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Sample records for pretransplantation hemoglobin blood

  1. Long-term detection of microchimaerism in peripheral blood after pretransplantation blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoordeldonk, S. F.; Doumaid, K.; Remmerswaal, E. B.; ten Berge, I. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; de Waal, L. P.; Boog, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Renal allograft survival is prolonged after pretransplantation blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to test retrospectively the development and persistence of microchimaerism after pretransplantation blood transfusion and to assess whether the type of blood transfusion (partially matched [=

  2. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  3. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  4. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  5. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  6. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  7. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  8. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  9. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  10. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  11. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  12. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this ...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section 864.7500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7500 Whole...

  14. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  15. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Pblood are seen regularly in normal...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8...

  16. Substitution of Fingertip Blood for Venous Blood in the Measurement of Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Following Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Thomas D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results from comparative testing indicate that fingertip blood is a valid indicator of antecubital venous hematocrit (hct) and hemoglobin (hgb), and that hct ratios determined on the Coulter counter are comparable to those found by the microhematocrit method. (MB)

  17. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  18. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  19. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  20. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-08

    affinity, which is less at low levels of hemoglobin saturation, increases markedly as fractional saturation increases. Thus, high affinity for 02 at... diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and carbon dioxide (Co 2). Since they are linked to 02 binding, they are called oxygen-linked effectors. The oxygen...hemoglobin molecule because of the negative charge of the ions. 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate is a molecule formed during the breakdown of sugar in normal human

  1. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...] Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact on donor safety and blood availability, and potential...

  2. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  3. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  4. Operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion, and hospital stay in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Ra'ed Ghaleb; Al-Shammari, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Garni, Bishi Abdullah; Al-Qarzaee, Mohammed Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion, and length of hospital stay in orthognathic surgery. A 10-year retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (with or without genioplasty), Le Fort I osteotomy (with or without genioplasty), or any combination of these procedures. A total of 271 patients were included. The age range was 17 to 49 years, with a mean age of 24.13 ± 4.51 years. Approximately 62% of patients underwent double-jaw surgery. The most common procedure was bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I (37%). The average operative time was 3.96 ± 1.25 h. The mean estimated blood loss was 345.2 ± 149.74 mL. Approximately 9% of patients received intraoperative blood transfusion. The mean hemoglobin drop in the non-transfusion cases was 2.38 ± 0.89 g/dL. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 1.85 ± 0.83 days. Only one patient was admitted to the ICU for one night. In orthognathic surgery, blood loss is relatively minor, blood transfusion is frequent, and ICU admission is unlikely. Operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and the complexity of the surgical procedure can significantly increase the length of hospital stay. Males may bleed more than females in orthognathic surgery. Hemoglobin drop can be overestimated due to hemodilution in orthognathic surgery, which may influence the decision to use blood transfusion.

  5. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children[U+05F3]s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear...... and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended. © 2014 Elsevier Inc....

  6. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  7. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Joseph M; Nagababu, Enika

    2013-06-10

    The physiological mechanism(s) for recognition and removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation after 120 days of its lifespan is not fully understood. Many of the processes thought to be associated with the removal of RBCs involve oxidative stress. We have focused on hemoglobin (Hb) redox reactions, which is the major source of RBC oxidative stress. The importance of Hb redox reactions have been shown to originate in large parts from the continuous slow autoxidation of Hb producing superoxide and its dramatic increase under hypoxic conditions. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with redox reactions that originate from Hb reactions with nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) and the resultant formation of highly toxic peroxynitrite when NO reacts with superoxide released during Hb autoxidation. The interaction of Hb, particularly under hypoxic conditions with band 3 of the RBC membrane is critical for the generating the RBC membrane changes that trigger the removal of cells from circulation. These changes include exposure of antigenic sites, increased calcium leakage into the RBC, and the resultant leakage of potassium out of the RBC causing cell shrinkage and impaired deformability. The need to understand the oxidative damage to specific membrane proteins that result from redox reactions occurring when Hb is bound to the membrane. Proteomic studies that can pinpoint the specific proteins damaged under different conditions will help elucidate the cellular aging processes that result in cells being removed from circulation.

  8. Removal of cellular-type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemoglobin-vesicles) from blood using centrifugation and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Sou, Keitaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280 nm) are larger than plasma proteins (blood cell components (> 3 µm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An Innovative Simple Technique of Blood Conservation in Adult Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and Severely Raised Hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients...

  10. Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moerman, Jan; Vermeulen, Edith; Van Mullem, Mia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the added value of communicating post-transfusion hemoglobin values to clinicians as a strategy to improve RBC utilization in a 500-bed hospital. Methods: The total number of RBC transfusions, the mean number of RBC units...... transfused per patient, the mean pre- and post-transfusion hemoglobin values, the ratio of patients transfused and the ratio of patients with a post-transfusion hemoglobin > 10.5 g/dL were calculated per service and per department for six months. The data were reported to each service and compared...... with the data of the department as peer group. The impact of this communication strategy was evaluated in the following six months. Results: In the six months pre-intervention, the mean post-transfusion hemoglobin value was 9.2 g/dL. Post-transfusion hemoglobin was > 10.5 g/dL in 13.4% of patients (112...

  11. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  12. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Nadort, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these

  13. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  14. A new method for detecting hemoglobin directly in whole blood using photon attenuation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is focused on measuring iron concentration directly in whole blood as tool for estimating hemoglobin and anemic conditions in patients across the world. The investigated method depends on theory of photon attenuation through transmission of low energy in whole blood sample. The mathematical expressions for calculating hemoglobin and iron deficit on blood using photon attenuation are derived. Calculations are carried out for estimating concentration of iron in blood samples taken from children, adults and old patients and therefore measuring their hemoglobin and iron deficit from normal values. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the XCOM program. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium detector was employed to measure attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through blood samples. (author)

  15. Pretransplantation recipient regulatory T cell suppressive function predicts delayed and slow graft function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Michel, Rene P; Lipman, Mark L; Mucsi, Istvan; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are a continuous spectrum of ischemia-reperfusion-related acute kidney injury (AKI) that increases the risk for acute rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in transplant tolerance and attenuate murine AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated whether pretransplantation peripheral blood recipient Treg frequency and suppressive function are predictors of DGF and SGF after kidney transplantation. Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were divided into AKI (n=37; DGF, n=10; SGF, n=27) and immediate graft function (n=16) groups. Pretransplantation peripheral blood CD4CD25FoxP3 Treg frequency was quantified by flow cytometry. Regulatory T-cell suppressive function was measured by suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg in co-culture. Pretransplantation Treg suppressive function, but not frequency, was decreased in AKI recipients (Paccounting for the effects of cold ischemic time and donor age, Treg suppressive function discriminated DGF from immediate graft function recipients in multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio, 0.77; Pfunction is a potential independent pretransplantation predictor of DGF and SGF.

  16. Novel idea to monitor and measure blood hemoglobin noninvasively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring blood hematocrit noninvasively is reviewed in this paper. Although there is an inclination to measure the hematocrit by determining the bioelectrical impedance of the blood, in vitro experimental methods still remain practically inapplicable. The blood sample size is determined when blood samples are examined.

  17. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors

  18. Prevalence and determinants of declining versus stable hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasserinejad, Kazem; van Rosmalen, Joost; van den Hurk, Katja; Baart, Mireille; Hoekstra, Trynke; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; de Kort, Wim

    2015-01-01

    A too short recovery time after blood donation results in a gradual depletion of iron stores and a subsequent decline in hemoglobin (Hb) levels over time. This decline in Hb levels may depend on individual, unobserved characteristics of the donor. We used a data set of 5388 Dutch blood donors from

  19. Partial Least Square with Savitzky Golay Derivative in Predicting Blood Hemoglobin Using Near Infrared Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idrus Mohd Nazrul Effendy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a reliable technique that widely used in medical fields. Partial least square was developed to predict blood hemoglobin concentration using NIRS. The aims of this paper are (i to develop predictive model for near infrared spectroscopic analysis in blood hemoglobin prediction, (ii to establish relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum using a predictive model, (iii to evaluate the predictive accuracy of a predictive model based on root mean squared error (RMSE and coefficient of determination rp2. Partial least square with first order Savitzky Golay (SG derivative preprocessing (PLS-SGd1 showed the higher performance of predictions with RMSE = 0.7965 and rp2= 0.9206 in K-fold cross validation. Optimum number of latent variable (LV and frame length (f were 32 and 27 nm, respectively. These findings suggest that the relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum is strong, and the partial least square with first order SG derivative is able to predict the blood hemoglobin using near infrared spectral data.

  20. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemoglobin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  2. An innovative simple technique of blood conservation in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot and severely raised hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients because of the fear of possible hemodynamic instability, and hypoxemic spell. We describe an innovative, simple technique of blood conservation for adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot with severely raised hemoglobin. With this technique, hemoglobin can be normalized on CPB; moreover, there is no fear of hypoxemic spell or hemodynamic instability. Furthermore, the blood conserved is readily available for transfusion in the perioperative period, if needed.

  3. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  4. Development of a Synthetic Blood Substitute Utilizing Hemoglobin Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-26

    adequately restored. The most widely used blood replacement therapy is the transfusion of whole blood or blood components. Problems associated with these...Hydrogenated Soy-PC was obtained from the American Lecithin Co. (Atlanta, GA) and hydrogenated Egg-PC (IV-40) was supplied by Liposome Technology Inc. (Menlo...Grcssweiner, "Light Dosimetry Model for Phctodvnamic Therapy Treatment Planning," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 165-173 (1991). 22. P. Parsa. S. L. Jacques, and N

  5. Hemoglobin C disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  6. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  7. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  8. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  9. Graphene based chalcogenide fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor for detection of hemoglobin in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.; Gupta, Jyoti

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave sensor with graphene as an absorption-enhancing layer to measure hemoglobin concentration in human blood is proposed. Previous modal functions and experimental results describing the variation of optical constants of human blood with different hemoglobin concentrations in the near-infrared spectral region are considered for sensor design simulation. The sensor's performance is closely analyzed in terms of its absorption coefficient, sensitivity, and detection limit. It is found that the proposed sensor should be operated at longer light wavelength to get more enhanced sensitivity and smaller detection limit. At 1000 nm wavelength, a detection limit of 18 μg/dL and sensitivity of 6.71 × 10-4 per g/dL is achievable with the proposed sensor. The sensitivity is found to be better for larger hemoglobin concentrations. The results are correlated with the evanescent wave penetration depth.

  10. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A(1c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA(1c) in both

  11. Prevalence and determinants of declining versus stable hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasserinejad, K.; van Rosmalen, J.; van den Hurk, K.; Baart, M.; Hoekstra, T.; Rizopoulos, D.; Lesaffre, E.; Kort, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background A too short recovery time after blood donation Results in a gradual depletion of iron stores and a subsequent decline in hemoglobin (Hb) levels over time. This decline in Hb levels may depend on individual, unobserved characteristics of the donor. Study Design and Methods We used a data

  12. In vitro adduct formation of phosgene with albumin and hemoglobin in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Fidder, A.; Gurp, R.A. van; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of procedures for retrospective detection and quantitation of exposure to phosgene, based on adducts to hemoglobin and albumin, is described. Upon incubation of human blood with [14C]phosgene (0-750 μM), a significant part of radioactivity (0-13%) became associated with globin and

  13. FORMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF BENZENE OXIDE IN MOUSE, RAT, AND HUMAN BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the formation and disposition of benzene oxide (BO), the initial metabolite arising from oxidation of benzene by cytochrome P450. In this study, reactions of BO with hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) were investigated in blood from B6C3F1 mice, F344 rats, ...

  14. Capillary versus Venous Hemoglobin Determination in the Assessment of Healthy Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhilasha J.; Wesley, Robert; Leitman, Susan F.; Bryant, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives To determine the accuracy of fingerstick hemoglobin assessment in blood donors, the performance of a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue Hb 201+) was prospectively compared with that of an automated hematology analyzer (Cell-Dyn 4000). Hemoglobin values obtained by the latter were used as the “true” result. Material and Methods Capillary fingerstick samples were assayed by HemoCue in 150 donors. Fingerstick samples from two sites, one on each hand, were obtained from a subset of 50 subjects. Concurrent venous samples were tested using both HemoCue and Cell-Dyn devices. Results Capillary hemoglobin values (HemoCue) were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values (HemoCue), which in turn were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values by Cell-Dyn (mean ± SD: 14.05 ± 1.51, 13.89 ± 1.31, 13.62 ± 1.23, respectively; phemoglobin screening criteria (≥12.5 g/dL) by capillary HemoCue, but were deferred by Cell-Dyn values (false-pass). Five donors (3%) were deferred by capillary sampling, but passed by Cell-Dyn (false-fail). Substantial variability in repeated fingerstick HemoCue results was seen (mean hemoglobin 13.72 vs. 13.70 g/dL, absolute mean difference between paired samples 0.76 g/dL). Hand dominance was not a factor. Conclusions Capillary samples assessed via a portable device yielded higher hemoglobin values than venous samples assessed on an automated analyzer. False-pass and false-fail rates were low and acceptable in the donor screening setting, with “true” values not differing by a clinically significant degree from threshold values used to assess acceptability for blood donation. PMID:23294266

  15. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease

  16. Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rusciano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape, occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders.

  17. Inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, and whole blood in digital and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidstedt, Maja; Hedman, Johannes; Romsos, Erica L; Waitara, Leticia; Wadsö, Lars; Steffen, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Rådström, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Blood samples are widely used for PCR-based DNA analysis in fields such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, cancer diagnostics, and forensic genetics. In this study, the mechanisms behind blood-induced PCR inhibition were evaluated by use of whole blood as well as known PCR-inhibitory molecules in both digital PCR and real-time PCR. Also, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was applied to investigate interactions between inhibitory proteins and DNA, and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to directly measure effects on DNA polymerase activity. Whole blood caused a decrease in the number of positive digital PCR reactions, lowered amplification efficiency, and caused severe quenching of the fluorescence of the passive reference dye 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine as well as the double-stranded DNA binding dye EvaGreen. Immunoglobulin G was found to bind to single-stranded genomic DNA, leading to increased quantification cycle values. Hemoglobin affected the DNA polymerase activity and thus lowered the amplification efficiency. Hemoglobin and hematin were shown to be the molecules in blood responsible for the fluorescence quenching. In conclusion, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G are the two major PCR inhibitors in blood, where the first affects amplification through a direct effect on the DNA polymerase activity and quenches the fluorescence of free dye molecules, and the latter binds to single-stranded genomic DNA, hindering DNA polymerization in the first few PCR cycles. Graphical abstract PCR inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Cq quantification cycle, dsDNA double-stranded DNA, ssDNA single-stranded DNA.

  18. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E

    2017-01-01

    examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals...... in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken...

  19. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.

  20. The relationship between extent of hemoglobin purification and the performance characteristics of a blood-based flocculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant of colloidal clay; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of...

  1. (Pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution as blood substitute for normothermic whole body rinse-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishi, T; Funakoshi, Y; Honda, H; Yamagata, K; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate a new possibility for artificial blood with oxygen-carrying capability to be applied to other than mere supplementation, normothermic whole body rinse-out in which artificial blood deriving from perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20% (Green Cross Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or stabilized hemoglobin solution, (pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution (Ajinomoto Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as rinsing fluid for a blood purification experiment. Replacement either with approximately 150 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA or stabilized hemoglobin solution showed effective removal of digoxin at a reduction rate of 96.3% or 92.2%, respectively. However, when Fluosol-DA was used, a certain amount of perfluorochemical should be retrieved by centrifugation to avoid a possible toxic effect on the reticulo-endothelial system. Even though 3 out of 6, and 3 out of 8 dogs, respectively, survived for a long period after the procedure, the experimental dogs were very susceptible to infection.

  2. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  4. Hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and derived parameters for diagnosing anemia in elderly males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.; Nawaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most common micronutrient deficiency in our community. Nutritional anaemias are caused when there is an inadequate body store of a specific nutrient needed for hemoglobin synthesis. The most common nutrient deficiency is of iron. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on the healthy elderly male, aged >= 40 and 77 years (n=60) volunteers in order to assess their blood parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) for the diagnosis of anemia. The demographic results showed mean values (50.10+-8.79) years for age, 66-68 +- 1.95 inches for height , 71.43 +- 6.43 kg body weight, 98.34+-0.48 degree F body temperature, 124 +- 8.67 systolic blood pressure, 82.17 +- 4.15 diastolic pressure while, The pulse rate was found to be 74.63 +- 7.02/minute. Similarly, mean values for lean body weight (LBW) found to be 49.9+-2.89, ideal body weight (IBW) 60.9 +- 4.49, body surface area (BSA) was 1.8 +- 0.1 m2 whereas, body mass index (BMI) showed mean value 24.9 +- 2.6 kg/m2. More so, overall mean Hb found to be 13.60 g/dl, RBC 4.6 mill/mm3, HCT/PCV 43%, MCV 92.95fl, MCH 29.42 pg and MCHC was found to be 31.73 g/dl. The normal range of Hb for men was 13-17 g/dl and 31.67% of the subjects participated in the study was considered to be anemic showing less Hb than normal range. The volunteers were suggested to improve the dietary habits and to take iron supplements in order to overcome the iron deficiency anemia. (author)

  5. Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated

  6. Autologous blood sequestration using a double venous reservoir bypass circuit and polymerized hemoglobin prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Guerrero, J Luis; Vlahakes, Gus J

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery often necessitates transfusion of homologous blood. Hemoglobin based oxygen carrying solutions (HBOCs) transport oxygen, suggesting use in cardiopulmonary bypass. HBOC was used in a novel oxygenator double-reservoir circuit that permits acute sequestration of a portion of the autologous blood volume during bypass. Two groups of seven mongrel dogs each were studied in an experimental bypass model using global myocardial ischemia and cardioplegia protection: HBOC group, initial venous return drained to a separate reservoir and hypothermic bypass was conducted with HBOC containing perfusate in a second bypass reservoir; Control group, crystalloid prime in a conventional circuit. Hemodynamics and metabolic and hematologic parameters were measured before and 60 min after aortic clamp removal and reinfusion of sequestered autologous blood. Blood gases, base excess, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and platelet counts were measured. In the HBOC group, metabolic acidosis did not occur, and ventricular function was preserved. Net conservation of platelets was noted at study conclusion: control 33+/-13 x 10(3) per mm3 versus HBOC 48+/-13 x 10(3), p conservation of the platelet mass occurs, a portion of which is not exposed to the deleterious effects of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass.

  7. Evaluation of three methods for hemoglobin measurement in a blood donor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rosenblit

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The hemoglobin (Hb level is the most-used parameter for screening blood donors for the presence of anemia, one of the most-used methods for measuring Hb levels is based on photometric detection of cyanmetahemoglobin, as an alternative to this technology, HemoCue has developed a photometric method based on the determination of azide metahemoglobin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of three methods for hemoglobin (Hb determination in a blood bank setting. DESIGN: Prospective study utilizing blood samples to compare methods for Hb determination. SETTING: Hemotherapy Service of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, a private institution in the tertiary health care system. SAMPLE: Serial blood samples were collected from 259 individuals during the period from March to June 1996. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Test performances and their comparisons were assessed by the analysis of coefficients of variation (CV, linear regression and mean differences. RESULTS: The CV for the three methods were: Coulter 0.68%, Cobas 0.82% and HemoCue 0.69%. There was no difference between the mean Hb determination for the three methods (p>0.05. The Coulter and Cobas methods showed the best agreement and the HemoCue method gave a lower Hb determination when compared to both the Coulter and Cobas methods. However, pairs of methods involving the HemoCue seem to have narrower limits of agreement (± 0.78 and ± 1.02 than the Coulter and Cobas combination (± 1.13. CONCLUSION: The three methods provide good agreement for hemoglobin determination.

  8. Analytical determination of specific 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate hemoglobin adducts in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele

    2013-09-01

    4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is one of the most important isocyanates in the industrial production of polyurethane and other MDI-based synthetics. Because of its high reactivity, it is known as a sensitizing agent, caused by protein adducts. Analysis of MDI is routinely done by determination of the nonspecific 4,4'-methylenedianiline as a marker for MDI exposure in urine and blood. Since several publications have reported specific adducts of MDI and albumin or hemoglobin, more information about their existence in humans is necessary. Specific adducts of MDI and hemoglobin were only reported in rats after high-dose MDI inhalation. The aim of this investigation was to detect the hemoglobin adduct 5-isopropyl-3-[4-(4-aminobenzyl)phenyl]hydantoin (ABP-Val-Hyd) in human blood for the first time. We found values up to 5.2 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (16 pmol/g) in blood samples of workers exposed to MDI. Because there was no information available about possible amounts of this specific MDI marker, the analytical method focused on optimal sensitivity and selectivity. Using gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization, we achieved a detection limit of 0.02 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (0.062 pmol/g). The robustness of the method was confirmed by relative standard deviations between 3.0 and 9.8 %. Combined with a linear detection range up to 10 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (31 pmol/g), the enhanced precision parameter demonstrates that the method described is optimized for screening studies of the human population.

  9. Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson EA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric A Larson,1 Paul A Thompson,1,2 Zachary K Anderson,3 Keith A Anderson,4 Roxana A Lupu,1 Vicki Tigner,5 Wendell W Hoffman6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Fairview Health Services, Edina, MN, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 5Medical Staff Services, 6Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford Health, Sanford USD Medical Center, 7Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USAAbstract: Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00–6.99, 7.00–7.99, and 8.00–8.99 g/dL. A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7–8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P≤0.0001 during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00–7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6–6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017 or 8–8.99 g/dL (P≤0.0001 range. Cost savings of up to $700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost

  10. Outcome analysis of hemoglobin A1c, weight, and blood pressure in a VA diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Susan L; Palmer, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a specific diabetes education class (Basics) on hemoglobin A1c values, weight, and systolic blood pressure. In this retrospective study, the researchers compared 2 groups of male veterans with a recent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. One group received diabetes group education (n = 175) over a 4-month period, and the other received standard diabetes management follow-up (n = 184). Outpatient clinic setting in the Midwest. Basics class compared with standard level of care. Pre- and post-laboratory values for hemoglobin A1c, weight, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up univariate statistics for significant differences. Findings revealed significant differences in hemoglobin A1c (P education curriculum and reduction of hemoglobin A1c values. Some participants also had added benefit of significant weight loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Impact of hemoglobin nitrite to nitric oxide reductase on blood transfusion for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Brouse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion of blood remains the gold standard for fluid resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Hemoglobin (Hb within the red blood cell transports oxygen and modulates nitric oxide (NO through NO scavenging and nitrite reductase. Aims: This study was designed to examine the effects of incorporating a novel NO modulator, RRx-001, on systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response after blood transfusion for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock in a hamster window chamber model. In addition, to RRx-001 the role of low dose of nitrite (1 × 10−9 moles per animal supplementation after resuscitation was studied. Materials and Methods: Severe hemorrhage was induced by arterial controlled bleeding of 50% of the blood volume (BV and the hypovolemic state was maintained for 1 h. The animals received volume resuscitation by an infusion of 25% of BV using fresh blood alone or with added nitrite, or fresh blood treated with RRx-001 (140 mg/kg or RRx-001 (140 mg/kg with added nitrite. Systemic and microvascular hemodynamics were followed at baseline and at different time points during the entire study. Tissue apoptosis and necrosis were measured 8 h after resuscitation to correlate hemodynamic changes with tissue viability. Results: Compared to resuscitation with blood alone, blood treated with RRx-001 decreased vascular resistance, increased blood flow and functional capillary density immediately after resuscitation and preserved tissue viability. Furthermore, in RRx-001 treated animals, both mean arterial pressure (MAP and met Hb were maintained within normal levels after resuscitation (MAP >90 mmHg and metHb <2%. The addition of nitrite to RRx-001 did not significantly improve the effects of RRx-001, as it increased methemoglobinemia and lower MAP. Conclusion: RRx-001 alone enhanced perfusion and reduced tissue damage as compared to blood; it may serve as an adjunct therapy to the current gold standard treatment for resuscitation from

  12. Handling low hemoglobin and iron deficiency in a blood donor population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Karin; Ladelund, Steen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and blood donors with low hemoglobin (Hb) concentration are well-known challenges in any blood bank setting. In the Capital Region of Denmark, a new approach was adopted that centralized measurement of Hb, initiated ferritin (F) measurement, and established a center......: The change in Hb for repeat donors was followed during the first 2 years of the intervention strategy, which included measurements of F and offering intermittent iron supplementation to some of the donors. RESULTS: In 2 years, 62,663 blood donors donated 193,288 units of blood and 318 donors gave 754...... complete blood count blood samples. Over time in the repeat donors, the Hb increased from 15.39 to 15.60 g/dL and 13.85 to 14.06 g/dL in male and female donors, respectively, and the proportion of donors with low Hb decreased from 0.9% to 0.3% and 3.9% to 2.7% for the male and female donors, respectively...

  13. Reference interval determination of hemoglobin fractions in umbilical cord and placental blood by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Suzane Dal; de Oliveira Lemos, Fabiane Kreutz; Pedrazzani, Fabiane Spagnol; Cagliari, Cláudia Rosa; Scotti, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Umbilical cord and placental blood (UCPB) is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells widely used to treat diseases that did not have effective treatments until recently. Umbilical cord and placental blood banks (UCPBBs) are needed to be created to store UCPB. UCPB is collected immediately after birth, processed, and frozen until infusion. Detection of abnormal hemoglobins is one of UCPB screening tests available. The objective of the present study was to determine the reference interval for HbA, HbF, and HbA2 in UCPB using capillary electrophoresis. Methods: Observational retrospective study of UCPB samples undergoing hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed between April 2012 and May 2013. We analyzed 273 UCPB samples. All cords met the criteria of BrasilCORD. We found 19.9% (10.5–36.7%) for HbA, 80.1% (62.7–89.4%) for HbF, and 0.1% (0.0–0.6%) for HbA2. Data were expressed as median (P2.5–P97.5). Establishing specific reference intervals is the best option for most tests because such ranges reflect the status of the population in which the tests will be applied. The use of appropriate reference intervals ensures that clinical labs provide reliable information, thus enabling clinicians to correctly interpret results and choose the best approach for the target population.

  14. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cabrales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Cabrales1, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez2,3, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez3,4, Martha Rodríguez-Morán5, Marcos Intaglietta4, Fernando Guerrero-Romero51La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Hospital Regional No. 1, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 3Faculty of Medicine and Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 5Biomedical Research Unit, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. MexicoObjective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05, when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05.Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be

  15. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  16. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E; Kristensen, Niels; Giouri, Lea; Jensen, Frank B

    2017-03-01

    The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale. We also examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals, but unusually high concentrations of red blood cell SNO in bottlenose dolphin, walrus and beluga whale, suggesting enhanced SNO-dependent signaling in these species. Purified Hbs showed similar functional properties in terms of oxygen affinity and sensitivity to DPG, indicating that reported large variations in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken together, these results underscore adaptive variations in circulatory NO metabolism in diving mammals but not in the oxygenation properties of the Hb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  18. Changes in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity with shape variations of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aniket; Dasgupta, Raktim; Majumder, Shovan K.

    2017-10-01

    Shape variations of red blood cells (RBCs) are known to occur upon exposure to various drugs or under diseased conditions. The commonly observed discocytic RBCs can be transformed to echinocytic or stomatocytic shape under such conditions. Raman spectra of the three major shape variations, namely discocyte, echinocyte, and stomatocyte, of RBCs were studied while subjecting the cells to oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions. Analysis of the recorded spectra suggests an increased level of hemoglobin (Hb)-oxygen affinity for the echinocytes. Also, some level of Hb degradation could be noticed for the deoxygenated echinocytes. The effects may arise from a reduced level of intracellular adenosine triphosphate in echinocytic cells and an increased fraction of submembrane Hb.

  19. Hemopressins and other hemoglobin-derived peptides in mouse brain: Comparison between brain, blood, and heart peptidome and regulation in Cpefat/fat mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are present in mouse brain, and several of these have bioactive properties including the hemopressins, a related series of peptides that bind to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Although hemoglobin is a major component of red blood cells, it is also present in neurons and glia. To examine whether the hemoglobin-derived peptides in brain are similar to those present in blood and heart, we used a peptidomics approach involving mass spectrometry. Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are found only in brain and not in blood, whereas all hemoglobin-derived peptides found in heart were also seen in blood. Thus, it is likely that the majority of the hemoglobin-derived peptides detected in brain are produced from brain hemoglobin and not erythrocytes. We also examined if the hemopressins and other major hemoglobin-derived peptides were regulated in the Cpefat/fat mouse; previously these mice were reported to have elevated levels of several hemoglobin-derived peptides. Many, but not all of the hemoglobin-derived peptides were elevated in several brain regions of the Cpefat/fat mouse. Taken together, these findings suggest that the post-translational processing of alpha and beta hemoglobin into the hemopressins, as well as other peptides, is upregulated in some but not all Cpefat/fat mouse brain regions. PMID:20202081

  20. Evaluation on the detection limit of blood hemoglobin using photolepthysmography based on path-length optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Di; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Ziyang; Han, Tongshuai; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The blood hemoglobin concentration's (BHC) measurement using Photoplethysmography (PPG), which gets blood absorption to near infrared light from the instantaneous pulse of transmitted light intensity, has not been applied to the clinical use due to the non-enough precision. The main challenge might be caused of the non-enough stable pulse signal when it's very weak and it often varies in different human bodies or in the same body with different physiological states. We evaluated the detection limit of BHC using PPG as the measurement precision level, which can be considered as a best precision result because we got the relative stable subject's pulse signals recorded by using a spectrometer with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level, which is about 30000:1 in short term. Moreover, we optimized the used pathlength using the theory based on optimum pathlength to get a better sensitivity to the absorption variation in blood. The best detection limit was evaluated as about 1 g/L for BHC, and the best SNR of pulse for in vivo measurement was about 2000:1 at 1130 and 1250 nm. Meanwhile, we conclude that the SNR of pulse signal should be better than 400:1 when the required detection limit is set to 5 g/L. Our result would be a good reference to the BHC measurement to get a desired BHC measurement precision of real application.

  1. The effect of a standardized protocol for iron supplementation to blood donors low in hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.

  2. Comparison of three noninvasive methods for hemoglobin screening of blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardin, Sergey; Störmer, Melanie; Radojska, Stela; Oustianskaia, Larissa; Hahn, Moritz; Gathof, Birgit S

    2015-02-01

    To prevent phlebotomy of anemic individuals and to ensure hemoglobin (Hb) content of the blood units, Hb screening of blood donors before donation is essential. Hb values are mostly evaluated by measurement of capillary blood obtained from fingerstick. Rapid noninvasive methods have recently become available and may be preferred by donors and staff. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time all different noninvasive methods for Hb screening. Blood donors were screened for Hb levels in three different trials using three different noninvasive methods (Haemospect [MBR Optical Systems GmbH & Co. KG], NBM 200 [LMB Technology GmbH], Pronto-7 [Masimo Europe Ltd]) in comparison to the established fingerstick method (CompoLab Hb [Fresenius Kabi GmbH]) and to levels obtained from venous samples on a cell counter (Sysmex [Sysmex Europe GmbH]) as reference. The usability of the noninvasive methods was assessed with an especially developed survey. Technical failures occurred by using the Pronto-7 due to nail polish, skin color, or ambient light. The NBM 200 also showed a high sensitivity to ambient light and noticeably lower Hb levels for women than obtained from the Sysmex. The statistical analysis showed the following bias and standard deviation of differences of all methods in comparison to the venous results: Haemospect, -0.22 ± 1.24; NBM, 200 -0.12 ± 1.14; Pronto-7, -0.50 ± 0.99; and CompoLab Hb, -0.53 ± 0.81. Noninvasive Hb tests represent an attractive alternative by eliminating pain and reducing risks of blood contamination. The main problem for generating reliable results seems to be preanalytical variability in sampling. Despite the sensitivity to environmental stress, all methods are suitable for Hb measurement. © 2014 AABB.

  3. A coordination polymer based magnetic adsorbent material for hemoglobin isolation from human whole blood, highly selective and recoverable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tan, Jipeng; Xu, Xinxin; Shi, Fanian; Li, Guanglu; Yang, Yiqiao

    2017-09-01

    A composite material has been obtained successfully through the loading of nanoscale coordination polymer on magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell particle. In this composite material, coordination polymer nanoparticles distribute uniformly on Fe3O4@SiO2 and these two components are "tied" together firmly with chemical bonds. Adsorption experiments suggest this composite material exhibits very excellent selectivity to hemoglobin. But under the same condition, its adsorption to bovine serum albumin can almost be ignored. This selectivity can be attributed to the existence of hydrophobic interactions between coordination polymer nanoparticle and hemoglobin. For composite material, the hemoglobin adsorption process follows Langmuir model perfectly with high speed. The adsorbed hemoglobin can be eluted easily by sodium dodecyl sulfate stripping reagent with structure and biological activity of hemoglobin keeps well. The composite material was also employed to separate hemoglobin from human whole blood, which receives a very satisfactory result. Furthermore, magnetic measurement reveals ferromagnetic character of this composite material with magnetization saturation 3.56 emu g-1 and this guarantees its excellent magnetic separation performance from the treated solution.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin E, isolated from the blood samples of β-thalassemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Jhimli; Sen, Udayaditya; Choudhury, Debi; Datta, Poppy; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Chakrabarty, Amit; Dattagupta, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin A 2 (α 2 δ 2 ), a minor (2-3%) component of circulating red blood cells, acts as an anti-sickling agent and its elevated concentration in β-thalassemia is a useful clinical diagnostic. In β-thalassemia major, where there is a failure of β-chain production, HbA 2 acts as the predominant oxygen deliverer. Hemoglobin E, is another common abnormal hemoglobin, caused by splice site mutation in exon 1 of β globin gene, when combines with β-thalassemia, causes severe microcytic anemia. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary structural studies of HbA 2 and HbE are reported here. HbA 2 and HbE are purified by cation exchange column chromatography in presence of KCN from the blood samples of individuals suffering from β-thalassemia minor and Eβ-thalassemia. X-ray diffraction data of HbA 2 and HbE were collected upto 2.1 and 1.73 A, respectively. HbA 2 crystallized in space group P2 1 with unit cell parameters a=54.33 A, b=83.73 A, c=62.87 A, and β=99.80 degree sign whereas HbE crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with unit cell parameters a=60.89 A, b=95.81 A, and c=99.08 A. Asymmetric unit in each case contains one Hb tetramer in R 2 state

  5. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age 57 ± 10 years) with available data on magnetic resonance angiography to measure parenchymal CBF. Mean (SD) parenchymal CBF at baseline was 52.3 (9.8) mL/min/100 mL and decreased with 1.5 (11.0) mL/min/100 mL after on average 3.9 years of follow-up. Linear regression analyses showed that greater hemoglobin and hematocrit values were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and more decline in parenchymal CBF over time, independent of cardiovascular risk factors, use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, or diuretics, and brain measures: adjusted mean differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) in decline in parenchymal CBF between patients in the lower and upper quartiles of hemoglobin and hematocrit were -2.48 (95% CI -3.70 to -1.25) and -3.69 (95% CI -5.45 to -1.94) mL/min/100 mL. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and a greater decline in parenchymal CBF over time, possibly as a result of physiological compensating mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characteristics of hemoglobins in blood clam and their immune responses to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yanan; Jing, Zhao; Fan, Tingjun

    2017-06-01

    Bivalve hemoglobins have antibacterial activities, while the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In our study, three full-length cDNAs of hemoglobins from blood clam skHbs were obtained, encoding putative polypeptides of 147, 150, and 152 amino acids, respectively. Predicted advanced protein structures showed that the skHbs had amphipathic antibacterial structures, displayed the typical structural characteristics of proteins with globin-like fold containing numerous alpha-helixes, and forming a homodimeric skHbI and a heterotetrameric skHbII complex. After injected with alive and heat-killed Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA levels of skHbI and skHbII were both significantly upregulated through increasing the expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein-like (PGRP-like) protein and Toll-like receptor (TLR-like) protein induced by peptidoglycan on the surface of the bacteria, but there were no obvious differences in their protein levels. Besides, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected to participate in the resistance to B. subtilis. These implied that skHbs could involve in the innate immune responses to Gram-positive bacterial infection directly with their amphipathic structures and indirectly by increasing ROS production through PGRP triggering Toll pathway. In conclusion, our findings reveal the structural characteristics of skHbs and their mechanism against Gram-positive bacteria thereby providing the molecular evidence for fundamental innate antibacterial activities by invoking respiratory proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of hemoglobin and hematocrit in elderly patients receiving lower joint arthroplasty without allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Yiqin; Wu, Haishan; Wu, Yuli; Qian, Qirong; Zhao, Hui; Zhu, Yunli; Fu, Peiliang

    2015-01-05

    It has rarely been reported about the changes of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in elderly patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the changes of Hb and Hct after TKA or THA in elderly patients, and analyze its relationship with sex and type of arthroplasty. This is a prospective cohort study, including 107 patients receiving TKA or THA without allogeneic blood transfusion. There were 54 males and 53 females, with a mean age of 69.42 years. Levels of Hb and Hct were examined preoperatively and during the 6 months follow-up after operation. Levels of Hb and Hct decreased postoperatively and reached their minimum points on postoperative day 4. Thereafter, Hb and Hct recovered to their preoperative levels within 6-12 weeks. No significant differences in the levels of Hb and Hct were noticed between different sexes. THA patients showed significantly greater drop in Hb and Hct than TKA patients in the first 4 days postoperatively (P < 0.05). Levels of Hb and Hct decreased during the first 4 days after arthroplasty and gradually returned to their normal levels within 6-12 weeks postoperatively. THA may be associated with higher postoperative blood loss than TKA.

  8. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 ± 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 ± 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups

  9. Binding characteristics of arylamine, o-toluidine, in rodent blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBord, D.G.; Swearengin, T.F.; Booth-Jones, A.B.; Wissinger, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    o-Toluidine (OT), an arylamine used as an anti-oxidant in the tire and rubber industry, is a suspect human carcinogen. In order to develop a method for biological monitoring of OT, the authors have examined the binding characteristics of OT to the blood proteins, albumin (Alb) and hemoglobin (Hb). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10, 20, 40, 50, or 100 mg/kg [ 14 C0]-OT ip and terminated at 2, 4, 8, 18, or 24 hrs. Alb and Hb were isolated from the blood. OT binding was determined by radioactivity associated with Alb and Hb. Maximum OT binding occurred at 4 hrs for Alb and 24 hrs for Hb. The radioactivity associated with Alb was 2x greater than that associated with Hb at 4 hrs, and approximately 30% greater at 24 hrs. Similar OT binding to Alb was observed at the 50 and 100 mg/kg doses, while for Hb maximum binding was seen at 100 mg/kg. Extended time points were studied to determine which blood protein would be more useful for biological monitoring purposes. Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg bw [ 14 C]-OT and terminated at 1, 2 and 4 wks. The remaining radioactivity associated with Alb was 12% after 1 wk, and < 2% after 2 and 4 wks. Conversely, the radioactivity associated with Hb was 64% after 1 wk, 52% by 2 wks, and 24% by 4 wks. These results suggest that Hb may be more useful than Alb as a biological monitoring tool for OT

  10. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  11. Is a blood sample for hemoglobins in the transfusional range reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; Gómez, L; Petinal, G; Adán, N; Alvarado, S; Carballo, N

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the correlation and agreement in our unit and population of hemoglobin in gasometry versus hematology analyzer, to evaluate errors in transfusion or lack thereof. strong association between Point-of-care (POC) and hematimetry, with P<.001, with a coefficient of determination r 2 of 0.56, an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.63 and a Lin's concordance correlation coefficient of 0.65. For hemoglobins less than 7g/dL, a success rate of 29.41% was obtained. Low-moderate agreement of POC hemoglobin with standard haemothymetry. High probability of errors in the indication of transfusion based on gasometer hemoglobins, especially in low hemoglobins. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  13. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  14. Investigations on the role of hemoglobin in sulfide metabolism by intact human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher L; Savitsky, Anton; Feelisch, Martin; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M

    2018-03-01

    In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. However, sulfide reacts with methemoglobin (metHb), forming a methemoglobin-sulfide (metHb-SH) complex. Moreover, while metHb-SH is stable in cell-free systems even in the presence of biologically relevant thiols, it gradually decomposes to produce oxyHb, inorganic polysulfides and thiosulfate in intact cells, as detected by EPR and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our results demonstrate that under physiological conditions RBCs are able to metabolize sulfide via intermediate formation of a metHb-SH complex, which subsequently decomposes to oxyHb. We speculate that decomposition of metHb-SH is preceded by an inner-sphere electron transfer, forming reduced Hb (which binds oxygen to form oxyHb) and thiyl radical (a process we here define as "reductive sulfhydration"), which upon release, gives rise to the oxidized products, thiosulfate and polysulfides. Thus, not only is metHb an efficient scavenger and regulator of sulfide in blood, intracellular sulfide itself may play a role in keeping Hb in the reduced oxygen-binding form and, therefore, be involved in RBC physiology and function. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Schoorl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101-110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He and red blood cells (RBC-He in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ≤110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015x1012/L to 0.079±0.026x1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001. RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001. Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P≤0.001 after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P≤0.001. We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101-108 g/L.

  16. [Hemogram profile and interest of pre-donation hemoglobin measurement in blood donors in the northwest region of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrim, S; Ouarour, A; Jaidann, K; Benajiba, M; Masrar, A

    2018-02-01

    Blood donation in Morocco and more particularly in the northwest region is carried out without prior determination of the pre-donation hemoglobin. In addition, we note the lack of scientific research that reports data on the red blood cells, leukocytes and platelet lines in donated blood at the regional or even national level. To study hemogram profile in blood donors taken from the Northwest region of Morocco in order to provide decision makers of the National Center of Blood Transfusion and Hematology with valid scientific arguments to complete the criteria to donate whole blood, by the hemogram. Prospective study, conducted in 15797 volunteer blood donors (BD) aged between 18 and 60 years, collected during mobile or fixed collections carried out by the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Tangier and Tetouan from November 2014 to May 2016. The hemogram was performed using a Sysmex KX21N ® and the analysis of the data was done by the software SPSS 20.0. According to the World Health Organization, anemia corresponds to a hemoglobin level less than 12g/dL in women and less than 13g/dL in men. We found that 14.5 % of women (n=1054) and 3.0 % of men (n=245) were anemic and anemia was hypochromic microcytic in 58,66 % of these BD. Analysis of the white line showed leucopenia in 2.05 % of BD and 807 cases of leukocytosis (5.27 % of BD). Platelet study showed thrombocytopenia in 3.97 % of BD and thrombocytosis in 151BD (0.99 % of cases). This study shows the interest of systematic pre-donation hemoglobin measurement and periodic realization of the hemogram among BD in the Northwest region of Morocco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Top-Down Proteomics and Direct Surface Sampling of Neonatal Dried Blood Spots: Diagnosis of Unknown Hemoglobin Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rebecca L.; Griffiths, Paul; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2012-11-01

    We have previously shown that liquid microjunction surface sampling of dried blood spots coupled with high resolution top-down mass spectrometry may be used for screening of common hemoglobin variants HbS, HbC, and HbD. In order to test the robustness of the approach, we have applied the approach to unknown hemoglobin variants. Six neonatal dried blood spot samples that had been identified as variants, but which could not be diagnosed by current screening methods, were analyzed by direct surface sampling top-down mass spectrometry. Both collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry were employed. Four of the samples were identified as β-chain variants: two were heterozygous Hb D-Iran, one was heterozygous Hb Headington, and one was heterozygous Hb J-Baltimore. The fifth sample was identified as the α-chain variant heterozygous Hb Phnom Penh. Analysis of the sixth sample suggested that it did not in fact contain a variant. Adoption of the approach in the clinic would require speed in both data collection and interpretation. To address that issue, we have compared manual data analysis with freely available data analysis software (ProsightPTM). The results demonstrate the power of top-down proteomics for hemoglobin variant analysis in newborn samples.

  18. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide...

  19. Point-of-care blood gases, electrolytes, chemistries, hemoglobin, and hematocrit measurement in venous samples from pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care testing is an attractive option in rabbit medicine, because it permits rapid analysis of a panel of electrolytes, chemistries, blood gases, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, requiring only 65 μL of blood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a portable clinical analyzer for measurement of pH, partial pressure of CO2, Na, chloride, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in healthy and diseased rabbits. Blood samples obtained from 30 pet rabbits were analyzed immediately after collection by the portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and immediately thereafter (time <20 sec) by a reference analyzer. Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to compare the results. Limits of agreement were wide for all the variables studied, with the exception of pH. Most variables presented significant proportional and/or constant bias. The current study provides sufficient evidence that the PCA presents reliability for pH, although its low agreement with a reference analyzer for the other variables does not support their interchangeability. Limits of agreement provided for each variable allow researchers to evaluate if the PCA is reliable enough for their scope. To the authors' knowledge, the present is the first report evaluating a PCA in the rabbit.

  20. Study on the relationship between blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Rong; Li Zhuocheng; Yan Dewen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between blood levels of glycated hemoglobin and microvascular nephropathy in patients with type diabetes. Methods: Blood Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were determined with affinity chromatography and 24 hour urinary microalbumin (m-Alb), β 2 microglobin (β 2 -m) quantified with RIA in 76 patients and 30 controls. Results: With glycated hemoglobin within normal range, there were no differences between the amounts of patients' urinary protein contents and those in controls (P>0.05). With higher blood glycated hemoglobin levels, significant differences could be observed (P 2 microglobin. Differences among the 24 hour urinary quantities of mAlb and β 2 -m in the three groups of patients (divided according to the HbA1c levels, namely 9.0%) were also significant (P 2 microglobin is very important for early detection of diabetic nephropathy

  1. Prediction of hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors: how to model donation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Atsma, F.; Moons, K.G.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, prediction models for hemoglobin (Hb) deferral risk have been developed. These models consider the previous Hb level plus change in Hb. Here, we investigated if the performance of models could be improved by considering more information on Hb level history. STUDY DESIGN AND

  2. Correlations of Hemoglobin Level and Perioperative Blood Transfusion with the Prognosis of Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dai-Yang; Duan, Yu-Han; Zhang, Ying-Qiong; Cui, Xian-Nian; Luo, Zheng

    2017-05-23

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of hemoglobin level (Hb) and perioperative blood transfusion with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study consisted of 210 patients with GC who all received a D2 radical operation. These patients were assigned into three groups: 68 cases in group A (blood transfusion >5 U); 59 cases in group B (blood transfusion blood transfusion). A 5-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival of the patients. Univariate analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between the indicators and the patients with GC. Kaplan-Meier method was employed to analyze the survival rate of patients, and Cox regression analysis was applied to determine the independent prognostic factors of GC. RESULTS The univariate analysis indicated that age, perioperative blood transfusion amount, TNM staging, maximal tumor diameter, differentiation degree and invasion degree were associated with the prognosis of GC. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease-free survival rate was declined in the patients who were older, those received more amount of blood transfusion, those in advanced TNM staging, those had larger tumor diameter, and those with decreased degree of differentiation and invasion. Cox regression analysis indicated that perioperative blood transfusion, maximal tumor diameter and invasion degree were the independent factors affecting disease-free survival of the GC. CONCLUSIONS Our study revealed that large amount of perioperative blood transfusion leads to poor prognosis of GC.

  3. Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Spicer, Graham; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Hao F.; Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen saturation (sO2) of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries can indirectly assess local tissue oxygenation and metabolic function. For example, the altered retinal oxygenation in diabetic retinopathy and local hypoxia during tumor development in cancer are reflected by abnormal sO2 of local capillary networks. However, it is far from clear whether accurate label-free optical oximetry (i.e., measuring hemoglobin sO2) is feasible from dispersed RBCs at the single capillary level. The sO2-dependent hemoglobin absorption contrast present in optical scattering signal is complicated by geometry-dependent scattering from RBCs. We present a numerical study of backscattering spectra from single RBCs based on the first-order Born approximation, considering practical factors: RBC orientations, size variation, and deformations. We show that the oscillatory spectral behavior of RBC geometries is smoothed by variations in cell size and orientation, resulting in clear sO2-dependent spectral contrast. In addition, this spectral contrast persists with different mean cellular hemoglobin content and different deformations of RBCs. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of, and provides a theoretical model for, label-free optical oximetry at the single capillary level using backscattering-based imaging modalities, challenging the popular view that such measurements are impossible at the single capillary level.

  4. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  5. Interaction of Jet Fuel Hydrocarbon Components with Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    Directorate (RHDJ), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The authors would like to thank Maj. Paul Eden, Nicole Schaeublin, Christin Grabinski, Dr. Jeff Gearhart...We would also like to thank LtCol. Norman Fox (Laboratory Flight Commander), Mrs. Nersa Loh (Supervisor, Transfusion Services), and Mr. Dan Fischer ...Approximately 7.8 mg of hemoglobin sample was concentrated into a total volume of 5 mL of Fischer PBS pH 7.5 buffer using an Amicon Centrifugal Filter Unit

  6. Hemoglobin proteolysis in blood-feeding ticks: mapping of multienzyme cascade by functional proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horn, Martin; Nussbaumerová, Martina; Šanda, Miloslav; Kovářová, Z.; Srba, J.; Franta, Zdeněk; Sojka, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; Mareš, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 314-314 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /34/. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA203/09/1585; GA AV ČR IAA600960910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : hemoglobin olysis * tick digestion * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Respiratory adaptations in carp blood. Influences of hypoxia, red cell organic phosphates, divalent cations and CO2 on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Lykkeboe, G.

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the adaptation of oxygen transporting function of carp blood to environment hypoxia, tracing the roles played by erythrocytic cofactors, inorganic cations, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin multiplicity. Carp acclimated to hypoxia ( 30 mmHg) display striking increases in blood oxy...

  8. High pretransplantation soluble CD30 levels: impact in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoli, C; Bonnet, M C; Perrat, G; Houillon, A; Reydet, S; Pouteil-Noble, C; Villar, E; Lefrançois, N; Morelon, E; Dubois, V

    2007-10-01

    In a retrospective study, the impact of the level of pretransplantation soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) was evaluated on 3 year transplant survival, as well as the number and grade of acute rejection episodes among kidney recipients engrafted between 2000 and 2002. One hundred and ninety sera of 190 patients sampled on the cross-match day were tested for sCD30 concentrations using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Biotest). For the analysis, a sCD30 cutoff level of 100 U/mL was chosen: 87 (46%) recipients had a level >100, and 103 (54%) sCD30 level. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was 26% in the sCD30 >100 group versus 22% in the sCD30 sCD30 >100 versus 20% for the lower level. The difference was more important for grade II acute rejection (Banff criteria): 6/87 (7%) showed high sCD30 versus 2/103 (2%) with sCD30 sCD30 >100) versus 1 (1%) in the second group (sCD30 sCD30 was not a significant risk factor for an acute rejection episode, but it seemed to be more predictive for antibody-mediated acute rejection and immunological graft loss. However, many recipients showed an increased pretransplantation concentration without any rejection episode or graft loss. Consequently, sCD30 pregraft measurements cannot be used as a predictor for acute kidney rejection among our transplant center, nor as an aid to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen.

  9. Pharmacological mechanisms in the cardiovascular effects of DCLHb, a hemoglobin based blood substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gulati (Anil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe search for a clinically useful blood substitute has been stimulated by the inherent limitations of the homologous blood transfusion system, particularly its sufficiency, safety and costs. Blood has been described as the "most complicated fluid in animals" (Winslow, 1992). An attempt

  10. Study on the relationship between blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Facheng; Yao Yingfei; Zhang Jinchi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with diabetes. Methods: Blood growth hormone and β 2 -m levels were determined with RIA and GH2 bA 1C , blood glucose were determined with biochemical method in 41 diabetic patients and 32 controls. Results: The blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin, β 2 -microglobulin and fasting blood glucose in the patients with diabetes well controlled (n=22) were significantly higher than those in controls and levels in patients with diabetes poorly controlled (n=19) were again significantly higher than those in patients with diabetes well controlled (P 2 -microglobulin and fasting blood glucose is very important for early detection of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  11. High impact of uranyl ions on carrying-releasing oxygen capability of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Li; Du, Lili; Liu, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhichao [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Jia, Yi; Li, Junbai [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Colloid Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-01-07

    The effect of radioactive UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} on the oxygen-transporting capability of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers has been investigated in vitro. The hemoglobin (Hb) microspheres fabricated by the porous template covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly were utilized as artificial oxygen carriers and blood substitutes. Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were loaded in porous CaCO{sub 3} particles for magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS). Through the adsorption spectrum of magnetic Hb microspheres after adsorbing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, it was found that UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was highly loaded in the magnetic Hb microspheres, and it shows that the presence of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in vivo destroys the structure and oxygen-transporting capability of Hb microspheres. In view of the high adsorption capacity of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, the as-assembled magnetic Hb microspheres can be considered as a novel, highly effective adsorbent for removing metal toxins from radiation-contaminated bodies, or from nuclear-power reactor effluent before discharge into the environment. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  13. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolukbasi, F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x10 3 erg. cm -2 . sn -1 , on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  14. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite: Mechanism, Antioxidant-Modulated Effect, and Implications for Blood Substitute Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Hathazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb, an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high-valent ferryl form, was demonstrated in stopped-flow experiments. Reported here are the stopped flow spectra recorded upon mixing oxy Hb (native, as well as chemically-derivatized in the form of several candidates of blood substitutes with a supraphysiological concentration of nitrite. The data may be fitted to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations of nitrite (Grubina, R. et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 12916. The simple model for fitting the stopped-flow data leaves a small part of the absorbance changes unaccounted for, unless a fourth species is invoked displaying features similar to the oxy and tentatively assigned as ferrous-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp contrast to oxidative-stress type reactions which are generally accelerated, not inhibited. Sheep hemoglobin is found to be distinctly more resistant to reaction with nitrite compared to bovine Hb, at large nitrite concentrations (stopped-flow experiments directly observing the oxy + nitrite reaction as well as under auto-catalytic conditions. Copolymerization of Hb with bovine serum albumin (BSA using glutaraldehyde leads to a distinct increase of the lag time

  15. Identificação de variantes de hemoglobina em doadores de sangue Identification of hemoglobin variants in blood donor

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    Ana C. Bonini-Domingos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic diseases and affect a great number of individuals in the world, with diverse clinical complications ranging from the almost unnoticeable to lethal consequences. In Brazil the occurrence of hemoglobinopathies is very frequent and influenced by the ethnical groups that are the basis of populations in different regions. The phenotype may be influenced by environmental and genetic factors and by migration. An understanding of these genetic diseases is important for the health and quality of life of the population. In this work we assessed the presence of Hb variants in blood donors from São José do Rio Preto and region, and we observed the occurrence of variants including Hb S and Hb C but in particular the so-called "S-Like" variants. Good determination of the forms of variant hemoglobins is very important to give better guidance to blood donors and their families, and to improve the quality of blood transfusion.

  16. Extravascular red blood cells and hemoglobin promote tumor growth and therapeutic resistance as endogenous danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Liu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Wei; Ye, Tinghong; Lin, Ziqiang; Sang, Yaxiong; Su, Chao; Wan, Yang; Shen, Guobo; Ma, Xuelei; Yu, Min; Guo, Fuchun; Liu, Yanyang; Li, Ling; Hu, Qiancheng; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in patients with cancer. Intratumor hemorrhage has been demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor for cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the role of RBCs and hemoglobin (Hb) in the process of tumor progression and therapeutical response. RBCs and Hb potently promoted tumor cell proliferation and syngenic tumor growth. RBCs and Hb activated the reactive oxygen species-NF-κB pathway in both tumor cells and macrophages. RBCs and Hb also induced chemoresistance mediated, in part, by upregulating ABCB1 gene expression. Tumor growth induced by RBCs was accompanied by an inflammatory signature, increased tumor vasculature, and influx of M2 macrophages. In both the peritoneal cavity and tumor microenvironment, extravascular RBCs rapidly recruited monocyte-macrophages into the lesion sites. In addition, RBCs and Hb increased several nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors' expression and induced IL-1β release. Our results provide novel insights into the protumor function of RBCs and Hb as endogenous danger signals, which can promote tumor cell proliferation, macrophage recruitment, and polarization. Hemorrhage may represent a useful prognostic factor for cancer patients because of its role in tumor promotion and chemoresistance. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Solid-Phase Extraction of Hemoglobin from Human Whole Blood with a Coordination-Polymer-Derived Composite Material Based on ZnO and Mesoporous Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Xu, Xinxin; Ou, Jinzhao; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-13

    A composite material, ZnO@MC, has been synthesized successfully by calcination using a one-dimensional zinc-based coordination polymer as the precursor. In ZnO@MC, ZnO particles with a size of about 5-8 nm are dispersed evenly in a mesoporous carbon matrix. Adsorption experiments at pH 6.8 with 2 mg ZnO@MC as adsorbent illustrated an adsorption efficiency of 92.3 % in 5 mL hemoglobin (Hb) solution with a concentration of 100 mg L -1 . In contrast, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin can almost be ignored under the same conditions. The selectivity originates from a strong Zn II -histidine interaction between ZnO@MC and hemoglobin. The adsorption behavior of hemoglobin on ZnO@MC fits the Temkin model perfectly with a capacity as high as 11646 mg g -1 . The hemoglobin adsorbed on the composite material can be eluted easily with sodium dodecyl sulfate stripping reagent with an extraction efficiency of 87.7 %. Circular dichroism spectra and protein activity studies suggest the structure and biological activity of hemoglobin is the same before and after the adsorption/desorption experiment. Finally, the ZnO@MC composite material was employed to extract hemoglobin from human whole blood without any pretreatment, and gave a very satisfactory result. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The efficiency of laser radiation absorption by hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in the skin blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.; Asimov, R.; Gisbrecht, A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the efficiency of light absorption by oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) in cutaneous blood vessels in dependence on the radiation wavelength and the optical properties of the tissue is presented. Using the Kubelka - Munk optical model of the tissue the spectral dependence of the efficiency of laser interaction both on HbO 2 and Hb of blood vessels at different depths of the tissue layer are calculated. The obtained results show that for blood vessels located in tissue up to a depth of 2500 μm the efficiency of laser radiation absorption follows the shape of the Q -absorption bands of HbO 2 and Hb

  19. Validation and modification of dried blood spot-based glycosylated hemoglobin assay for the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peifeng; Edenfield, Michael; Potter, Alan; Kale, Varsha; Risbud, Arun; Williams, Sharon; Lee, Jinkook; Bloom, David E; Crimmins, Eileen; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to validate a modified dried blood spot (DBS)-based glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assay protocol, after a pretest in India showed poor correlation between the original DBS-based protocol and venous results. The original protocol was tested on different chemistry analyzers and then simplified at the University of Washington (UW). A second pretest was conducted in India to validate the modified assay protocol, using 44 quality control specimens. Data from UW indicated that, using the original protocol, the correlation coefficients between DBS and venous results were above 0.98 on both Bio-Rad and Olympus chemistry analyzers. The protocol worked equally well on filter paper, with or without pre-treatment, and when the recommended amount of blood spot material, or less, was used. A second pretest of the modified protocol confirmed that DBS-based levels from both Olympus and Roche chemistry analyzers were well correlated with DBS results from UW (correlation coefficients were above 0.96), as well as with venous values (correlation coefficients were above 0.94). The DBS-based HbA1c values are highly correlated with venous results. The pre-treatment of filter paper does not appear to be necessary. The poor results from the first pretest are probably due to factors unrelated to the protocol, such as problems with the chemistry analyzer or assay reagents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stability and Application of Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species-Induced Hemoglobin Modifications in Dry Blood Spots As Analyzed by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Fan, Chih-Huang; Yang, Ya-Fen

    2016-12-19

    Dried blood spot (DBS) is an emerging microsampling technique for the bioanalysis of small molecules, including fatty acids, metabolites, drugs, and toxicants. DBS offers many advantages as a sample format including easy sample collection and cheap sample shipment. Hemoglobin adducts have been recognized as a suitable biomarker for monitoring chemical exposure. We previously reported that certain modified peptides in hemoglobin derived from reactive chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen species are associated with factors including smoking, diabetes mellitus, and aging. However, the stability of these oxidation-induced modifications of hemoglobin remains unknown and whether they can be formed artifactually during storage of DBS. To answer these questions, globin extracted from the DBS cards was analyzed, and the stability of the modifications was evaluated. After storage of the DBS cards at 4 °C or room temperature up to 7 weeks, we isolated globin from a quarter of the spot every week. The extents of 11 sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), including nitration and nitrosylation of tyrosine and oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues, in human hemoglobin were measured in the trypsin digest by nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) using selected reaction monitoring. The extents of all these PTMs are stable within 14 days when stored on DBS at room temperature and at 4 °C, while those from direct extraction of fresh blood are stable for at least 8 weeks when stored as an aqueous solution at -20 °C. Extraction of globin from a DBS card is of particular importance for hemolytic blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of oxidative modifications of hemoglobin on DBSs, which are stable for 14 days under ambient conditions (room temperature, in air). Therefore, it is feasible and convenient to analyze these hemoglobin modifications from DBSs in studies

  1. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  2. Model of a Plasmonic Phase Interrogation Probe for Optical Sensing of Hemoglobin in Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.

    2015-11-01

    Phase interrogation based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is proposed for the determination of Hb concentration. Previous experimental results describing variation of refractive index of human blood with Hb concentration at different wavelengths are considered for design simulations. The biosensor design with silica substrate and gold layer is considered. The sensor's performance is closely analyzed in terms of phase sensitivity and resolution. The influence of operating wavelength on biosensor's performance for Hb measurement is critically investigated, which points to carry out the Hb measurement at a shorter wavelength as phase sensitivity and resolution increase significantly with decrease in wavelength. The results are explained in terms of suitable physical concepts such as radiation damping. Use of contamination-preventing biochemical layer ascertains the stability of measurement with the intended SPR biosensor probe. The simulation results also highlight that the resolution of Hb measurement achievable with the proposed biosensor is much higher compared with several existing methods.

  3. Analysis of bias in measurements of potassium, sodium and hemoglobin by an emergency department-based blood gas analyzer relative to hospital laboratory autoanalyzer results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The emergency departments (EDs of Chinese hospitals are gradually being equipped with blood gas machines. These machines, along with the measurement of biochemical markers by the hospital laboratory, facilitate the care of patients with severe conditions who present to the ED. However, discrepancies have been noted between the Arterial Blood Gas (ABG analyzers in the ED and the hospital laboratory autoanalyzer in relation to electrolyte and hemoglobin measurements. The present study was performed to determine whether the ABG and laboratory measurements of potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels are equivalent, and whether ABG analyzer results can be used to guide clinical care before the laboratory results become available.Study power analyses revealed that 200 consecutive patients who presented to our ED would allow this prospective single-center cohort study to detect significant differences between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels. Paired arterial and venous blood samples were collected within 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were measured in the ED by an ABL 90 FLEX blood gas analyzer. The biochemistry and blood cell counts of the venous samples were measured in the hospital laboratory. The potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin concentrations obtained by both methods were compared by using paired Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and Deming regression.The mean ABG and laboratory potassium values were 3.77±0.44 and 4.2±0.55, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory sodium values were 137.89±5.44 and 140.93±5.50, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory Hemoglobin values were 12.28±2.62 and 12.35±2.60, respectively (P = 0.24.Although there are the statistical difference and acceptable biases between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium and sodium, the biases do not exceed USCLIA-determined limits. In parallel, there are no statistical differences and

  4. An update on mortality and morbidity in patients with very low postoperative hemoglobin levels who decline blood transfusion (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Naqvi, Sajjad; Aregbeyen, Oshuare; Caylan, Mustafa; Demir, Selma; Juhl, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Severely anemic patients for whom blood transfusion is not an option provide highly valuable information on risks of anemia and alternative management strategies. This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients at least 18 years old who could not be transfused, had surgery at a patient blood management center between 2003 and 2012, and had at least one hemoglobin (Hb) measurement of not more than 8 g/dL during the postoperative period. The primary outcome measure was mortality, occurring anytime in the period after the surgery until discharge or 30th day after the surgery, whichever was sooner. Postoperative morbidities included the occurrence of any of sepsis, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, deep wound infection, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia. A total of 293 patients (including 288 who self-identified as "Jehovah's Witness") were eligible and enrolled. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 61.5 ± 16.9 years and 74.1% were female. Overall mortality rate was 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-11.3%). Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of death per each 1 g/dL decrease in the nadir postoperative Hb was 2.04 (95% CI, 1.52-2.74); OR of death after adjustment for other significant factors (urgency, American Society of Anesthesiology score, and age) was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.27-2.59). Our study confirms the previously reported low risk of mortality in upper nadir Hb ranges of 7 to 8 g/dL and much higher risk in lower ranges, albeit the number of patients reaching extremely low Hb levels were lower than previous report, possibly suggestive of improved management strategy of these patients. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  6. A novel type of electrochemical sensor based on ferromagnetic carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles for direct determination of hemoglobin in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Edyta; Donten, Mikolaj; Kowalczyk, Agata; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Nowicka, Anna M

    2015-02-15

    An effective, fast, facile and direct electrochemical method of determination of hemoglobin (Hb) in blood sample without any sample preparation is described. The method is accomplished by using the ferromagnetic electrode modifier (carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles) and an external magnetic field. The successful voltammetric determination of hemoglobin is achieved in PBS buffer as well as in the whole blood sample. The obtained results show the excellent electroactivity of Hb. The measurements are of high sensitivity and good reproducibility. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.7 pM. The electrochemical determination data were compared with the gravimetric data obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. The agreement between these results is very good. The changes of the electrode surface morphology before and after Hb detection are monitored by electron microscopy. The functionality of the electrochemical sensor is tested with human and rat blood samples. The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood samples determined by using voltammetric/gravimetric detection is in perfect agreement with the data obtained from typical clinical analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  8. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  9. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable for the treatment of elevated hemoglobin

  10. Impact determination of strength and resistance training on Glycoside hemoglobin and blood sugar on patients with type II diabetes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hasanvand

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that endurance training reduces Glycoside hemoglobin levels, the amount of strength training, although it did not significantly reduce, the strength training appears to cause more significant changes.

  11. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better controlled are warranted to further explore these findings.

  12. Do blood tests cause anemia in hospitalized patients? The effect of diagnostic phlebotomy on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Bagai, Akshay; Ebidia, Albert; Detsky, Allan S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether phlebotomy contributes to changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in hospitalized general internal medicine patients. Retrospective cohort study. General internal medicine inpatient service at a tertiary care hospital. All adult patients discharged from the Toronto General Hospital's internal medicine service between January 1 and June 30, 2001. A total of 989 hospitalizations were reviewed and 404 hospitalizations were included in our analysis. Mean (SD) hemoglobin and hematocrit changes during hospitalization were 7.9 (12.6) g/L (Phemoglobin and hematocrit were predicted by the volume of phlebotomy, length of hospital stay, admission hemoglobin/hematocrit value, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and admission intravascular volume status. The volume of phlebotomy remained a strong predictor of drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit after adjusting for other predictors using multivariate analysis (Phemoglobin and hematocrit of 7.0 g/L and 1.9%, respectively. Phlebotomy is highly associated with changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for patients admitted to an internal medicine service and can contribute to anemia. This anemia, in turn, may have significant consequences, especially for patients with cardiorespiratory diseases. Knowing the expected changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit due to diagnostic phlebotomy will help guide when to investigate anemia in hospitalized patients.

  13. Validated hemoglobin-depletion approach for red blood cell lysate proteome analysis by means of 2D PAGE and Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Wenzel, Folker; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of the cytosolic red blood cell (RBC) proteome is negatively affected by the high intracellular amount of hemoglobin complicating the detection of low-abundant cytosolic proteins. In this study, an alternative approach for the preparation of hemoglobin-depleted RBC lysates is presented, which was established in combination with downstream 2D PAGE analysis and Orbitrap MS. Hemoglobin removal was accomplished by using HemoVoid(TM) depletion reagent, which enabled a very efficient enrichment of low-abundant proteins by simultaneously reducing the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. After defining selected sample preparation protocol characteristics including specificity/selectivity, precision and linearity, a 2D reference map (pH 4-7) of the cytosolic RBC proteome was generated and a total of 189 different proteins were identified. Thus, the presented approach proved to be highly suitable to prepare reproducible high-resolution 2D protein maps of the RBC cytosol and provides a helpful tool for future studies investigating disease- or storage-induced changes of the cytosolic RBC proteome. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during

  15. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb

  16. Long-Term Stored Hemoglobin-Vesicles, a Cellular Type of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier, Has Resuscitative Effects Comparable to That for Fresh Red Blood Cells in a Rat Model with Massive Hemorrhage without Post-Transfusion Lung Injury.

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    Masahiro Tokuno

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV, encapsulating highly concentrated human hemoglobin in liposomes, were developed as a substitute for red blood cells (RBC and their safety and efficacy in transfusion therapy has been confirmed in previous studies. Although HbV suspensions are structurally and physicochemically stabile for least 1-year at room temperature, based on in vitro experiments, the issue of whether the use of long-term stored HbV after a massive hemorrhage can be effective in resuscitations without adverse, post-transfusion effects remains to be clarified. We report herein on a comparison of the systemic response and the induction of organ injuries in hemorrhagic shock model rats resuscitated using 1-year-stored HbV, freshly packed RBC (PRBC-0 and by 28-day-stored packed RBC (PRBC-28. The six-hour mortality after resuscitation was not significantly different among the groups. Arterial blood pressure and blood gas parameters revealed that, using HbV, recovery from the shock state was comparable to that when PRBC-0 was used. Although no significant change was observed in serum parameters reflecting liver and kidney injuries at 6 hours after resuscitation among the three resuscitation groups, results based on Evans Blue and protein leakage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the lung wet/dry weight ratio and histopathological findings indicated that HbV as well as PRBC-0 was less predisposed to result in a post-transfusion lung injury than PRBC-28, as evidenced by low levels of myeloperoxidase accumulation and subsequent oxidative damage in the lung. The findings reported herein indicate that 1-year-stored HbV can effectively function as a resuscitative fluid without the induction of post-transfused lung injury and that it is comparable to fresh PRBC, suggesting that HbV is a promising RBC substitute with a long shelf-life.

  17. 70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Serif; Calışkan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected.

  18. A comparative study of fasting, postprandial blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in staff members of MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala

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    Qazi Najeeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was based on blood glucose criteria, either the fasting blood glucose (FBG or a 2-h value in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In 2009, an International Expert Committee that included representatives of the American Diabetes Association (ADA, International Diabetes Federation and European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommended the use of the HbA1c test to diagnose diabetes with a threshold of ≥6.5% and this criterion was finally adopted by ADA in 2010. Hence, the study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive efficacy of glycated hemoglobin as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus and to identify individuals at risk of developing diabetes mellitus using Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the staff members of the Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Science and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India. Out of the total 800 staff members, 200 staff members were included in the study (88 faculty members, 37 staff nurses, 12 laboratory technicians, 25 clerical staff, 38 class IV selected by systemic random sampling. Every fifth member on the list was included in the sample. After obtaining the data, it was coded and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to predict the sensitivity, specificity, positivity, negativity and overall accuracy of a diagnostic test. A two-tailed test P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA. Results: Out of 200 subjects, 19.5% were labeled diabetic using FBG, 23% by postprandial blood glucose (PPBG and 38.5% by using glycated hemoglobin according to ADA guidelines. A total of 62% had high-risk score out of which majority belonged to group-I (faculty followed by group-II (nursing staff and group-IV (clerical staff. With the

  19. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  20. Quality evaluation of four hemoglobin screening methods in a blood donor setting along with their comparative cost analysis in an Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondon Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference, HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue. Results: Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05. HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4% whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4. Conclusion: CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.

  1. Modification of postnatal hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after gamma radiation in utero by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.; Kumar, S.; Dev, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were irradiated with oamma radiation at post-conception days 14.5, 16.25 and 18.25. Hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of the male offsprings were found to be below normal during the early postnatal development. The value became normal from 4 week onwards. However these values were found to be significantly elevated in the early postnatal development of the male offsprings of the mice which were administered MPG before irradiation. The possible radioprotective mechanism of MPG is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  2. Impact determination of strength and resistance training on Glycoside hemoglobin and blood sugar on patients with type II diabetes”

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Hasanvand; Kobra Karami; Abdollah Khodadi; Mehdi Valipour

    2011-01-01

    Background : This study determined the impact of strength and resistance training on hemoglobin Glycoside and glucose in type II diabetic patients in Khorramabad in 2009. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 30 men with type 2 diabetes referred to laboratories in Khorramabad, selected by screening and interview and purposeful sampling . After the subjects completed questionnaires of medical records and written consent, they were randomly divided into th...

  3. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

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    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  4. Polynitroxylated Pegylated Hemoglobin-A Novel, Small Volume Therapeutic for Traumatic Brain Injury Resuscitation: Comparison to Whole Blood and Dose Response Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Erik C; Jackson, Travis C; Dixon, C Edward; Bayɪr, Hülya; Clark, Robert S B; Vagni, Vincent; Feldman, Keri; Byrd, Catherine; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2017-04-01

    Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range. Anesthetized mice underwent controlled cortical impact and severe HS to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 25-27 mm Hg for 35 min, then were resuscitated with PNPH, autologous whole blood, or LR. Markers of acute physiology, including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), blood gases/chemistries, and brain oxygenation (PbtO 2 ), were monitored for 90 min on room air followed by 15 min on 100% oxygen. In a second experiment, the protocol was repeated, except mice were resuscitated with PNPH with doses between 2 and 100 mL/kg. ICP and 24 h %-brain water were evaluated. PNPH-resuscitated mice had higher MAP and lower HR post-resuscitation versus blood or LR (p < 0.01). PNPH-resuscitated mice, versus those resuscitated with blood or LR, also had higher pH and lower serum potassium (p < 0.05). Blood-resuscitated mice, however, had higher PbtO 2 versus those resuscitated with LR and PNPH, although PNPH had higher PbtO 2 versus LR (p < 0.05). PNPH was well tolerated across the dosing range and dramatically reduced fluid requirements in all doses-even 2 or 5 mL/kg (p < 0.001). ICP was significantly lower in PNPH-treated mice for most doses tested versus in LR-treated mice, although %-brain water did not differ between groups. Resuscitation with PNPH, versus resuscitation with LR or blood, improved MAP, HR, and ICP, reduced acidosis and hyperkalemia, and was well tolerated and effective

  5. Evaluation of a next generation direct whole blood enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c on the ARCHITECT c8000 chemistry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro-Morrison, Tracy; Janssen, Marcel J W; Mols, Jasper; Hendrickx, Ben H E; Velmans, Mathieu H; Lotz, Johannes; Lackner, Karl; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Armbruster, David; Maine, Gregory; Yip, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes requires an accurate, precise and robust test measurement system. Currently, immunoassay and HPLC are the most popular methods for HbA1c quantification, noting however the limitations associated with some platforms, such as imprecision or interference from common hemoglobin variants. Abbott Diagnostics has introduced a fully automated direct enzymatic method for the quantification of HbA1c from whole blood on the ARCHITECT chemistry system. Here we completed a method evaluation of the ARCHITECT HbA1c enzymatic assay for imprecision, accuracy, method comparison, interference from hemoglobin variants and specimen stability. This was completed at three independent clinical laboratories in North America and Europe. The total imprecision ranged from 0.5% to 2.2% CV with low and high level control materials. Around the diagnostic cut-off of 48 mmol/mol, the total imprecision was 0.6% CV. Mean bias using reference samples from IFCC and CAP ranged from -1.1 to 1.0 mmol/mol. The enzymatic assay also showed excellent agreement with HPLC methods, with slopes of 1.01 and correlation coefficients ranging from 0.984 to 0.996 compared to Menarini Adams HA-8160, Bio-Rad Variant II and Variant II Turbo instruments. Finally, no significant effect was observed for erythrocyte sedimentation or interference from common hemoglobin variants in patient samples containing heterozygous HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE, and up to 10% HbF. The ARCHITECT enzymatic assay for HbA1c is a robust and fully automated method that meets the performance requirements to support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Transverse water relaxation in whole blood and erythrocytes at 3T, 7T, 9.4T, 11.7T and 16.4T; determination of intracellular hemoglobin and extracellular albumin relaxivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgac, Ksenija; Li, Wenbo; Huang, Alan; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2017-05-01

    Blood is a physiological substance with multiple water compartments, which contain water-binding proteins such as hemoglobin in erythrocytes and albumin in plasma. Knowing the water transverse (R 2 ) relaxation rates from these different blood compartments is a prerequisite for quantifying the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Here, we report the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) based transverse (R 2CPMG ) relaxation rates of water in bovine blood samples circulated in a perfusion system at physiological temperature in order to mimic blood perfusion in humans. R 2CPMG values of blood plasma, lysed packed erythrocytes, lysed plasma/erythrocyte mixtures, and whole blood at 3 T, 7 T, 9.4 T, 11.7 T and 16.4 T were measured as a function of hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and CPMG inter-echo spacing (τ cp ). R 2CPMG in lysed cells showed a small τ cp dependence, attributed to the water exchange rate between free and hemoglobin-bound water to be much faster than τ cp . This was contrary to the tangential dependence in whole blood, where a much slower exchange between cells and blood plasma applies. Whole blood data were fitted as a function of τ cp using a general tangential correlation time model applicable for exchange as well as diffusion contributions to R 2CPMG , and the intercept R 20blood at infinitely short τ cp was determined. The R 20blood values at different hematocrit and the R 2CPMG values of lysed erythrocyte/plasma mixtures at different hemoglobin concentration were used to determine the relaxivity of hemoglobin inside the erythrocyte (r 2Hb ) and albumin (r 2Alb ) in plasma. The r 2Hb values obtained from lysed erythrocytes and whole blood were comparable at full oxygenation. However, while r 2Hb determined from lysed cells showed a linear dependence on oxygenation, this dependence became quadratic in whole blood. This possibly suggests an additional relaxation effect inside intact cells, perhaps due to hemoglobin

  7. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

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    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  8. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  9. Tuning the pH-shift protein-isolation method for maximum hemoglobin-removal from blood rich fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Mehdi; Marmon, Sofia; Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    A main challenge preventing optimal use of protein isolated from unconventional raw materials (e.g., small pelagic fish and fish by-products) using the pH-shift method is the difficulty to remove enough heme-pigments. Here, the distribution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the different fractions formed during pH-shift processing was studied using Hb-fortified cod mince. Process modifications, additives and prewashing were then investigated to further facilitate Hb-removal. The alkaline pH-shift process version could remove considerably more Hb (77%) compared to the acidic version (37%) when proteins were precipitated at pH 5.5; most Hb was removed during dewatering. Protein precipitation at pH 6.5 improved total Hb removal up to 91% and 74% during alkaline and acid processing, respectively. Adding phytic acid to the first supernatant of the alkaline process version yielded 93% Hb removal. Combining one prewash with phytic acid at pH 5.5 followed by alkaline/acid pH-shift processing increased Hb removal up to 96/92%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care capillary whole blood hematocrit and hemoglobin: Comparison to the Siemens RAPIDLab 1200, Sysmex XE5000, and manual spun hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Joseph; Douglass, Joseph; Baron, Jason; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2015-06-15

    Conductivity based point-of-care hematocrit with calculated hemoglobin devices serves an important role in clinical scenarios where time sensitive transfusion decisions are necessary. However, questions about the appropriateness of conductivity based assays in certain patient populations (patients on cardiopulmonary bypass and those receiving high volumes of intravenous fluids or autologous blood transfusions) have been raised. The clinical suitability of POC devices for these applications necessitates that they be accurate and that the results are interchangeable with central laboratory methods. We performed hematocrit and hemoglobin analysis on 225 clinical samples using the i-STAT instrument, a standard reference method for hematocrit (manual spun) and other common methods on both cardiopulmonary bypass and non-cardiopulmonary bypass patients. The i-STAT hematocrit and hemoglobin showed close agreement to comparison methods with minimal bias. Median test results were not clinically or statistically different between those measured on the i-STAT and those measured using the manual spun hematocrit reference method (p=0.4085, Wilcoxon signed rank test) or the Sysmex photometric hemoglobin method (p=0.2728, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The results on the i-STAT were statistically different from those obtained on the Sysmex for hematocrit (phemoglobin (phematocrit and hemoglobin performs well when compared to the hematocrit reference method and other common methods for both hematocrit and hemoglobin. Some differences between non-reference methods may be observed, but these were not considered clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient blood management in elective total hip- and knee-replacement surgery (part 2): a randomized controlled trial on blood salvage as transfusion alternative using a restrictive transfusion policy in patients with a preoperative hemoglobin above 13 g/dl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-Osman, Cynthia; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Koopman-van Gemert, Ankie W M M; Kluyver, Ewoud; Pöll, Ruud G; Onstenk, Ron; Van Hilten, Joost A; Jansen-Werkhoven, Thekla M; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Brand, Ronald; Brand, Anneke

    2014-04-01

    Patient blood management is introduced as a new concept that involves the combined use of transfusion alternatives. In elective adult total hip- or knee-replacement surgery patients, the authors conducted a large randomized study on the integrated use of erythropoietin, cell saver, and/or postoperative drain reinfusion devices (DRAIN) to evaluate allogeneic erythrocyte use, while applying a restrictive transfusion threshold. Patients with a preoperative hemoglobin level greater than 13 g/dl were ineligible for erythropoietin and evaluated for the effect of autologous blood reinfusion. Patients were randomized between autologous reinfusion by cell saver or DRAIN or no blood salvage device. Primary outcomes were mean intra- and postoperative erythrocyte use and proportion of transfused patients (transfusion rate). Secondary outcome was cost-effectiveness. In 1,759 evaluated total hip- and knee-replacement surgery patients, the mean erythrocyte use was 0.19 (SD, 0.9) erythrocyte units/patient in the autologous group (n = 1,061) and 0.22 (0.9) erythrocyte units/patient in the control group (n = 698) (P = 0.64). The transfusion rate was 7.7% in the autologous group compared with 8.3% in the control group (P = 0.19). No difference in erythrocyte use was found between cell saver and DRAIN groups. Costs were increased by €298 per patient (95% CI, 76 to 520). In patients with preoperative hemoglobin levels greater than 13 g/dl, autologous intra- and postoperative blood salvage devices were not effective as transfusion alternatives: use of these devices did not reduce erythrocyte use and increased costs.

  12. The evolution of Root effect hemoglobins in the absence of intracellular pH protection of the red blood cell: insights from primitive fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Matthew D; Brauner, Colin J

    2010-06-01

    The Root effect, a reduction in blood oxygen (O(2)) carrying capacity at low pH, is used by many fish species to maximize O(2) delivery to the eye and swimbladder. It is believed to have evolved in the basal actinopterygian lineage of fishes, species that lack the intracellular pH (pH(i)) protection mechanism of more derived species' red blood cells (i.e., adrenergically activated Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; betaNHE). These basal actinopterygians may consequently experience a reduction in blood O(2) carrying capacity, and thus O(2) uptake at the gills, during hypoxia- and exercise-induced generalized blood acidoses. We analyzed the hemoglobins (Hbs) of seven species within this group [American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), bowfin (Amia calva), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), and pirarucu (Arapaima gigas)] for their Root effect characteristics so as to test the hypothesis of the Root effect onset pH value being lower than those pH values expected during a generalized acidosis in vivo. Analysis of the haemolysates revealed that, although each of the seven species displayed Root effects (ranging from 7.3 to 40.5% desaturation of Hb with O(2), i.e., Hb O(2) desaturation), the Root effect onset pH values of all species are considerably lower (ranging from pH 5.94 to 7.04) than the maximum blood acidoses that would be expected following hypoxia or exercise (pH(i) 7.15-7.3). Thus, although these primitive fishes possess Hbs with large Root effects and lack any significant red blood cell betaNHE activity, it is unlikely that the possession of a Root effect would impair O(2) uptake at the gills following a generalized acidosis of the blood. As well, it was shown that both maximal Root effect and Root effect onset pH values increased significantly in bowfin over those of the more basal species, toward values of similar magnitude to those of most of the more derived

  13. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood cell that carries oxygen.

  14. HEMOGLOBIN A1C, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND LDL-CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AMONG HISPANIC/LATINO ADULTS WITH DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDY/STUDY OF LATINOS (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Corsino, Leonor; Daviglus, Martha L; Gallo, Linda C; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A; Llabre, Maria M; Reina, Samantha A; Savage, Peter J; Schneiderman, Neil; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics. Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The overall prevalence of A1c Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population. A1c = hemoglobin A1c; ABC = hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ADA = American Diabetes Association; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HCHS/SOL = Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; PAD = peripheral artery disease.

  15. Directly observed reversible shape changes and hemoglobin stratification during centrifugation of human and Amphiuma red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph F; Inoué, Shinya

    2006-02-21

    This paper describes changes that occur in human and Amphiuma red blood cells observed during centrifugation with a special microscope. Dilute suspensions of cells were layered, in a centrifuge chamber, above an osmotically matched dense solution, containing Nycodenz, Ficoll, or Percoll (Pharmacia) that formed a density gradient that allowed the cells to slowly settle to an equilibrium position. Biconcave human red blood cells moved downward at low forces with minimum wobble. The cells oriented vertically when the force field was increased and Hb sedimented as the lower part of each cell became bulged and assumed a "bag-like" shape. The upper centripetal portion of the cell became thinner and remained biconcave. These changes occurred rapidly and were completely reversible upon lowering the centrifugal force. Bag-shaped cells, upon touching red cells in rouleau, immediately reverted to biconcave disks as they flipped onto a stack. Amphiuma red cells displayed a different type of reversible stratification and deformation at high force fields. Here the cells became stretched, with the nucleus now moving centrifugally, the Hb moving centripetally, and the bottom of the cells becoming thinner and clear. Nevertheless, the distribution of the marginal bands at the cells' rim was unchanged. We conclude that centrifugation, per se, while changing a red cell's shape and the distribution of its intracellular constituents, does so in a completely reversible manner. Centrifugation of red cells harboring altered or missing structural elements could provide information on shape determinants that are still unexplained.

  16. A study report of 174 units of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion in 62 patients as a rich source of fetal hemoglobin supply in different indications of blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N; Mukherijee, K; Chettri, M K; Banerjee, T; Mani, U; Bhattacharya, S

    2001-01-01

    three days of collection and preservation at 1-6 degrees C in a refrigerator), we are of the opinion that this is a safe transfusion protocol which takes advantage of the safety of nature's finest biological sieve, i.e., the placenta, as an alternative to adult whole blood transfusion. It also has the advantage of a higher oxygen carrying capacity of fetal hemoglobin in addition to many growth factors and other cytokine filled cord blood plasma along with its hypoantigenicity.

  17. Mortality in Individuals Aged 80 and Older with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Blood Pressure, and Total Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shota; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and total cholesterol (TC) are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in very old individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Population-based cohort study. Primary care database in the United Kingdom. Individuals aged 80 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 25,966). Associations between baseline HbA1c, BP, and TC and all-cause mortality were evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, lifestyle variables, HbA1c, BP, TC, comorbidities, prescribing of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs, and participants' general practice. There were 4,490 deaths during follow-up (median 2.0 years; mortality 104.7 per 1,000 person-years). Mortality in participants with low (type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further research is required to understand these associations and to identify optimal treatment targets in this population. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  19. Interleaved quantitative BOLD: Combining extravascular R2' - and intravascular R2-measurements for estimation of deoxygenated blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Englund, Erin K; Wehrli, Felix W

    2018-03-23

    Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD), a non-invasive MRI method for assessment of hemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain in the baseline state, provides spatial maps of deoxygenated blood volume fraction (DBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbO 2 ) by means of an analytical model for the temporal evolution of free-induction-decay signals in the extravascular compartment. However, mutual coupling between DBV and HbO 2 in the signal model results in considerable estimation uncertainty precluding achievement of a unique set of solutions. To address this problem, we developed an interleaved qBOLD method (iqBOLD) that combines extravascular R 2 ' and intravascular R 2 mapping techniques so as to obtain prior knowledge for the two unknown parameters. To achieve these goals, asymmetric spin echo and velocity-selective spin-labeling (VSSL) modules were interleaved in a single pulse sequence. Prior to VSSL, arterial blood and CSF signals were suppressed to produce reliable estimates for cerebral venous blood volume fraction (CBV v ) as well as venous blood R 2 (to yield HbO 2 ). Parameter maps derived from the VSSL module were employed to initialize DBV and HbO 2 in the qBOLD processing. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments at 3 T were performed to evaluate the performance of iqBOLD in comparison to the parent qBOLD method. Data obtained in eight healthy subjects yielded plausible values averaging 60.1 ± 3.3% for HbO 2 and 3.1 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.4% for DBV in gray and white matter, respectively. Furthermore, the results show that prior estimates of CBV v and HbO 2 from the VSSL component enhance the solution stability in the qBOLD processing, and thus suggest the feasibility of iqBOLD as a promising alternative to the conventional technique for quantifying neurometabolic parameters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault-validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkötter, Hannah; Dias Filho, Claudemir Rodrigues; Schwender, Kristina; Stadler, Christian; Vennemann, Marielle; Pacheco, Ana Claudia; Roca, Gabriela

    2018-05-01

    Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent. We report the forensic validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows for such discrimination in forensic stains, the SERATEC PMB test, and its performance on real casework samples. The PMB test is a duplex test combining human hemoglobin and D-dimer detection and was developed for the identification of blood and menstrual fluid, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory. The results of this study showed that the duplex D-dimer/hemoglobin assay reliably detects the presence of human hemoglobin and identifies samples containing menstrual fluid by detecting the presence of D-dimers. The method distinguished between menstrual and peripheral blood in a swab from a historical artifact and in real casework samples of alleged sexual assaults. Results show that the development of the new duplex test is a substantial progress towards analyzing and interpreting evidence from sexual assault cases.

  1. Predicting storage-dependent damage to red blood cells using nitrite oxidation kinetics, peroxiredoxin-2 oxidation, and hemoglobin and free heme measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joo-Yeun; Stapley, Ryan; Harper, Victoria; Marques, Marisa B; Patel, Rakesh P

    2015-12-01

    Storage-dependent damage to red blood cells (RBCs) varies significantly. Identifying RBC units that will undergo higher levels of hemolysis during storage may allow for more efficient inventory management decision-making. Oxidative-stress mediates storage-dependent damage to RBCs and will depend on the oxidant:antioxidant balance. We reasoned that this balance or redox tone will serve as a determinant of how a given RBC unit stores and that its assessment in "young" RBCs will predict storage-dependent hemolysis. RBCs were sampled from bags and segments stored for 7 to 42 days. Redox tone was assessed by nitrite oxidation kinetics and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx-2) oxidation. In parallel, hemolysis was assessed by measuring cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) and free heme (hemin). Correlation analyses were performed to determine if Day 7 measurements predicted either the level of hemolysis at Day 35 or the increase in hemolysis during storage. Higher Day 7 Prx-2 oxidation was associated with higher Day 35 Prx-2 oxidation, suggesting that early assessment of this variable may identify RBCs that will incur the most oxidative damage during storage. RBCs that oxidized nitrite faster on Day 7 were associated with the greatest levels of storage-dependent hemolysis and increases in Prx-2 oxidation. An inverse relationship between storage-dependent changes in oxyhemoglobin and free heme was observed underscoring an unappreciated reciprocity between these molecular species. Moreover, free heme was higher in the bag compared to paired segments, with opposite trends observed for free Hb. Measurement of Prx-2 oxidation and nitrite oxidation kinetics early during RBC storage may predict storage-dependent damage to RBC including hemolysis-dependent formation of free Hb and heme. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Relationship between the degree of property damage and changes in red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin among victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omote, Shizuko; Kato, Miho; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Ichimori, Akie; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Tsukasaki, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake on various hematologic parameters. We studied the relationships between the degree of property damage and changes in red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Ht) among residents before and after the March 2007 Noto Peninsula Earthquake. A total of 5,563 residents of Wajima City who were not receiving oral treatment for anemia and who had received basic health screenings for fiscal years (FYs) 2006 and 2007, before and after the earthquake. We analyzed changes in their RBCs, Hb, and Ht levels by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), level of property damage, and evaluation standards. RBCs, Hb, and Ht for FY2007 showed a trend of decreasing values compared to FY2006 in both male and female subjects. RBCs and Hb significantly decreased in females aged between 65 and 74 years who experienced total property damage, and Ht significantly increased for those younger than 65 years who experienced the same level of damage. In addition, significant differences by degree of property damage and FY2007/FY2006 ratio were seen only among subjects with a BMI ratio <1. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between reduction of RBCs or Hb and increasing age in females; however, no significant relationship to property damage was found. No significant relationships were found for males. A significant association between property damage and changes in RBCs, Hb, and Ht was not found in this population of residents who experienced the Noto Peninsula Earthquake.

  3. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  4. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  5. Pre-transplantation specification of stem cells to cardiac lineage for regeneration of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Maritza; Finan, Amanda; Penn, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lead cause of mortality in the Western world. Treatment of acute MI is focused on restoration of antegrade flow which inhibits further tissue loss, but does not restore function to damaged tissue. Chronic therapy for injured myocardial tissue involves medical therapy that attempts to minimize pathologic remodeling of the heart. End stage therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF) involves inotropic therapy to increase surviving cardiac myocyte function or mechanical augmentation of cardiac performance. Not until the point of heart transplantation, a limited resource at best, does therapy focus on the fundamental problem of needing to replace injured tissue with new contractile tissue. In this setting, the potential for stem cell therapy has garnered significant interest for its potential to regenerate or create new contractile cardiac tissue. While to date adult stem cell therapy in clinical trials has suggested potential benefit, there is waning belief that the approaches used to date lead to regeneration of cardiac tissue. As the literature has better defined the pathways involved in cardiac differentiation, preclinical studies have suggested that stem cell pretreatment to direct stem cell differentiation prior to stem cell transplantation may be a more efficacious strategy for inducing cardiac regeneration. Here we review the available literature on pre-transplantation conditioning of stem cells in an attempt to better understand stem cell behavior and their readiness in cell-based therapy for myocardial regeneration.

  6. Pre-Transplantation Blockade of TNF-α-Mediated Oxygen Species Accumulation Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takashi; Suzuki, Sachie; Lai, Chen-Yi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Kakuta, Shigeru; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nojima, Masanori; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Higashihara, Masaaki; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Otsu, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT) for malignancy requires toxic pre-conditioning to maximize anti-tumor effects and donor-HSC engraftment. While this induces bone marrow (BM)-localized inflammation, how this BM environmental change affects transplanted HSCs in vivo remains largely unknown. We here report that, depending on interval between irradiation and HSCT, residence within lethally irradiated recipient BM compromises donor-HSC reconstitution ability. Both in vivo and in vitro we demonstrate that, among inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α plays a role in HSC damage: TNF-α stimulation leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in highly purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HSPCs). Transplantation of flow-cytometry-sorted murine HSCs reveals damaging effects of accumulated ROS on HSCs. Short-term incubation either with an specific inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling or an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevents TNF-α-mediated ROS accumulation in HSCs. Importantly, pre-transplantation exposure to NAC successfully demonstrats protective effects in inflammatory BM on graft-HSCs, exhibiting better reconstitution capability than that of nonprotected control grafts. We thus suggest that in vivo protection of graft-HSCs from BM inflammation is a feasible and attractive approach, which may lead to improved hematopoietic reconstitution kinetics in transplantation with myeloablative conditioning that inevitably causes inflammation in recipient BM. Stem Cells 2017;35:989-1002. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  7. Prognostic value of blood glucose in emergency room and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients who have suffered an acute cerebro-vascular event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernaga Lorea, Ander; Hernández Morhain, María Cecilia; Ollero García-Agulló, María Dolores; Martínez de Esteban, Juan Pablo; Iriarte Beroiz, Ana; Gállego Culleré, Jaime

    2017-07-07

    Stress hyperglycemia has been associated with a worse prognosis in patients hospitalized in critical care units. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels on the mortality of patients suffering a acute cerebro-vascular event, and to determine if this relationship depends on the presence of diabetes. A retrospective analysis of 255 patients admitted to the ER for stroke was performed. Venous plasma glucose levels in the emergency room and HbA1c levels within the first 48hours were analyzed. The presence of diabetes was defined in terms of the patients' medical history, as well as their levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Mortality was assessed within the first 30 months after the onset of the acute event. 28.2% of patients had diabetes. Higher mortality was observed in patients who had been admitted with plasma glucose levels≥140mg/dl (hazard ratio [HR]=2.22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.16, P=.013) after adjusting for various factors. This relationship was not confirmed in diabetic patients (HR=2.20, 95% CI: 0.66-7.40, P=.201) and was in non-diabetics (HR=2.55, 95% CI: 1.11-5.85, P=.027). In diabetics, HbA1c≥7% was not associated with poor prognosis (HR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.23-1.98, P=.475), whereas non-diabetics with admission levels of HbA1c falling within the pre-diabetes range (5.7% -6.4%) had a higher mortality (HR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.01-6.79, P=.048). Admission hyperglycemia is associated with a worse prognosis in patients without diabetes admitted for stroke, but this relationship was not seen in diabetics. In non-diabetic patients, HbA1c levels in the pre-diabetes range is associated with higher mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus under Insulin Treatment by Reimbursement for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Shin Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korea, the costs associated with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM under insulin treatment have been reimbursed since November 2015. We investigated whether this new reimbursement program for SMBG has improved the glycemic control in the beneficiaries of this policy.MethodsAmong all adult T2DM patients with ≥3 months of reimbursement (n=854, subjects without any changes in anti-hyperglycemic agents during the study period were selected. The improvement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c was defined as an absolute reduction in HbA1c ≥0.6% or an HbA1c level at follow-up <7%.ResultsHbA1c levels significantly decreased from 8.5%±1.3% to 8.2%±1.2% during the follow-up (P<0.001 in all the study subjects (n=409. Among them, 35.5% (n=145 showed a significant improvement in HbA1c. Subjects covered under the Medical Aid system showed a higher prevalence of improvement in HbA1c than those with medical insurance (52.2% vs. 33.3%, respectively, P=0.012. In the improvement group, the baseline HbA1c (P<0.001, fasting C-peptide (P=0.016, and daily dose of insulin/body weight (P=0.024 showed significant negative correlations with the degree of HbA1c change. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects in the Medical Aid system were about 2.5-fold more likely to improve in HbA1c compared to those with medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.459; 95% confidence interval, 1.138 to 5.314; P=0.022.ConclusionThe reimbursement for SMBG resulted in a significant improvement in HbA1c in T2DM subjects using insulin, which was more prominent in subjects with poor glucose control at baseline or covered under the Medical Aid system.

  9. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  10. Pretransplantation soluble CD30 level as a predictor of acute rejection in kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yile; Tai, Qiang; Hong, Shaodong; Kong, Yuan; Shang, Yushu; Liang, Wenhua; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2012-11-15

    The question of whether high pretransplantation soluble CD30 (sCD30) level can be a predictor of kidney transplant acute rejection (AR) is under debate. Herein, we performed a meta-analysis on the predictive efficacy of sCD30 for AR in renal transplantation. PubMed (1966-2012), EMBASE (1988-2012), and Web of Science (1986-2012) databases were searched for studies concerning the predictive efficacy of sCD30 for AR after kidney transplantation. After a careful review of eligible studies, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of the accuracy of sCD30 were pooled. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was used to represent the overall test performance. Twelve studies enrolling 2507 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates for pretransplantation sCD30 in prediction of allograft rejection risk were poor, with a sensitivity of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.74), a specificity of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.46-0.50), a positive likelihood ratio of 1.35 (95% CI, 1.20-1.53), a negative likelihood ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55-0.84), and a diagnostic odds ratio of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.54-2.80). The area under curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.60, indicating poor overall accuracy of the serum sCD30 level in the prediction of patients at risk for AR. The results of the meta-analysis show that the accuracy of pretransplantation sCD30 for predicting posttransplantation AR was poor. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the usefulness of this test for identifying risks of AR in transplant recipients.

  11. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  12. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell... blood cells), and leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs). (b) Classification. Class II...

  14. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  15. 100 cases of normal earlobe and vein blood hemoglobin and WBC determination comparison%100例正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To normal earlobe blood and venous blood hemoglobin and WBC to compare the results of determination. Method Research object for the normal adults, 100 cases (conscription examination), the earlobe blood parts of blood and venous blood two parts, the determination of hemoglobin and WBC level. Results The 100 cases of Hb and white blood cells are higher than that of venous blood, earlobe blood Hb were higher than in venous blood of Hb, the difference between the two have 3 cases not more than 10 g (3%), 97% of Hb the difference between the two parts of 10 g/L ~ 60 g/L (31 g) on average, 95% difference within the 25 g ~ 60 g, 26.5 g to 26.5 g. Using two blood test method of the same parts as WBC determination results comparison, the earlobe blood leukocytes were higher than that of venous blood leukocytes, 98% of them significantly better than the earlobe blood of venous blood leukocyte number (differential value of 8.6 x 109 / L ~ 6.3 x 109 / L (8600 ~ 6300), the mean difference of 3.8 x 109 / L ~ 4.8 x 109 / L (3800 ~4800), only 2% of the people the earlobe blood leukocytes was slightly higher than that of venous blood, difference of 0.6 x 109 / L ~ 1.2 x 109 / L (600 ~ 1200). Conclusions Blood test result difference is big, the two parts should arouse our attention.%目的:对正常人耳垂血与静脉血血红蛋白及白细胞测定的结果进行比较。方法研究对象为正常成人100例(征兵体检),采血部位为耳垂血与静脉血两部位,测定血红蛋白与白细胞水平。结果经测定100例 Hb 及白细胞均高于静脉血,耳垂血 Hb 均高于静脉血的 Hb,两者之差有3例不超过10g(3%),有97%的人 Hb 两部位之差为10g/L ~60g/L(平均31g),95%差数在25g ~60g以内,平均26.5g ~30.4g。用同一种检验方法对两种采血部位做的白细胞测定结果比较,耳垂血白细胞均高于静脉血的白细胞,其中98%的人耳垂血明显高于静脉

  16. Development of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin (LEH) and Studies of Hemorrhagic Shock by Use of Imaging Studies with Oxygen-15 and Other Radiotracers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William T; Goins, Beth; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2004-01-01

    .... Encapsulating hemoglobin inside a protective lipid membrane, which mimics a red blood cell, has the advantages of decreasing the toxicity of the free hemoglobin, increasing its circulation time...

  17. High variation of individual soluble serum CD30 levels of pre-transplantation patients: sCD30 a feasible marker for prediction of kidney allograft rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, Wolfgang; Schlaf, Gerald; Rothhoff, Anita; Seliger, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the pre-transplant levels of the soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) represent a non-invasive tool which can be used as a biomarker for the prediction of kidney allograft rejections. In order to evaluate the feasibility of sCD30 for pre-transplantation monitoring the sera of potential kidney recipients (n = 652) were collected four times in a 3 months interval. Serum from healthy blood donors (n = 203) served as controls. The sCD30 concentrations of all samples were determined using a commercially available ELISA. This strategy allowed the detection of possible variations of individual sCD30 levels over time. Heterogeneous sCD30 concentrations were found in the samples obtained from individual putative kidney transplant recipients when quarterly measured over 1 year. Total 95% of serum samples obtained from healthy controls exhibited sCD30 values 30 U/ml). Total 524 patients (80.4%) constantly exhibited serum concentrations of sCD30 values >100 U/ml was significantly lower than that previously reported. The high degree of variation does not allow the stratification of patients into high and low immunological risk groups based on a single sCD30 value > 100 U/ml. Due to the heterogeneity of sCD30 levels during time course and the high values of SD, its implementation as a pre-transplant marker cannot be justified to generate special provisions for the organ allocation to patients with single sCD30 values > 100 U/ml.

  18. Kidney graft recipients with pretransplantation HLA CLASS I antibodies and high soluble CD30 are at high risk for graft loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Libia M; París, Sara C; Arbeláez, Mario; Cotes, José M; Süsal, Caner; Torres, Yolanda; García, Luís F

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether pretransplantation HLA class I and class II antibodies and pretransplantation levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) and IgA anti-Fab autoantibodies are predictive of kidney allograft survival. Pretransplantation sera of 504 deceased-donor kidney recipients were tested for IgG HLA class I and class II antibodies, sCD30, and IgA anti-Fab levels using the CTS 4 ELISA kit. Kidney graft survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression. Regardless of the presence of HLA class II antibodies, recipients with high HLA class I reactivity had lower 1-year graft survival than recipients with low reactivity (p sCD30 had lower 5-year graft survival rate than those with low sCD30 (p sCD30 effect was observed in presensitized and nonsensitized recipients, demonstrated a synergistic effect with HLA class I antibodies (p kidney graft survival. Our results indicate that high pretransplantation sCD30 levels and HLA class I positivity increase the risk of kidney graft loss regardless of other factors. Consequently, such determinations should be routinely performed to estimate recipients' risks of graft rejection before transplantation.

  19. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  20. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  1. Investigating the adduct formation of organic mercury species with carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin from human red blood cell hemolysate by means of LC/ESI-TOF-MS and LC/ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeback, Jens; Schwarzer, Miriam; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of mercury species with human erythrocytes is studied to investigate possible high molecular binding partners for mercury species. Human blood hemolysate was spiked with methylmercury and investigated by means of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Beside adduct formation of mercury species with hemoglobin, the main compound of the erythrocytes, mercury binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was revealed. Due to an enzymatic digest of the protein-mercury adduct, the binding site at the free thiol group of the protein was identified. These results indicate that carbonic anhydrase might play a role in mercury toxicity.

  2. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew BH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Boon-How Chew,1 Mohd-Sidik Sherina,2 Noor-Hasliza Hassan3 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang; 3Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Jalan Dengkil, Malaysia Abstract: This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP, and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752. The majority were females (52.8%, Malay (52.4%, and married (78.7%. DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16; depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12 and total cholesterol (r=0.13; medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11; and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13, and total cholesterol (r= -0.08. Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024; DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066; depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061, and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082 and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086. There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with

  3. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  4. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  5. High affinity and temperature sensitivity of blood oxygen binding in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus due to lack of chloride-hemoglobin allosteric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Air-breathing fishes represent interesting organisms in terms of understanding the physiological changes associated with the terrestrialization of vertebrates, and, further, are of great socio-economic importance for aquaculture in Southeast Asia. To understand how environmental factors......, such as high temperature, affect O2 transport in air-breathing fishes, this study assessed the effects of temperature on O2 binding of blood and Hb in the economically important air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. To determine blood O2 binding properties, blood was drawn from resting cannulated...

  6. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  7. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  8. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  9. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  10. Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. Objective To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. Results We identified 1,760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6 μg/m3 during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1μg/m3) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26 mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. Conclusions This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China. PMID:27148900

  11. Protective effect of taurine against potassium bromate-induced hemoglobin oxidation, oxidative stress, and impairment of antioxidant defense system in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-03-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is widely used as a food-additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. KBrO3 causes severe toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Bromate is considered a probable human carcinogen and a complete carcinogen in animals. We have investigated the potential role of taurine in protecting against KBrO3 -induced oxidative stress in rat blood. Animals were given taurine for 5 days prior to KBrO3 and then sacrificed. Blood was collected and used to prepare hemolysates and plasma, which were then used for the analysis of several biochemical parameters. Administration of single oral dose of KBrO3 alone induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity as evident by elevated marker levels in plasma. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased both in plasma and erythrocytes, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. KBrO3 increased methemoglobin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide levels. It also altered the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes and lowered the antioxidant power of blood. Administration of taurine, prior to treatment with KBrO3 , resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. These results show that taurine is effective in mitigating the oxidative insult induced in rat blood by KBrO3 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Distinct alterations in sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atasever, Bektaş; Boer, Christa; Goedhart, Peter; Biervliet, Jules; Seyffert, Jan; Speekenbrink, Ron; Schwarte, Lothar; de Mol, Bas; Ince, Can

    2011-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (on-pump) is associated with more severe changes in the microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation as compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. An observational study. A university hospital and teaching hospital.

  13. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  14. Blood Pressure Is the Determinant for the Increased Risk for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Subjects with Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is known to be an important vascular complication of diabetes. Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is considered as an important cause of stroke in Asians. We aimed to analyze the risk for ICAS assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in different groups of young Korean subjects divided by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This study included 10,437 participants without history of cardiovascular diseases (81.3% men, mean age 43 years) from a health screening program, in whom TCD ultrasonography was used to detect greater than 50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the SONIA (Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis) trial. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1c levels: HbA1c < 5.7%, 5.7 ≤ HbA1c < 6.5%, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or under medication for diabetes. Among the participants, 3.0% of the subjects had ICAS. The subjects with ICAS tended to have higher mean HbA1c level compared with those without ICAS (5.8 ± .8 versus 5.7 ± .6, P = .063). The proportion of subjects with ICAS significantly increased as the HbA1c increased from the first to the third group (2.8%, 3.0%, 4.6%, P for linear trend = .022). In logistic regression analysis with ICAS as the dependent variable, the group with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% showed significantly increased odds ratio for ICAS with subjects with HbA1c < 5.7% as the reference after adjustment for confounding variables (1.575, 95% confidence interval 1.056-2.347). However, this significance disappeared with inclusion of presence of hypertension in the model. The risk for ICAS assessed by TCD was increased in young Korean subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. However, this significance was attenuated after adjustment for presence of hypertension, suggesting the importance of hypertension in ICAS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [On-site laboratory monitoring on the intensive care unit. Blood gas, electrolyte, glucose, hemoglobin and lactate determination with the CIBA Corning 865 Analysis System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödje, O; Fuchs, A; Dewald, O; Fischlein, T; Reichart, B

    1997-09-01

    For decision-making in the ICU, rapid and accurate analysis of vital laboratory parameters is essential. The industry provides devices which analyse these parameters on a decentralised setting and which are designed for use by non-laboratory personnel. We investigated whether accuracy and handling of a new analyser (Ciba-Corning 865, Chiron Diagnostics, Medfield, USA) are good enough for basing clinical decisions on the measured parameters. The Ciba-Corning 865 allows measurement of blood gases, electrolytes, haemoglobin, glucose and lactate by use of photometric, ion-selective, enzymatic and electrochemical sensors in less than 18 microliters of whole blood. In a cardiac surgical intensive-care unit the accuracy of the device was tested by comparison to 61 measurements of quality control reagents, 48 tonometered blood samples and 536 parallel measurements in the clinical laboratory. Besides a 10-minute instruction, the participating personnel had no formal training with the device. The differences between measurements in quality control reagents and tonometered blood and the expected value were lower than 5%. The comparison with clinical laboratory measurements showed correlation coefficients from 0.94 (sodium) to 0.99 (glucose, lactate). The biases in Bland-Altman analyses were below 5%, the limits of agreement were found to be in a clinically acceptable range for all parameters. During the test period no technical problems occurred with the analyser and good acceptance by the personnel was found. The measured parameters were accurate enough to be used for therapeutic decisions in acute care medicine. Although it should not be a complete alternative to the clinical laboratory, because of rapid analyses, small sample volumes and easy handling the use of the Ciba-Corning 865 is advantageous for patients and users.

  16. Identification of patients at risk of acute rejection by pretransplantation and posttransplantation monitoring of soluble CD30 levels in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Keven, Kenan; Gormez, Ulku; Kutlay, Sim; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Erbay, Bulent

    2006-04-27

    In this study, we investigated the impact of pre- and posttransplantation sCD30 monitoring on early (acute rejection (AR) risk and analyzed the effect of different immunosuppressive regimens on posttransplantation sCD30 levels in kidney recipients. Fifty patients receiving kidney allograft and 10 healthy donors were included in this retrospective cohort study. Eight patients developed biopsy-proven AR (19%). In pretransplantation samples, patients showed a significantly higher sCD30 than healthy controls. The pretransplantation and posttransplantation (day-15) sCD30 levels were significantly elevated in rejecting patients compared to non-rejecting patients. No significant differences among immunosuppressive regimens were found in posttransplantation sCD30 levels. High pretransplantation and posttransplantation (day 15) sCD30 levels are associated with increased risk of early AR, and sCD30 can be another tool to evaluate immunological risk prior to kidney transplantation. There was no difference in immunosuppressive regimens used in this study on posttransplantation sCD30 levels at the first month.

  17. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...

  18. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  19. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  20. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  1. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  2. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  3. Hemoglobin measured by Hemocue and a reference method in venous and capillary blood: a validation study Hemoglobina medida por Hemocue y por un método de referencia en sangre venosa y capilar: estudio de validación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Neufeld

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the comparability of hemoglobin concentration (Hb in venous and capillary blood measured by Hemocue and an automated spectrophotometer (Celldyn and to document the influence of type of blood (capillary or venous and analysis method on anemia prevalence estimates. Material and Methods. Between February and May 2000, capillary and venous samples were collected from 72 adults and children at Hospital del Niño Morelense (Morelos State Children's Hospital in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, and assessed for Hb using the Hemocue and Celldyn methods. Estimated Hb levels were compared using the concordance correlation coefficient and Student's t test for paired data. The sensitivity and specificity for anemia diagnosis were estimated and compared between type of blood and method of assessment. Results. Capillary blood had higher Hb (+0.5g/dl than venous blood in adults and children, as did samples assessed by Celldyn compared to Hemocue (+0.3g/dl. Specificity to detect anemia was adequate (>0.90 but sensitivity was low for capillary blood assessed by Hemocue (Objetivo. Evaluar la comparabilidad de la concentración de hemoglobina (Hb en sangre venosa y capilar medida por Hemocue y por espectrofotómetro automatizado (Celldyn, así como documentar la influencia del tipo de sangre (capilar o venosa y del método de análisis sobre la prevalencia de anemia. Material y métodos. De febrero a mayo de 2000, se recolectaron muestras de sangre capilar y venosa en 72 adultos y niños en el Hospital del Niño Morelense, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Se determinaron los niveles de Hb con los métodos Hemocue y Celldyn. Las cifras de Hb estimadas se compararon con el coeficiente de concordancia y la prueba pareada de t de Student. También se comparó la sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de anemia, utilizando sangre de los dos tipos y métodos de análisis. Resultados. La Hb fue mayor en sangre capilar comparada con sangre venosa

  4. Improvements in or relating to antibodies active against human hemoglobin Asub(1C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Cerami, A.; Koenig, R.J.; Pettis, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for preparing an antibody against human hemoglobin Asub(1c) which is substantially free of cross-reactivity against the human hemoglobins A 0 , Asub(1a) and Asub(1b). The antibodies are collected from cats, goats or sheep following injections of purified hemoglobin Asub(1c) antigen since these animals do not naturally produce hemoglobin Asub(1c). A radioimmunoassay method is also described whereby these antibodies are used to determine the quantity of hemoglobin Asub(1c) in blood samples. This is a useful technique in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (U.K.)

  5. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  6. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  7. Pre-transplantation glucose testing for predicting new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V; Huang, M; Bandukwala, F; Nash, M M; Rapi, L; Montada-Atin, T; Meliton, G; Zaltzman, J S

    2009-02-01

    New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT) adversely affects graft and patient survival. However, NODAT risk based on pre-transplant blood glucose (BG) levels has not been defined. Our goal was to identify the best pre-transplant testing method and cut-off values. We performed a case-control analysis of non-diabetic recipients who received a live donor allograft with at least 6 months post-transplant survival. Pre-transplant glucose abnormalities were excluded through 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and random BG (RBG) measurement. NODAT was defined based on 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictor variables for NODAT. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine threshold BG values for diabetes risk. 151 recipients met initial entry criteria. 12 had pre-transplant impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, among who 7 (58%) developed NODAT. In the remaining 139, 24 (17%) developed NODAT. NODAT risk exceeded 25% for those with pre-transplant RBG > 6.0 mmol/l and 50% if > 7.2 mmol/l. Pre-transplant RBG provided the highest AUC (0.69, p = 0.002) by ROC analysis. Increasing age (p = 0.025), acute rejection (p = 0.011), and RBG > 6.0 mmol/l (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of NODAT. Pre-transplant glucose testing is a specific marker for NODAT. Patients can be counseled of their incremental risk even within the normal BG range if the OGTT is normal.

  8. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb), an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high...... to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations......-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...

  9. Purification, characterization and sequence analyses of the extracellular giant hemoglobin from Oligobrachia mashikoi

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Taro; Onoda, Seiko; Kanemori, Masaaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We purified an extracellular hemoglobin with the molecular mass of ca. 440 kDa from the whole homogenates of Oligobrachia mashikoi (phylum Pogonophora) by a one-step gel-filtration. The preparation was pure to be crystallized. The P50 values of the hemoglobin and the fresh blood prepared from O. mashikoi were about 0.82 Torr and 0.9 Torr, respectively, which were much lower than the P50 value of human hemoglobin. However, the n values of the hemoglobin and the blood were about 1.2 and 1.1, re...

  10. Two-photon excited fluorescence emission from hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiqi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin, one of the most important proteins in blood, is responsible for oxygen transportation in almost all vertebrates. Recently, we discovered two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence and achieved label-free microvascular imaging based on the hemoglobin fluorescence. However, the mechanism of its fluorescence emission still remains unknown. In this work, we studied the two-photon excited fluorescence properties of the hemoglobin subunits, heme/hemin (iron (II)/(III) protoporphyrin IX) and globin. We first studied the properties of heme and the similar spectral and temporal characteristics of heme and hemoglobin fluorescence provide strong evidence that heme is the fluorophore in hemoglobin. Then we studied the fluorescence properties of hemin, globin and methemoglobin, and found that the hemin may have the main effect on the methemoglobin fluorescence and that globin has tryptophan fluorescence like other proteins. Finally, since heme is a centrosymmetric molecule, that the Soret band fluorescence of heme and hemoglobin was not observed in the single photon process in the previous study may be due to the parity selection rule. The discovery of heme two-photon excited fluorescence may open a new window for heme biology research, since heme as a cofactor of hemoprotein has many functions, including chemical catalysis, electron transfer and diatomic gases transportation.

  11. Quantifying risk of penile prosthesis infection with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Carson, C C; Cleves, M A; Delk, J R

    1998-05-01

    Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin above levels of 11.5 mg.% has been considered a contraindication to penile prosthesis implantation in diabetic patients. We determine the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in penile prosthesis infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients to confirm or deny this prevalent opinion. We conducted a 2-year prospective study of 389 patients, including 114 diabetics, who underwent 3-piece penile prosthesis implantation. All patients had similar preoperative preparation without regard to diabetic status, control or glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level. Risk of infection was statistically analyzed for diabetics versus nondiabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values above and below 11.5 mg.%, insulin dependent versus oral medication diabetics, and fasting blood sugars above and below 180 mg.%. Prosthesis infections developed in 10 diabetics (8.7%) and 11 nondiabetics (4.0%). No increased infection rate was observed in diabetics with high fasting sugars or diabetics on insulin. There was no statistically significant increased infection risk with increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C among all patients or among only the diabetics. In fact, there was no meaningful difference in the median or mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in the infected and noninfected patients regardless of diabetes. Use of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values to identify and exclude surgical candidates with increased risk of infections is not proved by this study. Elevation of fasting sugar or insulin dependence also does not increase risk of infection in diabetics undergoing prosthesis implantation.

  12. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. A nanocluster-based fluorescent sensor for sensitive hemoglobin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqin; Meng, Huijie; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2017-08-01

    In this report, a fluorescence sensor for sensitive detection of hemoglobin was developed. Gold nanoclusters were first synthesized with bovine serum albumin. It was found that both hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin could weakly quench the fluorescence from the gold nanoclusters, but when these two were applied onto the nanolcusters simultaneously, a much improved quenching was resulted. This enhancing effect was proved to come from the catalytic generation of hydroxyl radical by hemoglobin. Under an optimized condition, the quenching linearly related to the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 1-250nM, and a limit of detection as low as 0.36nM could be obtained. This provided a sensitive means for the quantification of Hb. The sensor was then successfully applied for blood analyses with simple sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  15. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Diabetes Blood Tests for People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Descent Introduction ... care. What are some common hemoglobin variants? Most people have only one kind of hemoglobin, called hemoglobin ...

  17. Action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanuxem, D.; Weiller, P.J.; Guillot, C.; Grimaud, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen by measuring P50 in whole blood and in stripped hemoglobin before and after exposition of blood samples from heavy smokers and polycythemic patients with high levels of HbCO to hyperbaric oxygen (2.2 ata). The concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was normal although P50 was significantly lowered, not only in whole blood but also in stripped hemoglobin. Hyperbaric oxygen normalized P50 by removing CO radicals from stripped hemoglobin. This may indicate that CO radicals exert a direct action on the hemoglobin molecule, at least at the HbCO levels studied in this work.

  18. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  19. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  20. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  1. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with intact beta ...

  2. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  3. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  4. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  5. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  6. Effect of hemolysis and free hemoglobin on optical hematocrit measurements in the extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kellner, Josef; Elshehabi, Morad; Schneditz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Clinically significant hemolysis is a rare but serious problem in dialysis. Because hemolysis affects red blood cell count and optical density of plasma it has been speculated whether techniques used for online blood volume monitoring would be useful to detect hemolysis. In this study the influence of free hemoglobin on hematocrit and relative blood volume changes measured by optical means (CritLine, HemaMetrics, Kaysville, UT) were examined using an in vitro model with bovine blood. Free hemoglobin solutions were added in steps to circulating whole blood at baseline hematocrits covering a range from 30% to 60% and at blood flows of approximately 200 and 400 ml/min. The free hemoglobin concentration reached was in the range of 2 to 3 g/dl. The presence of free hemoglobin led to a relative increase in hematocrit in the range of 0.3% per 0.1 g of free hemoglobin per dl (+3% dl/g). As an increase in hematocrit is interpreted as a decrease in blood volume, this change referred to an apparent decrease in relative blood volume in the same order of magnitude (-3% dl/g). Effects were more pronounced at low baseline hematocrit. Thus, although optical hematocrit readings are affected by the presence of free hemoglobin the changes at levels associated with clinical symptoms appear to be too small to be accurately detected in the in vivo situation where the hematocrit and the resulting optical signal is affected by various physiological processes and therefore much noisier.

  7. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  8. A study on the structures of hemoglobin of diabetic patients by EXAFS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinsong; Tan Mingguang; Zhang Guilin

    2001-01-01

    Hemoglobin was the carrier of oxygen in blood circulation. For the patients with diabetes mellitus the enhancement of glycidate hemoglobin in blood causes the decrease of oxygen transmission function. The local atomic structures of iron in hemoglobin were determined by EXAFS techniques. The relationship between diabetes mellitus and hemoglobin structures was observed. The blood samples were taken from normal people, slight and serious diabetic patients. The results show that the coordination number of iron atoms and Fe-O bond length were almost the same for the three samples. However, for the samples of serious diabetic patients the Fe-N bond length increases by about 0.002 nm, the possible reasons were the increase of deoxyhemoglobin contents in their blood

  9. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  10. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  11. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic en...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  12. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  14. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  15. Hemoglobin concentration determination based on near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method has been proved to be more effective than single point spectroscopy method in the experiment to predict the concentration of the Intralipid diluted solutions. However, Intralipid diluted solution is simple, cannot be the representative of turbid liquids. Blood is a natural and meaningful turbid liquid, more complicate. Hemoglobin is the major constituent of the whole blood. And hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose many diseases. In this paper, near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra (NIRSRTS) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were used to predict the hemoglobin concentration of human blood. The results showed the prediction ability for hemoglobin concentration of the proposed method is better than single point transmission spectroscopy method. This paper demonstrated the feasibility of the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for practical liquid composition analysis. This research provided a new thinking of practical turbid liquid composition analysis.

  16. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  17. Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Joo-Young; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-03-01

    An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

  18. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  19. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  20. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  1. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  2. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobintest.html Hemoglobin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hemoglobin Test? A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin ...

  3. Optical Spectra of Hemoglobin Taken from Alcohol Dependent Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dudok K.; Dudok T.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2005-01-01

    Optical spectra of CNMetHb and CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250, taken from the blood of humans with alcohol dependence, are studied in the spectral range of 450–750nm. The shifts in the spectral absorption maxima of CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250 complexes are observed for the diseased persons with alcohol dependence. The obtained results show that the hemoglobin structure of alcohol dependent humans is changed.

  4. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  5. Optical wavelength selection for portable hemoglobin determination by near-infrared spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Han; Li, Ming; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Dinggao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Linna

    2017-11-01

    Hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose anemia, identify bleeding, and manage red blood cell transfusions. The golden standard method for determining hemoglobin concentration in blood requires reagent. Spectral methods were advantageous at fast and non-reagent measurement. However, model calibration with full spectrum is time-consuming. Moreover, it is necessary to use a few variables considering size and cost of instrumentation, especially for a portable biomedical instrument. This study presents different wavelength selection methods for optical wavelengths for total hemoglobin concentration determination in whole blood. The results showed that modelling using only two wavelengths combination (1143 nm, 1298 nm) can keep on the fine predictability with full spectrum. It appears that the proper selection of optical wavelengths can be more effective than using the whole spectra for determination hemoglobin in whole blood. We also discussed the influence of water absorptivity on the wavelength selection. This research provides valuable references for designing portable NIR instruments determining hemoglobin concentration, and may provide some experience for noninvasive hemoglobin measurement by NIR methods.

  6. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  7. Hepcidin and hemoglobin content parameters in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients with anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, S. van; Dongen-Lases, E.C. van; Vegt, F. de; Laarakkers, C.M.; Riel, P.L. van; Ede, A.E. van; Swinkels, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of the novel iron indices hepcidin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (Ret-Hgb), and erythrocyte (red blood cell) hemoglobin content (RBC-Hgb) for detection of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with anemia and active inflammation and to compare

  8. COMPARISON OF FRUCTOSAMINE AND GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN IN A NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the clinical value of frnctosamine assay for monitoring type II diabetic patients, correlation of frnctosamine with glycosylated hemoglobin was studied. 100 patients with type II diabetes mcllitus were compared with 100 normal subjects. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and frnctosamine were measured in alt subjects. In the diabetic patients, a significant correlation was observed between fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.64, p < 0.01 and scrum frnctosamine (r = 0.7, P < 0.01. Tlicrc was also a significant correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and scrum frtictosmine (r = .94, I'<0.01. Frnctosamine, assay can be used as an index of diabetes control.

  9. Action of radiation on biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, N.F.; Kriklivyj, I.A.; Shur'yan, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions in red cells of peripheral blood and spleen of irradiated (650 R) rats has been studied. Hemoglobin synthesis is found to be most drastically inhibited in the first and second fractions on the first and eighth days after irradiation and in the fifth and sixth fractions on the eighth day (less expressed). The synthesis is restored on the twelfth day, the process under study proceeding more slowly in the above-mentioned fractions than in others. In the course of radiation sickness, the biosynthesis of certain hemoglobin fractions varies differently in the hemoglobin-synthesizing cells of peripheral blood than in the cells of spleenic erythroid series

  10. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  11. TRUNCATED OR 2/2 HEMOGLOBINS : A NEW CLASS OF GLOBINS WITH NOVEL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bright red hemoglobins, the most well-known paradigm in protein science, seem to be ubiquitous in nature. With advances in modern tools and techniques, discovery of new globins at a rapid pace has expanded this family. With every discovery, new insights emerged regarding their novel structure, function and several other characteristics previously not observed for hemoglobins. Even the classical function unanimously assigned to hemoglobins – oxygen transport and storage – needed re-evaluation. The ability of this class of proteins to show responses against various gaseous ligands, even the poisonous ones, indicate that it is obviously as ancient as life. As organisms evolved, hemoglobins also evolved, and accumulated a great degree of diversity in all aspects. The classical globin fold is very unique with 3-on-3 alpha helical bundle as observed in the traditional oxygen-transport hemoglobins like myoglobin, human blood hemoglobin and leghemoglobins in plants. However, a class of the newly discovered hemoglobins, which dominate the superfamily and appears ancient in origin mostly have 2-on-2 fold, commonly termed as “truncated” hemoglobins. These hemoglobins are phylogenetically distinct from their classical counterparts and are often shorter in their polypeptide length by 20-40 residues mainly due to a lack of short A helix, D helix and F helix. However, hemoglobins with 2-on-2 fold were also later found to have polypeptide chain lengths similar in size to classical globins. Disordered pre-F helix region, conserved glycine motifs and other key residues and apolar tunnels through their protein matrix for migration of ligands are some unique characteristics features of these truncated hemoglobins. Some of these are also hexacoordinated at heme iron where an amino acid from within the protein coordinates heme iron in absence of a ligand. These hemoglobins are well known for their high affinity towards ligand and have a diverse mechanism of

  12. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging

  13. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufang; Shen Linming; Chen Songsen; Ao Zhaohui; Liu Yuanyuan; Gao Naifei; Zheng Yuanming; Shong Liangquan

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra ''a'' and ''b'', corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum ''c'' was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra ''c1'' in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed. (orig.)

  14. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiufang, Zhang; Linming, Shen; Songsen, Chen; Yuanyuan, Liu; Naifei, Gao; Yuanming, Zheng; Zhaohui, Ao; Liangquan, Shong

    1990-07-01

    The Mössbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra “a” and “b”, corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum “c” was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra “cl” in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin under compression and shear exhibit an anisotropic mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan, Sumith; Wang, Xianqiao; Averett, Rodney D

    2018-05-01

    We developed a new mechanical model for determining the compression and shear mechanical behavior of four different hemoglobin structures. Previous studies on hemoglobin structures have focused primarily on overall mechanical behavior; however, this study investigates the mechanical behavior of hemoglobin, a major constituent of red blood cells, using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to obtain anisotropic mechanical behavior under compression and shear loading conditions. Four different configurations of hemoglobin molecules were considered: deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ). The SMD simulations were performed on the hemoglobin variants to estimate their unidirectional stiffness and shear stiffness. Although hemoglobin is structurally denoted as a globular protein due to its spherical shape and secondary structure, our simulation results show a significant variation in the mechanical strength in different directions (anisotropy) and also a strength variation among the four different hemoglobin configurations studied. The glycated hemoglobin molecule possesses an overall higher compressive mechanical stiffness and shear stiffness when compared to deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin molecules. Further results from the models indicate that the hemoglobin structures studied possess a soft outer shell and a stiff core based on stiffness.

  16. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  17. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  18. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  19. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  1. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Pathak, Rambha

    2011-07-01

    Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically

  2. Role of Reversible Histidine Coordination in Hydroxylamine Reduction by Plant Hemoglobins (Phytoglobins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, Navjot Singh; Alagurajan, Jagannathan; Andreotti, Amy H; Hargrove, Mark S

    2016-10-18

    Reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonium by phytoglobin, a plant hexacoordinate hemoglobin, is much faster than that of other hexacoordinate hemoglobins or pentacoordinate hemoglobins such as myoglobin, leghemoglobin, and red blood cell hemoglobin. The reason for differences in reactivity is not known but could be intermolecular electron transfer between protein molecules in support of the required two-electron reduction, hydroxylamine binding, or active site architecture favoring the reaction. Experiments were conducted with phytoglobins from rice, tomato, and soybean along with human neuroglobin and soybean leghemoglobin that reveal hydroxylamine binding as the rate-limiting step. For hexacoordinate hemoglobins, binding is limited by the dissociation rate constant for the distal histidine, while leghemoglobin is limited by an intrinsically low affinity for hydroxylamine. When the distal histidine is removed from rice phytoglobin, a hydroxylamine-bound intermediate is formed and the reaction rate is diminished, indicating that the distal histidine imidazole side chain is critical for the reaction, albeit not for electron transfer but rather for direct interaction with the substrate. Together, these results demonstrate that phytoglobins are superior at hydroxylamine reduction because they have distal histidine coordination affinity constants near 1, and facile rate constants for binding and dissociation of the histidine side chain. Hexacoordinate hemoglobins such as neuroglobin are limited by tighter histidine coordination that blocks hydroxylamine binding, and pentacoordinate hemoglobins have intrinsically lower hydroxylamine affinities.

  3. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  4. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  5. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  6. The Relationship Between Preoperative Hemoglobin Concentration, Use of Hospital Resources, and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallward, George; Balani, Nikhail; McCorkell, Stuart; Roxburgh, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative anemia is an established risk factor associated with adverse perioperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. However, limited information exists regarding the relationship between preoperative hemoglobin concentration and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate how outcomes are affected by preoperative hemoglobin concentration in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective, observational cohort study. A single-center tertiary referral hospital. The study comprised 1,972 adult patients undergoing elective and nonelective cardiac surgery. The independent relationship of preoperative hemoglobin concentration was explored on blood transfusion rates, return to the operating room for bleeding and/or cardiac tamponade, postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay, and mortality. The overall prevalence of anemia was 32% (629/1,972 patients). For every 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), blood transfusion requirements were reduced by 11%, 8%, and 3% for red blood cell units, platelet pools, and fresh frozen plasma units, respectively (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.87-0.91], 0.92 [0.88-0.97], and 0.97 [0.96-0.99]). For each 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), the probability (over time) of discharge from the ICU and hospital increased (adjusted hazard ratio estimates 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and 1.12 [1.12-1.16], respectively). A lower preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased use of hospital resources after cardiac surgery. Each g/dL unit fall in preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased blood transfusion requirements and increased postoperative ICU and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  9. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  10. Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros (beta 2-GLU) and the tapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, R; Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The beta-chain of rhinoceros hemoglobin contains glutamic acid at position beta 2, and important site for the binding of organic phosphates. We have investigated the oxygen binding properties of this hemoglobin and its interaction with ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, CO2 and chloride. The results show that the presence of GLU at position beta 2 nearly abolishes the effect of organic phosphates and CO2, whereas the oxygen-linked binding of chloride is not affected. Thus rhinoceros hemoglobin has only protons and chloride anions as major allosteric effectors for the control of its oxygen affinity. From the results obtained with hemoglobin solutions it can be calculated that the blood oxygen affinity of the rhinoceros must be rather high with a P50 of about 20 torr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, which conforms with observations obtained for other large mammals.

  11. Utility of noninvasive transcutaneous measurement of postoperative hemoglobin in total joint arthroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Michael; Wood, Kristin; Clark, Wesley; Kwon, Young-Min; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2014-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the clinical utility of a noninvasive transcutaneous device for postoperative hemoglobin measurement in 100 total hip and knee arthroplasty patients. A protocol to measure hemoglobin noninvasively, prior to venipuncture, successfully avoided venipuncture in 73% of patients. In the remaining 27 patients, there were a total of 48 venipunctures performed during the postoperative hospitalization period due to reasons including transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement less than or equal to 9 g/dL (19), inability to obtain a transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement (8), clinical signs of anemia (3), and noncompliance with the study protocol (18). Such screening protocols may provide a convenient and cost-effective alternative to routine venipuncture for identifying patients at risk for blood transfusion after elective joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  13. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  14. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  15. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  16. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  17. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    with CO (1.5 mL kg-1) was added to the circuit. Two NIRS systems (NIRO-200NX and INVOS-5100) assessed ScO2 as the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin, while venous blood samples were analyzed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After CO/O2 rebreathing COHb increased to 8.7% (IQR; 7.9-9.4; p = .004...... to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen...

  18. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  19. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  20. Detection of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin in Haiti by Genotyping and Hemoglobin Solubility Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tamar E.; von Fricken, Michael; Romain, Jean R.; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Schick, Laura; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a growing global health concern because infants born with the disorder in developing countries are now surviving longer with little access to diagnostic and management options. In Haiti, the current state of sickle cell disease/trait in the population is unclear. To inform future screening efforts in Haiti, we assayed sickle hemoglobin mutations using traditional hemoglobin solubility tests (HST) and add-on techniques, which incorporated spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation. We also generated genotype data as a metric for HST performance. We found 19 of 202 individuals screened with HST were positive for sickle hemoglobin, five of whom did not carry the HbS allele. We show that spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation add-on techniques could resolve false positives associated with the traditional HST approach, with some limitations. We also discuss the incorporation of insoluble hemoglobin separation observation with HST in suboptimal screening settings like Haiti. PMID:24957539

  1. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  2. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  3. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  4. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  5. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  6. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56 had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05 compared with the NIDA group (n = 38 and control group (n = 46. Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for

  7. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group ( n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor ( p iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia was 27.2 pg, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. The cut-off values for

  8. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  9. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  10. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilay Ciglidag Dungul

    carrying individuals with intact beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sam- ples of seven healthy carrier individuals who have abnormal hemoglobin variants and 16 control individuals from Turkey. Complete coding and intronic sequences of HBA1 and HBA2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain ...

  12. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat

  13. SPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF HEMOGLOBIN - ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF RAT OXYHEMOGLOBIN, DEOXYHEMOGLOBIN, CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN, AND METHEMOGLOBIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; BUURSMA, A; FALKE, HE; CATSBURG, JF

    The absorptivity at 540 nm of methemoglobincyanide from rat blood was determined on the basis of iron and found to be equal to the established value for human methemoglobincyanide (11,01/mmol/cm). On this basis the absorption spectra of the common derivatives were determined for rat hemoglobin.

  14. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  15. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in erythrocytes exposed to neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemiec, Katarzyna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Buczkowski, Mateusz [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland); Fornal, Maria [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Pohorecki, Wladyslaw [AGH University, Faculty of Energy and Fuels (Poland); Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Jozef [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Grodzicki, Tomasz [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Burda, Kvetoslava, E-mail: kvetoslava.burda@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    We studied radiation effects on the stability of various states of hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBC) irradiated with a very low dose of neutron rays, 50 {mu}Gy. We investigated RBCs isolated from blood of healthy donors. Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor different forms of Hb. Our results show, for the first time, that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) are two Hb forms sensitive to such a low neutron radiation. Both Hbs change into a new Hb form (Hb{sub irr}). Additionally, OxyHb transfers into HbOH/H{sub 2}O, which under our experimental conditions is resistant to the action of neutron rays.

  17. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  18. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  19. [Influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue. Nine healthy volunteers (6 males and 3 females) participated in this study. They underwent two tasks: 1) at rest, 2) gum-chewing. In seven of the nine (4 males and 3 females), experimental occlusal interference was applied to the first molar of the mandibule on the habitual masticatory side. They underwent the gum-chewing task. To evaluate the amount of hemoglobin, both the hemoglobin oxygenation state and blood volume during gum-chewing were measured in the frontal region, using near-infrared spectroscopy. The amount of total-hemoglobin (blood volume) and oxyhemoglobin of subjects significantly increased during gum-chewing (p experimental occlusal interference was imposed on the subject, the amount of them significantly decreased compared with subjects without experimental occlusal interference (p < 0.05). The results suggested that increases of cerebral blood flow in the frontal region were not due to the mandibular movement, and that human brain activity caused by mastication was not only in the cortical masticatory area but also in the frontal region.

  20. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of peptides isolated from the hemoglobin of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengjiao; Wu, Qiaoxing; Song, Shuang; She, Ruiping; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yifei; Zhang, Meikun; Du, Fang; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan

    2016-12-05

    Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays. The results demonstrated that CHAP had potent and rapid antimicrobial activity against 19 bacterial strains, including 9 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. Bacterial biofilm and NaCl permeability assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were further performed to detect the mechanism of its antimicrobial effect. Additionally, CHAP showed low hemolytic activity, embryo toxicity, and high stability in different temperatures and animal plasma. CHAP may have great potential for expanding production and development value in animal medication, the breeding industry and environment protection.

  1. Comparative and quantitative determination of total hemoglobin concentration in normal and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Mahesar, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanmethaemoglobin technique is now recommended as the standard method by International Committee for Standardization in Hematology and British Standards Institution 1966. The hemoglobin is treated with reagent containing potassium ferricyanide, Potassium cyanide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ferricyanide forms methamoglobin which is converted to cyanmethaemoglobin by the cyanide. The average values of hemoglobin, percent determined from the blood samples of normal and psoriatic (n=44) males and (n=35) females were 15.0, 12.7, 13.6 and 11.2 g/100ml. The decrease in hemoglobin concentration could be due to anemia resulting during the cell proliferation epidermis in inflammatory state and Keratolytic disorder which take place in psoriasis. (author)

  2. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  3. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  6. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  7. Fetal hemoglobin is much less prone to DNA cleavage compared to the adult protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is well protected inside the red blood cells (RBCs. Upon hemolysis and when free in circulation, Hb can be involved in a range of radical generating reactions and may thereby attack several different biomolecules. In this study, we have examined the potential damaging effects of cell-free Hb on plasmid DNA (pDNA. Hb induced cleavage of supercoiled pDNA (sc pDNA which was proportional to the concentration of Hb applied. Almost 70% of sc pDNA was converted to open circular or linear DNA using 10 µM of Hb in 12 h. Hb can be present in several different forms. The oxy (HbO2 and met forms are most reactive, while the carboxy-protein shows only low hydrolytic activity. Hemoglobin A (HbA could easily induce complete pDNA cleavage while fetal hemoglobin (HbF was three-fold less reactive. By inserting, a redox active cysteine residue on the surface of the alpha chain of HbF by site-directed mutagenesis, the DNA cleavage reaction was enhanced by 82%. Reactive oxygen species were not directly involved in the reaction since addition of superoxide dismutase and catalase did not prevent pDNA cleavage. The reactivity of Hb with pDNA can rather be associated with the formation of protein based radicals. Keywords: Adult hemoglobin, Fetal hemoglobin, Supercoiled plasmid DNA, DNA cleavage, Cysteine, Protein radicals

  8. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  9. Hemoglobin and hematocrit at the end of hemodialysis: a better way to adjust erythropoietin dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Erika B; Andreoli, Maria Claudia; Matos, Ana Cristina C; Guimarães-Souza, Nadia K; Mallet, Ana Cláudia; Carneiro, Fabiana D; Santos, Bento C

    2010-04-01

    A severe disadvantage of administration of recombinant human erythropoietin to hemodialysis patients has been reported. A significant correlation has been shown with hemoglobin values determined online by use of the blood volume monitor (BVM) and by laboratory measurement. Online hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured by use of the BVM during hemodialysis session. Data were analyzed by t test and statistical significance was defined as a P of hemoglobin and hematocrit from 11.6 +/- 1.9 to 13.9 +/- 2.4 g/dL (17.4 +/- 7.1%, P = 0.02) and from 34.4 +/- 6.8 to 42 +/- 8.3% (20.6 +/- 8.8%, P = 0.022), respectively, were observed from the beginning to the end of dialysis. We hypothesize that a new strategy for adjusting erythropoietin dose may be based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values evaluated at the end of hemodialysis, when patients are no longer hypervolemic. Inadvertent high levels of hemoglobin could be one explanation why patients present higher rates of cardiovascular and access-related events, especially when monitored online by use of the BVM to achieve the dry weight.

  10. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  11. Relationship between laparoscopic cholecystectomy operative time and carbonyl hemoglobin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether operative time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy impacts the carbonyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration in peripheral blood. MethodsForty patients with gallstones and indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the operative procedure. COHb concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The significance of changes in COHb concentration in relation to time of the operative procedure (rounded to the nearest minute was assessed by statistical correlation coefficient test. ResultsThe laparoscopic procedure was completed in 38 cases, and two patients required conversion to laparotomy. The content of COHb in peripheral venous blood had significantly increased during the laparoscopic operation (operation beginning: 11.07%±1.18% vs. operation end: 1.44%±0.26%, P<0.05. The change was positively correlated with operation time (r=0.85. ConclusionCarbon monoxide produced during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure can lead to an increase in peripheral venous blood COHb. The longer the operation lasts, the greater the increase in COHb.

  12. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  13. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  14. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  15. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  16. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  17. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  18. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  19. Modifiers of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity as sensitizers of tumors to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful mechanism in the control of oxygen delivery to tissues is the allosteric modification of hemoglobin. Increased or decreased release of oxygen can be achieved by altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Several studies have shown that tumor radiosensitivity is dependent on this relationship. The authors studied affinity changes produced in two distinctly different ways. Tumor bearing mice were given isovolemic exchange blood transfusions with the blood from donor mice which had been exposed to abnormal oxygen tensions, leading to increased or slightly decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in their blood. When the recipient mice were irradiated, those receiving the blood with higher 2,3 DPG levels showed greater tumor sensitivity to radiation. An alternative strategy is the use of drugs which directly alter hemoglobin/oxygen affinity. The authors studied three antihyperlipoproteinemia drugs, all of which have produced markedly reduced affinities in vivo. Preliminary data indicate that the radiosensitization produced by at least one of these compounds is less than would have been expected from the 2,3 DPG experiments

  20. Imaging the effect of hemoglobin on properties of RBCs using common-path digital holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, M.; Shah, H.; Trivedi, V.; Mahajan, S.; Chhaniwal, V.; Leitgeb, R.; Javidi, B.; Anand, A.

    2017-07-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the body is the most essential requirement. In vertebrate species this function is performed by Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells. The mass concentration of the Hb determines the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Thus it becomes necessary to determine its concentration in the blood, which helps in monitoring the health of a person. If the amount of Hb crosses certain range, then it is considered critical. As the Hb constitutes upto 96% of red blood cells dry content, it would be interesting to examine various physical and mechanical parameters of RBCs which depends upon its concentration. Various diseases bring about significant variation in the amount of hemoglobin which may alter certain parameters of the RBC such as surface area, volume, membrane fluctuation etc. The study of the variations of these parameters may be helpful in determining Hb content which will reflect the state of health of a human body leading to disease diagnosis. Any increase or decrease in the amount of Hb will change the density and hence the optical thickness of the RBCs, which affects the cell membrane and thereby changing its mechanical and physical properties. Here we describe the use of lateral shearing digital holographic microscope for quantifying the cell parameters for studying the change in biophysical properties of cells due to variation in hemoglobin concentration.

  1. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  2. PERBEDAAN KADAR HEMOGLOBIN METODE SIANMETHEMOGLOBIN DENGAN DAN TANPA SENTRIFUGASI PADA SAMPEL LEUKOSITOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    wahdah norsiah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Examination of hemoglobin levels influenced leukocytosis sianmethemoglobin method that causes increased absorbance measurements of hemoglobin levels increased significantly and the false blood sample that has been diluted with a solution Drabkins in centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and then the absorbance of the supernatant was measured with a photometer at λ 546 nm. This study aimed to analyze the differences in hemoglobin level examination siamethemoglobin method with and without centrifugation at sample leukocytosis. This type of research is observational research laboratory. The study design was cross-sectional study. Samples were taken from the remaining blood samples of patients who have been examined leukositnya number more than 20,000 / uL with Hematology Analyzer (CEL-DYN Ruby February-April 2014, and were divided into 4 groups based on criteria that group 1. leukocyte count of 20,000 / uL-29 999 / mL, group II. 30,000 / uL-39 999 / uL, the group III. 40,000 / uL-49,999 / uL, the group IV. More than 50,000 / uL. The number of samples taken were 20 samples of each group, a total sample of 80 samples. The analysis showed no significant difference in hemoglobin levels siamethemoglobin method with and without centrifugation at sample leukocytosis with a value of p = 0.000 less than 0.05 α. Leukocytosis Turbidity affects the difference in hemoglobin levels with and without centrifugation, the higher the number the greater the difference in leukocyte levels of hemoglobin, hemoglobin level examination results of the study based on the criteria of the number of leukocytes obtained by the difference in hemoglobin levels with and without centrifugation in group I. 0.22 ± 0.07 g / dL, group II 0.40 ± 0.22 g / dL, a group III. 0.44 ± 0.14 g / dL, Group IV. 0.85 ± 0.41 g / dL. The level of hemoglobin in the sample sianmethemoglobin method leukocytosis with more than 20,000 / uL need a centrifuge so that appropriate

  3. Molecular controls of the oxygenation and redox reactions of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Celia; Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2013-06-10

    The broad classes of O(2)-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O(2)-binding functions. The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes.

  4. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  5. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  6. ATP-induced temperature independence of hemoglobin-O2 affinity in heterothermic billfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Fago, Angela

    2010-01-01

    heterotherms, where it may hamper unloading (e.g. in cold extremities of arctic mammals) or increase the diffusive arterio-venous short-circuiting of O2 (e.g. in counter-current heat exchangers of warm swimming muscles of tuna). We hypothesized analogous blood specializations in heterothermic billfish, whose......The inverse relationship between temperature and hemoglobin-O2 affinity resulting from the exothermic nature of heme oxygenation favors O2 unloading from blood to warm, metabolically active tissues. However, this temperature sensitivity is maladaptive, and commonly countered in regional...... to allosterically modulating hemoglobin-O2 affinity, ATP diminishes its temperature sensitivity, reducing deleterious arterio-venous short-circuiting of oxygen in the cranial billfish heat exchangers. The mechanism underlying this reduction in oxygenation enthalpy differs fundamentally from that in tuna, supporting...

  7. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  8. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  9. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  10. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  11. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  12. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  13. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Di; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system....

  14. Accuracy of Blood Loss Measurement during Cesarean Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Doctorvaladan, Sahar V.; Jelks, Andrea T.; Hsieh, Eric W.; Thurer, Robert L.; Zakowski, Mark I.; Lagrew, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective?This study aims to compare the accuracy of visual, quantitative gravimetric, and colorimetric methods used to determine blood loss during cesarean delivery procedures employing a hemoglobin extraction assay as the reference standard. Study Design?In 50 patients having cesarean deliveries blood loss determined by assays of hemoglobin content on surgical sponges and in suction canisters was compared with obstetricians' visual estimates, a quantitative gravimetric method, and the blood...

  15. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    characteristic polymorphic variation within the Brazilian population, depending on the racial groups of each region. They have appeared under the form of hemoglobin variants or thalassemias, the variant types S and C and the alpha and beta thalassemias being more common, all of them in heterozygote form. During the year of 1999, blood samples from 506 individuals, with suspected anemia or that had already passed through hemoglobinopathies screening, were sent to the Hemoglobin Reference Center -- UNESP for diagnostic confirmation and submitted to electrophoresis proceedings, biochemical and cytological analyses in order to characterize the type of abnormal hemoglobins. The goal of the present study was to verify which abnormal hemoglobin types show greater diagnostic difficulty. The samples came from 24 cities in twelve states. The results showed that 354 (69.96% individuals presented abnormal hemoglobins, 30 (5.93% being Hb AS, 5 (0.98% being Hb AC, 76 (15.02% suggestive of heterozygote alpha thalassemia, 134 (26.48% suggestive of heterozygote beta thalassemia and 109 (21.54% with other forms of abnormal hemoglobin, including rare variants and different forms of thalassemias and variant hemoglobin interactions. It has been concluded that, despite the improved techniques currently available and a constant influx of capacitated personnel, the heterozygote form of thalassemias (210 individuals -- 41.50% is challenging to diagnose, followed in difficulty by rare variant characterization and interactive forms of hemoglobinopathies (109 individuals -- 21,54%, suggesting that the capacity for production of qualified professionals and information about these genetic changes in our population should be increased.

  16. Characterization of sulfur mustard induced structural modifications in human hemoglobin by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Verheij, E.R.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of tandem mass spectrometry to identify modified sites in human hemoglobin after in vitro exposure to bis(2- chloroethyl) sulfide (sulfur mustard). Globin isolated from human whole blood which had been exposed to sulfur mustard was degraded with trypsin, and the

  17. Direct sGC activation bypasses no scavenging reactions of intravascular free oxy-hemoglobin and limits vasoconstriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); D.M. Tabima (D. Marcela); P. Specht (Patricia); J. Tejero (Jesús); M.P. Champion (Michael); D.B. Kim-Shapiro (Daniel); J.G. Baust (John ); E.G. Mik (Egbert); M. Hildesheim (Mariana); J.-P. Stasch (Johannes-Peter); E.-M. Becker (Eva-Maria); H. Truebel (Hubert); M.T. Gladwin (Mark)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) provide a potential alternative to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Their clinical application has been limited by adverse effects, in large part thought to be mediated by the intravascular scavenging of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by

  18. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis is associated with a slight elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin (lab and chair side kit and that the clinical significance of this difference remains to be determined. This preliminary finding is consistent with earlier reports that chronic periodontitis is associated with elevated blood glucose in adults without diabetes and may increase one′s risk for type-2 diabetes.

  19. Development and validation of a noncontact spectroscopic device for hemoglobin estimation at point-of-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Probir Kumar; Pal, Sanchari; Polley, Nabarun; Aich, Rajarshi; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Halder, Animesh; Chakrabarti, Subhananda; Chakrabarti, Prantar; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Anemia severely and adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. Measuring hemoglobin with the minimal involvement of human and financial resources has always been challenging. We describe a translational spectroscopic technique for noncontact hemoglobin measurement at low-resource point-of-care settings in human subjects, independent of their skin color, age, and sex, by measuring the optical spectrum of the blood flowing in the vascular bed of the bulbar conjunctiva. We developed software on the LabVIEW platform for automatic data acquisition and interpretation by nonexperts. The device is calibrated by comparing the differential absorbance of light of wavelength 576 and 600 nm with the clinical hemoglobin level of the subject. Our proposed method is consistent with the results obtained using the current gold standard, the automated hematology analyzer. The proposed noncontact optical device for hemoglobin estimation is highly efficient, inexpensive, feasible, and extremely useful in low-resource point-of-care settings. The device output correlates with the different degrees of anemia with absolute and trending accuracy similar to those of widely used invasive methods. Moreover, the device can instantaneously transmit the generated report to a medical expert through e-mail, text messaging, or mobile apps.

  20. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  1. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds.

  3. Extreme Anemia (Hemoglobin 1.8 g/dL Secondary to Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Panse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 39-year-old G5P5 woman who presented to the emergency department with complaints of shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and excessive uterine bleeding for 14 days, with a heart rate of 123 and a blood pressure of 137/65. Menses had been heavy for several months. A hemoglobin of 1.8 g/dL was discovered. An ultrasound revealed an 11.8 cm fibroid uterus, and the patient was transfused with 6 units of blood and placed on oral contraceptive pills.

  4. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  5. SCREENING CORD BLOOD FOR HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES AND THALASSEMIA BY HPLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDIJS, FPL; VANDENBERG, GA; SCHERMER, JG; MUSKIET, FD; LANDMAN, H; MUSKIET, FAJ

    We evaluated the use of an HPLC method for screening hemoglobins in cord blood. We studied the genotype frequencies of the structural hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC and the synthesis variants alpha- and beta+-thalassemia in babies born on Curacao. During three months, 67.2% of all (748) newborns

  6. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  7. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations.

  8. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  9. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  10. Treatment of β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orn-uma Yanpanitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE, which is the most common form of β-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR or vitamin E (Vit-E, and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P<0.01 in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in β-thalassemia/HbE.

  11. Porphyromonas endodontalis binds, reduces and grows on human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M; Drake, D; Johnson, W; Cox, C D

    2001-08-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented, obligate anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium implicated as playing a major role in endodontic infections. We have previously shown that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin nucleus, preferably supplied as hemoglobin, as a growth supplement. The bacteria also actively transport free iron, although this activity does not support growth in the absence of a porphyrin source. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the binding and subsequent utilization of human hemoglobin by P. endodontalis. P. endodontalis binds hemoglobin and reduces the Fe(III) porphyrin, resulting in a steady accumulation of ferrous hemoglobin. Reduction of methemoglobin was similar to the extracellular reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium in the presence of oxidizable substrate. Turbidimetric and viable cell determinations showed that P. endodontalis grew when supplied only hemoglobin. Therefore, we conclude that hemoglobin appears to serve as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, and that these bacteria reduce extracellular compounds at the expense of oxidized substrates.

  12. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  13. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  14. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 2 pigs per replicate placed on concrete-floored pens. ... Results showed that pigs fed the control diets had comparable (p>0.05) packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cell counts (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin ...

  15. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  16. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Jin

    Full Text Available Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A, hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  17. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Clinical Course of Homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komvilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan

    2018-04-17

    Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital. Sixteen pediatric cases (5 males and 11 females) were diagnosed in utero (N=6) or postnatal (n=10). Eleven cases were diagnosed with homozygous Hb Constant Spring, 4 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with heterozygous Hb E, and 1 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with homozygous Hb E. Three cases were delivered preterm. Six patients had low birth weights. Clinical manifestations included fetal anemia in 6 cases, hepatomegaly in 1 case, hepatosplenomegaly in 2 cases, splenomegaly in 1 case. Twelve cases exhibited early neonatal jaundice, 9 of which required phototherapy. Six cases received red cell transfusions; 1 (3), >1 (3). After the first few months of life, almost all patients had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and an increased reticulocyte count with a wide red cell distribution (RDW), but no longer required red cell transfusion. At 1 to 2 years of age, some patients still had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and some had normocytic hypochromic anemia with Hb around 10 g/dL, increased reticulocyte count and wide RDW. Associated findings included hypothyroidism (2), congenital heart diseases (4), genitourinary abnormalities (3), gastrointestinal abnormalities (2), and developmental delay (1). Pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring developed severe anemia in utero and up to the age of 2 to 3 months postnatal, requiring blood transfusions. Subsequently, their anemia was mild with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly. Their Hb level was above 9 g/dL with hypochromic

  19. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vanni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects and age-matched controls.Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD (n = 20, iCJD (n = 11, sCJD (n = 23, gPrD (n = 30, and AD (n = 14 patients and age-matched controls (n = 30. RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis.Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level.Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue—together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease—seem to dictate the peculiar

  20. Hemoglobin polymorphism in Hampshire Down sheep herd/ Polimorfismo de hemoglobina em rebanho de ovinos Hampshire Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Manduca Trapp

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the types of hemoglobin in Hampshire Down crossbreed sheep, and verify that this locus is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There have been collected 46 blood samples of healthy Hampshire Down crossbreed sheep. These samples were used to separate the hemoglobin per electrophoresis. The electrophoresis of the hemoglobin revealed a slow band characterized as hemoglobin A (HbAA, a fast band characterized as hemoglobin B (HbBB and two bands in the heterozygous hemoglobin A and B (HbAB. The HbAB type was the most frequently one, followed by hemoglobin A (HbAA and B (HbBB. The genotypic frequency of individuals BB, AB and AA were 36,95; 54,35 and 8,70% respectively. The allelic frequency of A and B were respectively 35,87% and 64,13%.. The qui square test (?2 = 0.859 and p = 0.6509 confirmed that the tested locus is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os tipos de hemoglobinas em ovinos Hampshire Down e verificar se este locus encontra-se em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg. Foram coletadas 46 amostras de sangue de ovinos Hampshire Down, considerados clinicamente sadios. Estas amostras foram utilizadas para a separação das hemoglobinas por eletroforese. A eletroforese das hemoglobinas revelou uma banda lenta caracterizada como hemoglobina B (HbBB, uma banda rápida caracterizada como hemoglobina A (HbAA e duas bandas no heterozigoto para hemoglobinas A e B (HbAB. A variante HbAB foi a mais freqüentemente encontrada, seguida pela hemoglobina A (HbAA e B (HbBB. A freqüência genotípica dos indivíduos BB, AB e AA foram 36,95; 54,35 e 8,70% respectivamente. A freqüência alélica de A e B foram respectivamente 35,87% e 64,13%. Pelo teste do qui-quadrado realizado (?2 = 0,859 e p=0,6509 confirmou-se que o locus testado está em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg.

  1. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Silvia; Zattoni, Marco; Moda, Fabio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Haïk, Stéphane; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Ironside, James W; Carmona, Margarita; Ferrer, Isidre; Kovacs, Gabor G; Legname, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively) and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD) in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects and age-matched controls. Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD ( n = 20), iCJD ( n = 11), sCJD ( n = 23), gPrD ( n = 30), and AD ( n = 14) patients and age-matched controls ( n = 30). RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis. Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level. Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue)-together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease-seem to dictate the peculiar hemoglobin

  2. Extramedullary hematopoiesis and paraplegia in a patient with hemoglobin e-Beta thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M R; Habib, M S; Dhakal, G P; Khan, M R; Rahim, M A; Chowdhury, A J; Mahmud, T K

    2010-07-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in patients with various hematologic disorders involving a chronic increase in the production of red blood cells, and is often associated polycythemia vera and sickle cell anaemia, but is less common with thalassemia especially with hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. Spinal cord compression due to EMH is a extremely rare complication of thalassemia and may present with paraparesis or paraplegia with or without sensory impairment. Treatment options mostly include surgery and/or radiotherapy. Whereas cases presenting with paraplegia have been treated with either surgery or radiotherapy with equal frequency and efficacy, almost all reported cases with paraplegia have been treated with surgery with or without radiation therapy. We hereby report a case of hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia with paraplegia treated successfully with radiotherapy.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the α and β chains of bovine hemoglobin and globin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, W.

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobin was obtained from the blood of lowland black and white cattle with HbA phenotype. Water solutions of hemoglobin (Hb) or globin (Gl) in 20 mM KH 2 PO 4 were γ-irradiated with a dose of 2 Mrad, and the amino acid composition of α and β chains of control and irradiated Hb and Gl was analyzed. Quantitative differences were found between the radiation sensitivities of α and β chains of Hb and Gl. A sequence of radiation sensitivity of individual amino acids in α and β chains of Hb and Gl was determined. In the β chains, amino acid destruction was considerably higher than in α chains. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Tyr, Arg, Ser, Thr, Pro, and His residues were most destroyed or modified following irradiation

  4. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2-37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r(2) = 0.3, p HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure.

  5. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin has received much recent interest because the nitric oxide produced in this reaction may participate in blood flow regulation during hypoxia. The present study used spectral deconvolution to characterize the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit...... hemoglobin at different constant oxygen tensions that generate the full range of physiological relevant oxygen saturations. Carp is a hypoxia-tolerant species with very high hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and the high R-state character and low redox potential of the hemoglobin is hypothesized to promote...... NO generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction...

  6. Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Fátima da Silva Vieira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 221 binomials (mother-child enrolled in a breastfeeding support program, who were stratified into six groups according to the children's age group. The sample consisted of children born at term with normal weight, with no neonatal complications and whose mothers did not have anemia or infectious disease at the time of data collection. Interviews were carried out with the mothers, blood was collected by peripheral venipuncture from mothers and children, and children's anthropometric data were assessed. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the hemoglobin levels of mothers and children were calculated. Six multiple linear regression models were adjusted with regression coefficient estimates, considering as statistically significant associations with p ≤ 0.05. Results: The correlation coefficients of hemoglobin levels of mothers and children ranged from 0.253, at three months, to 0.601, at five months. The hemoglobin level of mothers was correlated with the hemoglobin level of their children at four months (r = 0.578 and at five months (r = 0.601. In the adjusted multiple linear regression, the regression coefficients were higher at four months (β = 1.134; p = 0.002 and at five months (β = 0.845; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These findings allow for the conclusion that there is a correlation between the hemoglobin of mothers and the hemoglobin of their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life.

  7. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  8. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower cut-off of 33% or hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of. 11 gram% was ... venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). Enugu ..... and emphasis was placed on the importance of good nutrition.

  9. Relationship between changes in hemoglobin glycosilated and improvement of body composition in patients with morbid obesity after tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Aragón, Tania; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cózar-Ibañez, Antonio; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Cambil-Martín, Jacobo; Jiménez Ríos, José Antonio; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2017-12-29

    The objective of our study is to analyze the possible relationship between changes in glycemic profile and body composition parameters in morbid obesity patients after tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy. A prospective observational cohort study with 69 patients was performed. The variables analyzed were body weight, blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and waist and hip circumference. An analysis of variance of repeated measurements (ANOVA) and a correlation analysis through the Pearson test were carried out. A significant reduction in weight (p<.001 after surgery) and in glycosylated hemoglobin (p<.036) and waist hip (p<.001) were found at 6 months after surgery. There was no significant difference in the rest of the variables studied. In correlation analysis, a significant positive correlation was found between the change in concentration of hemoglobin glycosylated and hip circumference (p=.047; r=0.237), the smaller the hip circumference, the lower the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin. Tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy is an effective technique for the treatment of morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reduction in the perimeter of hip is related to glycosylated hemoglobin reduction 6 months after intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Top-Down-Assisted Bottom-Up Method for Homologous Protein Sequencing: Hemoglobin from 33 Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Laskay, Ünige A.; Vilcins, Inger-Marie E.; Barbour, Alan G.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2015-11-01

    Ticks are vectors for disease transmission because they are indiscriminant in their feeding on multiple vertebrate hosts, transmitting pathogens between their hosts. Identifying the hosts on which ticks have fed is important for disease prevention and intervention. We have previously shown that hemoglobin (Hb) remnants from a host on which a tick fed can be used to reveal the host's identity. For the present research, blood was collected from 33 bird species that are common in the U.S. as hosts for ticks but that have unknown Hb sequences. A top-down-assisted bottom-up mass spectrometry approach with a customized searching database, based on variability in known bird hemoglobin sequences, has been devised to facilitate fast and complete sequencing of hemoglobin from birds with unknown sequences. These hemoglobin sequences will be added to a hemoglobin database and used for tick host identification. The general approach has the potential to sequence any set of homologous proteins completely in a rapid manner.

  11. HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRITE CHANGES DURING UNCOMPLICATED ANESTHESIA: GENERAL ANESTHESIA AND LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH NAGHIBI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite of vital role of blood and it"s components as an only curable treatment, it"s transfusion is accompanied by many complications. In the other way, the most important adverse effects of anemia is decrease in oxygen supply to the tissues. Therefore, it is essential to determine those patients need to blood transfusion and exact hemoglobine and hematocrite level which transfusion become necessary. Recent studies show that during general anesthesia due to vasodilation in the level of microcirculation and passage of many red blood cells from microcirculation there is a decreasing in hemoglobine level measured in peripheral veins which named plasma skimming. So, during sampling of hemoglobine and hematocrite from peripheral veins, there is a pseudodecrease in Hb and HCT levels. In this study we want to determine this decrease in Hb and HeT. Methods. Study was done in 182 patients with ASA 1 and 2 undergoing general or local anesthesia for cataract surgery. Duration of nill per os (NPO, preoperotive and intraoperative intravenous fluid administration were simillar in two groups. A sample of blood for preoperative evaluation and another one immediately after operation achevied and compared with each other. Results. There was not significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in two groups preoperotive. But postoperative, there was a significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in general anesthesia vs local anesthesia (P < 0.01. This decrease in Hb and HCT was orderly 0.91 ± 1.14 gr/dl for Hb and 2.862±3.6 percent for Hct. Discussion. In determining of Hb and HCT immediately after general anesthesia, there is some pseudo decrease due to plasma skimming that must be appreciated.

  12. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  13. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  14. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  15. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  16. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  17. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  18. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  1. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  2. Hemoglobin Expression in Nonerythroid Cells: Novel or Ubiquitous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarchana Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2. Red blood cells (RBCs contain maximum amount of Hb and because of their unique structure and plasticity they transport O2 to various tissues of the body at an optimal concentration. Recently, it has been reported that, apart from RBCs, Hb is also expressed by nonerythroid cells such as epithelial cells of different origin. The cells expressing Hb are from the tissues where maintenance of O2 homeostasis is of paramount importance. Hb expression has been observed in the epithelial cells from human tissues including lungs, neurons, retina, and endometrium. Our group has recently demonstrated that Hb is expressed by the cervicovaginal epithelial cells. We further showed that, apart from maintaining O2 homeostasis, Hb and the peptides derived from it play an indispensable role in the protection of vaginal epithelium by exhibiting antimicrobial activity. In this review, we discuss the significance of Hb expression in vaginal epithelial cells and its role in the recognition of pathogens thereby reducing the risk and/or severity of inflammation and/or infections and the possible mechanism by which Hb exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidative functions.

  3. Extracellular hemoglobin: the case of a friend turned foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Isaac K.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a highly conserved molecule present in all life forms and functionally tied to the complexity of aerobic organisms on earth in utilizing oxygen from the atmosphere and delivering to cells and tissues. This primary function sustains the energy requirements of cells and maintains cellular homeostasis. Decades of intensive research has presented a paradigm shift that shows how the molecule also functions to facilitate smooth oxygen delivery through the cardiovascular system for cellular bioenergetic homeostasis and signaling for cell function and defense. These roles are particularly highlighted in the binding of Hb to gaseous molecules carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), while also serving indirectly or directly as sources of these signaling molecules. The functional activities impacted by Hb outside of bioenergetics homeostasis, include fertilization, signaling functions, modulation of inflammatory responses for defense and cell viability. These activities are efficiently executed while Hb is sequestered safely within the confines of the red blood cell (rbc). Outside of rbc confines, Hb disaggregates and becomes a danger molecule to cell survival. In these perpectives, Hb function is broadly dichotomous, either a friend in its natural environment providing and facilitating the means for cell function or foe when dislocated from its habitat under stress or pathological condition disrupting cell function. The review presents insights into how this dichotomy in function manifests. PMID:25941490

  4. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S.; Panicker, Lata; Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2016-01-01

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  5. Hemoglobin detection using carbon dots as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-09-15

    Herein, we have described the application of high fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) without any surface modification as a simple and fast responding fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective determination of hemoglobin (Hb) in the presence of H2O2. Although Hb itself was able to quench the fluorescence of CDs, based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of the protein that affects both excitation and emission spectra of CDs, the presence of H2O2 resulted in further improvement of the sensitivity of Hb detection. The assay is based on the reaction of Hb with H2O2 that generates reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl (OH•) and superoxide (O2(•-)) radicals under heme degradation and/or iron release from Hb and the subsequent reaction of hydroxyl radicals, as strong oxidizing agents, with CDs resulting in high fluorescence quenching. The proposed probe was used for determination of Hb in concentration range of 1-100 nM with a detection limit of 0.4 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hb in human blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of glycated hemoglobin in patients with advanced liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousen, Theresa; Hegenbarth, Karin; Ille, Rottraut; Lipp, Rainer W.; Krause, Robert; Little, Randie R.; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) determination methods and to determine fructosamine in patients with chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis and in patients with chronic hepatitis treated with ribavirin. METHODS: HbA1c values were determined in 15 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis and in 20 patients with chronic hepatitis using the ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography and the immunoassay methods. Fructosamine was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium. RESULTS: Forty percent of patients with liver cirrhosis had HbA1c results below the non-diabetic reference range by at least one HbA1c method, while fructosamine results were either within the reference range or elevated. Twenty percent of patients with chronic hepatitis (hepatic fibrosis) had HbA1c results below the non -diabetic reference range by at least one HbA1c method. In patients with chronic hepatitis treated with ribavirin, 50% of HbA1c results were below the non-diabetic reference using at least one of the HbA1c methods. CONCLUSION: Only evaluated in context with all liver function parameters as well as a red blood count including reticulocytes, HbA 1c results should be used in patients with advanced liver disease. HbA 1c and fructosamine measurements should be used with caution when evaluating long-term glucose control in patients with hepatic cirrhosis or in patients with chronic hepatitis and ribavirin treatment. PMID:15259084

  7. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S. [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India); Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Panicker, Lata [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta [Bioinformatics Center, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Mukhopadhyaya, Rita [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@gmail.com [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  8. Predictors of postoperative hemoglobin drop after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrowski, Rafał; Jäger, Christoph; Forster, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) can be associated with significant bleeding. To identify factors influencing the postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop after LM. This is a retrospective, single-center study. We evaluated data of 150 consecutive patients undergoing LM due to intramural myomas between 2010 and 2015. The median age of the patients was 37 (23-53) years. The mean diameter of the largest myoma was 5.7 ±2.3 (1.5-12) cm. The mean surgical time was 83 ±38 (35-299) min. The median number of sutures was 3 (1-11). The mean postoperative Hb drop was 1.6 ±1.2 (0-6) g/dl, and the mean estimated blood loss was 261 ±159 (50-1700) ml. In the univariate analysis, the postoperative Hb drop correlated with the duration of surgery (p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma (p < 0.001), cumulative myoma weight (p < 0.001), and number of sutures (p < 0.001), but not with patients' age or number of intramural myomas. In the multivariable analysis, the surgical time ( β = 0.395, p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma ( β = 0.292, p = 0.03) and preoperative Hb concentration ( β = 0.299, p < 0.001) predicted the postoperative Hb change. Surgical time and dominant myoma diameter are independent predictors of the postoperative Hb drop after LM.

  9. Blood samples in the neutron beam; Blutproben im Neutronenstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  10. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  11. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  12. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  13. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, R A; Stratton, L P; Hawley, D K; Effron, K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-01-15

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F/sub 1/ offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of ..cap alpha..-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia similar to human ..cap alpha..-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with ..cap alpha..-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining ..beta..-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 ..beta..-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC ..beta..-chain gene.

  14. Impact of Pretransplantation Indices in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Knowledge of Center-Specific Outcome Data Is Pivotal before Making Index-Based Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törlén, Johan; Remberger, Mats; Le Blanc, Katarina; Ljungman, Per; Mattsson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is influenced by patient comorbidity, disease type, and status before treatment. We performed a retrospective study involving 521 consecutive adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients who underwent transplantation for hematological malignancy at our center from 2000 to 2012 to compare the predictive value of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) and the disease risk index (DRI) for overall survival and transplantation-related mortality. Patients in the highest HCT-CI risk group (HCT-CI score ≥3) had a lower 5-year overall survival rate (50%) than the low-risk group (63%; P 6 [n = 9]). Five-year overall survival in the highest DRI risk group was significantly poorer (44%) than in the low-risk group (63%; P indices failed to predict differences in transplantation-related mortality (HCT-CI, P = .54; DRI, P = .17). We conclude that HCT-CI and DRI were predictive of overall survival in our patient population. Even so, our data show that different patient groups may have different outcomes despite sharing the same index risk group and that indices should, therefore, be evaluated according to local data before clinical implementation at the single-center level. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation ( SO 2 ) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise. In extra-cerebral tissue, an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin ( HbR ) and a decrease in SO 2 were observed while only cerebral HbR increased at high intensity exercise. Results in extra-cerebral tissue are consistent with thermoregulatory mechanisms to dissipate excess heat through skin blood flow, while cerebral changes are in agreement with cerebral blood flow ( CBF ) redistribution mechanisms to meet oxygen demand in activated regions during exercise. No significant difference was observed in oxy- ( HbO 2 ) and total hemoglobin ( HbT ). In addition HbO 2 , HbR and HbT increased with subject's peak power output (equivalent to the maximum oxygen volume consumption; VO 2 peak) supporting previous observations of increased total mass of red blood cells in trained individuals. Our results also revealed known gender differences with higher hemoglobin in men. Our approach in quantifying both extra-cerebral and cerebral absolute hemoglobin during exercise may help to better interpret past and future continuous-wave NIRS studies that are prone to extra-cerebral contamination and allow a better understanding of acute cerebral changes due to physical exercise.

  17. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  18. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  19. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  20. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  1. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  2. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  3. Original Article Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    aid the surgeon in the African region estimate the expected blood loss after total hip replacement. We conducted a study to quantify the blood loss following total hip arthroplasty and to determine the factors .... Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) study: blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in ...

  4. Alternative to Blood Replacement in the Critically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolich, Deborah J; McCoy, Kelly

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews treatments and strategies that can be used to reduce, or as adjuncts to, blood transfusion to manage blood volumes in patients who are critically ill. Areas addressed include iatrogenic anemia, fluid management, pharmaceutical agents, hemostatic agents, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, and management of patients for whom blood is not an option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, PO2 50% and available O2 during the early post-natal fall in hemoglobin in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, P H; Halvorsen, S; Refsum, H E

    1982-09-01

    Erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, PO2 50%, whole blood hemoglobin and available O2, and fixed acid Bohr effect were studied during the first 10 days after birth in rapidly growing suckling rabbits. The post-natal fall in hemoglobin concentration was accompanied by a marked rise in erythrocyte 2,3-DPG and a gradual increase in PO2 50%. The rise in PO2 50% was sufficient to keep the available O2 of the blood unchanged throughout the observation period. The observations show that a 2,3-DPG mediated rise in PO2 50% very effectively contributes to maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation during the post-natal fall in hemoglobin. The rise in 2,3-DPG and and PO2 50% may be due to the ordinary hypoxia-induced shift to the right of the hemoglobin O2 dissociation curve, as observed under other circumstances when blood hemoglobin is rapidly reduced, but the very marked rise in 2,3-DPG and the very low delta PO2 50%/delta 2,3-DPG ratio suggest that the rise may as well be due to hypoxia independent, pre-programmed processes. The fixed acid Bohr effect was essentially the same in newborn and adult rabbits, and was uninfluenced by large variations in 2,3-DPG.

  6. Biochemistry Applied to Everyday Life: Chemical Equilibrium and the Transporting Function of the Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Echeverría Palacio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin is a blood protein which cantransport oxygen, a gas insoluble in water, todifferent organs where it is required for the properfunction; this protein also transports themetabolic products, CO2 and H+ for theirexcretion. This process depends on pH, the BPGconcentration, pO2 and pCO2. The cooperativebinding between hemoglobin and those compoundsand the conformational changes necessaryfor oxygen and CO2 uptake and release inthe specific place where they are required. Abruptchanges of atmospheric pressure associatedwith height and the exposure to other gases suchas CO present in vehicles and closed roomscould compromise the normal functioning of theorganism because their presence affects thetransport function of the hemoglobin. In thispaper, we will explain everyday phenomenarelated to the transport of gases through hemoglobinas a demonstration that a knowledge ofbiochemistry begins to be useful from now on to understand everyday situations and give usan expectation of their value to comprehendmany health problems that would be faced inthe future

  7. Bloodstains on Leather: Examination of False Negatives in Presumptive Test and Human Hemoglobin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Verdú, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Presumptive tests for blood are very simple and sensitive tests used in the search for evidence. They also provide initial information on the nature of stains. A second test can confirm their nature. However, these tests can present false-negative results for different reasons. Some of those reasons have been studied, while others, those caused by the substrate material that contains the stain, are less well known. This work studies the effect of one component of a leather substrate-quebracho extract-on presumptive and human hemoglobin blood tests. Assays were performed using samples of blood dilutions contaminated with quebracho extract and others formed on a substrate containing the contaminant. Results show an undoubted interference that causes false negatives and even visible to the naked eye stains and also indicate that some tests (phenolphthalein) are more affected than others. Examiners should be taken into account when working on this kind of substrates. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  9. Clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Peng

    2017-07-01

    (OR=0261, P<005, aspartate aminotransferase (OR=0.987, P<0.05, triglyceride (OR=1.690, P<0.05, and uric acid (OR=1006, P<005 were independent influencing factors for hepatocyte steatosis in CHB patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.811-0.893, P<0.01 for BMI, 0.701 (95%CI: 0.662-0.740, P<001 for low-density lipoprotein, 0.694 (95%CI: 0.653-0.734, P<0.01 for triglyceride, 0.689 (95%CI: 0.650-0.728, P<001 for total cholesterol, 0.675 (95%CI: 0.637-0.714, P<0.01 for hemoglobin, 0.654 (95%CI: 0.617-0.691, P<0.01 for age, 0.619 (95%CI: 0.575-0.662, P<0.01 for uric acid, and 0.612 (95%CI: 0.569-0655, P<0.01 for blood glucose. ConclusionCHB patients with a high hemoglobin level tend to develop hepatocyte steatosis, and hemoglobin may be an independent influencing factor for hepatocyte steatosis in CHB patients. A high hemoglobin level has a certain value in predicting hepatocyte steatosis and awaits further research.

  10. Effects of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) during and post-CPR in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M S; Fan, C; Tran, H; Zhao, H; Zhou, L

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) can produce improved resuscitation during cardiac arrest. DCLHb, a derivative of human hemoglobin, has previously been demonstrated to produce a vasopressor response that is associated with increased blood flow to vital organs. In addition, it is an oxygen carrier. These effects may be beneficial to extreme low flow states, such as that during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Experimental cardiac arrest and CPR were carried out in 32 anesthetized immature pigs. In each animal, ventricular fibrillation was induced for 5 min, followed by 10 min of standard CPR with a pneumatic device and room air ventilation. High (15 ml/kg) and low (5 ml/kg) doses of DCLHb or equivalent volume of normal saline were infused at the beginning of CPR in a random and blind manner. Cardiac output, organ blood flow, aortic pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, blood gases, and lactate concentrations were obtained before and during CPR. Following the 10-min CPR, the animals were defibrillated and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) determined. DCLHb treatment achieved 75% ROSC compared with 25% in the saline group (p CPR significantly improves ROSC. This is most likely related to its improvement in coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen delivery.

  11. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  12. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  13. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  14. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  15. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  17. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  18. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  19. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  20. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  1. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  2. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into Hemoglobin-catalyzed Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation and the Fate of Polysulfide Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Yadav, Pramod K.; An, Sojin; Seravalli, Javier; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med); (UNL)

    2017-02-17

    Hydrogen sulfide is a cardioprotective signaling molecule but is toxic at elevated concentrations. Red blood cells can synthesize H2S but, lacking organelles, cannot dispose of H2S via the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. We have recently shown that at high sulfide concentrations, ferric hemoglobin oxidizes H2S to a mixture of thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides in which the latter species predominates. Here, we report the crystal structure of human hemoglobin containing low spin ferric sulfide, the first intermediate in heme-catalyzed sulfide oxidation. The structure provides molecular insights into why sulfide is susceptible to oxidation in human hemoglobin but is stabilized against it in HbI, a specialized sulfide-carrying hemoglobin from a mollusk adapted to life in a sulfide-rich environment. We have also captured a second sulfide bound at a postulated ligand entry/exit site in the α-subunit of hemoglobin, which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first direct evidence for this site being used to access the heme iron. Hydrodisulfide, a postulated intermediate at the junction between thiosulfate and polysulfide formation, coordinates ferric hemoglobin and, in the presence of air, generated thiosulfate. At low sulfide/heme iron ratios, the product distribution between thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides was approximately equal. The iron-bound polysulfides were unstable at physiological glutathione concentrations and were reduced with concomitant formation of glutathione persulfide, glutathione disulfide, and H2S. Hence, although polysulfides are unlikely to be stable in the reducing intracellular milieu, glutathione persulfide could serve as a persulfide donor for protein persulfidation, a posttranslational modification by which H2S is postulated to signal.

  3. A low-hemolysis blood aspirator conserves blood during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, C T; Blackshear, P L

    1995-01-01

    Blood damage caused by traditional vacuum-operated suction tubes, particularly when air is aspirated along with the blood, usually exceeds damage from all other components. In addition to platelet injury, there is a high degree of hemolysis, which leads to high plasma hemoglobin levels and reduces the number of red blood cells available for reinfusion during cases of blood conservation, such as autologous transfusion and cardiac bypass. This work was undertaken to minimize hemolysis, and the accompanying platelet destruction, during aspiration, with the design of a jet-driven aspirator that separates and removes air from blood immediately within the suction tip. The jet-driven aspirator can suction blood at a range of rates from 100 to at least 700 ml/min, separates and removes 80-100% of aspirated air, operates at any orientation, and generates subatmospheric pressures on the order of only 1 inch H2O. In-vitro hemolysis testing showed a significant reduction in average plasma hemoglobin release, from 19.4 mg/dl to 1.8 mg/dl, when air was removed during blood aspiration. In comparative testing with a conventional vacuum suction tube, the jet-driven aspirator showed significantly less hemolysis than the conventional aspirator at comparable rates of air and blood aspiration.

  4. Blood conservation operations in pediatric cardiac patients: a paradigm shift of blood use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Weatherred, Ted; Qadeer, Ahsan; Rosenberg, Carol Ann; Hudacko, Andrea; Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is associated with high morbidity in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects and outcomes of blood conservation for our pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 168 pediatric patients who underwent biventricular (BV) and univentricular (UV) cardiac operations from 2006 to 2010. Patients were grouped into no blood conservation (n = 86 [BV = 74, UV = 12]) and blood conservation (n = 82 [BV = 68, UV = 14]) cohorts. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, and preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels in the BV groups. Even though the blood conservation group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (p conservation group, there were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, CPB and cross-clamp times, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and red blood cell transfusions despite lower intraoperative hemoglobin levels (p conservation group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between intraoperative blood transfusion and increased inotropic score, longer duration on the ventilator, and increased length of hospitalization. Blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations is associated with fewer ventilator days, lower inotropic scores, and shorter lengths of stay. These findings, in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular hemoglobin polarizes the macrophage proteome toward Hb-clearance, enhanced antioxidant capacity and suppressed HLA class 2 expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaempfer Theresa; Duerst Elena; Gehrig Peter; Roschitzki Bernd; Rutishauser Dorothea; Grossmann Jonas; Schoedon Gabriele; Vallelian Florence; Schaer Dominik J

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes and macrophages are the only cell population with a proven hemoglobin (Hb) clearance capacity through the CD163 scavenger receptor pathway. Hb detoxification and related adaptive cellular responses are assumed to be essential processes to maintaining tissue homeostasis and promoting wound healing in injured tissues. Using a dual platform mass spectrometry analysis with MALDI TOF/TOF and LTQ Orbitrap instruments combined with isobaric tag for relative and absolute qu...

  6. [Flavonoid oxidation kinetics in aqueous and aqueous organic media in the presence of peroxidase, tyrosynase, and hemoglobin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukova, M E; Tokareva, A I; Buslova, T S; Malinina, L I; Veselova, I A; Shekhovtsova, T N

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation reactions of flavonoids, quercetin, dihydroquercetin, and epicatechin has been studied in the presence of biocatalysts of different natures: horseradish peroxidase, mushroom tyrosinase, and hemoglobin from bull blood. Comparison of the kinetic parameters of the oxidation reaction showed that peroxidase appeared to be the most effective biocatalyst in these processes. The specificity of the enzyme for quercetin increased with increasing the polarity of the solvent in a series of ethanol–acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide.

  7. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  8. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.

  9. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  10. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    28. Li et al used single- walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and 1-hexyl-3- ... Electrochemistry of dextran/hemoglobin/carbon ionic liquid electrode. 273. 2.4 Procedures ..... used for the construction of H2O2 biosensor. Acknowledgement.

  11. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...

  12. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  13. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça; Lilian Ferreira Muniz; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels cons...

  15. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  16. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  17. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  19. Ability of the Masimo pulse CO-Oximeter to detect changes in hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Douglas A; Forkin, Katherine T; Durieux, Marcel E; Thiele, Robert H

    2012-04-01

    The decision to administer blood products is complex and multifactorial. Accurate assessment of the concentration of hemoglobin [Hgb] is a key component of this evaluation. Recently a noninvasive method of continuously measuring hemoglobin (SpHb) has become available with multi-wavelength Pulse CO-Oximetry. The accuracy of this device is well documented, but the trending ability of this monitor has not been previously described. Twenty patients undergoing major thoracic and lumbar spine surgery were recruited. All patients received radial arterial lines. On the contralateral index finger, a R1 25 sensor (Rev E) was applied and connected to a Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter (both Masimo Corp, Irvine, CA). Blood samples were drawn intermittently at the anesthesia provider's discretion and were analyzed by the operating room satellite laboratory CO-Oximeter. The value of Hgb and SpHb at that time point was compared. Trend analysis was performed by the four quadrant plot technique, testing directionality of change, and Critchley's polar plot method testing both directionality and magnitude of the change in values. Eighty-eight samples recorded at times of sufficient signal quality were available for analysis. Four quadrant plot analysis revealed 94% of data within the quadrants associated with the correct direction change, and 90% of data points lay within the analysis bounds proposed by Critchley. Pulse CO-Oximetry offers an acceptable trend monitor in patients undergoing major spine surgery. Future work should explore the ability of this device to detect large changes in hemoglobin, as well as its applicability in additional surgical and non-surgical patient populations.

  20. Radioimmunological determination of hemoglobin Asub(1c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Cerami, A.; Koenig, R.J.; Walsh, P.K.P.

    1979-01-01

    The antibodies fighting human haemaglobin A sub(1c) to diagnose diabetes is obtained by immunisation of cats, goats or sheep. The acquisition of antigen antibody complexes in a blood sample is done by radioimmunological determination using antigen labelled with I 125 (several examples). (DG) [de

  1. Perbedaan Kadar Hemoglobin dan Hematokrit Bayi Baru Lahir Akibat Perbedaan Waktu Penjepitan Tali Pusat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriah Arma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBayi baru lahir memiliki 80 ml darah dari plasenta pada 1 menit setelah kelahiran dan 100 ml pada 3 menit setelah lahir, volume ini akan memasok 40-50 mg/kg ekstra besi untuk memiliki 75 mg/kg besi tubuh bayi yang cukup bulan yang dapat mencegah kekurangan zat besi pada tahun pertama kehidupan. Oleh karena itu pemotongan tali pusat yang terlalu cepat setelah persalinan akan mengurangi kandungan besi sekitar 15-30%, sedangkan bila ditunda 3 menit dapat menambah volume sel darah merah sekitar 58%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuktikan adanya perbedaan kadar Hb (hemoglobin dan Ht (hematokrit akibat perbedaan waktu penjepitan tali pusat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di tempat Bidan Praktek Mandiri Kota Padang. Jenis penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only controll group design. Pengambilan sampel secara consecutive sampling sampai tercapai jumlah 36 bayi yang terbagi atas 18 bayi baru lahir pada tiap kelompok. Data dianalisis dengan uji t. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar Hb dan Ht pada kelompok penjepitan 3 menit setelah lahir lebih tinggi daripada penjepitan 1 menit. Terdapat perbedaan kadar Hb yang bermakna antara kelompok penjepitan 3 menit setelah lahir daripada 1 menit dengan nilai P=0,004.  Ada terdapat perbedaan Ht yang bermakna antara kelompok penjepitan 3 menit dan 1 menit dengan nilai P=0,001. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialah kadar Hb dan Ht lebih baik pada penjepitan tali pusat ditunda 3 menit setelah lahir dibandingkan dengan penjepitan 1 menit setelah lahir.Kata kunci: hemoglobin, hematokrit, penjepitan tali pusat AbstractThe newborns contain 80 ml of blood from the placenta in 1 minute after birth and 100 ml in 3 minute after birth. This volume supply 40 to 50 mg/kg of extra iron to have 75 mg/kg of body iron baby full-term that can prevent iron deficiency in the first year of life. Therefore, cutting the umbilical cord too soon after birth will reduce the iron of content about 15 to 30%, whereas when

  2. Glycosylated hemoglobin as a forecast factor of progressing of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva N.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to propose a mathematical model for prediction of development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus by determining the level of glycosylated hemoglobin - as a factor in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. A survey of 136 patients with type 1 diabetes was performed in the endocrinology department of the OSH «Clinic of the Medical Academy», Dnipro in 2016-2017. Clinical laboratory examination included: determination of the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, level of blood creatinine, level of albuminuria. The GFR was calculated by the formula CKD-EPI. The obtained results of the study, using methods of correlation and regression analysis, show a clear correlation between the GFR score in patients with diabetes mellitus and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin. Statistical methods of analysis have shown that the level of glycosylated hemoglobin can be considered as an early predictor of development of diabetic nephropathy. The mathematical equation of prognosis for the onset of diabetic nephropathy can be used to determine the prognosis for the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus patients in clinical practice for the timely inclusion of patients with a high prognostic risk in a group requiring more stringent glycemic control.

  3. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  4. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  5. A theoretical model for the effects of reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity on tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Hsu, Richard; Lin, P.-S.; Venitz, Jurgen; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for oxygen delivery to tumors, and to use the model to simulate the effects of changing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen on tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Hemoglobin affinity is expressed in terms of P 50 , the partial pressure of oxygen (Po 2 ) at half saturation. Effects of changing P 50 on arterial Po 2 are predicted using an effective vessel approach to describe diffusive oxygen transport in the lungs, assuming fixed systemic oxygen demand and fixed blood flow rate. The decline in oxygen content of blood as it flows through normal tissue before entering the tumor region is assumed fixed. The hypoxic fraction of the tumor region is predicted using a three-dimensional simulation of diffusion from a network of vessels whose geometry is derived from observations of tumor microvasculature in the rat. Results: In air-breathing rats, predicted hypoxic fraction decreases with moderate increases in P 50 , but increases with further increases of P 50 , in agreement with previous experimental results. In rats breathing hyperoxic gases, and in humans breathing either normoxic or hyperoxic gases, increased P 50 is predicted to improve tumor oxygenation. Conclusions: The results support the administration of synthetic agents to increase P 50 during radiation treatment of tumors

  6. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  7. Distribution of hemoglobin phenotypes in four different districts of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Casseb, A; Krauze, A; Lafontaine, R M; Tada, M S; Silva, W A; Simões, A L; Engracia, V

    2008-10-01

    Hemoglobin profile studies have been carried out in four samples from different districts of Porto Velho (Rondônia State) in the western Amazonian region of Brazil: Candelária, Bate Estaca, Hemeron (at the State Blood Bank), and São Carlos. Samples from 337 unrelated individuals were collected during medical and paramedical team visits by professionals from the Instituto de Pesquisa em Patologia Tropical and the Centro de Pesquisa em Patologias Tropicais (both research institutes in tropical diseases). The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of alleles in the hemoglobin system, mainly alleles HB*A, *S, and *E. The overall phenotype frequencies were HB A,S = 0.025, HB A,E = 0.006, and HB A,A = 0.969. Samples from the blood bank subjects and samples from the homogeneous areas of São Carlos and Candelária plus Bate Estaca have a chi-square of heterogeneity of 6.383 (p = 0.041) and 8.406 (p = 0.015), respectively. The allele frequencies (HB*A = 0.984, HB*S = 0.012, and HB*E = 0.003) do not significantly differ from frequencies found in other Brazilian regions.

  8. Quantification of surgical blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcel H; Ingvertsen, Britt T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jensen, Asger L; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-06-01

    To compare gravimetric and colorimetric methods of quantifying surgical blood loss, and to determine if there is a correlation between preoperative hemostatic tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time [BMBT] and intraoperative blood loss). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=15) admitted for cutaneous tumor excision, orthopedic procedure, or exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative blood loss was quantified by measuring irrigation fluid and weighing surgical sponges used for blood and fluid collection during surgery. Results of gravimetric measurements were then correlated to blood loss quantified using spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) content. Hemostatic variables including BMBT were measured before surgery and compared with the calculated amount of blood loss. Blood loss quantified by gravimetric measurement showed a significant correlation with colorimetric determination of Hb content in surgical sponges and collected irrigation fluid (r=0.93, P<.0001). BMBT correlated weakly but significantly with intraoperative blood loss (r=0.56, P<.05). Quantifying intraoperative blood loss using spectrophotometric Hb analysis accurately assessed the amount of blood loss; however, it is a time-consuming procedure, primarily applicable as a research tool. Gravimetric evaluation of intraoperative blood loss was found to be an accurate method, which can be recommended for use in a clinical setting. Estimation of blood loss using a gravimetric method is accurate and applicable in the clinical setting and provides surgeons with a simple and objective tool to evaluate intraoperative blood loss.

  9. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in erythrocytes exposed to neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Katarzyna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Buczkowski, Mateusz; Fornal, Maria; Pohorecki, Władysław; Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Józef; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2012-01-01

    We studied radiation effects on the stability of various states of hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBC) irradiated with a very low dose of neutron rays, 50 μGy. We investigated RBCs isolated from blood of healthy donors. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor different forms of Hb. Our results show, for the first time, that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) are two Hb forms sensitive to such a low neutron radiation. Both Hbs change into a new Hb form (Hb irr ). Additionally, OxyHb transfers into HbOH/H 2 O, which under our experimental conditions is resistant to the action of neutron rays.

  10. Propanil-induced methemoglobinemia and hemoglobin binding in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, D.C.; McRae, T.A.; Hinson, J.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-09-15

    Administration of (ring-U-14C)propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip) increased the formation of methemoglobin at the two highest doses. Following a propanil dose of 100 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 5% by 1.5 hr and declined to normal levels (approximately 2.5%) by 12 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 50 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Following a propanil dose of 300 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 24% by 4.5 hr, and declined to a level of 5% by 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 425 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding was also detected at the lowest propanil dose (10 pmol/mg protein) even though methemoglobin formation was not observed. HPLC analysis of alkaline-treated hemoglobin from propanil-treated rats indicated the presence of one radiolabeled compound with the same HPLC retention time as 3,4-dichloraniline. These data are consistent with the concept that propanil is converted to N-hydroxy-3,4-dichloroaniline in the liver. Subsequently, this metabolite enters the erythrocyte and is oxidized by hemoglobin to 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene with concomitant conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. The 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene binds to cysteine residues on hemoglobin as the corresponding sulfinic acid amide adduct. These data suggest that human exposure to propanil may be monitored in the absence of observable toxicity by the analysis of propanil metabolites bound to hemoglobin.

  11. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  12. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  13. Changes in blood values in elite cyclist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J S; Belhage, B; Damsgaard, R

    2009-01-01

    samples were obtained from 28 elite, male cyclists. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and % reticulocytes. Seventy-six percent of all samples were collected out-of-competition (OOC). From December 2006 to September 2007, the average Hct and [Hb] decreased by 4...

  14. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  15. Hemoglobin Level to Facilitate Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass without Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Won Yong; Ko, Ho Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Jeong, Jae Han

    2014-08-01

    Conservation of blood during cardiac surgery is important because of the shortage of donor blood, risks associated with transfusion, and the costs of allogeneic blood products. This retrospective study explored the feasibility of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) without transfusion. One hundred and two consecutive patients underwent OPCAB from January 2007 to June 2012 at Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Excluding 10 chronic renal failures patients, 102 patients were enrolled. Their characteristics, clinical data, and laboratory data were analyzed. We investigated the success rate of OPCAB without transfusion according to pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb), and the cutoff point of the Hb level and the risk factors for transfusion. We implemented multidisciplinary blood-saving protocols. The overall operative mortality and the success rate of OPCAB without transfusion were 2.9% (3/102) and 73.5% (75/102). The success rates in patients with Hb70 years, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, preoperative Hb and creatinine levels, and operation time. The events precipitating the need for transfusion were low Hb level in 9 patients and hypotension or excessive bleeding in 18 patients. The preoperative Hb level of >11 facilitates OPCAB without transfusion. These results suggest that transfusion-free OPCAB can be performed by modifying the risk factors and correctable causes of transfusion and improving various blood salvage methods.

  16. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  17. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  18. Point of care hematocrit and hemoglobin in cardiac surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerard J; Browne, Joe

    2007-05-01

    The use of point-of-care blood gas analyzers in cardiac surgery has been on the increase over the past decade. The availability of these analyzers in the operating room and post-operative intensive care units eliminates the time delays to transport samples to the main laboratory and reduces the amount of blood sampled to measure such parameters as electrolytes, blood gases, lactates, glucose and hemoglobin/hematocrit. Point-of-care analyzers also lead to faster and more reliable clinical decisions while the patient is still on the heart lung machine. Point-of-care devices were designed to provide safe, appropriate and consistent care of those patients in need of rapid acid/base balance and electrolyte management in the clinical setting. As a result, clinicians rely on their values to make decisions regarding ventilation, acid/base management, transfusion and glucose management. Therefore, accuracy and reliability are an absolute must for these bedside analyzers in both the cardiac operating room and the post-op intensive care units. Clinicians have a choice of two types of technology to measure hemoglobin/hematocrit during bypass, which subsequently determines their patient's level of hemodilution, as well as their transfusion threshold. All modern point-of-care blood gas analyzers measure hematocrit using a technology called conductivity, while other similar devices measure hemoglobin using a technology called co-oximetry. The two methods are analyzed and compared in this review. The literature indicates that using conductivity to measure hematocrit during and after cardiac surgery could produce inaccurate results when hematocrits are less than 30%, and, therefore, result in unnecessary homologous red cell transfusions in some patients. These inaccuracies are influenced by several factors that are common and unique to cardiopulmonary bypass, and will also be reviewed here. It appears that the only accurate, consistent and reliable method to determine hemodilution

  19. Hemoglobin binding of aromatic amines: molecular dosimetry and quantitative structure-activity relationships for N-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, G

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic amines are important intermediates in industrial manufacturing. N-Oxidation to N-hydroxyarylamines is a key step in determining the genotoxic properties of aromatic amines. N-Hydroxyarylamines can form adducts with DNA, with tissue proteins, and with the blood proteins albumin and hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. The determination of hemoglobin adducts is a useful tool for biomonitoring exposed populations. We have established the hemoglobin binding index (HBI) [(mmole compound/mole hemoglobin)/(mmole compound/kg body weight)] of several aromatic amines in female Wistar rats. Including the values from other researchers obtained in the same rat strain, the logarithm of hemoglobin binding (logHBI) was plotted against the following parameters: the sum of the Hammett constants(sigma sigma = sigma p + sigma m), pKa, logP (octanol/water), the half-wave oxidation potential (E1/2), and the electronic descriptors of the amines and their corresponding nitrenium ions obtained by semi-empirical calculations (MNDO, AMI, and PM3), such as atomic charge densities, energies of the highest occupied molecular orbit and lowest occupied molecular orbit and their coefficients, the bond order of C-N, the dipole moments, and the reaction enthalpy [MNDOHF, AM1HF or PM3HF = Hf(nitrenium) - Hf(amine)]. The correlation coefficients were determined from the plots of all parameters against log HBI for all amines by means of linear regression analysis. The amines were classified in three groups: group 1, all parasubstituted amines (maximum, n = 9); group 2, all amines with halogens (maximun, n = 11); and group 3, all amines with alkyl groups (maximum, n = 13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8319626

  20. Lower Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated with Retinal Ischemia and the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traveset, Alicia; Rubinat, Esther; Ortega, Emilio; Alcubierre, Nuria; Vazquez, Beatriz; Hernández, Marta; Jurjo, Carmen; Espinet, Ramon; Ezpeleta, Juan Antonio; Mauricio, Didac

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the association of blood oxygen-transport capacity variables with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal ischemia, and macular oedema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Cross-sectional, case-control study (N = 312) with T2DM: 153 individuals with DR and 159 individuals with no DR. Participants were classified according to the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Hematological variables were collected by standardized methods. Three logistic models were adjusted to ascertain the association between hematologic variables with the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Results. Individuals with severe DR showed significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte levels compared with those with mild disease and in individuals with retinal ischemia and macular oedema compared with those without these disorders. Hemoglobin was the only factor that showed a significant inverse association with the severity of DR [beta-coefficient = -0.52, P value = 0.003] and retinal ischemia [beta-coefficient = -0.49, P value = 0.001]. Lower erythrocyte level showed a marginally significant association with macular oedema [beta-coefficient = -0.86, P value = 0.055]. Conclusions. In patients with DR, low blood oxygen-transport capacity was associated with more severe DR and the presence of retinal ischemia. Low hemoglobin levels may have a key role in the development and progression of DR.

  1. Lower Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated with Retinal Ischemia and the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traveset, Alicia; Rubinat, Esther; Ortega, Emilio; Alcubierre, Nuria; Vazquez, Beatriz; Hernández, Marta; Jurjo, Carmen; Espinet, Ramon; Ezpeleta, Juan Antonio; Mauricio, Didac

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the association of blood oxygen-transport capacity variables with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal ischemia, and macular oedema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Cross-sectional, case-control study (N = 312) with T2DM: 153 individuals with DR and 159 individuals with no DR. Participants were classified according to the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Hematological variables were collected by standardized methods. Three logistic models were adjusted to ascertain the association between hematologic variables with the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Results. Individuals with severe DR showed significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte levels compared with those with mild disease and in individuals with retinal ischemia and macular oedema compared with those without these disorders. Hemoglobin was the only factor that showed a significant inverse association with the severity of DR [beta-coefficient = −0.52, P value = 0.003] and retinal ischemia [beta-coefficient = −0.49, P value = 0.001]. Lower erythrocyte level showed a marginally significant association with macular oedema [beta-coefficient = −0.86, P value = 0.055]. Conclusions. In patients with DR, low blood oxygen-transport capacity was associated with more severe DR and the presence of retinal ischemia. Low hemoglobin levels may have a key role in the development and progression of DR. PMID:27200379

  2. The effect of oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients on hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin response among nonpregnant Cambodian women of reproductive age: a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Barker, Mikaela K; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Houghton, Lisa A; Prak, Sophonneary; Hou, Kroeun; Chai, Tze Lin; Stormer, Ame; Ly, Sokhoing; Devenish, Robyn; Oberkanins, Christian; Pühringer, Helene; Harding, Kimberly B; De-Regil, Luz M; Kraemer, Klaus; Green, Tim J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of anemia among nonpregnant Cambodian women, current reports suggest that iron deficiency (ID) prevalence is low. If true, iron supplementation will not be an effective anemia reduction strategy. Objective: We measured the effect of daily oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients (MMNs) on hemoglobin concentration in nonpregnant Cambodian women screened as anemic. Design: In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized trial, nonpregnant women (aged 18-45 y) with hemoglobin concentrations ≤117 g/L (capillary blood) were recruited from 26 villages in Kampong Chhnang province and randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of iron (60 mg; Fe group), MMNs (14 other micronutrients; MMN group), iron plus MMNs (Fe+MMN group), or placebo capsules. A 2 × 2 factorial intention-to-treat analysis with the use of a generalized mixed-effects model was used to assess the effects of iron and MMNs and the interaction between these factors. Results: In July 2015, 809 women were recruited and 760 (94%) completed the trial. Baseline anemia prevalence was 58% (venous blood). Mean (95% CI) hemoglobin concentrations at 12 wk in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups were 121 (120, 121), 116 (116, 117), 123 (122, 123), and 116 (116, 117) g/L, with no iron × MMN interaction ( P = 0.66). Mean (95% CI) increases in hemoglobin were 5.6 g/L (3.8, 7.4 g/L) ( P < 0.001) among women who received iron ( n = 407) and 1.2 g/L (-0.6, 3.0 g/L) ( P = 0.18) among women who received MMNs ( n = 407). The predicted proportions (95% CIs) of women with a hemoglobin response (≥10 g/L at 12 wk) were 19% (14%, 24%), 9% (5%, 12%), 30% (24%, 35%), and 5% (2%, 9%) in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusions: Daily iron supplementation for 12 wk increased hemoglobin in nonpregnant Cambodian women; however, MMNs did not confer additional significant benefit. Overall, ∼24% of women who received iron responded after 12 wk; even fewer would be

  3. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  4. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  5. Fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin concentrations of healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is associated with loss of blood monthly in women of reproductive age. In some women this physiological phenomenon is also associated with some complaints such as menstrual pain, vomiting, and tiredness. We investigated the fasting blood glucose concentration and hemoglobin concentration before and ...

  6. A retrospective analysis of blood gases with two different insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of blood gases with two different insulin infusion protocols in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. ... In this study, we aimed to look into the effect of glycemic control on arterial blood gas parameters, serum electrolytes, and hemoglobin (Hb). Materials and Methods: We collected data from ...

  7. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  8. An Atomistic View on Human Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide Migration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. Fátima; Guallar, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been devoted to obtaining a detailed atomistic knowledge of the human hemoglobin mechanism. Despite this impressive research, to date, the ligand diffusion processes remain unclear and controversial. Using recently developed computational techniques, PELE, we are capable of addressing the ligand migration processes. First, the methodology was tested on myoglobin's CO migration, and the results were compared with the wealth of theoretical and experimental studies. Then, we explored both hemoglobin tense and relaxed states and identified the differences between the α-and β-subunits. Our results indicate that the proximal site, equivalent to the Xe1 cavity in myoglobin, is never visited. Furthermore, strategically positioned residues alter the diffusion processes within hemoglobin's subunits and suggest that multiple pathways exist, especially diversified in the α-globins. A significant dependency of the ligand dynamics on the tertiary structure is also observed. PMID:22385860

  9. FET immunosensor for hemoglobin A1c using a gold nanofilm grown by a seed-mediated technique and covered with mixed self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Q.; Bian, C.; Tong, J.; Sun, J.; Zhang, H.; Xia, S.

    2012-01-01

    A micro FET-based immunosensor was developed for the determination of hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c). The HbA1c/hemoglobin ratio is an important index in diabetes control. The sensor was fabricated by Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor (CMOS) and Micro Electronic Mechanical System (MEMS) techniques. The antibodies were immobilized via mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold nanofilm. The nanofilm was deposited on a gold electrode by seed-mediated growth and gave a uniform and well distributed coverage. Nonspecific sites and interferences by noise were eliminated by covering the AuNPs with mixed SAMs. Compared to the immunosensor fabricated via the mixed SAMs method without gold nanofilm, the immunosensor displays a more than 2-fold sensitivity. The immunosensor is capable of detecting HbA1c and hemoglobin in hemolyzed and diluted whole blood, and results showed good agreement with the established clinical method. (author)

  10. Preoperative Anemia in Cardiac Operation: Does Hemoglobin Tell the Whole Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Mick, Stephanie L; McCrae, Keith R; Houghtaling, Penny L; Sabik, Joseph F; Blackstone, Eugene H; Koch, Colleen G

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative anemia, defined by hemoglobin level, is associated with elevated risk after cardiac operation. Better understanding of anemia requires characterization beyond this. This investigation focuses on red cell size and its association with patient characteristics and outcomes after cardiac operation. From January 2010 to January 2014, 10,589 patients underwent elective cardiac operations at Cleveland Clinic. Anemia was characterized as normocytic, microcytic, or macrocytic based on mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Models for hospital complications were developed using multivariable logistic regression. Other outcomes were postoperative transfusion and intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative hospital lengths of stay. A total of 2,715 patients (26%) were anemic. Of these, 2,365 (87%) had normocytic, 219 (8.1%) microcytic, and 131 (4.8%) macrocytic anemia. Non-anemic patients (n = 2,041, 26%) received transfusions compared with 1,553 (66%) normocytic, 148 (68%) microcytic, and 97 (74%) macrocytic anemia patients. Patients with normocytic or macrocytic anemia had more renal failure (normocytic: odds ratio (OR) 1.9, macrocytic: OR 3.5), other complications (normocytic: OR 1.3, macrocytic: OR 2.2) and death (normocytic: OR 2.0, macrocytic: OR 6.2) than non-anemic patients; patients with microcytic anemia had fewer reoperations (OR 0.35) and less postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 0.50). Anemic patients experienced longer ICU (27 versus 48 hours, p < 0.001) and postoperative hospital (6.1 versus 7.4 days, p < 0.001) length of stay than non-anemic patients. Cardiac surgical patients are often anemic. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes are dissimilar according to red cell size. Patients with microcytic anemia had the lowest hemoglobin levels, yet the best clinical outcomes among anemic patients. MCV from the standard complete blood count adds additional information beyond hemoglobin for targeted intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Society

  11. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  12. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  13. Acute iatrogenic polycythemia induced by massive red blood cell transfusion during subtotal abdominal colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chiapaikeo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL. A post-operative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management.

  14. Red blood cell transfusions and tissue oxygenation in anemic hematology outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Bezemer, Rick; Biemond, Bart J.; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little clinical evidence that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions improve oxygen availability at the microcirculatory level. We tested the hypotheses that anemia in chronically anemic patients with relatively healthy microcirculation would be associated with low tissue hemoglobin

  15. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.Y. [MagQu Co. Ltd., Sindian City, Taipei County 231, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: phyfv001@scc.ntnu.edu.tw; Hong, Chin-Yih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, Nantau County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cyhong@nkut.edu.tw; Yang, H.C. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcyang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Lai, Y.K. [College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S. [Apex Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  16. Dichloromethane as an antisickling agent in sickle cell hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; North, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Observations are reported that show that dichloromethane (DCM) does have a significant effect on the oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin. At DCM pressures high enough to prevent or reverse sickling, DCM would lower the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, therefore reducing oxygen transport at low oxygen pressure. This decrease in oxygen affinity might, however, increase the oxygen availability to tissue as long as a sufficiently large lung P/sub O/sub 2// is maintained. Crystallographic studies show that site D4 has a much lower affinity for DCM than site D3 while sites D1 and D2 show a higher affinity.

  17. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.Y.; Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H.; Horng, H.E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H.C.; Lai, Y.K.; Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  18. Why are there two kinds of chain in tetrameric hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, R.; Jacchieri, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The homeotropic allosteric interactions responsible for the sigmoidal oxygen saturation curves of α 2 β 2 hemoglobins are shown to be larger than those of hypothetical hemoglobins obeying identical curves and built from equivalent chains, γ 4 . It is also shown that this ensures for the α 2 β 2 species a more dependable cooperativity, through a biologically significative temperature range. On the basis of these findings it is argued that the existence of two different globin chains is advantageous in an evolutionary sense. (Author) [pt

  19. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  20. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  1. Investigation of the effect of hemoglobin F and A levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Hidayet; Hacioglu, Dilek; Kola, Mehmet; Türk, Adem; Aslan, Yakup

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. In this prospective study, blood samples were collected from the side of the heel of 49 premature infants at postnatal months 0, 1, 2, and 3. HbF and HbA levels were measured in all samples and analyzed statistically. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed regarding development of ROP, blood transfusion, and HbF and HbA levels. A total of 49 infants were included. The mean gestational age of the premature infants was 30.9 ± 2.7 weeks (range, 25-35 weeks); mean birth weight, 1542 ± 582 g (range, 520-3240 g). Of the 49 premature infants, stage 1 ROP or above developed in 26 (53%). Mean HbF levels were lower at postnatal months 1 and 2 in premature infants with ROP compared to those without ROP (P = 0.013 and 0.02, respectively); however, mean HbA levels were higher in the infants with ROP than the others (P = 0.034 and 0.029, respectively). Analysis of covariance that ignored transfusion revealed no difference between the means of Hb variants in the infants with and without ROP (P = 0.572 and 0.486). Blood transfusion significantly altered the levels of HbF and HbA in premature infants, and Hb variants have no direct effect on development of ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. S1 nuclease analysis of α-globin gene expression in preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease after transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helder, J.; Deisseroth, A.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of α-globin gene transcriptional activity rarely occurs as an acquired abnormality during the evolution of myeloproliferative disease or preleukemia. To test whether the mutation responsible for the loss of α-globin gene expression (hemoglobin H disease) in these patients is linked with the α-globin genes on chromosome 16, the authors transferred chromosome 16 from preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease to mouse erythroleukemia cells and measured the transcriptional activity of the human α-globin genes. After transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells, the expression of human α-globin genes from the peripheral blood or marrow cells of preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease was similar to that of human α-globin genes transferred to mouse erythroleukemia cells from normal donors. These data showed that factor(s) in the mouse erythroleukemia cell can genetically complement the α-globin gene defect in these preleukemia patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease and suggest that altered expression of a gene in trans to the α-globin gene may be responsible for the acquisition of hemoglobin H disease in these patients

  3. Glycated hemoglobin biosensing integration formed on Au nanoparticle-dotted tubular TiO{sub 2} nanoarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Utkarsh [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, 201303, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Anamika [Department of Biotechnology, UIET, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136 119, Haryana (India); Kuchhal, Naresh Kumar [Clinical Biochemistry Department, Bio-Diagnostics, Rohini, Delhi, 110085 (India); Chauhan, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhichauhan2007@rediffmail.com [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, 201303, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-11-16

    Excessive glucose present in the blood of diabetic patients binds with the hemoglobin of red blood cells resulting in the formation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA{sub 1c}). Measurement of HbA{sub 1c} levels may help in identifying the efficacy of the ongoing treatment and hence provide a better control over the disease. In the present study, we have synthesized a sensitive and stable scaffold, which consists of Au nanoparticles (GNPs)-dotted tubular TiO{sub 2}, for the construction of an electrochemical HbA{sub 1c} biosensor. 12-phosphotungstic acid has been used as a reducer after depositing well-dispersed GNPs on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) and an electron mediator by accelerating the electron transfer between the conductor and protein. The fabricated electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis (EIS). Biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.5 μM), fast response time (3 s) and wide linearity (from 0.5 to 2000 μM). The working electrode was used 100 times over 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. The HbA1c biosensor was then effectively used to measure the % of HbA{sub 1c} in the blood of apparently healthy persons and diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a highly sensitive and stable sensing interface consisting of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and tubular TiO2. • Biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.5 μM). • The half life of electrode was 4 months. • Biosensor was suitable for detection of glycated hemoglobin in whole blood.

  4. Blood doping and its detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Lundby, Carsten

    2011-09-01

    Hemoglobin mass is a key factor for maximal exercise capacity. Some athletes apply prohibited techniques and substances with intent to increase hemoglobin mass and physical performance, and this is often difficult to prove directly. Autologous red blood cell transfusion cannot be traced on reinfusion, and also recombinant erythropoietic proteins are detectable only within a certain timeframe. Novel erythropoietic substances, such as mimetics of erythropoietin (Epo) and activators of the Epo gene, may soon enter the sports scene. In addition, Epo gene transfer maneuvers are imaginable. Effective since December 2009, the World Anti-Doping Agency has therefore implemented "Athlete Biologic Passport Operating Guidelines," which are based on the monitoring of several parameters for mature red blood cells and reticulocytes. Blood doping may be assumed, when these parameters change in a nonphysiologic way. Hematologists should be familiar with blood doping practices as they may play an important role in evaluating blood profiles of athletes with respect to manipulations, as contrasted with the established diagnosis of clinical disorders and genetic variations.

  5. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  6. Aryloxyalkanoic Acids as Non-Covalent Modifiers of the Allosteric Properties of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsattar M. Omar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb modifiers that stereospecifically inhibit sickle hemoglobin polymer formation and/or allosterically increase Hb affinity for oxygen have been shown to prevent the primary pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD, specifically, Hb polymerization and red blood cell sickling. Several such compounds are currently being clinically studied for the treatment of SCD. Based on the previously reported non-covalent Hb binding characteristics of substituted aryloxyalkanoic acids that exhibited antisickling properties, we designed, synthesized and evaluated 18 new compounds (KAUS II series for enhanced antisickling activities. Surprisingly, select test compounds showed no antisickling effects or promoted erythrocyte sickling. Additionally, the compounds showed no significant effect on Hb oxygen affinity (or in some cases, even decreased the affinity for oxygen. The X-ray structure of deoxygenated Hb in complex with a prototype compound, KAUS-23, revealed that the effector bound in the central water cavity of the protein, providing atomic level explanations for the observed functional and biological activities. Although the structural modification did not lead to the anticipated biological effects, the findings provide important direction for designing candidate antisickling agents, as well as a framework for novel Hb allosteric effectors that conversely, decrease the protein affinity for oxygen for potential therapeutic use for hypoxic- and/or ischemic-related diseases.

  7. Evaluation of a pyridoxylated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate solution as a perfusate for small intestine preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Agishi, T; Kawai, T; Hayashi, T; Fujita, S; Fuchinoue, S; Takahashi, K; Teraoka, S; Ota, K

    1992-01-01

    A new type of artificial blood, pyridoxylated hemoglobin-polyoxyethylene conjugate (PHP) solution, (developed by PHP research group of the department of health and welfare of Japan, and produced by Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Tokyo) as an oxygen-carrying component, has been recently devised using hemoglobin obtained from hemolyzed human erythrocytes. Recently, the studies using this solution as a preservation solution were performed in some instances. To examine the mechanism of improved viability using this solution as a preservation solution, we developed a model of orthotopic small intestine transplantation (OIT) in the rat. As a baseline study, we compared parameters of viability of the grafts preserved in Collins and UW solution to those preserved in PHP solution including a survival rate, a serum level total protein and albumin, and a change in body weight after transplantation. In our study, the simple hypothermia storage together with intestinal perfusion preservation with PHP solution was performed. Animals were divided into 6, 12, and 24 hr preservation groups. All of the rats survived after 6 hr preservation following transplantation. However, in 12 hr storage, five of six rats in PHP solution preservation survived and recovery in body weight after grafting was better than those with Collins and UW solution. We conclude that the PHP solution is, therefore, considered to possibly be a more suitable perfusate for small intestine preservation than Collins and UW solution.

  8. Spatio-temporal imaging of the hemoglobin in the compressed breast with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A.; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Selb, Juliette; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2007-07-01

    We develop algorithms for imaging the time-varying optical absorption within the breast given diffuse optical tomographic data collected over a time span that is long compared to the dynamics of the medium. Multispectral measurements allow for the determination of the time-varying total hemoglobin concentration and of oxygen saturation. To facilitate the image reconstruction, we decompose the hemodynamics in time into a linear combination of spatio-temporal basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using all of the data simultaneously, making use of a Newton-based nonlinear optimization algorithm. The solution of the extremely large least-squares problem which arises in computing the Newton update is obtained iteratively using the LSQR algorithm. A Laplacian spatial regularization operator is applied, and, in addition, we make use of temporal regularization which tends to encourage similarity between the images of the spatio-temporal coefficients. Results are shown for an extensive simulation, in which we are able to image and quantify localized changes in both total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Finally, a breast compression study has been performed for a normal breast cancer screening subject, using an instrument which allows for highly accurate co-registration of multispectral diffuse optical measurements with an x-ray tomosynthesis image of the breast. We are able to quantify the global return of blood to the breast following compression, and, in addition, localized changes are observed which correspond to the glandular region of the breast.

  9. Model analysis of local oxygen delivery with liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Mano, Katsuhiko; Ueha, Ryohei; Naito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobins (LHs) are comparable to red blood cells (RBCs) in terms of oxygen (O(2))-carrying capacity. The smaller particle size of LHs than of platelets allows their homogeneous dispersion in circulating plasma. In this study, we evaluated the effect of LH transfusion on arterial O(2) delivery through vascular trees by simulation. A mathematical model was established on the basis of the coronary arterial anatomy, the conservation of flow and RBC flux, and Poiseuille's law. The Fåhraeus-Lindqvist, Fåhraeus, and phase separation effects were considered in the model. By assuming steady perfusion, the arterial flow and O(2) delivery were calculated for five model trees undergoing the isovolumic replacement of RBCs (0.3 mg hemoglobin (Hb)/mL) with LHs (0.2 mg Hb/mL) or a plasma volume expander (PVE). The RBC-LH exchange increased both the total flow and the total O(2) flux but had almost no effect on the relative distribution of O(2) flux. In contrast, the RBC-PVE exchange decreased the total O(2) flux and increased the proportion of regions receiving a relatively low O(2) supply. Thus, LH transfusion may compensate for an enhanced bias in RBC-associated O(2) flux under hemodilution and is expected to be beneficial for both total and local O(2) delivery.

  10. Oxidative stress and hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct in renal patients with different LDL phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Milica; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Gojkovic, Tamara; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Milan; Simic-Ogrizovic, Sanja; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2016-10-01

    Unfavorable lipid profile is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal pathology. In this study, we compared chronic renal patients and healthy controls with different LDL phenotypes (A or B) in respect of various biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense parameters [thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), total oxidative status (TOS), total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total protein sulfhydryl (-SH) groups], as well as red blood cell cholesterol distribution were assessed in 40 renal patients and 40 control subjects by standardized assays. LDL particle diameters were determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. LDL particles are subdivided according to their size into large LDL A phenotype (diameter >25.5 nm) and small LDL B phenotype (diameter ≤25.5 nm). Renal patients with LDL A phenotype had increased oxidative stress (TOS: p LDL phenotype. A notable decrease in hemoglobin-cholesterol adduct was detected in patients with LDL A phenotype (p LDL B phenotype (p LDL B phenotype was characterized with increased TBARS (p LDL A phenotype in control group. Increased oxidative stress, decreased anti-oxidative defense followed with unfavorable changes in hemoglobin-cholesterol binding capacity, could have important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients regardless of LDL phenotype.

  11. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  12. Normalization of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier-201 induced vasoconstriction: targeting nitric oxide and endothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, Yannick J; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Dubé, Gregory P; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-05-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore, we aimed to 1 ) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with either adenosine (ADO) or nitroglycerin (NTG); 2 ) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction; and 3 ) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine. Chronically instrumented swine were studied at rest and during exercise after administration of HBOC-201 alone or in combination with ADO. The role of NO was assessed by supplementation with NTG or administration of the eNOS inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine. Alternative vasoactive pathways were investigated via intravenous administration of the ET A /ET B receptor blocker tezosentan or a mixture of ROS scavengers. The systemic and to a lesser extent the pulmonary pressor effects of HBOC-201 could be counteracted by ADO; however, dosage titration was very important to avoid systemic hypotension. Similarly, supplementation of NO with NTG negated the pressor effects but also required titration of the dose. The pressor response to HBOC-201 was reduced after eNOS inhibition and abolished by simultaneous ET A /ET B receptor blockade, while ROS scavenging had no effect. In conclusion, the pressor response to HBOC-201 is mediated by vasoconstriction due to NO scavenging and production of ET. Further research should explore the effect of longer-acting ET receptor blockers to counteract the side effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 can disrupt hemodynamic homeostasis, mimicking some aspects of endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated systemic and pulmonary blood

  13. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  14. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  15. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilho E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG. Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1 nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19; 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM patients (on insulin treatment (N = 19; 3 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22. The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%. In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control to 2.45 µmol/ml blood (IDDM. Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  16. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, E M; Glass, M L; Manço, J C

    2003-06-01

    The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1) nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19); 2) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients (on insulin treatment) (N = 19); 3) non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22). The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%). In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control) to 2.45 mol/ml blood (IDDM). Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  17. The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, S

    1972-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis was studied and its effect on the quality of protein was discovered. The biological effects due to the changes in the structure of protein were also observed. The results of the experiments are presented.

  18. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    , the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...

  19. Relationship of Hemoglobin to Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Aeromedical Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    2. REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2012 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relationship of Hemoglobin to...pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants. Orthopedics. 2012; 35(7):e1046-e1050. 11. Burns TC

  20. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silence...... suggests that 3-on-3 hemoglobins apart from a role in hypoxic stress play a general role under non-stressed conditions where they are essential for normal development by controlling the level of NO which tends to accumulate in floral buds and leaf hydathodes of plants......In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...