's-wastewater treatment plant (WTP. Samples of the equalised effluent (EE, prior to treatment, and of the treated effluent (TE, after treatment, were analysed. Twenty bioassays batch were carried out to AT (AT-2, AT-3 and AT-4. Each test consisted of: a basic test, a basic test with peptone added, a test using EE and a test using TE. The data showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 in the respiration activity between the aeration tanks. Regarding the specific oxygen uptake rate there was a mean reduction of 70.8% between the tests performed with EE and TE. The results demonstratd that respirometry tests could successfully assess the efficiency of the activated sludge process and, therefore, be adopted as tool for the monitoring from the WTP.Este trabalho avaliou, através de ensaios de respirometria, a eficiência do tratamento de efluentes industriais, após tratamento por lodo ativado em tanques de aeração (TA. Foram analisadas amostras do efluente equalisado (EE, antes do tratamento, e do efluente tratado (ET. Vinte baterias de ensaios foram realizadas com cada um dos TA (TA-2, TA-3 e TA-4. Cada bateria consistiu de um ensaio básico, contendo apenas o licor misto, um ensaio com adição de peptona, um ensaio com o EE e um com o ET. Não houve diferença estatística significativa (p>0,05 na atividade respiratória dos TA. Quanto à taxa de consumo de oxigênio específica houve uma redução média de 70,8% entre os ensaios realizados com EE e ET. Os ensaios de respirometria determinaram com eficiência o nível de tratamento através de lodo ativado, e deve ser adotado no monitoramento dos efluentes da estação de tratamento de efluentes do Pólo Industrial de Camaçari.

  1. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2017-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO 2 or nano-Fe 2 O 3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /H 2 O 2 /UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L -1 of nano-TiO 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L -1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO 2 , enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  2. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  3. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. García-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high content of color (5952 ± 76 Pt-Co, turbidity (1648 ± 49 FAU, and COD (3608 ± 250 mg/L. Therefore, enhanced performance could be achieved by combining pretreatment techniques to increase the efficiencies of the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. In the integrated process, there was a turbidity reduction of 96.1 ± 0.2% and an increase in dissolved oxygen from 3.8 ± 0.05 mg/L (inlet sand filtration to 6.05 ± 0.03 mg/L (outlet sand filtration after 120 min of treatment. These results indicate good water quality necessary for all forms of elemental life. Color and COD removals were 98.2 ± 0.2% and 39.02 ± 2.2%, respectively, during the electrocoagulation process (0.2915 mA/cm2 current density and 120 min of treatment. The proposed integrated process could be an attractive alternative of pretreatment of real wastewater to increase water quality of conventional treatments.

  4. Impact of industrial effluents on geochemical association of metals within intertidal sediments of a creek

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Volvoikar, S.P.; Nayak, G.N.

    Metal speciation studies were carried out on three intertidal core sediments of the industrially impacted Dudh creek located along west coast of India Metals indicated a drastic increase in the bioavailable fraction towards the surface of the cores...

  5. Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. January 1976-September 1989 (Citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations data base). Report for January 1976-September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 48 citations, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal from anaerobic effluent of the cassava ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhixuan; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi; Bi, Xuejun

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal from anaerobic effluent of cassava stillage using a lab-scale integrated system consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an activated sludge (AS) process. Simultaneous denitrification and methanogenesis (SDM) was observed in the UASB with nitrate recirculation. Compared with the blank reactor without recirculation, the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies in the combined system with nitrate recirculation were similar (80-90%), while the TN removal efficiencies were significantly improved from 4.7% to 71.0%. Additionally, the anaerobic COD removal efficiencies increased from 21% to 40% as the recirculation ratio decreased from 3 to 1. Although the influent nitrate concentrations fluctuated (60-140 mg N/L), the nitrate removal efficiencies could be maintained at about 97% under different recirculation conditions. With the decreasing recirculation ratio from 3 to 1, the CH 4 content in biogas improved from 2% to 40% while the N 2 content reduced from 95.8% to 50.6%. The 16S rDNA sequencing results indicated that bacteria diversity in anaerobic SDM granular sludge was much higher than archaea. The effect of recirculation ratios on the bacterial and archaeal communities in SDM granular sludge could be further confirmed by the relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium tolerance and bioremediation potential of bacteria isolated from soils irrigated with untreated industrial effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the Cd tolerance of bacteria isolated from municipal effluent irrigated soils. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated and screened for their Cd+ tolerance by growing on nutrient agar plates amended with varying amount of Cd +. Out of them four bacteria (GS 2, GS5, GS10 and GS20) were found highly Cd tolerant (600 ppm Cd). The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cd+ was found 200 ppm. The isolates showed optimum growth at 30 degree C and pH 7.5-8.5. Growth curve study against different concentrations of Cd (0-600 ppm) revealed that GS2 was more tolerant among selected strains showing only 33% reduction in growth compared to 64% by GS5 and 77% by both GS 10 and GS20 at 600 ppm Cd. Inoculation of maize seeds with Cd tolerant bacteria for root elongation demonstrated upto 1.7 fold increase in root elongation (in the absence of Cd) and up to 1.5 fold (in the presence of 50 ppm Cd) compared to the un-inoculated plants. The results of the study revealed that the bacterial isolates exhibiting great Cd tolerance and growth promoting activity can be potential candidates for bioremediation of metal contaminated soils and wastewaters. (author)

  8. Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

    2014-06-15

    Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  10. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  11. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  12. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  13. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the biogas production and microbial communities balance during anaerobic digestion of urban and industrial waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Hajer; Miladi, Baligh; Diaz, Soraya Zahedi; Güelfo, Luis Alberto Fernández; Solera, Rosario; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-08-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the microbial populations balance and biogas production was studied during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) coming from urban (US: urban sludge) and industrial (IS: industrial sludge) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The highest biogas yields of 0.42l/gvolatile solid (VS) removed and 0.37l/gVS removed were obtained with urban and industrial sludge pre-treated at 120°C, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to quantify the major Bacteria and Archaea groups. Compared to control trails without pretreatment, Archaea content increased from 34% to 86% and from 46% to 83% for pretreated IS and US, respectively. In fact, the thermal pre-treatment of WAS enhanced the growth of hydrogen-using methanogens (HUMs), which consume rapidly the H2 generated to allow the acetogenesis. Therefore, the stable and better performance of digesters was observed involving the balance and syntrophic associations between the different microbial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Residues for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122°C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H2SO4 at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7-to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

  15. Biocatalytic pre-treatment processes of cotton : Industrial application of academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Warmoeskerken, van M.M.C.G. (Marijn); Warmoeskerken, van M.M.C.G. (Marijn)

    2011-01-01

    Much research effort is invested in developing enzymatic treatments of textiles by focusing on the performance of enzymes at the laboratory scale. Despite all of this work, upgrading these developments from the laboratory scale to an industrial scale has not been very successful.Nowadays,companies

  16. Organization of industrial application of academic research on biocatalytic pre-treatment processes of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G. (Marijn)

    2011-01-01

    A lot of research effort is put in developing enzymatic treatment of textiles by focusing on the performance of enzymes on lab-scale. Despite all this work upgrading of these developments from lab-scale to industrial scale has not been really successful. Companies are nowadays confronted with rapid

  17. Pretreatment of worn waters of the dairy industry by sand filtration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, H.; Derriche, Z.; Bettahar, N.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the environment started to become a concern with the demographic increase and the industrial and agricultural development, especially in the great agglomeration, the relative increase out of water became a major concern. Water of the factories takes care of mineral substances and organics during manufacture and constitutes one of the principal sources of contamination of the environment. (Author)

  18. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  19. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a f...

  20. Biosorption of diazinon by a pre-treated alimentary industrial waste: equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddou Mezenner, N.; Lagha, H.; Kais, H.; Trari, M.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores the feasibility of pre-treated coffee waste (PCW) as biosorbent for the removal of diazinon. The effect of the pesticide concentration (6-20 mg L-1), contact time, adsorbent dose (0.2-1.2 g L-1), solution pH (3-11.5), temperature (15-40 °C) and co-existing inorganic ions (H2PO4 -, NO3 -) on the diazinon biosorption over PCW is investigated. The experimental results indicate an optimal pH of 7.3 for the diazinon elimination on PCW (1 g L-1). The Langmuir model describes well the isotherm data with a high regression coefficient ( R 2 > 0.990) and a maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 18.52 mg g-1 at 15 °C. It is also observed that the intra-particle diffusion is not the rate-controlling step. A comparison is evaluated between the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models; the experimental data are well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The biosorption capacity decreases with increasing temperature for a diazinon concentration of 10 mg L-1. The negative enthalpy Δ H° (-63.57 kJ/mol) indicates that the diazinon biosorption onto PCW is exothermic. Under optimal conditions, the biosorption reaches 95% after 90 min. The removal efficiency decreases from 95 to 65.67 and 48.9% for the diazinon alone and in the presence of NO3 - and H2PO4 - (100 mg L-1), respectively.

  1. Chemical pretreatment of continuous galvanized steel sheet in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhm, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since several years, new products appeared on the market replacing classic phosphate – based conversioncoatings. This presentation will focus on the replacement of tricationic zinc phosphating systems for theautomotive industry. The basic chemistry and coating properties are presented.In the second part of the presentation, an outlook will be given on anti-corrosion packages for the comingdecade. An example of a very lean automotive paint shop will be discussed.

  2. Hydrolytic pre-treatment methods for enhanced biobutanol production from agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sampa; Gallastegui, Gorka; Suresh, Gayatri; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Drogui, Patrick; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; Verma, Mausam; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    Brewery industry liquid waste (BLW), brewery spent grain (BSG), apple pomace solid wastes (APS), apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and starch industry wastewater (SIW) have been considered as substrates to produce biobutanol. Efficiency of hydrolysis techniques tested to produce fermentable sugars depended on nature of agro-industrial wastes and process conditions. Acid-catalysed hydrolysis of BLW and BSG gave a total reducing sugar yield of 0.433 g/g and 0.468 g/g respectively. Reducing sugar yield from microwave assisted hydrothermal method was 0.404 g/g from APS and 0.631 g/g from APUS, and, 0.359 g/g from microwave assisted acid-catalysed SIW dry mass. Parameter optimization (time, pH and substrate concentration) for acid-catalysed BLW hydrolysate utilization using central composite model technique produced 307.9 g/kg glucose with generation of inhibitors (5-hydroxymethyl furfural (20 g/kg), furfural (1.6 g/kg), levulinic acid (9.3 g/kg) and total phenolic compound (0.567 g/kg)). 10.62 g/L of acetone-butanol-ethanol was produced by subsequent clostridial fermentation of the substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-29

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  4. Genetic characterization, nickel tolerance, biosorption, kinetics, and uptake mechanism of a bacterium isolated from electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rajendran, P

    2015-04-01

    Electroplating industries in Madurai city produce approximately 49,000 L of wastewater and 1200 L of sludge every day revealing 687-5569 ppm of nickel (Ni) with other contaminants. Seventeen Ni-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from nutrient-enriched effluents. Among them one hyper Ni accumulating strain was scored and identified as Bacillus cereus VP17 on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Equilibrium data of Ni(II) ions using the bacterium as sorbent at isothermal conditions (37 °C) and pH 6 were best adjusted by Langmuir (R(2) = 0.6268) and Freundlich models (R(2) = 0.9505). Experimental validation reveals Ni sorption takes place on a heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent, and predicted metal sorption capacity is 434 ppm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the biosorption kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9963 and 0.3625). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the bacterial strain with and without Ni(II) ion reveals the biosorption mechanism. The results conclude possibilities of using B. cereus VP17 for Ni bioremediation.

  5. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  7. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenite oxidizing multiple metal resistant bacteria isolated from industrial effluent: their potential use in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Ayesha; Rehman, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Arsenite oxidizing bacteria, isolated from industrial wastewater, showed high resistance against arsenite (40 mM) and other heavy metals (10 mM Pb; 8 mM Cd; 6 mM Cr; 10 mM Cu and 26.6 mM As(5+)). Bacterial isolates were characterized, on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping, as Bacillus cereus (1.1S) and Acinetobacter junii (1.3S). The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of both strains were found to be 37 °C and 7. Both the strains showed maximum growth after 24 h of incubation. The predominant form of arsenite oxidase was extracellular in B. cereus while in A. junii both types of activities, intracellular and extracellular, were found. The extracellular aresenite oxidase activity was found to be 730 and 750 µM/m for B. cereus and A. junii, respectively. The arsenite oxidase from both bacterial strains showed maximum activity at 37 °C, pH 7 and enhanced in the presence of Zn(2+). The presence of two protein bands with molecular weight of approximately 70 and 14 kDa in the presence of arsenic points out a possible role in arsenite oxidation. Arsenite oxidation potential of B. cereus and A. junii was determined up to 92 and 88 % in industrial wastewater after 6 days of incubation. The bacterial treated wastewater improved the growth of Vigna radiata as compared to the untreated wastewater. It indicates that these bacterial strains may find some potential applications in wastewater treatment systems to transform toxic arsenite into less toxic form, arsenate.

  9. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  10. Degradation of organic contaminants in effluents-synthetic and from the textile industry-by Fenton, photocatalysis, and H2O2photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, L B; Pereira, L O; de Moura, S G; Magalhães, F

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the oxidation of the dye rhodamine B (RhB), present in a synthetic effluent, and the degradation of organic matter present in a textile effluent, were assessed by photolysis (H 2 O 2 , UV), homogeneous Fenton (Fe 2+ , H 2 O 2 ), and photocatalysis (TiO 2 , UV). The results showed that photolysis and Fenton had an efficiency of 100 % and photocatalysis, 96 %, to discoloration 10 mg L -1 RhB, present in the synthetic effluent. The best experimental conditions determined for these reactions showed that the one performed with 51 mg L -1 H 2 O 2 and UV light had the best results, where 100 % of RhB was discolored in only 6 min of reaction. The optimum conditions determined in the first part of this study for the RhB oxidation did not show satisfactory results for the degradation of organic matter present in the textile effluent sample, and it was necessary to increase the amount of reagents in the three processes. After resizing the concentration of the reagents for the reactions with the textile effluent, the following reductions of color, total organic carbon (TOC), and total soluble solids (SS) were obtained: photocatalysis 29, 25, and 32 %; photolysis 85, 69, and 35 %; Fenton 98, 90, and 23 %; and biological (followed by physicochemical) treatment carried out by the textile industry 96, 48, and 9 %. It is observed that the Fenton reaction showed the best result, followed by photolysis reaction, a treatment carried out by industry and, at last, photocatalysis.

  11. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35∘C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

  12. A review and investigation of the effect of nanophotocatalytic ozonation process for phenolic compound removal from real effluent of pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Afsharnia, Mojtaba; Alipour, Vali; Khosravi, Rasoul; Sharafi, Kiomars; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale. Then, the combined and separate effects of zinc oxide dosage (ZnO), ozone flow rate (O 3 ), and pH under ultra violet radiation for 30 min were evaluated. The concentration of phenolic compounds and the produced ozone gas flow rate were measured by a spectrophotometry and iodometric method, respectively. The results showed that the phenolic removal rate increased at acidic PHs compared with alkaline PHs; it was also decreased with the increase in ZnO dosages. Furthermore, the highest phenolic compound's removal rate was 99% at the optimal condition (pH 5, ZnO dosage of 0.1 g L -1 at the 30 min with UV-C illumination of 125 W). Finally, Daphnia toxicity test showed that treated effluent was safe and met the standards to the extent that it can be discharged into the receiving waters. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

    2013-06-01

    The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

  14. Simultaneous Treatment of Agro-Industrial and Industrial Wastewaters: Case Studies of Cr(VI/Second Cheese Whey and Cr(VI/Winery Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllos I. Tatoulis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI was co-treated either with second cheese whey (SCW or winery effluents (WE using pilot-scale biological trickling filters in series under different operating conditions. Two pilot-scale filters in series using plastic support media were used in each case. The first filter (i.e., Cr-SCW-filter or Cr-WE-filter aimed at Cr(VI reduction and the partial removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD from SCW or WE and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms originating from industrial sludge. The second filter in series (i.e., SCW-filter or WE-filter aimed at further d-COD removal and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms that were isolated from SCW or WE. Various Cr(VI (5–100 mg L−1 and SCW or WE (d-COD, 1000–25,000 mg L−1 feed concentrations were tested. Based on the experimental results, the sequencing batch reactor operating mode with recirculation of 0.5 L min−1 proved very efficient since it led to complete Cr(VI reduction in the first filter in series and achieved high Cr(VI reduction rates (up to 36 and 43 mg L−1 d−1, for SCW and WW, respectively. Percentage d-COD removal for SCW and WE in the first filter was rather low, ranging from 14 to 42.5% and from 4 to 29% in the Cr-SCW-filter and Cr-WE-filter, respectively. However, the addition of the second filter in series enhanced total d-COD removal to above 97% and 90.5% for SCW and WE, respectively. The above results indicate that agro-industrial wastewater could be used as a carbon source for Cr(VI reduction, while the use of two trickling filters in series could effectively treat both industrial and agro-industrial wastewaters with very low installation and operational costs.

  15. Cadmium resistance and uptake by bacterium, Salmonella enterica 43C, isolated from industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaman; Rehman, Abdul; Hussain, Syed Z; Nisar, Muhammad A; Zulfiqar, Soumble; Shakoori, Abdul R

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium resistant bacterium, isolated from industrial wastewater, was characterized as Salmonella enterica 43C on the basis of biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping. It is first ever reported S. enterica 43C bared extreme resistance against heavy metal consortia in order of Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>As(3+)>Zn(2+)>Cr(6+)>Cu(2+)>Hg(2+). Cd(2+) stress altered growth pattern of the bacterium in time dependent manner. It could remove nearly 57 % Cd(2+) from the medium over a period of 8 days. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies based on various adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) depicted the Cd(2+) biosorption as spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature. Interestingly, the bacterium followed pseudo first order kinetics, making it a good biosorbent for heavy metal ions. The S. enterica 43C Cd(2+) processivity was significantly influenced by temperature, pH, initial Cd(2+) concentration, biomass dosage and co-metal ions. FTIR analysis of the bacterium revealed the active participation of amide and carbonyl moieties in Cd(2+) adsorption confirmed by EDX analysis. Electron micrographs beckoned further surface adsorption and increased bacterial size due to intracellular Cd(2+) accumulation. An overwhelming increase in glutathione and other non-protein thiols levels played a significant role in thriving oxidative stress generated by metal cations. Presence of metallothionein clearly depicted the role of such proteins in bacterial metal resistance mechanism. The present study results clearly declare S. enterica 43C a suitable candidate for green chemistry to bioremediate environmental Cd(2+).

  16. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

    2013-04-01

    The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25-150 mgl(-1)) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl(-1) initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites.

  19. Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansens, Pieter; Rodal, Alberto T.; Machado, Carina M.M.; Soares, Helena M.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution.

  20. Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansens, Pieter; Rodal, Alberto T; Machado, Carina M M; Soares, Helena M V M

    2011-03-15

    Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of biomass acclimation on the performance of a partial nitritation-anammox reactor treating industrial saline effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Campos, José-Luis; Roeckel, Marlene D; Estrada, Alejandro J; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Val Del Río, Ángeles

    2018-03-01

    The performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes was evaluated for the treatment of fish canning effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with industrial wastewater, with variable salt and total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in the range of 1.75-18.00 g-NaCl L -1 and 112 - 267 mg-TAN L -1 . The SBR operation was divided into two experiments: (A) progressive increase of salt concentrations from 1.75 to 18.33 g-NaCl L -1 ; (B) direct application of high salt concentration (18 g-NaCl L -1 ). The progressive increase of NaCl concentration provoked the inhibition of the anammox biomass by up to 94% when 18 g-NaCl L -1 were added. The stable operation of the processes was achieved after 154 days when the nitrogen removal rate was 0.021 ± 0.007 g N/L·d (corresponding to 30% of removal efficiency). To avoid the development of NOB activity at low salt concentrations and to stabilize the performance of the processes dissolved oxygen was supplied by intermittent aeration. A greater removal rate of 0.029 ± 0.017 g-N L -1 d -1 was obtained with direct exposure of the inoculum to 18 g-NaCl L -1 in less than 40 days. Also, higher specific activities than those from the inoculum were achieved for salt concentrations of 15 and 20 g-NaCl L -1 after 39 days of operation. This first study of the performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes, to treat saline wastewaters, indicates that the acclimation period can be avoided to shorten the start-up period for industrial application purposes. Nevertheless, further experiments are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ≤ 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ≤ 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Industrial effluent costs in some Spanish regions and other parts of the EU. Canons and taxes of water treatment; El coste del vertido industrial en varias comunidades autonomas espanolas y en algunos territorios europeos. Los canones y tasas de depuracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Rahola, J.; Munoz Requena, A.; Ruaix Prat, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the different systems existing in the Spanish regions for paying all the expense related to industrial effluents are examined and compared with the ones in use in other parts of the EU. Also, the degree of fulfillment of the economic objectives of the Water Framework Directives is determined. The findings are quite clear that there is a comparative disadvantage in the sense that some of the regions have not even regulated and instrument to ensure the principle of Who pollutes, pays, there is a widespread unequal treatment for the same type of effluent within Spain and there is clear evidence of a transfer of resources from the industrial use to the domestic one. (Author)

  4. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  5. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The batch removal of heavy metals lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from industrial wastewater effluent under different experimental conditions using hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Experimental results indicated that at pH 6.5, pre-treatment analysis gave the following values: Pb 57.63 mg/l, Zn 18.9 mg/l and Cu ...

  6. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential

  7. Reusing pulp and paper mill effluent as a bioresource to produce biohydrogen through ultrasonicated Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Jacqueline Xiao Wen; Wu, Ta Yeong; Ng, Boon Junn; Juan, Joon Ching; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonication pretreatment on R. sphaeroides enhanced biohydrogen production. • Pretreatment using amplitude 30% for 10 min gave the highest biohydrogen yield. • Pretreatment using amplitude 45% for 15 min inhibited biohydrogen production. - Abstract: Pulp and paper industry is a water-intensive industry. This industry commonly produces considerable amount of effluent, especially from virgin raw materials processing. The effluent, namely pulp and paper mill effluent has the potential to adversely affect the receiving watercourses. However, the nutrients in the pulp and paper mill effluent could be reused as a substrate in biohydrogen production. In this study, photofermentative biohydrogen production was investigated using Rhodobacter sphaeroides and pulp and paper mill effluent as a substrate. An application of low power ultrasound on R. sphaeroides was predicted to increase photofermentative biohydrogen production but excessive ultrasound effects might inhibit the production due to possible cell disruption. Hence, various ultrasonication duration (5, 10 and 15 min) and amplitude (15%, 30% and 45%) were applied on the bacteria to determine the recommended ultrasonication conditions for improving biohydrogen production. The recommended conditions were operated at ultrasonication amplitude and duration of 30% and 10 min, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen yield of 9.62 mL bioH 2 /mL medium was obtained under this condition, which was 66.7% higher than the result obtained using R. sphaeroides without undergoing ultrasonication (control). The light efficiency and cell concentration were increased by 67% and 150%, respectively, using ultrasonication amplitude and duration of 30% and 10 min, respectively as compared to the control. The present results demonstrated that moderate power of ultrasonication applied on R. sphaeroides was an effective method for enhancing photofermentative biohydrogen production using raw pulp and paper mill effluent as

  8. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Djomo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus, and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v, respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50 of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v, with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v. Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v. Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse

  10. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  11. Different techniques recently used for the treatment of textile dyeing effluents: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, A.; Noor, S.; Sharif, Q.M.; Najeebullah, M.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial textile processing comprises the operation of pretreatment dyeing printing and finishing. These production processes produce a substantial amount of chemical pollution. Textile finishing's wastewater, especially dye house effluent, contain different classes of organic dyes, chemicals and auxiliaries. They are colored and have extreme pH, COD and BOD values, and contain different salts, surfactants heavy metals and mineral oils. Therefore, dye bath effluents have to be treated before being discharge into the environment or municipal wastewater reservoir. This paper presents the review of different techniques currently used for the treatment of textile effluent, which are based on carbon adsorption, filtration, chemical precipitation, photo degradation, biodegradation and electrolytic chemical treatment. Membrane Technology has also been applied with the objective of recovering dyes and water. Biological processes could be adopted as a pretreatment decolorization step, combined with conventional treatment system (eg. coagulation flocculation, adsorption on activated carbon) to reduce the COD and BOD, an effective alternative for use by the textile dyeing industries. Electrochemical oxidation is an efficient process for the removal of colour and total organic carbon in reactive dyes textile wastewater. The ozonation is effective for decolorization of several dyes of different classes. Practical application of this process is feasible by treating industrial textile effluent after biological treatment. Processes using membranes technique, very interesting possibilities of separating hydrolyzed dyestuffs, dyeing auxiliaries and reuse treated wastewater in different finishing operation of textile industries. (author)

  12. Monitoring the fate and behavior of TiO2nanoparticles: Simulated in a WWTP with industrial dye-stuff effluent according to OECD 303A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlalela, Lwazi C; Ngila, Jane C; Dlamini, Langelihle N

    2017-07-03

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several consumer products has led to them finding their way into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some of these NPs have photocatalytic properties, thus providing a possible solution to textile industries to photodegrade dyes from their wastewater. Thus, the interaction of NPs with industrial dye effluents is inevitable. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline for testing of chemical 303A was employed to study the fate and behaviour of TiO 2 NPs in industrial dye-stuff effluent. This was due to the unavailability of NPs' fate and behaviour test protocols. The effect of TiO 2 NPs on the treatment process was ascertained by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to study the fate and behavior of TiO 2 NPs. Acclimatization of bacteria to target pollutants was a crucial factor for the treatment efficiency of activated sludge in a simulated wastewater treatment plant (SWTP). The acclimatization of the activated sludge to the synthetic industrial dye-stuff effluent was successfully achieved. Effect of TiO 2 NPs on the treatment process efficiency was then investigated. Addition of TiO 2 NPs had no effect on the treatment process as chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal remained >80%. Measured total plate count (TPC) affirmed that the addition of TiO 2 NPs had no effect on the treatment process. The removal of total nitrogen (TN) was not efficient as the treatment system was required to have an oxic and anoxic stage for efficient TN removal. Results from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the anatase phase of the added TiO 2 NPs remained unchanged even after exposure to the treatment plant. Removal of the NPs from the influent was facilitated by biosorption of the NPs on the activated sludge. Nanoparticles received by wastewater treatment plants will therefore reach the

  13. Assessment of industrial liquid waste management in Omdurman Industrial Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnasri, R. A. A.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted mainly to investigate the effects of industrial liquid waste on the environment in the Omdurman area. Various types of industries are found around Omdurman. According to the ISC the major industries are divided into eight major sub-sectors, each sub-sector is divided into types of industries. Special consideration was given to the liquid waste because of its effects. In addition to the available data, personal observation supported by photographs, laboratory analyses were carried on the industrial effluents. The investigated parameters in the analysis were, BOD, COD, O and G, Cr, TDS, TSS, pH, temp and conductivity. Interviews were conducted with waste handling workers in the industries, in order to assess the effects of industrial pollution. The results obtained showed that pollutants produced by all the factories were found to exceed the accepted levels of the industrial pollution control. The effluents disposed of in the sites allotted by municipal authorities have adverse effects on the surrounding environment and public health and amenities. Accordingly the study recommends that the waste water must be pretreated before being disposed of in site allotted by municipal authorities. Develop an appropriate system for industrial waste proper management. The study established the need to construct a sewage system in the area in order to minimize the pollutants from effluents. (Author)

  14. Bio-degradation of Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAb1 isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry: Kinetic modeling and process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayalakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAb1 based on 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis which could grow on basal mineral salt medium upon bisphenol A, which functions as an exclusive carbon source. Physicochemical variables of thermal paper industry effluent noted were significantly greater than the typical limit due to pollution of the acquiring water systems. The mathematic kinetic models like Monod, Moser and Tesier models were applied for batch fermentation of bisphenol A degradation in basal salt medium and the half saturation coefficient (KS and the regression coefficient R2 using Monad, Moser and Tesier kinetic models registered as 9.947  g/L, 12.46 g/L and 14.14 g/L and 0.91, 0.94 and 0.84 respectively. Besides, the utmost specific growth rate μmax was witnessed as 0.841 h−1 for the P. aeruginosa (PAb1 regarding BPA degradation. Metabolic intermediates like phenol, acetophenone, and hydroquinone and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were also determined through the degradation process by GC-MS. The metabolic pathway of BPA degradation by the bacterial isolates was also designed in today's analysis. A probabilistic statistical model originated using Box-Behnken response surface methodology and process variables were optimized by nonlinear optimization.

  15. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs

  16. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Gilli, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17β-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 ± 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 ± 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 ± 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 ± 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 ± 26% and 52 ± 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: ► The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. ► There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. ► The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. ► The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  17. Determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in water and industrial effluent by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Manoel L; Donato, Filipe F; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2013-09-01

    Pollution of drinking water supplies from industrial waste is a result of several industrial processes and disposal practices, and the establishment of analytical methods for monitoring organic compounds related to environmental and health problems is very important. In this work, a method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and related compounds in drinking and surface water as well as in industrial effluent. Optimization of the method was achieved by using a central composite design approach on parameters such as the sample pH and SPE eluent composition. A single SPE consisting of the loading on a polymeric sorbent of 100 mL of sample adjusted to pH 3 and elution with methanol/methylene chloride (10:90, v/v) permitted the obtaining of acceptable recoveries in most cases. The concentration factor associated with sensitivity of the chromatographic analysis permitted the achievement of the method limit of detection values between 0.01 and 0.25 μg L(-1). Recovery assays presented mean recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the compounds with very good precision, despite the different chemical nature of the compounds analyzed. The selectivity of the method, evaluated through the relative intensity of quantification and qualification ions obtained by GC-QqQ-MS/MS, was considered adequate. The developed method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in real samples. River water and treated industrial effluent samples presented residues of some compounds, but no detectable residues were found in the drinking water samples evaluated.

  18. Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents; Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l`environnement: application a l`epuration d`effluents liquides industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, V.

    1993-12-20

    Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy metals in rinse waters, derived from the surface finishing industry. The paramagnetic ions, precipitated in basic media as hydroxides, present a very hydrated amorphous structure, which masks their subjacent magnetic properties. Coprecipitation of a `magnetic carrier`, jointly with the heavy metals, has been studied: ferric chloride forms in basic media, an hydrated iron oxide. Its structure is of the goethite type, and it stabilizes as hematite. The magnetic susceptibility of the obtained product is still weak and its crystalline structure is not enough affirmative to utilize magnetic filtration with efficiency. Mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride forms, in a basic media, an hydrated magnetite. Initial ideal ratio between divalent iron and trivalent iron, varies between 0,5 and 1,2. This mixture, coprecipitated with the heavy metals, permits to optimize the magnetic cleaning of the fluids in a high field - high gradient filter. (author)

  19. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  20. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  1. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  2. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tufail, Shahid; Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  4. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: znadeempk@yahoo.com; Hussain, Ishtiaq [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Tufail, Shahid [PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Feroz pur Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  5. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals

  7. Removal of phenol from industrial effluents using enzymatic extract from Agaricus bisporus; Remocao de fenol de efluentes industriais utilizando extrato enzimatico de Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, E.; Coelho, M.A.Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: alice@eq.ufrj.br; Langone, M.A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: langonem@uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in several industrial wastes, mainly in oil industry. These substances impose several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a polyphenol oxidase found in several life forms, like in the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this fungal tissue, the enzyme is readily available leading to high activity extracts needing no extensive purification. The tyrosinase extract is able to modify phenols in non-soluble reaction products, proving its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted water. The purpose of this work was to employ the crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the removal of phenol from a synthetic oil industry wastewater. The crude extract was used in enzymatic reactions employing aqueous phenol solutions without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all substrate solutions was 100 mg/L and different enzymatic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 U/mL were tested. Both reactions, with 200 U/mL and 400 U/mL enzymatic activity, lead to 90% of phenol removal. The treated and not treated samples toxicity were measured using Artemia salina (crustacean) and Brachydanio rerio (fish) bioassays. The final effluent shown to be less toxicity than the polluted water. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan-Citral Schiff Base for Wastewater Pre-Treatment in Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava K. Tsaneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the Schiff base chitosan-citral for its application in dairy wastewater pre-treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction was the factor used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. The maximum COD percentage reduction of 35.3% was obtained at 40.0 °C, pH 9.0, adsorbent dose 15 g L-1, contact time 180 min and agitation speed 100 rpm. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD uptake (R2 = 0.968, whereas the kinetic data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.999. Enhancement of the adsorption efficiency up to 29.8% in dependence of the initial COD concentration of the dairy wastewater was observed by adsorption with the Schiff base chitosan-citral adsorbent compared to the non-modified chitosan at the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the Schiff base chitosan-citral can be used for dairy wastewater physicochemical pretreatment by adsorption, which might be applied before the biological unit in the wastewater treatment plant to reduce the load.

  9. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Characterization of tuna cooking effluents generated in seafood canning industries; Caracterizacion de los efluentes de coccion de atum generados en la industrias conserveras de productos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Paz, D.; Torres Ayaso, A. B.; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Tuna cooking effluents from different factories were analyzed, in this work. It has been analyzed effluents form water cooking and steam cooking processes. Steam cooking effluents are more appropriate for protein recovery due to the higher protein concentrations (up to 10 g/l, in some cases) and lower volume. Besides, steam cooking effluents, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were up to 50 and 5 g/l, respectively. Different correlations between the main parameters the main parameters have been found, for example protein and TKN concentrations of a tuna cooking effluent can be estimated from COD concentrations. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. 40 CFR 425.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 403, and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Pollutant or pollutant property PSES Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan...

  12. Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

    2013-06-15

    Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of real effluents from the pharmaceutical industry: A comparison between Fenton oxidation and conductive-diamond electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J F; Llanos, J; Sáez, C; López, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-06-15

    Wastewater produced in pharmaceutical manufacturing plants (PMPs), especially the one coming from organic-synthesis facilities, is characterized by its large variability due to the wide range of solvents and chemical reagents used in the different stages of the production of medicines. Normally, the toxicity of the organic compounds prevent the utilization of biological processes and more powerful treatments are needed becoming advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) a valid alternative. In this work, the efficiency in abatement of pollution by Fenton oxidation (FO) and conductive-diamond electro-oxidation (CDEO) are compared in the treatment of 60 real effluents coming from different processes carried out in a pharmaceutical facility, using standardized tests. In 80% of the samples, CDEO was found to be more efficient than FO and in the remaining 20%, coagulation was found to exhibit a great significance in the COD abatement mechanism during FO, pointing out the effectiveness of the oxidation promoted by the electrochemical technology. Mean oxidation state of carbon was found to be a relevant parameter to understand the behavior of the oxidation technologies. It varied inversely proportional to efficiency in FO and it showed practically no influence in the case of CDEO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1972-December 1983 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 312 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. January 1984-October 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1984-October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of effluents from beverage-industry processes. Particular emphasis is on brewery and winery effluent treatment. Characteristics of the waste products and pre-treatment and treatment methods are discussed. Regulations governing waste disposal are also considered along with the economics of waste disposal. Both alcoholic and soft drink beverages are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 223 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at μg/L scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 μg L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the

  17. Automated gravimetric sample pretreatment using an industrial robot for the high-precision determination of plutonium by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Watahiki, Masaru

    2008-06-01

    A robotized sample-preparation method for the determination of Pu, which is recovered by extraction reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is described. The automated system uses a six-axis industrial robot, whose motility is very fast, accurate, and flexible, installed in a glove box. The automation of the weighing and dilution steps enables operator-unattended sample pretreatment for the high-precision analysis of Pu in aqueous solutions. Using the developed system, the Pu concentration in a HNO(3) medium was successfully determined using a set of subsequent mass spectrometric measurements. The relative uncertainty in determining the Pu concentration by IDMS using this system was estimated to be less than 0.1% (k = 2), which is equal to that expected of a talented analyst. The operation time required was the same as that for a skilled operator.

  18. Automated gravimetric sample pretreatment using an industrial robot for the high-precision determination of plutonium by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Watahiki, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    A robotized sample-preparation method for the determination of Pu, which is recovered by extraction reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is described. The automated system uses a six-axis industrial robot, whose motility is very fast, accurate, and flexible, installed in a glove box. The automation of the weighing and dilution steps enables operator-unattended sample pretreatment for the high-precision analysis of Pu in aqueous solutions. Using the developed system, the Pu concentration in a HNO 3 medium was successfully determined using a set of subsequent mass spectrometric measurements. The relative uncertainty in determining the Pu concentration by IDMS using this system was estimated to be less than 0.1% (k=2), which is equal to that expected of a talented analysis. The operation time required was the same as that for a skilled operator. (author)

  19. Efficient secretion of three fungal laccases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their potential for decolorization of textile industry effluent-A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antošová, Zuzana; Herkommerová, Klára; Pichová, Iva; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Laccases are enzymes with a broad range of biotechnological applications and have, for example, the ability to oxidize many xenobiotics including synthetic dyes. In order to obtain an efficient laccase for the decolorization of dyes which spoil wastewater from the textile industry, genes encoding three various laccase enzymes were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of laccases from ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL), and two basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes trogii (TtL) was optimized via selection of plasmids, promoters, media composition, and cultivation conditions. For the first time, the activity of the three secreted laccases was directly compared with the use of various substrates, including different dyes and a wastewater sample. A strong constitutive ADH1 promoter, minimal growth medium, optimized combination of copper and organic nitrogen source, and low cultivation temperature were shown to significantly increase the yields and relative activities of secreted laccases. Heterologous expression of three fungal laccases was successfully achieved in S. cerevisiae being the highest for MtL and the lowest for TvL. MtL, and particularly TtL, showed the decolorization capacity. This is the first report which compared decolorization of synthetic dyes and wastewater by several recombinant laccases and suggested MtL and TtL to be applicable in the ecofriendly enzymatic treatment of colored industry effluent. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:69-80, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  1. Improving photofermentative biohydrogen production by using intermittent ultrasonication and combined industrial effluents from palm oil, pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman, Pretty Mori; Wu, Ta Yeong; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intermittent ultrasonication onto broth improved biohydrogen production. • A20T10 treatment produced 14.438 mL H 2 /mL medium with 7.412% light efficiency. • Excessive ultrasonication (>306.1 J/mL) inhibited biohydrogen production. - Abstract: An ultrasonication technique was applied intermittently onto photofermentation broth during the first six hours of photofermentation to improve biohydrogen production by using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB8253. In this research, photofermentation broth consisted of a combination of palm oil (25%, v/v), pulp and paper (75%, v/v) mill effluents as well as liquid inoculum. The effects of amplitude (10, 20 and 30%, A) and ultrasonication duration (5, 10 and 15 min, T) were investigated in terms of their influences on photofermentative biohydrogen yield and total chemical oxygen demand (COD total ) removal. The recommended ultrasonication parameters were found at the middle range of amplitude and duration (A20T10). Using A20T10 intermittent treatment, the production of biohydrogen could be maximized up to 14.438 mL H 2 /mL medium with a COD total removal and light efficiency of 52.2% and 7.412%, respectively. By comparing the treatment without intermittent ultrasonication, an increase of biohydrogen yield by 44.6% was achieved in A20T10 treatment. A total energy input of 306.1 J/mL (A20T10 treatment) was supplied to improve substrate consumption and light distribution during the photofermentation, which led to the increase of biohydrogen yield.

  2. Proteomic and enzymatic response under Cr(VI) overload in yeast isolated from textile-dye industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazusta, Verónica; Bernal, Anahí Romina; Estévez, María Cristina; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2018-02-01

    Cyberlindnera jadinii M9 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus M10 isolated from textile-dye liquid effluents has shown capacity for chromium detoxification via Cr(VI) biological reduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hexavalent chromium on synthesis of novel and/or specific proteins involved in chromium tolerance and reduction in response to chromium overload in two indigenous yeasts. A study was carried out following a proteomic approach with W. anomalus M10 and Cy. jadinii M9 strains. For this, proteins extracts belonging to total cell extracts, membranes and mitochondria were analyzed. When Cr(VI) was added to culture medium there was an over-synthesis of 39 proteins involved in different metabolic pathways. In both strains, chromium supplementation changed protein biosynthesis by upregulating proteins involved in stress response, methionine metabolism, energy production, protein degradation and novel oxide-reductase enzymes. Moreover, we observed that Cy. jadinii M9 and W. anomalus M10 displayed ability to activate superoxide dismutase, catalase and chromate reductase activity. Two enzymes from the total cell extracts, type II nitroreductase (Frm2) and flavoprotein wrbA (Ycp4), were identified as possibly responsible for inducing crude chromate-reductase activity in cytoplasm of W. anomalus M10 under chromium overload. In Cy.jadinii M9, mitochondrial Ferredoxine-NADP reductase (Yah1) and membrane FAD flavoprotein (Lpd1) were identified as probably involved in Cr(VI) reduction. To our knowledge, this is the first study proposing chromate reductase activity of these four enzymes in yeast and reporting a relationship between protein synthesis, enzymatic response and chromium biospeciation in Cy. jadinii and W. anomalus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological impact and recovery of a Mediterranean river after receiving the effluent from a textile dyeing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Flor-Arnau, Núria; Mora, Josep; Fortuño, Pau; Vieira, Cristiana; Prat, Narcís; Cambra, Jaume; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    The textile industry is one of the largest sectors globally, representing up to 20% of industrial water pollution. However, there is limited insight into how fluvial ecosystems respond and recover from this impact. From summer 2012 to spring 2013, we examined water quality and ecological status upstream and 1.5km downstream the input of a textile industry wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Ripoll River, NE Spain. The ecological status was determined via diversity measures and 10 biotic indices based on diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish. Our results showed that the WWTP severely deteriorated water quality and biological communities at the discharge site, but that they improved at 1.5km downstream. Severity also varied across taxa and seasons, being fish the most affected taxa and spring the season with the best ecological status. The strong correlation amongst water quality variables and many biotic indices across taxa indicated that this is a chronic pollution event affecting multiple trophic levels. Thus, this study suggests that there is an urgent need to invest in wastewater treatment in this industry to preserve the ecological integrity of Ripoll River and especially its fish fauna. Likewise, it illustrates the diagnostic power of biotic indices based on diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish, as driven by the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, V; Gonzalo, O G; Trueba-Santiso, A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) including subsurface horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) steps look for effective nitrification and denitrification through the combination of anaerobic/anoxic and aerobic conditions. Several CW configurations including several configurations of single pass systems (HF + HF, VF + VF, VF + HF), the Bp(VF + HF) arrangement (with feeding by-pass) and the R(HF + VF) system (with effluent recirculation) were tested treating synthetic domestic wastewater. Two HF/VF area ratios (AR) were tested for the VF + HF and Bp(VF + HF) systems. In addition, a R(VF + VF) system was tested for the treatment of a high strength industrial wastewater. The percentage removal of TSS, COD and BOD5 was usually higher than 95% in all systems. The single pass systems showed TN removal below the threshold of 50% and low removal rates (0.6-1.2 g TN/m(2) d), except the VF + VF system which reached 63% and 3.5 g TN/m(2) d removal but only at high loading rates. Bp(VF + HF) systems required by-pass ratios of 40-50% and increased TN removal rates to approximately 50-60% in a sustainable manner. Removal rates depended on the AR value, increasing from 1.6 (AR 2.0) to 5.2 g TN/m(2) d (AR 0.5), both working with synthetic domestic wastewater. On real domestic wastewater the Bp (VF + HF) (AR 0.5 and 30% by-pass) reached 2.5 g TN/m(2) d removal rate. Effluent recirculation significantly improved the TN removal efficiency and rate. The R(HF + VF) system showed stable TN removals of approximately 80% at loading rates ranging from 2 to 8 g TN/m(2) d. High TN removal rates (up to 73% TN and 8.4 g TN/m(2) d) were also obtained for the R(VF + VF) system treating industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris grown in effluent of a confectionery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R. Ranjith; Rao, P. Hanumantha; Subramanian, V. V.; Sivasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris have gained considerable importance in recent decades. C. vulgaris strain highly tolerant to extreme pH variations was isolated and mass-cultivated in the wastewater from a confectionery industry. C.vulgaris showed better growth in wastewater than in improvised CFTRI medium. The microalgal biomass was then screened for the following antioxidants: peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione peroxidas...

  6. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater.

  7. Studies on thio-substituted polyurethane foam (T-PUF) as a new efficient separation medium for the removal of inorganic/organic mercury from industrial effluents and solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Marayya, R; Rao, T H

    1993-01-01

    Novel thio-substituted flexible polyurethane foam (T-PUF) was synthesised by addition polymerisation of mercaptan with the precursors of an open-cell polyurethane foam, which can be used as a highly selective sorbent for inorganic and organic mercury from complex matrices. The percentage extraction of inorganic mercury was studied at different flow-rates, over a wide pH range at different concentrations ranging from 1 ppm, to 100 ppm. The break-through capacity and total capacity of unmodified and thio-foams were determined for inorganic and organic mercurials. The absorption efficiency of thio-foam was far superior to other sorbent media, such as activated carbon, polymeric ion-exchange resins and reagent-loaded polyurethane foams. It was observed that even at the 1000 ppm level, divalent ions like Cu, Mg, Ca, Zn do not appreciably influence the per cent extraction of inorganic mercury at the 10 ppm level. These matrix levels are the most concentrated ones which are likely to occur, both in local sewage and effluent waters. Further, the efficiency of this foam was sufficiently high at 10-100 ppm levels of Hg, even from 5-10 litres of effluent volumes using 50 g of thio-foam packed into different columns in series. Thio-foams were found to possess excellent abilities to remove and recover mercury even at low levels from industrial effluents and brine mud of chlor-alkali industry after pre-acid extraction. This makes it a highly efficient sorbent for possible application in effluent treatment. Model schemes for the removal and recovery of mercury from industrial effluents and municipal sewage (100-1000 litre) by a dynamic method are proposed and the costs incurred in a full-scale application method are indicated to show that the use of thio-foam could be commercially attractive.

  8. The status of wastewater management in Shokuhieh industrial park (A case study of Qom province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water resource management is a strategic issue in Qom city. Water scarcity is one of the most critical concerns of industrial estates. This study aimed to evaluate wastewater management in the Shokuhieh industrial park of Qom province in 2013. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done by visiting the industrial units in person, completing questionnaires and analyzing the results. The questionnaire had 25 questions, including general information, the status of water supply, treatment and consumption, wastewater production, reuse or discharge of produced wastewater and the status of wastewater treatment and discharge of effluent. The industrial units evaluated were active with over 50 personnel and numbered 44 in total. Results: The water suppliers in the industries included network (70.5%, network and reverse osmosis (RO (22.5%, network and tanker (2.4% and tanker (4.6%. 63.63% of the industries had water treatment systems. 19.5% reused wastewater and 31.8% performed pretreatment before discharge of wastewater. The discharge sites of water treatment units’ effluent included the absorption well (17%, greenbelt (18% and sewer (65%. Discharge sites of sanitary wastewater in 50% of the industries was sewer and in 50%, it was absorption well. The discharge sites of processed wastewater was reuse (2%, sewer (52% and absorption well (46%. Discharge sites of exiting effluent from pretreatment units in the industrial park, included sewer (85.5%, transport by tanker (7.1% and absorption well (7.1%. The type of pretreatment process in 35.7% of the industries was chemical and in 64.3%, it was septic tank. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pre-treatment is not done in most industries and wastewater reuse is performed in few industries. The main method of wastewater disposal in industries was by discharge into the sewer and absorbent well.

  9. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  11. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l -1 to 8 mg TPH l -1 . Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  12. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed Baig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI and lead (Pb(II by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS. For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI and Pb(II were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, were 96%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

  13. Investigation of the influence of pretreatment parameters on the surface characteristics of amorphous metal for use in power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieroda, Jolanta; Rybak, Andrzej; Kmita, Grzegorz; Sitarz, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Metallic glasses are metallic materials, which exhibit an amorphous structure. These are mostly three or more component alloys, and some of them are magnetic metals. Materials of this kind are characterized by high electrical resistivity and at the same time exhibit very good magnetic properties (e.g. low-magnetization loss). The above mentioned properties are very useful in electrical engineering industry and this material is more and more popular as a substance for high-efficiency electrical devices production. This industry area is still evolving, and thus even higher efficiency of apparatus based on amorphous material is expected. A raw material must be carefully investigated and characterized before the main production process is started. Presented work contains results of complementary examination of amorphous metal Metglas 2605. Studies involve two ways to obtain clean and oxidized surface with high reactivity, namely degreasing followed by annealing process and plasma treatment. The amorphous metal parameters were examined by means of several techniques: surface free energy (SFE) measurements by sessile drop method, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and both ex situ and in situ Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, influence of plasma parameters on wetting properties were optimized in systematic way with Design of Experiments (DOE) method. A wide range of used methods allow to fully investigate the amorphous metal material during preliminary preparation of surface. Obtained results provide information about appropriate parameters that should be applied in order to obtain highly reactive surface with functional oxide layer on it.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected.

  15. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed.

  16. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris grown in effluent of a confectionery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Ranjith; Rao, P Hanumantha; Subramanian, V V; Sivasubramanian, V

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris have gained considerable importance in recent decades. C. vulgaris strain highly tolerant to extreme pH variations was isolated and mass-cultivated in the wastewater from a confectionery industry. C.vulgaris showed better growth in wastewater than in improvised CFTRI medium. The microalgal biomass was then screened for the following antioxidants: peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, chlorophyll a, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and reduced glutathione. The total polyphenol content of the strain was also studied. The strain showed a high degree of enzymatic antioxidant activity (0.195 × 10(-5) ± 0.0072 units/cell peroxidase, 0.04125 × 10(-5) ± 0.001 units/cell superoxide dismutase, 0.2625 × 10(-5) ± 0.003 units/cell polyphenol oxidase and 0.025 × 10(-5) ± 0.003 glutathione peroxidase). The microalgal biomass also showed, per milligram weight, 0.2182 ± 0.005 μg of ascorbic acid, 0.00264 ± 0.001 μg of α-tocopherol and 0.07916 ± 0.004 μg of reduced glutathione. These results represent the possibility of using C. vulgaris grown in confectionery industry wastewater as a source of nutritious supplement, which is highly promising in terms of both economic and nutritional point of view.

  17. Remediação de efluentes derivados da indústria de papel e celulose: tratamento biológico e fotocatalítico Remediation of effluents from paper and cellulose industry: biological and photocatalytic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peralta-Zamora

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the industrial activities to the environmental contamination phenomena is evident. Great efforts are dedicated to the establishment of methodologies which permits an adequate treatment of the produced effluents, as a manner of minimizing the environmental impact of these wastes. The methodologies based on photocatalytic processes are very promise alternatives, because permits degradation of a great number of chemical substances of high toxic potential, without the use of other chemicals. The present work is an overview about the principal environmental aspects related with the paper and cellulose industry and the main alternatives employed for the reduction of environmental impact produced for its residues. The principal results of the photocatalytic treatment of this kind of effluents using metallic semiconductors is also showed.

  18. Decree no 96-761 from August 27, 1996 authorizing the company for industrial wastes and effluents conditioning to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juppe, A.; Borotra, F.; Lepage, C.

    1996-01-01

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to the Socodei company to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department, France) for the selection, decontamination, valorization, treatment and conditioning of low radioactive effluents and wastes from French and foreign industries. The decree describes the Centraco installation (buildings, incineration and storage unit, maintenance unit). It summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the quality assurance, the protection against risks of radioactive or chemical materials dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, the safety systems for plant operation, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  19. Deposition of chromium in aquatic ecosystem from effluents of handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Sanyal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of chromium (Cr was determined in water, sediment, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in aquatic ecosystems receiving effluents from handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal in India. Cr was determined in the samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analyzed functionally by Genetic Algorithm to determine trend of depositions of Cr in the sediment and water. Area plot curve was used to represent accumulation of Cr in biota. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystems receiving the effluents from handloom textile factories are heavily contaminated by Cr. The contamination is hardly reflected in the concentration of Cr in water, but sediment exhibits seasonal fluctuation in deposition of Cr, concentration reaching to as high as 451.0 μg g−1 during the peak production period. There is a clear trend of gradual increase in the deposition of Cr in the sediment. Aquatic weed, insect and mollusk specimens collected from both closed water bodies (S1 & S2 and riverine resources (S3 & S4 showed high rate of accumulation of Cr. Maximum concentration of Cr was detected in roots of aquatic weeds (877.5 μg g−1. Fish specimens collected from the polluted sites (S3 & S4 of river Churni showed moderate to high concentration of Cr in different tissues. Maximum concentration was detected in the liver of Glossogobius giuris (679.7 μg g−1 during monsoon followed by gill of Mystus bleekeri (190.0 μg g−1 and gut of G. giuris (123.7 μg g−1 during summer. Eutropiichthys vacha showed moderately high concentration of Cr in different tissues (65–99 μg g−1 while Puntius sarana showed relatively low concentration of Cr (below detection limit to 18.0 μg g−1 in different tissues except in gill (64.4 μg g−1.

  20. Uranium behaviour in an estuary polluted by mining and industrial effluents: the Ría of Huelva (SW of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, A; Martín, J E; Olías, M; Vaca, F; Bolivar, J P

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes a comprehensive study of the behaviour of U in the Ría of Huelva estuary, formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers. This ecosystem is conditioned by two hydrochemical facts: one connected with the acid mining drainage (AMD) generated in the first section of the river basins, and another one related to the fertilizer industry located at the estuary. AMD gives a singular character to these rivers; low pH and high redox potential that keep high amounts of toxic elements and radionuclides in dissolution. Most of the data for dissolved U in estuaries indicate conservative mixing, but there are examples of non-conservative behaviour attributed to oxidation/reduction processes or solubility variations. In the Ría of Huelva estuary the U shows a non-conservative behaviour due to solubility changes produced by variations in the pH. A complete removal of riverine dissolved U is observed in a pH range of 4-6. At higher pH values, U release from suspended matter, and probably also from sediments into the dissolved phase is found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Site selection for effluent discharge along the coast using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Hiteshkumar, V.; Om, P.D.

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to select a site for industrial effluent discharge along the coastal region. The system is developed to deal with the behavior of the discharged effluent in the coastal waters and it affects on coastal...

  2. The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Wresta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.

  3. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  4. Upflow anaerobic sludge reactors for the treatment of combined industrial effluent in subtropical conditions: a comparison between UASB and UASF reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.; Masood, T.; Yaqub, A.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of anaerobic biological process is heavily process conditions dependent. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of process conditions like temperature, sludge age and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the efficiency of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and upflow anaerobic sludge filter (UASF) to treat combined industrial wastewater. Reactors were operated at easing ambient temperatures (38, 30, 20 and 14 deg. C) and correspondingly increasing sludge ages (60, 90, 120 and 150 days). At temperature 38 deg. C and sludge age of 60 days, UASF showed better performance than VASE reactor. This mainly due to the enhanced filtration through well-graded sand filter and fairly good biological activity in UASF. At this stage, lack of sludge granulation in VASE reactor resulted in poor biological activity; hence, relatively poor performance. At temperatures 30 and 20 deg. C with sludge ages of 90 and 120 days, respectively, UASB gave better results than UASF. The reason was rapid biological degradation due to proper sludge granulation and favorable temperature. At temperature 14 deg. C, a substantial decrease in the efficiency of UASB reactor as compared to the UASF was evident. Drop in efficiency was because of inhabitation of methanogenic bacteria and liquidation of sludge granules. These factors mounted to a decrease in biological activity, stoppage as production and an increase in total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. The influence of hydraulic retention time (ranging between 3-12 hours at an increment of 3 hours) on the removal efficiency of both UASB and UASF was not significant. At favorable temperature (20 to 30 deg. C) and sludge age (90 to 120 days) UASB reactor appeared to be more efficient than UASF.(author)

  5. Characteristics of liquid effluents and treatment systems; Caracteristicas dos efluentes liquidos e sistemas de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the liquid effluents characteristics and the treatment systems, approaching the following subjects: the hydrological cycle; physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the liquid effluents; biological, chemical and physical characteristics; records on industrial effluents; treatment processes of industrial effluents.

  6. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  7. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  8. 40 CFR 427.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.86 Section 427.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Textiles Subcategory § 427.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to this...

  9. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  10. Study of whole effluent acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna as an evaluation of Ministry of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning industrial performance rank in environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmah Neng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 15% of the industries in Citarum Watershed, specifically in Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency, Sumedang Regency, Bandung City and Cimahi City, are registered as PROPER industries. They must comply to indicators as set in the Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning Industrial Performance Rank in Environmental Management, as a requirement to apply for PROPER. Wastewater treatment and management, referencing to Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 5 In 2014 concerning Wastewater Effluent Standards, must be performed to be registered as PROPER industries. Conducting only physical-chemical parameter monitoring of wastewater is insufficient to determine the safety of wastewater discharged into the river, therefore additional toxicity tests involving bioindicator are required to determine acute toxicity characteristic of wastewater. The acute toxicity test quantifies LC50 value based on death response of bioindicators from certain dosage. Daphnia magna was used as bioindicator in the toxicity test and probit software for analysis. In 2015-2016, the number of industries that discharged wastewater exceeding the standard was found greater in non-PROPER industries than in PROPER industries. Based on the toxicity level, both PROPER and non-PROPER industries have toxic properties, however PROPER industries of 2015-2016 is more toxic with LC5096 value reaching 2.79%.

  11. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Teris A; Kuster, Bram; Claassen, Frank W; Tienvieri, Taisto; Bertaud, Frédérique; Lenon, Gilles; Petit-Conil, Michel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal treatment conditions were compared. A 4-week fungal treatment reduced the concentration of resin acids and triglycerides by 40% and 100%, respectively, but neither lowered the energy requirements of the TMP process nor significantly affected the morphological fiber characteristics and the physical pulp properties. The pre-treatment led to slightly poorer optical properties. The Trametes versicolor fungal treatment contributed to a less toxic effluent and improved the biodegradability. A treatment of 2-3 weeks appears optimal.

  12. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  13. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    Abstract. The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected ...

  14. Energy generation and the anaerobic digestion in the effluents treatment. A case study in the paper industry; Geracao de energia e a digestao anaerobica no tratamento de efluentes. Estudo de caso na industria de papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: mberni@aol.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    The issue of industrial and agricultural residues represents an un precedent environmental challenge to humanity, in terms of their recovery, storage and treatment. They jeopardise the current spatial distribution of human activities and, in the longer term, mankind future in the planet. On the other hand, the growing need to reduce production costs, together with the also growing environmental awareness and corresponding public pressures, have favoured the search for and the effective use of new technologies to treat effluents, within the scope of a sustainable development. One of such technologies has been the anaerobic digestion of residues, which is starting to be widely used due to its easy implementation and possibility to minimise the use of water and process inputs, together with the production of energy. It can be used to process agricultural, urban (sewage and waste) and industrial residues. This paper discusses the perspectives of treating effluents through anaerobic digestion, as well as reports the experience of using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor - in a paper producing plant, involving the conversion of organic matter into methane gas, to be burned in the plant boilers. Finally, the paper industry thermal energy needs and the potential scope of anaerobic digestion to meet them is addressed in the paper. (author)

  15. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  16. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  17. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  18. Optimization of O3 as Pre-Treatment and Chemical Enhanced Backwashing in UF and MF Ceramic Membranes for the Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent and Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Catalina

    2011-12-12

    Ceramic membranes have proven to have many advantages over polymeric membranes. Some of these advantages are: resistance against extreme pH, higher permeate flux, less frequent chemical cleaning, excellent backwash efficiency and longer lifetime. Other main advantage is the use of strong chemical agent such as Ozone (O3), to perform membrane cleaning. Ozone has proven to be a good disinfection agent, deactivating bacteria and viruses. Ozone has high oxidation potential and high reactivity with natural organic matter (NOM). Several studies have shown that combining ozone to MF/UF systems could minimize membrane fouling and getting higher operational fluxes. This work focused on ozone – ceramic membrane filtration for treating wastewater effluent and seawater. Effects of ozone as a pre – treatment or chemical cleaning with ceramic membrane filtration were identified in terms of permeate flux and organic fouling. Ozonation tests were done by adjusting O3 dose with source water, monitoring flux decline and membrane fouling. Backwashing availability and membrane recovery rate were also analyzed. Two types of MF/UF ceramics membranes (AAO and TAMI) were used for this study. When ozone dosage was higher in the source water, membrane filtration improved in performance, resulting in a reduced flux decline. In secondary wastewater effluent, raw source water declined up to 77% of normalized flux, while with O3 as pre – treatment, source water at its higher O3 dose, flux decreased only 33% of normalized flux. For seawater, membrane performance increase from declining to 37% of its final normalized flux to 21%, when O3 as a pre – treatment was used. Membrane recovery rate also improved even with low O3 dose, as an example, with 8 mg/L irreversible fouling decreases from 58% with no ozone addition to 29% for secondary wastewater effluent treatment. For seawater treatment, irreversible fouling decreased from 37% with no ozone addition to 21% at 8 mg/L, proving ozone is a

  19. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O and G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K m ) and maximum reaction rate (V max ) were estimated experimentally and the K m value of IL (22.5 g O and G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6 g O and G/L), whereas V max of both FL (31.3 mM/g min) and IL (33.1 mM/g min) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O and G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (μ max ) for pretreated wastewater (0.17 d -1 ) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05 d -1 ) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K s ∼ 2.7 g COD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9 kg O and G/m 3 d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100 days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O and G concentrations of hybrid system were 100 mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor

  20. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O&G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K(m)) and maximum reaction rate (V(max)) were estimated experimentally and the K(m) value of IL (22.5g O&G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6gO&G/L), whereas V(max) of both FL (31.3mM/gmin) and IL (33.1mM/gmin) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O&G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (micromax) for pretreated wastewater (0.17d(-1)) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05d(-1)) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K(s) approximately 2.7gCOD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9kgO&G/m(3)d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O&G concentrations of hybrid system were 100mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of crude glycerin and starch industry effluent Codigestão anaeróbia de glicerina bruta e efluente de fecularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Larsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil's Biodiesel Production and Use Program introduces biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix, bringing along the perspective of a growth of the glycerin offer, co-product generated in the proportion of 10 kg for each 100 L of biodiesel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of crude glycerin in the anaerobic digestion of cassava starch industry effluent (cassava wastewater, in a horizontal semi-continuous flow reactor of one phase in laboratory scale. It was used a reactor with a 8.77 L of useful volume, a medium support for corrugated conduit of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, temperature of 261 ºC, fed with cassava wastewater and glycerin, with hydraulic detention times of 4 and 5 days and increasing volumetric organic load of 3.05; 9.32; 14.83 and 13.59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtained with the addition of glycerin at 0; 2; 3 and 2% (v/v, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of TS and TVS were decreasing from the addition of glycerin to the cassava wastewater, averaging 81.19 to 55.58% for TS and 90.21 to 61.45% for TVS. The addition of glycerin at 2% increased the biogas production compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.979 L L-1 d-1. The biogas production as a function of the consumed COD was higher for the control treatment than for the treatments with addition of glycerin, which indicates lower conversion of organic matter into biogas.O Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel introduziu o biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira, trazendo a perspectiva de aumento da oferta de glicerina, coproduto gerado na proporção de 10 kg para cada 100 L de biodiesel. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a adição de glicerina bruta na digestão anaeróbia de efluente de indústria de fécula de mandioca (manipueira, em reator de fluxo semicontínuo horizontal de uma fase, em escala de laboratório. Foi utilizado um reator com volume útil de 8,77 L, meio suporte em eletroduto corrugado de policloreto

  2. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  3. Life cycle analysis as a tool for assessing new waste water treatment systems. A case study of textile industry effluent; Analisis del ciclo de vida como herramienta de evaluacion de nuevos sistemas de depuracion de aguas residulaes. Caso practico: efluentes de la industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, A.; Novo, E.; Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a technique that analyses the life cycle of a product process or activity in an attempt to identify its overall environmental impact. This approach can be of great help in strategic or operational decision-making in industry or business. This article takes as an example a comparative study of systems for treating strongly coloured industrial effluent. To this end, two well established technologies for dealing with industrial waste were examined: a) the physico-chemical treatment of effluents by coagulation-flocculation: b) a process combining physico-chemical treatment and biological aerobic activated sludge treatment. In addition, the viability of an emerging technology based on the decolouring of effluents with ligninolytic fungi was considered, although this process is still at the study stage. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Biossorção de níquel e cromo de um efluente de galvanoplastia utilizando alga marinha pré-tratada em coluna = Biosorption of nickel and chromium from a galvanization effluent using seaweed pre-treated on a fixed-bed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Teresinha Veit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da biossorção dos íons cromo e níquel presentes no efluente do processo de uma indústria de galvanoplastia, utilizando como biossorvente a biomassa de alga marinha pré-tratada Sargassum filipendula. As condições deoperação da coluna foram: massa de biossorvente de 8 g, pH do efluente de alimentação 3,85, temperatura de 30ºC, vazão de 6 mL min.-1 e concentrações iniciais de alimentação (cromo+níquel de 7,12 e 3,66 meq L-1. Foi empregado um modelo matemático para representar a dinâmica da biossorção em coluna de leito fixo. O modelo da isotermamulticomponente de Langmuir (qm= 2,78 meq g-1, bCr = 0,85 L meq-1, bNi = 0,08 L meq-1 foi utilizado para representar os dados de equilíbrio da coluna e para simular a dinâmica de biossorção dos íons. Os resultados da simulação demonstraram que o modelo matemáticoempregado foi capaz de descrever satisfatoriamente a complexa dinâmica de biossorção dos íons presentes no efluente.This work investigated the biosorption of chromium (III and nickel (II present in the effluent of a galvanoplasty plant using the pre-treated biomass of Sargassum filipendula seaweed. The column operation conditions were 8 g of biosorbent mass, 3.85 pH for the feed effluent, 30ºC temperature, 6 mL min.-1 flow rate, 7.12 meq L-1 initial chromium concentration and 3.66 meq L-1 initialnickel concentration. A mathematical model was used to represent the dynamics of biosorption of the metals in a fixed-bed column. The Langmuir multicomponent isotherm model (qm = 2.78 meq g-1, bCr = 0.85 L meq-1, bNi = 0.08 L meq-1 was used to represent the equilibrium data of the column and to simulate the biosorption dynamics of the ions. The simulation results showed that the mathematical model described satisfactory the complex binary biosorption of chromium and nickel in the effluent.

  5. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10 - 4 μCi with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs

  6. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  7. Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (LMAA) in a Pilot-Scale Reactor and Bioconversion to Fuel Ethanol and Industrial Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Senske, Gerard E; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50, 66, and 70 % moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70 % moisture CS was treated at 90 and 100 °C whereas the others were treated at 90 °C only. The 70 % moisture pretreated CS then was subjected to a storage study under non-sterile conditions for 3 months. It was found that storage time did not have significant effects on the compositions of the pretreated materials and their hydrolysis by commercial enzymes. The 70 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was used for preparation of a mix sugar hydrolysate (MSH) using combination of cellulase and xylanase. The MSH was used to prepare a corn mash at 9.5 wt% solid then subjected to ethanol fermentation by Escherichia coli KO11. The 66 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was hydrolyzed with xylanase to make a xylose-rich hydrolysate (XRH), which was subsequently used for butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The resultant cellulose-enriched residue was hydrolyzed with cellulase to make a glucose-rich hydrolysate (GRH), which was subsequently used for succinic acid fermentation by E. coli AFP184.

  8. 40 CFR 415.346 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.346 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  9. 40 CFR 469.43 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Luminescent Materials Subcategory § 469.43 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  10. Caractérisation de deux effluents industriels au Togo :étude d'impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of two industrial effluents in Togo : environment impact study. Environment pollution due to two industrial effluents has been investigated. Results how that effluent derive from the factory of the treatment of Kpémé posphate ore was loaded with settling suspended matter (> 90 % of total suspended solids).

  11. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  12. Applicability and costs of nanofiltration in combination with photocatalysis for the treatment of dye house effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samhaber, Wolfgang M; Nguyen, Minh Tan

    2014-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a capable method for the separation of dyes, which can support and even improve the applicability of photocatalysis in effluent-treatment processes. The membrane process usually will need a special pre-treatment to avoid precipitation and fouling on the membrane surface. Conceptually NF can be applied in the pre-treatment prior to the catalytic reactor or in connection with the reactor to separate the liquid phase from the reaction system and to recycle finely suspended catalysts and/or organic compounds. When concerning such reaction systems on a bigger scale, cost figures will prove the usefulness of those concepts. Different applications of photocatalysis on the lab-scale have been published in recent years. Membrane technology is used almost in all those processes and an overview will be given of those recently published systems that have been reported to be potentially useful for a further scale-up. NF membranes are mostly used for the more sophisticated separation step of these processes and the additional costs of the NF treatment, without any associated equipments, will be described and illustrated. The total specific costs of industrial NF treatment processes in usefully adjusted and designed plants range from 1 to 6 US$/m(3) treated effluent. Combination concepts will have a good precondition for further development and upscaling, if the NF costs discussed here in detail will be, together with the costs of photocatalysis, economically acceptable.

  13. Applicability and costs of nanofiltration in combination with photocatalysis for the treatment of dye house effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang M. Samhaber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiltration (NF is a capable method for the separation of dyes, which can support and even improve the applicability of photocatalysis in effluent-treatment processes. The membrane process usually will need a special pre-treatment to avoid precipitation and fouling on the membrane surface. Conceptually NF can be applied in the pre-treatment prior to the catalytic reactor or in connection with the reactor to separate the liquid phase from the reaction system and to recycle finely suspended catalysts and/or organic compounds. When concerning such reaction systems on a bigger scale, cost figures will prove the usefulness of those concepts. Different applications of photocatalysis on the lab-scale have been published in recent years. Membrane technology is used almost in all those processes and an overview will be given of those recently published systems that have been reported to be potentially useful for a further scale-up. NF membranes are mostly used for the more sophisticated separation step of these processes and the additional costs of the NF treatment, without any associated equipments, will be described and illustrated. The total specific costs of industrial NF treatment processes in usefully adjusted and designed plants range from 1 to 6 US$/m3 treated effluent. Combination concepts will have a good precondition for further development and upscaling, if the NF costs discussed here in detail will be, together with the costs of photocatalysis, economically acceptable.

  14. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. ... The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, COD, Oil and Grease, Temperature, Cations (Pb2+, Fe (total), Cu2+ , Cr6+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and Anions (PO3-4, ...

  15. Utilization of ALANPOL dosemeter composed by alanine and polyethylene for determination of doses in industrial effluents; Utilizacao do dosimetro ALANPOL composto por alanina e polietileno para determinacao de doses em efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rela, Carolina S.; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Napolitano, Celia M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: csrela@ipen.br; Pontuschka, Walter M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-01

    A study of traceability and accuracy was performed with the dosimetry system ALANPOL developed by IVHTJ/ Poland that uses alanine as a dosimeter and EPR as the read out system. The dosimeter ALANPOL is a polymer compound that aggregates alanine. The dosimeter has the outside diameter 3 mm, and the length of 25,4 mm (1 inch). In order to use this dosimeter for monitoring the existing real time calorimetry dosimeter system set up in a electron beam waste treatment plant. Electron beam and gamma irradiation experiments with ALANPOL was carried out under demineralized water and industrial effluent. The result show that in the dose range of 1-40 kGy the ALANPOL dosimeter system is suitable underwater monitoring for absorbed dose and can be applied for the evaluation of the on line calorimetry dosimeter system. (author)

  16. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  17. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    enhancement in laccase production was found during treatment of colored effluents from textile, paper and pulp mill and distillery waste. Industrial effluents and synthetic dyes added to the growing culture of this fungus were decolorized to a great extent...

  18. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    importantly exploiting cheap labour for industrial purposes from the native population. 13 . During the colonial era manufacturing in the continent was generally at the handicraft and small scale levels. In some colonies this was supplemented by some relatively complex industries producing mainly for export, but also ...

  19. Pré-hidrólise enzimática da gordura de efluente da indústria de pescado objetivando o aumento da produção de metano Enzymatic hydrolysis of fat from fish industry effluents aimed at increasing methane production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Moreira Valente

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de preparados enzimáticos sólidos (PES ricos em lipases foi avaliada no tratamento anaeróbio de efluente de indústria de conservas de pescado. O PES foi produzido pelo fungo Penicillium simplicissimum por fermentação em meio sólido (FMS de resíduo industrial, sendo empregado na hidrólise de gorduras presentes no efluente a fim de viabilizar a utilização de metano como fonte de energia. O efluente contendo 1500 mg O&G.L-1 foi hidrolisado com 0,2, 0,5 e 1,0% (m/v de PES a 30 °C por até 18 horas. O efeito do pré-tratamento enzimático dos O&G não foi significativo com relação à remoção de DQO, pois, independente das condições adotadas, obtiveram-se valores de 91 a 95%. Por outro lado, a produção específica de metano apresentou valores que variaram com a adição do PES e o tempo de hidrólise. Em experimentos controle (sem adição de PES, a produção específica de metano aumentou com o tempo de incubação, atingindo um máximo com 18 horas (138 mL CH4.g-1 DQOinicial. No entanto, valores mais elevados de produção específica de metano foram obtidos com 0,5 e 1,0% de PES, destacando-se a hidrólise com 0,5% de PES e 8 horas de hidrólise, com 216 mL CH4.g-1 DQOinicial. Quando se compara o experimento controle 0 horas (efluente bruto com o efluente hidrolisado com 0,5% de PES durante 8 horas, um aumento de 2,7 vezes na produção específica de metano foi observado, indicando que a matéria orgânica foi mais facilmente assimilada pelos microrganismos anaeróbios nesta última condição.The application of solid lipase-rich enzymatic preparations (SEP in the anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents from canned fish processing was investigated. SEP was produced by the fungus Penicillium simplicissimum through solid-state fermentation (SSF of industrial wastes, and it was used in the hydrolysis of fats present in the effluents in order to facilitate the use of methane as a source of energy. The effluent

  20. Simulation of adsorption process of benzene present in effluent of the petrochemical industry; Simulacao do processo de adsorcao do benzeno presente em efluentes da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Adriana D. da; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Adriano da [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The adsorption processes have shown quite efficient in the removal of pollutant in liquid effluents, especially hydrocarbons of difficult removal, such as benzene. This work presents a phenomenological model that describes the process of benzene removal through the adsorption in a fixed bed column, being used coal activated as adsorbent. The model considers the internal and external resistances of mass transfer to the adsorbent particle. The method of Finite Volumes is used in the discretization of the equations. The numerical results obtained through the simulation presented good correlation when compared with experimental data found in the literature, demonstrating that the developed computational code, together with the mathematical modeling, represents an important tool for the project of adsorption columns. (author)

  1. Pretreatment of vinasse from the sugar refinery industry under non-sterile conditions by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor and its effect when coupled to an UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Vicent, Teresa; Font, Xavier; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    During hydrous ethanol production from the sugar refinery industry in Mexico, vinasse is generated. Phenolic compounds and melanoidins contribute to its color and make degradation of the vinasse a difficult task. Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is feasible for vinasse treatment, the presence of recalcitrant compounds can be toxic or inhibitory for anaerobic microorganism. Therefore, this study presents new data on the coupled of the FBR (Fluidized Bed Bioreactor) to the UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor under non-sterile conditions by T. versicolor . Nevertheless, for an industrial application, it is necessary to evaluate the performance in this kind of proposal system. Therefore, this study used a FBR for the removal of phenolic compounds (67%) and COD (38%) at non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was successfully for 26 days according to the literature. When the FBR was coupled to the UASB reactor, we obtained a better quality of effluent, furthermore methane content and yield were 74% and 0.18 m 3 CH 4 / kg COD removal respectively. This study demonstrated the possibility of using for an industrial application the coupled of the FBR to the UASB reactor under non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was carried out successfully for 26 days, which is the highest value found in the literature.

  2. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  3. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  4. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  5. Signature gene expressions of cell wall integrity pathway concur with tolerance response of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against biomass pretreatment inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional industrial ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a robust performance under various environmental conditions and can be served as a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development for advanced biofuels production using lignocellulose mateials. Overcoming toxic compou...

  6. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  7. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  9. Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Belz, B.; Mohamad, Y.; Velasco, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industry plays a key role in the path towards eInclusion. While corporate social responsibility statements of leading companies confirm this, surveys show that there is still a long way to go. Among various reasons for the reluctant take-up of Design for All (DfA) by industry providing Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the lack of relevant knowledge and skills obviously plays a crucial role. Therefore, the DfA@eInclusion project has undertaken to develop curriculum guidelines an...

  10. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora

    2012-01-01

    Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

  11. 40 CFR 406.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.36 Section 406.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.36...

  12. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.14...

  13. 40 CFR 406.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.46 Section 406.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.46...

  14. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.24...

  15. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giora Rytwo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a neutralization of the charges (“coagulation” and (b bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”. The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs, turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral, enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step.

  16. 40 CFR 405.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.96 Section 405.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.96...

  17. 40 CFR 405.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 405.94 Section 405.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk...

  18. 40 CFR 428.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.66 Section 428.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded...

  19. Efficient secretion of three fungal laccases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their potential for decolorization of textile industry effluent - A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antošová, Zuzana; Herkommerová, Klára; Pichová, I.; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2018), s. 69-80 ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laccase * decolorization * gene expression * expression optimization * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Industrial biotechnology Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  20. Superheated water pretreatment combined with CO2activation/regeneration of the exhausted activated carbon used in the treatment of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Yu, Bailie; Zhong, Qifan; Yuan, Jie; Yao, Zhen; Zhang, Liuyun

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines a novel method of regenerating saturated activated carbon after adsorption of complex phenolic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with low energy consumption by using superheated water pretreatment combined with CO 2 activation. The effects of the temperature of the superheated water, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, activation temperature, activation time, and CO 2 flow rate of regeneration and adsorption of coal-powdered activated carbon (CPAC) were studied. The results show that the adsorption capacity of iodine values on CPAC recovers to 102.25% of the fresh activated carbon, and the recovery rate is 79.8% under optimal experimental conditions. The adsorption model and adsorption kinetics of methylene blue on regenerated activated carbon (RAC) showed that the adsorption process was in accordance with the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Furthermore, the internal diffusion process was the main controlling step. The surface properties, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and pore size distribution were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and BET, which show that the RAC possesses more oxygen-containing functional groups with a specific surface area of 763.39 m 2 g -1 and a total pore volume of 0.3039 cm 3 g -1 . Micropores account for 79.8% and mesopores account for 20.2%.

  1. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  2. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  3. The Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm technology for treatment of industrial wastewater; Tecnologia Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm (KMT) para la depuracion de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, V.; Garcia Carrion, M.; Farre Solsona, C.

    2004-07-01

    The Kaldnes Moving bed biofilm technology is a biofilm process which is very suitable for treatment of industrial wastewaters. Biofilm processes have several acknowledged advantages compared to suspended biomass processes, e. g. resistance to toxicity and load variations. Traditionally biofilm processes have been known to clog at high loads and hence have not been suited for industrial effluents: however, the Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm process has overcome this problem. This article describes how the process has been used as pre-treatment up front of activated sludge at a dairy in USA, and as sole treatment at pharmaceutical industry in Sweden. (Author)

  4. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  5. Development of a photochemical reactor for the treatment of effluents in petroleum industry; Desenvolvimento de um reator fotoquimico para o tratamento de efluentes da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Andre Luis Novais; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Muranaka, Cinthia Tiemi; Moraes, Jose Ermirio Ferreira de; Guardani, Roberto; Nascimento, Claudio Augusto Oller do [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Quina, Frank H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) have been largely studied for the treatment of wastewaters containing highly toxic organic compounds, being mainly indicated when the biologic process is inefficient. In some cases, AOP need the use of special UV lamps, which represent significant cost and electrical energy demand, consisting in the main problem related to the application these processes in industrial scale. Because this fact, the development of a photochemical reactor presenting a chip UV source is very important. In this present work, a new photochemical reactor was designed. The UV radiation source was a row of 12 fluorescent lamps (Sylvania, black light, 40 W). In these experiments, the photo-Fenton process, a combination of ferrous ions, hydrogen peroxide and UV light, was studied. This system was employed for the degradation of a simulated wastewater containing phenol as model pollutant, which presents an aromatic ring in its molecular structure, such as the BTEX group, one of the main pollutants of the petroleum industry. (author)

  6. Effect of municipal and industrial wastewater effluents on the Chromium and Vanadium residues in muscle tissue of Cyprinionm acrostomum and Chondrostoma regium fish in Kermanshah Gharasou River (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the entrance of heavy metals in the aquatic environment is an important and also a global environmental concern due to the indiscriminate discharging of various industrial wastewaters, which cause accumulation of heavy metals in body of aquatic animals including fishes. The present study aimed to evaluate the amount of Chromium and Vanadium in muscle tissue of Chondrostoma regium and Cyprinion macrostomum fish in Kermanshah Gharasou River in 2013. For sampling eight different places were chosen along the river and according to places of discharging municipal and industrial wastewaters. A total of 10 samples were collected from each place and all samples were analyzed for determination of Chromium and Vanadium metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Based on results, mean concentrations of Chromium and Vanadium in muscle tissue of investigating different species among all places were significantly different (P

  7. Biosorption of Zn(II) from industrial effluents using sugar beet pulp and F. vesiculosus: From laboratory tests to a pilot approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, M Luisa; González, Felisa; Muñoz, Jesús A; Ballester, Antonio

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of biosorption in the treatment of metal polluted wastewaters through the development of several pilot plants to be implemented by the industry. The use as biosorbents of both the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and a sugar beet pulp was investigated to remove heavy metal ions from a wastewater generated in an electroplating industry: Industrial Goñabe (Valladolid, Spain). Batch experiments were performed to study the effects of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration on metal biosorption. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the biosorbents strongly depended on the pH, increasing as the pH rises from 2 to 5. The adsorption kinetic was studied using three models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Elovich models. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the brown alga F. vesiculosus showed higher metal uptake than the sugar beet pulp. The biomasses were also used for zinc removal in fixed-bed columns. The performance of the system was evaluated in different experimental conditions. The mixture of the two biomasses, the use of serial columns and the inverse flow can be interesting attempts to improve the biosorption process for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis) in a Mediterranean river receiving effluents from urban and industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Monroy, Mario; de Sostoa, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    Although sewage treatment plants (STPs) play a crucial role in maintaining the water quality and flow of Mediterranean rivers, particularly during drought periods, few studies have addressed their impact on aquatic fauna. Here we analyzed the role of STPs as a source of metals in the Ripoll River, a heavily urbanized and industrialized watercourse with a long history of anthropogenic disturbance. For this purpose, we measured iron, mercury, cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel and copper accumulation in the liver and muscle of the Mediterranean barbel, Barbus meridionalis and also the concentrations of these metals in the river water. Industrial and urban sewage treatment plants are source of metals in Ripoll River but the former mainly increases Zn and Ni values. Significant differences in metal bioaccumulation between reference and polluted sites were detected. Nevertheless, there was only a significant positive relationship between bioaccumulation of Cu and Hg, and their concentration in water. In addition, the lead concentration in fish was not clearly associated with the presence of STPs. On the basis of morphometric parameters, the hepato-somatic index was the only one denoting significant differences between polluted and references sites. Given that fish are key elements in food webs, recreational fishing is practice in this area and that river water is used for agricultural purposes, we recommend long-term studies to analyze the impact of metal pollution in this river. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Complementary cold water production for a dairy industry: the use of biogas generated in the effluent treatment station; Producao de agua gelada complementar para um laticinio: o uso do biogas produzido na estacao de tratamento de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: iraides@debas.faenquil.br; Napoleao, D.A.S.; Silveira, J.L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: diovana@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is analysed the possibility energetic utilization of biogas in the effluent treatment station of a medium dairy industry located in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. In this station is produced about 80 N m3/h of biogas, with a molar composition of 62,5% of CH{sub 4}, 13,4% of N{sub 2}, 5% of CO, 2,4% of CO{sub 2}, 2,4% of steam H{sub 2}O e 14,1% of H{sub 2}S. The generated biogas is today burning in a flair, according the national rule, with evident losses of energetic utilization potential.. The purpose of this paper is the direct utilization of this biogas to run an absorption refrigeration system utilizing H{sub 2}O + NH{sub 3} mixture. The level of H{sub 2}S in the biogas permits the energy recovery of the available heating minimum temperature level up to 230 deg C, according to the pinch point proceeding.This potential of energy recovery permits a complementation of the cold water production (7,3 kg/s) at 1 deg C. So, is made the energetic analysis of the proposed installation showing the technical feasibility of the actual use of the generated biogas, to produce useful energy. (author)

  10. Decolourisation of a pulp mill effluent using commercial activated carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela; Marques, Lilinana

    2006-01-01

    The decolourisation of industry effluents is a challenging and fundamental task related to pollution control, mainly in pulp mill and textile industries. The dark colour of the pulp mill effluent, depending on the river characteristics, can lead to the reduction of the light penetration into the aquatic environment with the consequent decrease of photosynthesis and aquatic life destruction. Also, the lignocelulosic material deposited on the margins and river bed can lead to a larg...

  11. The Optimization-Based Design and Synthesis of Water Network for Water Management in an Industrial Process: Refinery Effluent Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Siemanond, Kitipat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    of wastewater treatment technologies, as well as water allocation, limited reuse, and recycling strategies. Therefore, a water and wastewater treatment network design requires the integration of both economic and environmental perspectives. The aim of this work was to modify and develop a generic model......-based synthesis process for a water/wastewater treatment network design problem utilizing the framework of Quaglia et al. (2013) in order to effectively design, synthesize, and optimize an industrial water management problem using different scenarios (both existing and retrofit system design). The model......-based mathematical problem was formulated as mixed integer linear (MILP) and mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) and strived to identify the best wastewater treatment processes among a set of predefined alternatives that produce a minimum total annualized cost, while meeting all wastewater specification...

  12. Biological and advanced treatment of sulfate pulp bleaching effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çeçen, F.; Urban, W.; Haberl, R.

    1992-01-01

    Spent bleaching effluents (from chlorination (C) and extraction (E) stages) of a sulfate pulp mill were subjected to bench-scale biological and advanced treatment. Although > 90 % of the influent BOD 5 could be removed in an activated sludge process, the effluent still contained high amounts of resistant substances. The maximum COD removal was about 50 %; the removal rates achieved in the parameters TOC, DOC, AOX, SAK (254 nm) were even lower. The biological treatment led to an increase in color (436 nm) up to 40 %. The biologically pretreated effluent was further treated by ozone or ozone/irradiation. The DOC, COD, color (436 nm), SAK (254 nm) and AOX removal rates amounted to 61 %, 81 %, 98 %, 92 % and 92 %, respectively. These methods led simultaneously to an increase in biological biodegradability as reflected by an increase in BOD 5 . A comparison of the results obtained for raw and biologically pretreated wastewaters showed that biodegradable substances should first be removed from the wastewater since otherwise the effectiveness of these methods decreased. The coagulation/flocculation of biologically pretreated effluent showed that FeCl3 was the most effective coagulant and that removal rates > 90 % could be achieved. The treatment with various powder activated carbons showed that a dosage of 10 g/l was required to achieve elimination rates > 90 % in the parameters DOC, COD, color (436 nm) and SAK (254 nm). Adsorption isotherms were developed for every activated carbon and adsorption constants were calculated. (author)

  13. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica e economica para implementacao de uma unidade movel para tratamento de efluentes industriais com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-07-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  14. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE DYES FROM WASTEWATER OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES BY USING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAM Md Shamim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at developing a method to treat wastewater by using inexpensive adsorbents. Textile industries produce wastewater, otherwise known as effluent, as a bi-product of their production. The effluent contains several pollutants. Among the various stages of textile production, the operations in the dyeing plant, which include pre-treatments, dyeing, printing and finishing, produce the most pollution. The textile dyeing wastes contain unused or partially used organic compounds, and high level of different pollutants. They are often of strong color and may also be of high temperature. When disposed into water bodies or onto land these effluents will result in the deterioration of ecology and damage to aquatic life. Furthermore they may cause damage to fisheries and economic loss to fishermen and farmer, there may be impacts on human health which can be removed with the help of an effluent treatment plant (ETP. The “clean” water can then be safely discharged into the environment and ultimately save our environment from pollution. In this study, rice husk and cotton dust were used as an adsorbent. In this research work waste water was characterized with this useless adsorbents. The parameters which were tested in this study are DO, BOD, COD, TS, TDS and TSS. The results showed that the selected bio adsorbents have good potential for removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent.

  15. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    have applied the theory to water quality management studies and several modifications as well had been proposed ... other factors in a water body which affect the DO-BOD relationship. According to them these factors are: ... large breweries which also channel their effluent discharge into it. Also, along the river bank of this.

  17. Physiochemical study of NSSC effluents and assessment of principal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Waste effluents collected from different processing units of a pulp-mill were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters i.e. appearance, pH, conductance, total dissolved and suspended solids (TDS and TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5- days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/). Various ions with reference to pulping process were investigated in these effluents which include Cr, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, SO/sub 3/sup 2-/, CO/sub 3/sup 2-/HCO/sub 3/sup 1-/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Mg/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/. Heavy metals like Hg, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn was also determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards for industrial effluents. Most of the parameters were found outside the permissible limits except the temperature, pH and few cations. Effluents from NSSC process exhibited highest values of TDS, TSS, COD and BODs (these are 103174, 31866, 23340, 6864 mg/l respectively). Chief polluting characteristics of these effluents were found to be the dissolved chemicals and suspended organic matter, which are responsible for very high COD and BODs values. This study was: an effort to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in the waste effluents of pulp and paper industry with special emphasis on NSSC effluents and their contribution in environmental pollution. The hazardous effects of these effluents and different treatment methodologies have also been discussed. (author)

  18. Pulp and paper mill effluents: Toxicity to humans. February 1987-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations data base). Report for February 1987-March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the hazards of toxic pulping and papermaking effluents to plant workers and the populace surrounding the plant. Biomonitoring studies, bioassay performance and reliability, cost factors of reducing toxicity, and effects of reducing toxicity on biological treatment of wastes are discussed. Evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity of effluents within the plants compared with those discharged to the outside environment is included. Toxicity of pulping effluents to fish and water vegetation is covered in another bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 120 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Pulp and paper mill effluents: Toxicity to humans. January 1976-January 1987 (Citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Oackaging Industries Research Associations data base). Report for January 1976-January 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the hazards of toxic pulping and papermaking effluents to people within the plants as well as outside. Biomonitoring studies, bioassay performance and reliability, cost factors of reducing toxicity, and effects of reducing toxicity on biological treatment of wastes are discussed. Evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity of effluents within the plants compared to that which is discharged to the outside environment is included. Toxicity of pulping effluents to fish and water vegetation is covered in another bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 197 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Pulp and paper mill effluents: Toxicity to humans. February 1987-October 1989 (Citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations data base). Report for February 1987-October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the hazards of toxic pulping and papermaking effluents to people within the plants as well as outside. Biomonitoring studies, bioassay performance and reliability, cost factors of reducing toxicity, and effects of reducing toxicity on biological treatment of wastes are discussed. Evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity of effluents within the plants compared to that which is discharged to the outside environment is included. Toxicity of pulping effluents to fish and water vegetation is covered in another bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 140 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  2. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS EFLUENTES PROVENIENTES DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL FIQUE EN EL MUNICIPIO DE TOTORÓ - CAUCA. EVALUATION OF THE ORIGINATING EFFLUENTS OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRY OF THE FIQUE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF TOTORÓ - CAUCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN F DAGUA-MOSQUERA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efluentes provenientes de la agroindustria del fique en el río Molino del corregimiento de Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca en tres fincas y en cuatro sitios a lo largo del río (1: Bocatoma del acueducto de Paniquitá, 2: Finca La Esperanza, 3: El Puente y 4: San José Bajo para generar alternativas de manejo. Los resultados muestran que la carga contaminante para el sitio 3 fue la DBO5 (8.42 kg/día, SST (61.16 kg/día, el 4 registró un valor de DBO5 (113.33 kg/día, SST (70.76 kg/día y el 1 presenta las características del nacimiento de un río. Para las tres fincas evaluadas registraron valores promedios de DBO5 (3113.88 kg/día, SST (3673.13 kg/día.The originating effluents of the agro-industry of fique in the Molino river of the group of judges of Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca in three farms and four sites along river (1: Of the aqueduct of Paniquitá, 2: Farm La Esperanza, 3: El Puente, 4: San José Bajo generating handling alternatives. The results show that the polluting load for site 3 was the DBO5 (8,42 kg/día, SST (61,16 kg/día, the 4 registered a value of DBO5 (113,33 kg/día, SST (70,76 kg/ día and the 1 presents/displays the characteristics of the birth of a river. For the three evaluated farms they registered values averages of DBO5 (3113,88 kg/día, SST (3673,13 kg/día.

  4. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  5. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  6. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  7. Influence of physico-chemical treatment on the subsequent biological process treating paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khames Saad, Mouhamed; Moussaoui, Younes; Zaghbani, Asma; Mosrati, Imen; Elaloui, Elimame; Ben Salem, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of the biodegradation study of paper industry wastewater through physico-chemical treatment. Indeed, around 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal can be achieved by electroflocculation treatment. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of the COD of almost 91% has been obtained by biological treatment, with activated amount of sludge for 24 h of culture. Concerning the physico-chemical pre-treatment of the untreated, filtered and electroflocculated rejection effluents, it has been investigated through the degradation curve of COD studies.

  8. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  9. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  10. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  11. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  12. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  13. Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos =Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López

    2011-09-01

    activity of the mycoflora of effluents from sugar-alcohol industry, to the ones of other fungi acquired in official collection. The tested dyes proved to be excellent substitutes for Poly R478. The isolate that showed more intense decolorant activity than the diameter of its growth (Cladosporium sp. was then tested on two natural and one synthetic substrate (sugarcane bagasse, sawing wood, and methylene blue in liquid medium. This isolate removed highconcentrations of reducing sugars, proteins and total phenols, and reduced the COD in medium containing sawdust as natural substrate of phenols. This fungus, therefore, seems promising to form consortia for co-metabolism and bioremediation of effluents in which there is a presence of phenolic or other recalcitrant compounds with similar structure to lignin.

  14. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower ampersand instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing

  15. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    M. Šabić; M. Vuković Domanovac; Z. Findrik Blažević; E. Meštrović

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  16. Use of Fungi in Biodegradation of Basidiomycetes Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Aline Francisca; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Cesumar

    2009-01-01

    Textile industries have contributed significantly to environmental contamination, due to the production of waste with low levels of degradation, including colors from the dyeing steps, effluent being discarded with intense color. This type of effluent has a very variable composition, due to the diversity of colors used daily. There are physical and chemical treatments for these wastes, however the biological treatments have been highlighting for being natural, not requiring the use of chemica...

  17. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the...

  18. Detection, in real time, of metallic pollutants present in the industrial atmospheric effluents by inductively coupled plasma torch; Detection, en temps reel, d'elements metalliques presents dans les rejets atmospheriques industriels par torche a plasma a couplage inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacher, D.

    2001-12-15

    This work is devoted to the development of a process of detection in real time of metallic pollutants present in industrial atmospheric effluents. The method of measurement is the atomic spectrometry of emission coupled to an ICP torch (Inductively coupled Plasma). The technology of the fluidized beds is used as system of introduction of the metallic particles into the ICP torch, the interest of the principle of detection resting on the stamping from the usual procedure of calibration of the analytical system. The results are presented in two parts. The first relates to the diagnosis of plasmas formed with various mixtures of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} which one corresponds to pure air, the second presents the setting process of detection in real time starting from the intensities ratios of the spectral lines of the metallic element with those of the plasma-producing element (argon or pure air) The study of the diagnosis of plasmas made up of mixtures N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} relates to the determination of the atomic excitation temperature from the spectral lines of the copper element and the evaluation of the thermal disequilibrium q Te/Th. This last is obtained by considering the mass enthalpy of various mixtures N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}. The existence of a small thermal disequilibrium is highlighted. The study of detection in real time by ICP torch, without calibration of the system, is based on three points: - spectroscopic data processing to determine the values of the intensities ratios of spectral lines; - the insertion of the intensities ratios and the characteristics of plasma (argon or pure air) into a calculation code of plasma composition; - the comparison of the mass flux values of the metallic pollutants, in real time, obtained by experiments with those resulting from the elutriation calculation, term which defines the phenomenon of entrainment of the particles out of the fluidized bed. The results made it possible to show the similarity of the analytical system response

  19. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  20. Effect of nutrient nitrogen on laccase production, its isozyme pattern and effluent decolorization by the fungus NIOCC No. 2a, isolated from mangrove wood

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Verma, A.K.; Mathew, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    -degrading enzymes namely laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase as well as on the decolorization of industrial effluents like black liquor, molasses spent wash and textile mill effluents was studied using the basidiomycetous fungus NIOCC No.2a isolated...

  1. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater. Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1 were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a positive effect on organic matter removal (Chemical Oxygen Demand-COD and formation of methane. The best results were obtained when hydrolysis and biodegradation were performed simultaneously, attaining high COD and color removal independent of the lipase concentration. The enzymatic treatment considerably improved the anaerobic operational conditions and the effluent quality (lower content of suspended solids and less turbidity. Thus, the use of enzymes such as lipase seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating the wastewaters having high fat and grease contents, such as those from the dairy industry.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o pré-tratamento de efluente da indústria de laticínios na hidrólise de lipídeos, empregando lipase de fonte de células animais de baixo custo disponível comercialmente (pâncreas de porco na formação de gás metano por biodegradabilidade anaeróbia empregando diferentes concentrações de lipase (0,05 e 0,5 % w.v-1. A utilização de lipase no pré-tratamento do efluente acelerou a hidrólise de lipídeos e, conseqüentemente, auxiliou o tratamento biológico resultando na redução da matéria orgânica em termos de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, cor e sólidos em suspensão como lipídeos. Os melhores resultados em termos de remoção de DQO e cor foram obtidos quando a hidrólise e biodigestão foram realizadas simultaneamente, independente da concentração de lipase empregada. Estes resultados

  2. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: Effect of organic matter content on process performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; García, M. C.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2009-01-01

    The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial...... oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1 +/- 4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L-1) and up to 98.5 +/- 0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L-1). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading...... (from 95 mg COD L-1 to 237 mg COD L-1 and from 121 mg COD L-1 to 290 mg COD L-1 for the UASB-post-digested effluent and the partially oxidized effluent, respectively) negatively affected the anammox process and facilitated heterotrophic denitrification. Partial oxidation as a pre-treatment method...

  3. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  4. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  5. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL's sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL's outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE's purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives

  6. Homogeneous sonophotolysis of food processing industry wastewater: Study of synergistic effects, mineralization and toxicity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; Gómez, P

    2013-03-01

    The mineralization of industrial wastewater coming from food industry using an emerging homogeneous sonophotolytic oxidation process was evaluated as an alternative to or a rapid pretreatment step for conventional anaerobic digestion with the aim of considerably reducing the total treatment time. At the selected operation conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=11,750ppm, pH=8, amplitude=50%, pulse length (cycles)=1), 60% of TOC is removed after 60min and 98% after 180min when treating an industrial effluent with 2114ppm of total organic carbon (TOC). This process removed completely the toxicity generated during storing or due to intermediate compounds. An important synergistic effect between sonolysis and photolysis (H(2)O(2)/UV) was observed. Thus the sonophotolysis (ultrasound/H(2)O(2)/UV) technique significantly increases TOC removal when compared with each individual process. Finally, a preliminary economical analysis confirms that the sono-photolysis with H(2)O(2) and pretreated water is a profitable system when compared with the same process without using ultrasound waves and with no pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  8. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  9. Detoxification of textile effluent by fungal treatment and its performance in agronomic usages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Abul Hossain; Khan, Haider Iqbal

    2018-02-03

    Globally, scarcity of contaminant free water usages is increasing gradually; it might be solved after generation of any sustainable technology to detoxify contaminated waters. An attempt was undertaken to detoxify textile effluent with fungal strains Trichoderma harzianum and Mucor hiemalis. Fungal detoxified effluent and its performance on three crops (wheat, mungbean, and mustard) seed germination in petri dishes and seedlings establishment of mustard in polythene bag were evaluated. Fungal strains significantly detoxified textile effluent by removal of 76% total solids, 91.35% COD, 77.34% absorbance against optical density, and increased 87.31% DO. Studied heavy metals were reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in treated effluent by both fungal strains but superior performance was achieved by Mucor hiemalis. Maximum 92.5, 88.7, 83, and 100% removal of Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe were monitored in fungal-treated effluent, respectively. Seeds germination and seedling growth by fungal treated effluents were similar and insignificant with the results achieved in tap water but which was significant over raw textile effluent. Eighty and above percent seed germination in petri dishes was recorded at 48 h by Mucor hiemalis-treated textile effluent but conversely at the same period it was below 10% in raw effluent. Significant achievement of seedling establishment was noticed in poly bag with fungal-treated effluent. The applied technique might be a prospective way to detoxify and recycle the industrial effluents for beneficial purpose in the future.

  10. 40 CFR 430.127 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Subpart L [PSNS for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven papers are produced from purchased...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.127 Pretreatment standards for new sources...

  11. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Trucks and Intermodal Tank Containers Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.15 Pretreatment standards for... being incompatible with treatment at the POTW, the Plan shall provide that heels be fully drained...

  12. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Trucks and Intermodal Tank Containers Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.16 Pretreatment standards for new... incompatible with treatment at the POTW, the Plan shall provide that heels be fully drained, segregated from...

  13. 40 CFR 415.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 415.26 Section 415.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate...

  14. 40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 423.17 Section 423.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.17...

  15. 40 CFR 423.16 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 423.16 Section 423.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.16...

  16. 40 CFR 415.646 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.646 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments...

  17. 40 CFR 415.644 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.644 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). (a... cadmium pigments which introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR...—Cadmium Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property PSES effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average...

  18. 40 CFR 410.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.36 Section 410.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Low Water Use Processing Subcategory...

  19. 40 CFR 410.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.76 Section 410.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Stock and Yarn Finishing Subcategory...

  20. 40 CFR 410.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.64 Section 410.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.64...

  1. 40 CFR 410.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.86 Section 410.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonwoven Manufacturing Subcategory...

  2. 40 CFR 410.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.46 Section 410.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  3. 40 CFR 410.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.96 Section 410.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Felted Fabric Processing Subcategory...

  4. 40 CFR 410.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.54 Section 410.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  5. 40 CFR 410.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.56 Section 410.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  6. 40 CFR 410.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.24 Section 410.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.24...

  7. 40 CFR 410.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.14 Section 410.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.14...

  8. 40 CFR 410.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.16 Section 410.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.16...

  9. 40 CFR 410.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.26 Section 410.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.26...

  10. 40 CFR 410.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.66 Section 410.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.66...

  11. 40 CFR 455.67 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for existing sources as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. ...

  12. 40 CFR 455.66 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for existing sources as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. ...

  13. 40 CFR 425.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 403, and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Pollutant or pollutant property PSES Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan... than 275 hides/day shall comply with § 425.15(a), except that the total chromium limitations contained...

  14. Radiation-adsorption purification of effluents containing pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Shubin, V.N.; Nikonorova, G.K.; Zorin, D.M.; Sosnovskaya, A.A.; Petryaev, E.P.; Vlasova, V.I.; Edimicheva, I.P.; Subbotina, N.N.; Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-adsorption purification is one of the new direction in the radiation purification of natural wastes and effluents containing pesticides. This method combines the conventional adsorption purification with radiation treatment of the sorbent, and the result the protection time of the sorbent increases due to the radiation regeneration of carbon. In present work the method was used for purification of effluents from pesticides, such as 4,4'Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane /DDT/, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane /HCCH/, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate /DDVF/ and petroleum products (a mixture of kerosene and xylene in ratio 7:1). Such effluents are formed at factories producing an insecticide aerosol 'Prime-71'. Three investigations were carried out on model with a solution similar composition to industrial effluents. (author)

  15. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  16. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available -solids exert a strong demand for oxygen on the surface waters that receive them. Milk solids deplete the water of oxygen causing anaerobic conditions, smell and fly-nuisance. Particularly in areas of dolomitic or shale rock strata the discharge of milk...

  17. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  18. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  19. the effects of sewage effluent discharges on the water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sewage effluents discharge on water quality of the receiving river in the Wupa area of Abuja was studied to determine the assimilative capacity of the receiving river in event of shock load due to treatment plant failure. The river passes through Idu industrial area of Abuja from where effluent from Wupa sewage ...

  20. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...... in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  1. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  2. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  3. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  4. A Comprehensive Study on the Application of Reverse Osmosis (RO Technology for the Petroleum Industry Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Jafarinejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of oily wastewaters can be generated from the activities and processes in the petroleum industry which draining of these effluents not only pollutes the environment but also reduces the yield of oil and water. Therefore, development of treatment processes for petroleum industry wastewaters is vital in order to prevent serious environmental damage and provide a source of water for beneficial use. Reverse osmosis (RO can be the most common membrane process used for desalination from oily wastewater and can produce water suitable for reuse at the petroleum industry. In this study, the application of RO technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment in different laboratory, pilot, field, and industrial scales have been reviewed. In addition, membrane fouling control, performance efficiency, treatment system configurations, pretreatment methods, quality of treated water, and economic issues have been investigated. With mixtures as complex as petroleum industry wastewaters, membrane fouling becomes a significant hurdle to implement the RO-based purification system. Operating the system within the critical flux range or adding chemicals, and/or pretreatment can usually control membrane fouling. Salt rejection of RO membranes can be 99% or higher.

  5. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  6. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  7. Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorar, B S; Malik, R S

    1993-01-01

    Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

  8. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  9. chemical adjustment chemical adjustment of effluent from cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cassava waste water from a cassava processing plant in Nsukka was collected and chemically waste water from a cassava processing ... waste water effluents generated from industries and homes are discharged into the rivers, .... engineering sanitary laboratory at the University of. Nigeria Nsukka for further analysis for 20 ...

  10. Pollutant levels in effluent samples from tanneries and textiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results of the study, the concentrations of BOD, COD, DO, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphate, chloride and heavy metals were higher than the limits set by WHO for the discharged of tanneries and textile effluents into river. Result of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that variations between some industries ...

  11. Modelling Effluent Assimilative Capacity of Ikpoba River, Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sheer display of reprehensible propensity on the part of public hospitals, abattoirs, breweries and city dwellers at large to discharge untreated waste, debris, scum and, in particular, municipal and industrial effluents into Ikpoba River has morphed into a situation whereby the assimilative capacity of the river has reached ...

  12. physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from garri processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    environmental pollution problems caused by small scale garri processing industries scattered in many. Nigerian cities and villages. For example, in a study by. Okafor and Egwim [2004], it was reported that treatment of cassava effluent with locally developed absorbent reduced BOD and COD upto 50 and 75% respectively.

  13. Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents. In the present work the chromium ... Heavy metals are ubiquitous and persistent environmen- tal pollutants that are introduced .... of other heavy metals like uranium in its cells might also match with its tendency.

  14. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment-Introduction to Effluent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  15. A postal survey of effluent generation and disposal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... in the major cities. The volume of effluent arising in a dairy plant is dependent on two factors, the type of dairy product being processed and the degree of water ... The response rate of our survey report was 50%, from which two of the 15 ... must be emphasised that the dairy industry in Zimbabwe is much.

  16. Integration of fermentative biohydrogen with methanogenesis from fruit–vegetable waste using different pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xuan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Yang, Yang; Xia, Tianming; Song, Caihong; Pan, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimal pre-treatment for FVW used in two-stage fermentation is presented. • The spectroscopic characteristics of soluble metabolites were analysed. • The effluents were characterised by EEM with a parallel factor analysis. - Abstract: Fruit–vegetable waste was subjected to three different pre-treatments to enrich the two-stage biofuel production potential. The fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and fluorescence regional integration analysis were utilised to investigate dissolved organic matter degradation during two-stage fermentation process. The results showed that compared with that of alkali and enzyme pre-treatments, the acid pre-treatment resulted in the maximum biogas production rates and proportion in the hydrogenogenic stage (10.11 mL/h, 41.2% hydrogen) when combined with the methanogenic process (4.67 mL/h, 76.1% methane). In addition, the analysis of soluble metabolites composition indicated that both ethanol- and butyric acid-type fermentation processes had taken place as a result of acid pre-treatment, whereas only butyric acid-type fermentation resulted from alkali and enzyme pre-treatments. The PARAFAC analysis modelling of the EEM spectra revealed three fluorescent components in the effluents of three fermentation stages and assumed that the projected characteristic value may be used as a rapidly obtained indicator for substrate degradation and system stability of a two-stage biofuel production process

  17. Development of pretreatment of empty fruit bunches for enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... carried out using the laboratory produced cellulase enzyme through bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the fungal strain, ... billion gal of renewable fuels into gasoline by 2012, and by far, the most common ... empty fruit bunch (EFB) which are produced from the oil palm processing industries ...

  18. Decolorization and Degradation of Batik Dye Effluent using Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Diah; Indrianingsih, A. W.; Darsih, Cici; Hernawan

    2017-12-01

    Batik is product of traditional Indonesia culture that developed into a large textile industry. Synthetic dyes which widely used in textile industries including batik. Colour can be removed from wastewater effluent by chemical, physical, and biology methods. Bioremediation is one of the methods that used for processing colored effluent. Isolated White-rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum was used for bioremediation process for batik effluent. G. lucidum was developed by G. lucidum cultivation on centers of mushroom farmer Media Agro Merapi Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. The batik effluent was collected from a private small and medium Batik enterprises located at Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul Regency. The aim of the study were to optimize decolorization of Naphtol Black (NB) using G. lucidum. The effect of process parameters like incubation time and dye concentration on dye decolorization and COD degradation was studied. G. lucidum were growth at pH 5-6 and temperature 25°C at various Naphtol Black dye with concentration 20 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm for 30 day incubation time. The result from this study increased decolorization in line with the increasing of COD degradation. Increasing percentage of decolorization and COD degradation gradually increased with incubation time and dye concentration. The maximum decolorization and COD reduction were found to be 60,53% and 81,03%. G. lucidum had potential to decolorized and degraded COD for NB dye effluent on higher concentration.

  19. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Oron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF and UltraFiltration (UF membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.

  20. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  1. Technical feasibility of reuse of effluent generated from reverse osmosis system in a pharmaceutical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de A. S. de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reuse reduces the consumption of freshwater supplies and the negative environmental impact caused by the discharge of industrial effluents. Some industries have already adopted this practice; however, no studies were found in the literature regarding this subject in the pharmaceutical industry. This work investigated the potential reuse of effluent (concentrate generated from the Reverse Osmosis/Electro-deionization System (RO/EDI that is used for the production of purified water in a Brazilian pharmaceutical plant. This industrial complex consumed about 200,000 m3 of water per year between 2012 and 2013 to produce one million of doses of vaccines, i.e., 2 L of water per dose of vaccine produced. During this period, the RO/EDI produced 27,000 m3 of purified water annually and generated 24,000 m3 of effluent (concentrate. This amount of effluent could be used to supply the production of industry steam (boilers and/or cold water (cooling towers that annually consumed an average of 12,000 m3 and 40,000 m3, respectively. The reuse of this effluent would result in a gross financial savings of 96,000 USD per year, excluding the costs of installation and control. From what has been researched in the literature, this work showed for the first time the possibility of reuse of effluent from RO/EDI System in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  3. Microbiologia de sistema de lodos ativados e sua relação com o tratamento de efluentes industriais: a experiência da Cetrel Activated sludge system microbiology and its relationship with the industrial effluents treatment: the experience of the Cetrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Santos Silva de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a comunidade microbiana de lodos ativados dos tanques de aeração (TA-2, TA-3 e TA-4 da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE da Cetrel e correlacioná-la com parâmetros físico-químicos de processo, bem como avaliar o impacto do efluente industrial (EI bruto na estrutura da comunidade do lodo. Adicionalmente, foi verificada a existência de possíveis correlações entre a qualidade do efluente tratado final (ETF e a comunidade do lodo para identificar algum grupo biológico que pudesse ser usado como bioindicador desta ETE. Os principais grupos encontrados nos TA foram ciliados (livre natantes, de vida livre e pedunculados e flagelados. Verificou-se que altas cargas de DBO e DQO no EI afetam negativamente o sistema, especialmente o grupo dos ciliados, que foram os melhores indicadores da elevada eficiência da ETE. O TA-2 mostrou ser o tanque mais estável e eficiente.The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community of activated sludge in the aeration tanks (AT-2, AT-3 and AT-4 from the Cetrel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP and to correlate it to physical-chemical parameters, as well as to assess the impact of the raw industrial effluent (IE on the activated sludge community. Additionally, it was verified the relationship between the treated effluent (TE quality and the biological groups to determinate indicators of the WWTP efficiency. Ciliated protozoa (free-swimming, crawler and sessile and flagellates were the main biological groups found in the TA. It was demonstrated that high IE-BOD and -COD loads have a negative influence on the system, especially on the ciliated protozoa, which was the best indicator of high efficiency of the WWTP. The AT-2 was the more stable and efficient.

  4. High salinity effect on bioremediation of pretreated pesticide lixiviates from greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, María M; González, Óscar; Bacardit, Jordi; Malfeito, Jorge; Sans, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponics culture greenhouses usually work in closed and semi-closed irrigation systems for nutrients and water-saving purposes. Photo-Fenton reaction has been revealed as an efficient way to depollute that kind of recycled effluents containing pesticides, even for high salinity concentrations. However, the inefficacy of organic matter chemical depletion imposes the use of a subsequent treatment. This work proposes the suitability of an integration of advanced oxidation process with a subsequent bioreactor to treat greenhouse lixiviates effluents at high or extremely high conductivity (salts concentration: up to 42 g L⁻¹). As a first step in this study, the performance of a series of sequencing batch reactors was monitored in order to check the biocompatibility of photo-Fenton pretreated effluents depending on their salinity content. In the second step, those same pretreated effluents were loaded to a biofiltration column filled with expanded clay. Finally, bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was carried out to analyse microbial diversity of the biomass developed in the column. Results stated that the chemical-biological coupled system is effective for the treatment of water effluents containing pesticides. The integrated system is able to deplete more than 80% of the organic load, even under extremely high salinity.

  5. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  6. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  7. Process for processing and conditioning radioactive effluents of low and medium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taponier, Jean; Pierlas, Rene.

    1979-01-01

    Preferably continuous process for processing radioactive effluents of low and medium activity, comprising an effluent pre-treatment: precipitation of radioactive compounds to form a stable suspension that can be concentrated. Then a mix is made of 0.6 to 2 parts of cement by weight for one part by weight of suspension, from 0.5 to 5% by weight, in relation to the cement, of asbestos fibre and, if necessary, added water for the cement to set, this suspension containing from 15 to 75% by weight of dry extract and a suspension agent. The homogeneous mix achieved is poured into a container [fr

  8. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  9. Low-energy biomass pretreatment with deep eutectic solvents for bio-butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Waste lettuce leaves - from the "fresh cut vegetable" industry - were pretreated with the deep eutectic solvent (DES) made of choline chloride - glycerol. Reaction time (3-16h) and the operation temperature (80-150°C) were investigated. Enzymatic glucose and xylose yields of 94.9% and 75.0%, respectively were obtained when the biomass was pretreated at 150°C for 16h. Sugars contained in the biomass hydrolysate were fermented in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSMZ 792. The energy consumption and the energy efficiency related to the DES pretreatment were calculated and compared to the most common lignocellulosic pretreatment processes reported in the literature. The DES pretreatment process was characterized by lower energy required (about 28% decrease and 72% decrease) than the NAOH pretreatment and steam explosion process respectively. The Net Energy Ratio (NER) value related to butanol production via DES biomass pretreatment was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  12. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  13. Toxicity screening of industrial wastewater in the Odra river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Källqvist, T.; Soldan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effluents from 24 major industries in the Odra river catchment have been characterised as regards toxicity to fresh water organisms and chemical composition. Toxicity screening included tests with bacteria, algae, crustacean and fish. Three effluents with particulary high toxic potential have been identified. Certain other industries with less toxic effluents or small discharge volumes may also be of concern because of low dilution capacities in the receiving waters. Heavy metals have bee...

  14. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Treatment Systems, Effluent Qualities, and Costs - Module 4, Objectives, Script, and Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module describes the following conventional treatment systems and evaluates their use as pretreatment steps for land application: preliminary, primary, secondary, disinfection, and advanced waste treatment. Effluent qualities are summarized, a brief discussion of application systems is given, and cost comparisons are discussed in some detail.…

  15. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  16. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  17. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  18. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  19. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  20. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF