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Sample records for pretoria saltpan impact

  1. Orbital forcing of climate over South Africa: A 200,000-year rainfall record from the Pretoria saltpan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patridge, TC

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Late Pleistocene variations in rainfall in subtropical Southern Africa are estimated from sediments preserved in the Pretoria saltpan, a 200,000 year-old closed-basin crater lake on the interior plateau of South Africa. This record is one of the few...

  2. Occurrence and orientation of shatter cones in Pretoria group quartzites in the collar of the Vredefort ‘dome’: Impact origin precluded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    1981-11-01

    Shatter cones have been found cutting completely indurated fault breccia associated with the down-faulting of previously overturned Pretoria Group quartzites around the Vredefort structure. The evidence indicates that the shatter cones formed later than the overturning. Hence they cannot be considered to have been formed by an impact-generated shock wave which penetrated the strata just before overturning.

  3. PRETORIA GEDURENDE DIE EERSTE VRYDEIDSOORLOG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teen die einde van 1880 het hierdie oplewing onder die. Transvalers 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe tydens die vergadering by Paardekraal op 8 Desember 1880 besluit is om tot die ... hulle in Transvaal en veral in Pretoria gevestig sodat daar teen Maart ..... admiration, for they have the additional anxiety to bear in knowing that ...

  4. Unit for African Studies: University of Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mary-Ann

    Political Studies (CIPS), University of Pretoria, and Associate of the Institute for. Communitarian Studies (ICS) ..... peasants rising against landowners, and by bandits, social and asocial.” He notes that the Spanish ...... remaining for social theorists, military sociology students (guerrilla and conventional) and political leaders ...

  5. The Medieval Armenian Hymnal in Pretoria: A significant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die Middeleeuse Armeense gesangeboek in Pretoria: 'n merkwaardige en problematiese manuskrip: Die Middeleeuse Armeense gesangeboek in die Nasionale Kultuurhistoriese Museum in Pretoria, wat moontlik so vroeg as die dertiende eeu gedateer kan word, is feitlik heeltemal onbekend. Dit was oorspronklik 'n ...

  6. Incidence of atmospheric pollen in the Pretoria Witwatersrand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Witwatersrand-Vereeniging region (PWV) since 1987. Two Burkard 7-day recording traps were used in Johannesburg and Pretoria, and 11 gravity samplers were installed at various sites in the PWV. An analysis of the pollen component and ...

  7. Revisiting planning education at the University of Pretoria | Oranje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the way in which the Department of Town and Regional Planning at the University of Pretoria is using three sets of projects in which it has participated over the past twelve years in revising its planning curricula. These three projects, namely improving intergovernmental development planning; ...

  8. An interdisciplinary approach to design at the University of Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach to Design in Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Interior Architecture at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Interior Architecture were previously offered as distinctive academic disciplines, located ...

  9. Volhoubare fasiliteitsbestuur in winkelsentrums in Pretoria | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study also established which sustainable facility management strategies and methods are currently being applied and what perceptions property managers in shopping centres in Pretoria have regarding sustainable facility management. Questionnaires and one-on-one interviews with property managers and centre ...

  10. Suicide in Pretoria: A retrospective review, 2007 - 2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    death in some countries – and was declared a global health crisis by the World Health Organization in 1994.[1-5] It ... legal investigation of the death process, all unnatural deaths in Pretoria, whether homicide, suicide, accident, .... white and black population groups suggests that suicide is much more prevalent among white ...

  11. Urban farming in the informal settlements of Atteridgeville, Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban farming in the informal settlements of Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa. ... far beyond material gain, reducing social alienation and the disintegration of families associated with urban poverty. Lack of space and limited access to water for irrigation were the main constraints that affected participants in urban farming.

  12. Die bou van die Staatsartilleriekaserne, Potgieterstraa t, pretoria: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the coming into existence of the State Artillery Baracks, Potgieter Street, Pretoria and the expansion in 1924 in order to accomodate Defence Headquarters. The attention of the reader is invited to an article by the same author, which appeared in Militaria 2 volume 2, on Defence Headquarters.

  13. Suicide in Pretoria: A retrospective review, 2007 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Engelbrecht

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization has declared suicide a global ealth crisis, predicting that ~1.53 million people will commit suicide annually by 2020. Objective. A study from South Africa reviewed 1 018 suicide cases in Pretoria over 4 years (1997 - 2000. Our study was undertaken to establish whether there have been substantial changes in the profile of suicide victims who died in Pretoria a decade later. Methods. Case records at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory were reviewed retrospectively from 2007 to 2010. Results. A total of 957 suicide cases were identified. Hanging was the most common method of suicide, followed by self-inflicted firearm injury. The true incidence of suicidal intake of prescription drugs/medication was difficult to determine, because of a backlog at the state toxicology laboratories. White males and females appeared to be over-represented among suicide victims, but there has been an increase in suicide among blacks. There seems to have been a substantial decrease in the use of firearms to commit suicide – possibly reflecting a positive outcome of gun control legislation that has been introduced in the interim. Conclusion. Suicide continues to constitute almost 10% of all fatalities admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, confirming suicide as a major cause of mortality in our society. Further research is needed to clarify the profile of suicidal deaths, with a view to informing resource allocation and to improve preventive strategies.

  14. An evaluation of the customer service in supermarkets in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the customer service in supermarkets in Pretoria East, Tshwane Metropolis, South Africa. NJMM Marx, AC Erasmus. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. A market analysis of visitors to the Pretoria National Zoo : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... followed by the methodology and the results of the empirical research. From the results a profile will be compiled of the typical visitor to the Pretoria National Zoo after which conclusions and recommendations are made. Keywords: Market segmentation, Marketing, Tourism marketing, Market profile, Pretoria National Zoo

  16. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MERIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this report is benthic foraminifer populations preserved in the saltpan of Camalti in the Province of Izmir. High salinity in certain habitats of Ammonia tepida Cushman may be the primary cause of the high rate of twins and triplets as well as other morphological abnormalities recorded within this species (50 % as compared to an anomaly rate of 1 % in normal marine waters. Thicker cyst membrane developing in extremely saline environments may encourage twins and other morphological deformities by denying free movement of the offspring. Ecological factors such as heavy metal contamination of ambient waters as well as contamination by other wastes are also not ruled out as leading to such developmental anomalies. Of the 27 collected samples, Number 5 (that is closest to the sea includes the typical marine foraminifers. Nonion depressulum (Walker & Jacob, Ammonia tepida Cushman and Porosononion subgronosum(Egger are the dominant species in other samples. A total of 63 abnormal individuals (8 triplets, 24 twins, and 31 morphological anomalies was found within seven of the 27 samples collected. Ten samples contained freshwater ostracods: Darwinula stevensoni(Brady and Robertson, Leptocythere lacertosa Hirschmann, Cyprideis torasa (Jones, Cyprideis (C. anatolica Bassiouni, and Loxochoncha elliptica Brady. Among these samples (some of which contained only a few species of ostracods - and those limited in number of offspring, one had an unusually high ratio of healthy foraminifers vs those with anomalies. Worthy of note in another sample was a high abundance of molluscs. Among pelecypods, were found Ostrea edulis Linné, Lucinella divaricata (Linné, Pseudocama gryphina Lamarck,Cerastoderma edule (Linné, and Scrobicularia plana da Costa; and among gastropods were identified Hydrobi (Hydrobia acuta(Draparnaud, Rissoa labiosa (Montagu, R. parva (da Costa, R. violacea Desmarest, Pirenella conica (Blainville, Bittium desayesi(Cerulli and

  17. Tenigblikke op die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A, Universiteit van Pretoria, en sy lede - ’n literatuurverkenning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Oberholzer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospection on the Faculty of Theology (Sec A, University of Pretoria, and its members - a survey of literature A short, selective survey of literature on the motives for the founding of the Faculty of Theology (Sec A, University of Pretoria, and its history is given. Special attention is given to the typification of the theology of Faculty members by recent writers.

  18. Die wysgerige agtergrond van die Hervormde teologiese opleiding aan die Universiteit van Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Dreyer

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical background of the theological training of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Church of Afrika at the University of Pretoria Since the inception of the theological training of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Church of Africa at the University of Pretoria in 1917 philosophy has been a mandatory subject for all propaedeutic theological students. The history of the Department of Philosophy is traced to show the prevalent types of philosophy taught in the Department, because the philosophical training is considered important as preparation for theological training.

  19. Mission as Action in Hope in the Context of White Poverty in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White poverty left a number of whites in South Africa homeless. Consequently, they are forced to live in the streets, in shelters and informal settlements such as Bethlehem Mission Centre in Pretoria. A descriptive study was undertaken within the qualitative paradigm to describe the living conditions at the Bethlehem Mission ...

  20. “Give us this day our daily bread” – Clergy's lived religion in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to reflect on how clergy, working in Pretoria central areas, live out (the external dimension) and experience (the internal dimension) their faith in their everyday life. Thirteen clergy were briefly interviewed on an individual basis and then asked to keep a diary for two months. Four of the interviewed ...

  1. Limnological studies on the Pretoria Salt Pan, a hypersaline maar lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pretoria Salt pan is shallow and alkaline with pronounced mesothermy at a depth of between 0.55 and 0.7 metres. Secchi disc transparencies ranged from 7 to 19 cm. Endorheic or closed drainage basins are widely distributed in many climate...

  2. mission as action in hope in the context of white poverty in pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    across South Africa. White poverty left a number of whites in South Africa homeless. Consequently, they are forced to live in the streets, in shelters and informal settlements such as Bethlehem Mission Centre in Pretoria. A descriptive study was undertaken within the qualitative paradigm to describe the living conditions at the.

  3. Sharp force fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: South Africa's crude death rate was recorded as the highest in the world in 2014. In 2013, 47 murders occurred daily nationwide, and it was confirmed that sharp force fatalities were frequent events. The aim of our study was to review the fatalities of persons admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory ...

  4. die bou van die st aa tsartilleriekaserne, potgieterstraa t, pretoria: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the coming into existence of the State Artillery Baracks, Potgieter Street,. Pretoria and the expansion in 1924 in order to accomodate Defence Headquarters. The attention of the reader is invited to an article by the same author, which appeared in Militaria. 2 volume 2, on Defence Headquarters. Inleiding ...

  5. Migrants and Small Enterprises In Post-Apartheid Pretoria/Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since South Africa's democratization in 1994, major spatial, social and economic changes have occurred in Sunnyside - a high-density inner city area of Pretoria. This period has also seen a dramatic increase in the flow of foreign, predominantly African migrants into the area. Sunnyside is becoming a vibrant, dynamic ...

  6. Bioclimatic techniques to quantify mitigation measures for climate change with specific reference to Pretoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to research the expected effect of climate change on South African cities, with specific reference to Pretoria. A bioclimatic analysis is used to quantify the most appropriate mitigation techniques for new and existing...

  7. Estimates of the aerosol optical depth over Pretoria using the CSIR mobile lidar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shikwambana, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the estimates of aerosol optical depth measured over Pretoria, South Africa, using the CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR. The measurements are also compared with observations from the Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data...

  8. Musci austro-africani II. Bryophyte collections in southern Africa and southern African type specimens in the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    OpenAIRE

    R. E. Magill

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of bryological collections and collectors in southern Africa introduces a catalogue of southern African type specimens housed in the National Herbarium, Pretoria. The type catalogue, arranged alphabetically by basionym, includes correct names, type status and label data.

  9. The influence of meteorological factors on solar ultraviolet radiation over Pretoria, South Africa for the year 2012

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgabutlane, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pretoria receives a fair amount of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground. The most dominant influencing meteorological factors are stratospheric ozone, cloud cover...

  10. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  11. Revisiting planning education at the University of Pretoria1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education. As such, they suggest a number of ways of improving planning education. Each of the projects and their respective implications for planning ... mental impact. The third initiative was a project for the. Department of Provincial and Local. Government (DPLG) in 2003-2004, which entailed a study of the challenges.

  12. Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents' fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business-despite a real infection risk of zero-was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents' perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent's dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV.

  13. The sexual risk context among the FEM-PrEP study population in Bondo, Kenya and Pretoria, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Headley

    Full Text Available Incidence rates in the FEM-PrEP and VOICE trials demonstrate that women from diverse sub-Saharan African communities continue to be at substantial HIV risk.To describe and compare the sexual risk context of the study population from two FEM-PrEP trial sites-Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa.At baseline we collected information about demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs through quantitative questionnaires with all participants (Bondo, n = 720; Pretoria, n = 750. To explore the sexual risk context, we also conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with HIV-negative participants randomly selected at several time points (Bondo, n = 111; Pretoria, n = 69.Demographics, sexual behavior, and partnership beliefs varied significantly between the sites. Bondo participants were generally older, had fewer years of schooling, and were more likely to be employed and married compared to Pretoria participants. Bondo participants were more likely to report multiple partners and not knowing whether their partner had HIV than Pretoria participants. A significantly higher percentage of Bondo participants reported engaging in sex without a condom with their primary and other partners compared to Pretoria participants. We found a borderline association between participants who reported not using condoms in the 4 weeks prior to baseline and lower risk of HIV infection, and no association between having more than one sexual partner at baseline and HIV infection.Despite significantly different demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs, many women in the FEM-PrEP trial were at risk of acquiring HIV as demonstrated by the sites' high HIV incidence. Though gender dynamics differed between the populations, they appear to play a critical role in women's sexual practices. The findings highlight different ways women from diverse contexts may be at-risk for HIV and the importance of providing HIV prevention options

  14. The storage of forensic evidence at the Forensic Science Laboratory in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita du Plessis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of the judicial process is the presentation of evidence in a court of law. The integrity of evidence is vital to reassure the courts that the correct procedures were followed throughout all the processes it was subjected to. In South Africa, the Forensic Science Laboratory (FSL in Pretoria analyses and stores evidence. The storage facility within the FSL should contribute to the prevention of evidence contamination or degradation thereby also leading to improved service quality and output to its customers. The proper delivery of evidence can lead to the conviction of suspects and to the freedom of the innocent. This study investigates the storage facilities at the FSL to determine whether these are appropriate to ensure the integrity of evidence throughout all the processes it goes through and to recommend actions to continue to add value to the judicial system.

  15. MODERN MOVEMENT MEDIATIONS: BRAZILIAN MODERNISM AND THE IDENTITY OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Adrian Barker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available THE BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTURE OF OSCAR NIEMEYER INSPIRED THE DESIGN OF A NUMBER OF SOUTH AFRICAN BUILDINGS. THIS ARTICLE WILL CONTEXTUALISE MODERN MOVEMENT MEDIATIONS AND WILL HIGHLIGHT SIMILARITIES IN APPROACH TO IDENTITY, CONTEXT AND A RANGE OF EFFICIENCIES THROUGH A COMPARISON OF OSCAR NIEMEYER'S 1945 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH BUILDING IN RIO DE JANEIRO AND HELMUT STAUCH'S 1952 MEAT BOARD BUILDING IN PRETORIA.

  16. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  17. The social impact of a flood on workers at a Pretoria hotel / E. Milella

    OpenAIRE

    Milella, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, January 2011 was characterised by above average rainfall which resulted in many provinces being flooded. On the 17th of January 2011, the government of South Africa declared the City of Tshwane a National Disaster Area. It is in the city of Tshwane where a hotel was flooded causing great damage and disruption to the lives of the hotel workers. Given the lack of existing research focusing on the social dimensions of natural disasters, this provided an opportunit...

  18. Tracking Gauteng thunderstorms using Crowdsourced Twitter data between Soweto and Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Butgereit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summer thunderstorms in Gauteng are often dramatic, noisy, wet events. They can appear suddenly on exceptionally hot sunny days travelling fast across the province. With such dramatic arrivals, people often flock to social media sites such as Twitter to comment on the rain, wind, hail, lightning and thunder. This paper investigates the possibility of mapping the track of Gauteng thunderstorms by using crowdsourced data from Twitter. This paper describes a model (entitled the ThunderChatter Model and instantiation of that model which extracts data from Twitter, analyses the textual information for thunderstorm information and plots the appropriate data on a map. For evaluation purposes, these generated maps are then compared against lightning-stroke maps provided by the South African Weather Service. The maps are visually compared by independent people using Content Analysis techniques ensuring unbiased and reproducible results. The results of this research are mixed. For thunderstorms which traverse the strip of land between Soweto and Pretoria more or less correlated to the N1 highway (and representing the most heavily populated area of Gauteng and the area with the highest percentage of home Internet facilities, the results are excellent. However, in outlying areas of Gauteng such as Carletonville, Heidelberg, Hammanskraal and Bronkhorstspruit, the thunderstorms are only trackable using crowdsourced Twitter data in the case of extreme storms which damage property. The results imply that data obtained from social media could be used in some cases to supplement geographical data obtained from traditional sources.

  19. Do Customers Flee from HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2,382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents’ fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business - despite a real infection risk of zero - was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents’ perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent’s dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV. PMID:27385027

  20. My father�s tobacco-jar, Church Square Pretoria and Freedom Park: An autoethnographical exploration

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    Marcel Barnard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Julian M�ller, in his advocacy of a narrative theology, has called for an autobiographical theology. In addition to Julian M�ller�s plea, the author turned to what may be seen as the liturgical and ritual variant of this method, namely autoethnography. Thus he would honour Julian M�ller and his tireless commitment to Practical Theology. Autobiographical and autoethnographical theology do not start from well-ordered and systematically arranged knowledge, but from a life as it has developed and as it is developing in its connections with others. Difference is therefore a keyword in the method. Others and other worlds evoke the consciousness of differences, incite reflections on the cracks, fractures and fissures that show themselves to the self and provoke negotiations with the otherness of the other. Never in his existence as a theologian had the author experienced this process more intensely than in his contacts with colleagues and religious practices in South Africa. It was described in the article how the author became acquainted with South Africa and, more particularly, with its liturgical rituals and visual arts since 2001. The different experiences of successive visits to Church Square in Pretoria functioned as a point of reference in the article. It was shown how the self re-negotiated its position in the world through the confrontation with a totally �other� � in this case, South African liturgical rituals and visual arts. This re-negotiation focused on the Western academic position of the self when confronted with African epistemologies and ontologies.

  1. Rapid assessment response (RAR study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

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    Trautmann Franz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to

  2. Significant profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa

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    Melissa Jeanette Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different adventure activities/experiences evolve because individuals, their motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This notion illustrates the broad nature of adventure tourism and its links with other forms of tourism. In turn, adventure tourism companies are compelled to promote/sell an array of activities/experiences to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences to facilitate the growth of adventure holidays (Swarbrooke et al., 2003. To assist adventure tourism companies in achieving effective marketing strategies, the study’s objective is to identify significant sociopsychological profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of adventure tourists’ profiles, an equal number of respondents were male (117 and female (117, which provided a 93.6% response rate. In comparison to female respondents, male respondents prefer winter as a season to participate in hard/high-risk adventure activities when they are with or without their family, and they participate in adventure activities for travelling and socialising purposes. Whereas, female respondents predominantly regard scuba-diving, abseiling, and helicopter flights as a hard/high-risk adventure activity, although these activities are generally regarded by the overall sample as being soft/low-risk adventure activities. Furthermore, even though females’ participation in adventure activities is sponsored, they did not participate or only participated in adventure activities once over the past year due to fear/risk and/or lack of skill. This study established that there is a need to further research adventure tourists’ profiles before it could be equally accepted and interpreted.

  3. The effect of labour market regulation on domestic workers in Orchards and Soshanguve, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Matjeke

    2012-01-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to analyse and compare the effects of, and level of compliance with, the regulation of the domestic worker sector in two very different residential areas in Pretoria. Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted all previous micro-study investigations of the topic in Langenhoven Park, Bloemfontein. We need more micro-level studies to investigate the effects of regulating this labour market because areas with different socioeconomic conditions may yield different results. Research design, approach and method: The researchers followed a quantitative micro- research design using structured questionnaires. They used the research methodology applied in similar micro-studies as the basis of the survey to make the results comparable. They used the criterion sampling technique. Respondents completed 87 questionnaires in Orchards and 89 in Soshanguve. Main findings: Evidence suggests that areas in close proximity to one another in the same metropolis yield significant differences in the wages or salaries and non-wage working conditions of domestic workers. A blanket approach to identifying and monitoring the effects of the legislation for this sector is not an appropriate one. Practical/managerial implications: The sector needs micro-studies over an extended period and in different areas to form a more nuanced picture of this multifaceted labour market. This study emphasised the necessity for improved monitoring of the existing legislation. Contribution/value-add: This is the first micro-study to compare the effects of regulating the domestic workers sector of two residential areas with different socioeconomic characteristics. The results will give authorities a better understanding of the level of compliance with, and effects of, the regulation of domestic workers. It will also guide the monitoring of, and enforcement decisions for, this labour market.

  4. The diatom flora in the vicinity of the Pretoria Salt Pan, Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. Part III (final)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR

    1984-03-12

    Full Text Available . veneta Kutzing, cf. Lange-Bertalot 1979, 209, figures 40—46, 71, 72). Our forms also show some resemblance to the var. lancettula Schumann sensu Germain (1981, plate 72, figure 6). However, a study of the literature showed that N. cryptocephala... with EM micro- graphs (Figures 6—13) of a somewhat smaller form from Rietvlei Dam, a reservoir situated approximately 40 km S.E. of the Pretoria Salt Pan, suggested a very close relationship between them, size and striae density being the most...

  5. FACTORS ENABLING AND HAMPERING SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES RENDERED TO STREET CHILDREN IN PRETORIA: PERSPECTIVES OF SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skhosana, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to develop an understanding of the social welfare services being rendered to street children in Pretoria and to ascertain what factors facilitate or hamper the rendering of these services. The research shows clearly that the funding required for ensuring the sustainability of the organisations is insufficient, and that the human resources are unstable. The article provides a critical analysis of some of the key social welfare service challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the effective and sustainable delivery of social welfare services.

  6. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  7. Factors that guide nurse managers regarding the staffing of agency nurses in intensive care units at private hospitals in Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Jooste

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staffing needs affect the nursing department’s budget, staff productivity, the quality of care provided to patients and even the retention of nurses. It is unclear how the role players (the nursing agency manager, the nurse manager and the agency nurse perceive the staffing of agency nurses in intensive care units (ICUs. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors that guide nurse managers regarding the staffing of agency nurses in ICUs at private hospitals in Pretoria. A quantitative exploratory and descriptive design was used. A survey by means of a structured questionnaire was carried out. Probability sampling was implemented to obtain a study sample (n = 124. One similar self-administered 5-point scale instrument was completed by the participants. Data was analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. The principles of validity and reliability were adhered to and ethical considerations were also taken into account. The results indicated limitations in the determining of posts, recruitment and advertising, as well as the selection and appointment of agency nurses in ICUs at private hospitals in Pretoria. Recommendations on staffing are made to nurse managers in ICUs.

  8. The effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity in the Pretoria region of the Gauteng Oral Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshousen, W S J; Coetzee, E

    2012-09-01

    An analysis of annual reports revealed that on average 20% of patient appointments with oral hygienists in the Department of Health in the Pretoria region were not utilised due to patient noncompliance (i.e. broken appointments). Many solutions have been considered to address the high rate of noncompliance and the resulting idle chair capacity. One solution selected to overcome some of the negative consequences of broken appointments was deliberate overbooking. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity by measuring the utilisation rate over a three month period (July to September) after 25% overbooking was introduced in the Pretoria region. A statistical analysis was conducted on our results to determine an overbooking rate that would ensure full utilisation of the available dental chair capacity. The available time units over the three month study period amounted to 1365, allocated to 1427 patients resulting in an overal overbooking rate of 4.54%. The overall utilisation rate was found to be 79.2%. The calculated regression line estimated that there would be full utilisation of dental chair capacity at an overbooking rate of 26.7%. Overbooking at the levels applied in this study had a minimal overall effect on idle dental chair capacity. Our results confirm the need for careful planning and management in addressing noncompliance. In a manner similar to the clinical situation, organisational development requires a correct diagnosis in order that an appropriate and effective intervention may be designed.

  9. ‘The idea of the University’ and the ‘Pretoria Model’ Apologia pro statu Facultatis Theologicae Universitatis Pretoriensis ad secundum saeculum

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    Johan Buitendag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is authored by the Dean of Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria, celebrating the Faculty’s centenary in 2017. The exposition of the argument is unfolded on the basis of Ricoeur’s threefold mimesis of prefiguration, configuration and reconfiguration. The earliest decisive statement with regard to the nature of the Faculty, and which is eagerly pursued, was made by the Rev. M.J. Goddefroy in 1888, epitomising theological training as of academic deference, that is as a Faculty at a university and not a seminary. This has been the fibre of Theology at the University of Pretoria and intellectual inquiry is an uncompromised value. The article is a critical reflection on the past century and an orientation towards the next hundred years, identifying the essence of what a real Pretoria Model could and should be and looking ahead to the next century. ‘History is not a destination, but an orientation’, sounds like a refrain in the article. The enterprise is contextual with regard to time and space. The assessment is subsequently done in terms of this continent and this century, that is Africa and the 21st century. The conclusion of the article is that the Pretoria Model fills a unique niche in theological inquiry at public universities competing for a position among the top 500 on the ranking of world universities.

  10. Geology and geochemistry of paleosols developed on the Hekpoort Basalt, Pretoria Group, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, R.; Holland, H. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Hekpoort paleosols comprise a regional paleoweathering horizon developed on 2.224 +/- 0.021 Ga basaltic andesite lavas at the top of the Hekpoort Formation of the Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. In five separate profiles, from outcrops along road cuts near Waterval Onder and the Daspoort Tunnel and in three drill cores from the Bank Break Area (BB3, BB8, and BB14), the top of the paleosol is a sericite-rich zone. The sericite zone grades downward into a chlorite-rich zone. In core BB8 and in the road cut at the Daspoort Tunnel, we sampled the underlying or parent basaltic andesite into which the chlorite zone grades. We did not obtain samples of the parent material at Waterval Onder and in cores BB3 and BB14, but chemical analyses indicate that the chlorite and sericite zones in these profiles derive from underlying lavas similar to the ones we sampled in core BB8 and at the Daspoort Tunnel. The presence of apparent rip-up clasts of the paleosol in the overlying ironstones of the Strubenkop Formation in the cores from Bank Break makes it very unlikely that most of the alteration was a result of interactions with hydrothermal fluids. Desiccation cracks at the top of the paleosol that were filled with sand during the deposition of the overlying sediments at Waterval Onder point to a subaerial weathering origin. Very little, if any, Al, Ti, Zr, V, or Cr moved a discernible distance during weathering of any of the five profiles. The vertical distribution of Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Co indicates that these elements were largely removed from the top of the soil during weathering. The overall abundance of these elements in each of the profiles indicates that a significant fraction of the complement lost from the top subsequently reprecipitated in the lower portion of the soil as constituents of an Fe2(+) -rich smectite. The loss of Fe from the top of the soil during weathering of the Hekpoort paleosols indicates that atmospheric PO2 was less than 8 x 10

  11. Land value as a function of distance from the CBD: The case of the eastern suburbs of Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Jordaan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The greater the benefit derived from using a piece of land for any particular purpose the higher the price the prospective user is willing to pay.  The demand for land is thus a reflection of the utility derived from its use by current or potential users.  The ability to compete for sites depends on whether they have the means to benefit from accessibility and complementarity within the urban framework. Conventional theory states that productivity determines urban rent, which is the highest at the place of maximum accessibility, i.e. the central business district (CBD. This paper review selected residential location theories and the factors influencing location decisions. Using selected eastern suburbs of Pretoria, the paper tries to determine whether residential land values decrease as distance from the CBD increase as theory suggests.Foreign aid and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country investigation

  12. Die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A aan die Universiteit van Pretoria: Vrae oor sy identiteit en sy problematiek

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    J. P. Oberholzer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Theology (Sec A at the University of Pretoria: Inquiry into its identity and problem areas This article is a short survey of theological viewpoints on the character and task of the church, as reflected in church literature during the past 75 years. It is shown that political history after World War II had a marked effect on thinking in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk and that recent changes on the political scene pose penetrating questions to theologians. A full inquiry into the contours of self-definition is called for and some relevant issues are indicated; an honest evaluation in respect of the political and social context which is reflected in positions adopted, a pastoral compassion which takes note of human misery, cognisance of the ecumenical character of the church, and ethical and academic responsibility.

  13. Toelating van graad 12-leerders met voorwaardelike of geen matrikulasie-endossement tot die Fakulteit Opvoedkunde: Universiteit van Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Maree

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available ’n Aantal veranderlikes word in berekening gebring wanneer besluite geneem word rakende die toelating al dan nie van studente tot universiteite en ander tersiêre inrigtings. Onlangse veranderings in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing het tersiêre inrigtings genoodsaak om innoverend oor hul eie aard en doelstellings te dink. Die onderhawige artikel ondersoek hierdie uitdaging deur te kyk na die prestasie van sogenaamde senaatdiskresionêre studente (d.w.s studente met óf voorwaardelike óf geen matrikulasie-endossement, aan wie die senaat toestemming verleen het om in te skryf aan die Fakulteit Opvoedkunde van die Universiteit van Pretoria. Dit blyk dat studente se M-tellings redelik akkurate voorspellers is van universiteitsukses, maar dat gewaak behoort te word teen die uitsluiting van bepaalde studente op grond van hul M-tellings. Dit wil ook voorkom of die praktyk om studente op grond van ontoereikende toelatingstoetspunte uit te sluit van universiteitstudie met groot omsigtigheid en deernis gehanteer behoort te word.

  14. The incidence, pathology of trauma and victim profiles of homicidal deaths in Pretoria, South Africa (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Jeannie; Saayman, Gert

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the incidence of homicide, associated pathology of trauma and victim profiles in cases admitted to or managed as homicidal deaths at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) over the period of 2007-2008. A total of 1088 cases were reviewed. Homicides accounted for 22.7% of all cases admitted to the PMLL. The majority of homicide victims were male individuals (87.0%). The most common cause of death was gunshot wounds (42.6%), followed by blunt force trauma (25.1%). Homicides are most likely to occur at the victim's place of residence (28.5%) and only 37.4% of victims survive long enough to receive hospital care. The results of this study seem to concur with international findings for the most part, with a few interesting deviations. Highlighting at-risk groups, as well as dangerous locations and incident times, creates the potential to decrease the occurrence of unnecessary deaths by generating an awareness of the trends.

  15. Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) study: drug use, health and systemic risks--Emthonjeni Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Monika M L; Trautmann, Franz; Wolvaardt, Gustaaf; Palakatsela, Romeo

    2014-04-03

    Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specific data on drug users in correctional centres is not available for the majority of countries, including South Africa. The study aimed to identify the attitudes and knowledge of key informant (KI) offender and correctional centre staff regarding drug use, health and systemic-related problems so as to facilitate the long-term planning of activities in the field of drug-use prevention and systems strengthening in correctional centres, including suggestions for the development of appropriate intervention and rehabilitation programmes. A Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) methodology was adopted which included observation, mapping of service providers (SP), KI interviews (staff and offenders) and focus groups (FGs). The study was implemented in Emthonjeni Youth Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. Fifteen KI staff participants were interviewed and 45 KI offenders. Drug use is fairly prevalent in the centre, with tobacco most commonly smoked, followed by cannabis and heroin. The banning of tobacco has also led to black-market features such as transactional sex, violence, gangsterism and smuggling in order to obtain mainly prohibited tobacco products, as well as illicit substances. HIV, health and systemic-related risk reduction within the Correctional Service sector needs to focus on measures such as improvement of staff capacity and security measures, deregulation of tobacco products and the development and implementation of comprehensive health promotion programmes.

  16. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, M; Koto, M Z; Govender, M

    2017-01-30

    Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA) population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease - a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50). The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67) years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96%) indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%), followed by the right colon (55.31%). A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%). This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  17. An investigation of diverticular disease among black patients undergoing colonoscopy at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diverticular disease was previously thought to be non-existent in the black African population. Studies over the past four decades, however, have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of the disease. Objective. To report on the profile and current prevalence of diverticular disease in the black South African (SA population at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study was performed in black SA patients who were diagnosed with diverticular disease by colonoscopy between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Results. Of 348 patients who had undergone colonoscopies and who were eligible for inclusion in this study, 47 were diagnosed with diverticular disease – a prevalence of 13.50% (95% confidence interval 10.30 - 17.50. The greatest number of patients diagnosed were in their 7th and 8th decades, with an age range of 46 - 86 (mean 67 years. There was a female predominance of 57.45%. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common (65.96% indication for colonoscopy. The left colon was most commonly involved (72.34%, followed by the right colon (55.31%. A substantial number of patients had pancolonic involvement (27.65%. Conclusion. This retrospective study suggests that there has been a considerable increase in the prevalence of diverticular disease among black South Africans, possibly owing to changes in dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

  18. Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Nel, Dawie

    2012-04-01

    This study examines levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, South Africa. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 324 MSM from February to August 2009. Results were adjusted using RDSAT analysis to yield population-based estimates. High levels of internalized homophobia exist among South African MSM: 10-15% reported "often/very often" and over 20% reported "sometimes" having feelings of internalized homophobia. A greater level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with a lower level of education [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9], a higher level of HIV misinformation [AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3-5.3], bisexual identity (vs. homosexual) [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.5-12.0], and HIV-related conspiracy beliefs [AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02-5.8]. These findings contribute valuable information to our understanding of internalized homophobia in South Africa, highlighting the need to empower the gay community, promote self-acceptance of homosexual identity, and address conspiracy beliefs among MSM to reduce internalized homophobia and increase access to HIV prevention interventions.

  19. Investigating the psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale for South African residents of Greater Pretoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Margaret S; Jordaan, Esmè R; Tsai, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Interviewers administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSES) to five groups of Black (formal township and informal settlement), White, Indian, and mixed race adult residents of Greater Pretoria. The results demonstrated that the RSES was psychometrically sound for the five groups. The minimal effects of sociodemographic characteristics on global self-esteem showed that the RSES and its two dimensions, self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), were suitable in this setting. All five groups scored above the theoretical midpoint of the RSES, indicating that generally positive self-evaluations appear to be universal. The relationships between positively and negatively worded items, SC, and SL attested to the following: internal structure reliability, congruence between positive and negative items, no negative biases in response, and concordance between SC and SL dimensions. The significant differences between informal settlement residents and the other four groups on global self-esteem, positively and negatively worded items, and SC and SL were possibly due to physiological needs taking precedence over higher order needs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Case studies on the impact of poor traceability in testing and measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, EL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -2142 Wingate Park 0153 Pretoria Telephone: +27(12) 349 1500 Fax: +27 (12) 349 1501 Email: maggier@nla.org.za Internet: http://www.nla.org.za 2006 Test and Measurement Conference Case Studies on the Impact of Poor Traceability in Testing... and Measurement Speaker / Author: E.L. Marais Co-authors: E.P. Tarnow, S.B. Sidney CSIR National Metrology Laboratory PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: elmarais@csir.co.za Phone: 012 841 3013 Fax: 012 841 2131 Abstract The importance...

  1. Sudden and unexpected childhood deaths investigated at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa, 2007 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deventer, B S; Rossouw, S H; Du Toit-Prinsloo, L

    2016-09-06

     Sudden and unexpected death is well known to occur in infants, and although sudden deaths are less frequent after the first birthday, they still account for a significant proportion of childhood deaths. In 2009, 1.9% of the total deaths in the USA were childhood deaths. In South Africa (SA) this proportion was much higher at 11.85%. According to the law, sudden and unexpected deaths are generally investigated as unnatural deaths. Establishing an exact underlying anatomical cause of death will depend on available resources and can be difficult in a substantial proportion of cases.  A retrospective descriptive case audit was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL), SA, from 1 January 2007 through to 31 December 2011. All children aged 1 - 18 years who died suddenly and unexpectedly were included.  Ninety-eight cases were identified, which constituted nearly 1% of total admissions to the PMLL. The majority of the deaths were of children aged 1 - 5 years, and the male/female ratio was 1.04:1. In the largest proportion of cases (n=28, 28.6%), the medicolegal investigation, including autopsy and ancillary investigations, did not establish an underlying anatomical cause of death. In the cases where a cause of death was established, pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (n=22, 22.4%).  The fact that the cause of the largest proportion of deaths could not be ascertained emphasises the need for consideration of additional investigative techniques, such as molecular/genetic screening, which have provided an underlying cause of death in a significant number of cases in other countries. There is a lack of published research on the causes and incidence of sudden unexpected deaths in children in SA, and further research in this area is needed.

  2. Temporal characteristics of columnar aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing (2011-2015) measured at AERONET's Pretoria_CSIR_DPSS site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Kang, Na; Sivakumar, V.; Griffith, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Ground-based observations of the spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) revealed that the northwest of South Africa (SA) possessed large aerosol loading and still remained unexplored as none of the authors have been extensively studied. The characteristics of aerosol optical, physical, and radiative properties, as well as their relationships presented in this paper, were derived from the direct sun and sky radiances measured at Pretoria during August 2011-December 2015 using the AERONET's (CE-318) automatic sun/sky radiometer. The annual mean AOD440, AE440-870, and SSA-T440 estimated at Pretoria during the study period were 0.23 ± 0.13, 1.50 ± 0.26, and 0.91 ± 0.04, respectively. The mean AOD440 (AE440-870) for the study period appeared higher during the spring and summer seasons (summer), suggest dominance of fine mode particles attributed to biomass burning activities and seasonal influence of meteorology. Analysis of frequency occurrences of AOD and AE also indicate that this region is richly populated with fine mode particles. Further, the AOD-AE relationship was studied at Pretoria and the result concluded that the mixed type aerosols contributed more among the others followed by the urban/industrial-biomass burning and clean continental (background) aerosols. The high summertime SSA-T440 and fine mode radius of AVSD could be associated with the hygroscopic growth of water-soluble aerosols under high water vapor (absorbing aerosols). The positive (negative) values of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) were observed in all the months, an indication of significant heating (cooling) within the atmosphere (top of the atmosphere (TOA) and bottom of the atmosphere (BOA)) were due to strong absorption (scattering) of radiation. Further, the efficiency derived between ARF and AOD440 indicated that ARF is a strong function of AOD at the BOA noted with a high degree of correlation coefficient (r = 0.93).

  3. Cryptococcal meningitis in a tertiary hospital in Pretoria, mortality and risk factors - A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesgen, J; Schutte, C; Olorunju, S; Retief, J

    2017-04-01

    Aim This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of possible risk factors on the survival chance of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. These factors include the patient's socio-economic background, age, gender, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory findings and, in particular, non-adherence versus adherence to therapy. Methods Data were collected from all adult patients admitted to Kalafong Hospital with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal meningitis over a period of 24 months. We analyzed the data by the presentation of descriptive summary statistics, logistic regression was used to assess factors which showed association between outcome of measure and factor. Furthermore, multivariable logistic regression analysis using all the factors that showed significant association in the cross tabulation was applied to determine which factors had an impact on the patients' mortality risk. Results A total of 87 patients were identified. All except one were HIV-positive, of which 55.2% were antiretroviral therapy naïve. A history of previous tuberculosis was given by 25 patients (28.7%) and 49 (56.3%) were on tuberculosis treatment at admission or started during their hospital stay. In-hospital mortality was 31%. Statistical analysis showed that antiretroviral therapy naïve patients had 9.9 (CI 95% 1.2-81.2, p < 0.0032) times greater odds of dying compared to those on antiretroviral therapy, with 17 from 48 patients (35.4%) dying compared with 1 out of 21 patients (4.8%) on treatment. Defaulters had 14.7 (CI 95% 1.6-131.6, p < 0.016) times greater odds of dying, with 9 from 18 patients dying (50%), compared to the non-defaulters. In addition, patients who presented with nausea and vomiting had a 6.3 (95% CI 1.7-23.1, p < 0.005) times greater odds of dying (18/47, 38.3%); this remained significant when adjusted for antiretroviral therapy naïve patients and defaulters. Conclusion Cryptococcal meningitis is still a common opportunistic infection

  4. Theology chronicle - Opening words at the graduation ceremony at the University of Pretoria (Part 4 - Law, Theology & Veterinary Sciences 27 March 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Sinclair

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the University of Pretoria, to be an internationally competitive and locally relevant, comprehensive research institution is by now deeply entrenched in the minds of all its stakeholders. This mission, to which we remain steadfastly committed, will ensure that the qualifications obtained by students at this University will serve them well in the development of their future careers. Through our efforts to steer a strong and sound vessel safely through the turbulent waters that characterise the higher education sector, we are able to say, with confidence, to all of you, that you can and should be proud to become a Tukkies graduate.

  5. Assessment of oral health promotion services offered as part of maternal and child health services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Kolisa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa.Methods: The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria.Results: The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age of 37 years. The majority of the nurses (65% were females; 60% were professional nurses. Most (63% of the nurses reported that they provided oral health education (OHE services. A shortage of dental education materials (43%, staff time (48%, and staff training (52% were large constraints to nurses providing OHE. The majority of PCGs (n = 382; mean age 31.5 years had a low education level (76%. About 55% of PCGs received information on children’s oral health from the television and 35% at the MCH clinics. PCGs beliefs were worrying as about 38% believed primary dentition is not important and need not be saved.Conclusion: There is evidence of minimal integration of OHE at MCH sites. Parents’ beliefs are still worrying as a significant number do not regard the primary dentition as important. The MCH site remains an important easily accessible area for integration of oral health services with general health in complementing efforts in prevention of early childhood caries.Keywords: Oral health; Promotion integration

  6. Assessment of oral health promotion services offered as part of maternal and child health services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Kolisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa. Methods: The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria. Results: The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age of 37 years. The majority of the nurses (65% were females; 60% were professional nurses. Most (63% of the nurses reported that they provided oral health education (OHE services. A shortage of dental education materials (43%, staff time (48%, and staff training (52% were large constraints to nurses providing OHE. The majority of PCGs (n = 382; mean age 31.5 years had a low education level (76%. About 55% of PCGs received information on children’s oral health from the television and 35% at the MCH clinics. PCGs beliefs were worrying as about 38% believed primary dentition is not important and need not be saved. Conclusion: There is evidence of minimal integration of OHE at MCH sites. Parents’ beliefs are still worrying as a significant number do not regard the primary dentition as important. The MCH site remains an important easily accessible area for integration of oral health services with general health in complementing efforts in prevention of early childhood caries. Keywords: Oral health; Promotion integration

  7. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    so rapidly that a third world war could, we are told, result in the extinction of the human species together with ... make war, nor even to hunt: his ability and desire to do so are learned from his elders and his peers when ... brown hyaena, are attracted by the protection of rock shelters or fissures, and the leopard customarily ...

  8. HTS Theological Studies and Verbum et Ecclesia – the journals of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria: Historical overview and strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Human

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article celebrates the centenary of the University of Pretoria (UP in 2008. The editors of Verbum et Ecclesia and HTS Theological Studies, the two theological journals associated with the Faculty of Theology at UP, reflect on the journals’ historical roots, editorial focuses, distinctive features, subscription and language statistics and on their’ contribution to support the academic study of theology and related disciplines. The Faculty of Theology was founded in 1917 and celebrated its ninetieth birthday in 2007. The origin of its journals dates back to 1943. This article discusses the challenges that academic journals face in South Africa and undertakes strategic planning for the future. A concluding addendum, consisting of statistical diagrams with regard to the journals’ profile during the last five years, illustrates the argument.

  9. Information available within the PRECIS data bank of the National Herbarium, Pretoria, with examples of uses to which it may be put

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W Morris

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The contents of the computerized information storage and retrieval system (PRECIS of the National Herbarium, Pretoria (PRE are described at length mainly by means of frequency histograms of descriptor codes. The frequency distributions found are discussed in the light of the history of the herbarium, the geography of the area and the habits of plant collectors. Two uses of PRECIS are illustrated by example. Firstly, the flowering phenology of  Eragrostis capensis, Themeda triandra and Heteropogon contortus is plotted and, secondly, the route followed by Dinter in South West Africa/Namibia from December 1933 until March 1935 is described. It is concluded that the system should be o f particular use in revisionary studies, regional floras and biogeographic research.

  10. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetlefs, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  11. A dual-process model of diversity outcomes: The case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related stream of negative antecedents, mediating passive coping skills and ill-health related outcomes. Motivation for the study: To test the viability of a dual-process model to understand diversity outcomes in the workplace. Research design, approach and methods: A convenience sample (n= 158 was recruited from members of the SAPS in Gauteng, using a cross-sectional design. Instruments used in previous acculturation research were adapted to measure contextual factors, coping and diversity outcomes. Main findings: A very good fit for the proposed hypothetical model was found. Approach coping partially mediated the relationship between positive acculturation conditions and the subjective experience of work success whereas avoidance coping fully mediated the relationship between discrimination, and ill-health symptoms are related to ill-health symptoms. Practical/managerial implications: Mainstream-facilitating conditions and discrimination influence individual coping styles, which in turn impact on ill-health and the subjective experience of work success. In addition, ill-health also impacts negatively on work-success experiences amongst the sampled SAPS members. It would thus make sense for the SAPS to sanction discrimination. Contribution/value added: A variation of the mediated dual-process model for diversity (Jackson & Van de Vijver, in press, using coping strategies as mediators was supported. The model adds new insights in diversity in organisations.

  12. Effects of exogenous human insulin dose adjustment on body mass index in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, 2009 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohlang Solomon A Sehloho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. To maintain fasting blood glucose levels within near to the normal range in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM, frequent insulin dose adjustments may be required with short-, intermediate- and long-acting insulin formulations. Patients on human insulin generally experience weight gain over time, regardless of the level of glycaemic control achieved. Objectives. To determine the effects of human insulin, adjusted quarterly to achieve glycaemic control, on body mass index (BMI, and establish dose regimens that achieve optimal glycaemic control without increasing BMI in patients with type 1 DM at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. The sample size (N=211, 48.8% male was obtained by non-probability convenience sampling of all available records of patients with type 1 DM aged ≥18 years at baseline at the clinic. The longitudinal relationships of covariates with time-varying BMI, as well as with time-varying glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels, were explored using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression modelling. Results. The majority of the patients (84.8% received the twice-daily biphasic human insulin regimen and the remainder received the basal neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH plus prandial regular human insulin regimen. The multivariable multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model indicated that time-varying BMI was significantly positively related to time-varying twice-daily biphasic insulin dosage (β (standard error 0.464 (0.190, p=0.015, baseline HbA1c (0.092 (0.026, p<0.001 and baseline BMI (0.976 (0.016, p<0.001. There were significant inverse associations with the number of years spent in the study (–0.108 (0.052, p=0.038, time-varying HbA1c (–0.154 (0.031, p<0.001 and male sex (–0.783 (0.163, p<0.001. There were non-significant negative longitudinal associations of age (–0.005 (0.006, p=0.427 and current smoking status (–0.231 (0.218, p=0.290 with BMI outcomes. Conclusions. There was

  13. Mathematics at matriculation level as an indicator of success or failure in the 1st year of the Veterinary Nursing Diploma at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Botha

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics at matriculation level (Grade 12 is one of the subjects required for admission to the Veterinary Nursing Diploma in the Faculty at Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria. The present study shows that there is no statistically significant relationship between the grade of mathematics at matriculation level and the success or failure in the 1st year of study. There is, however, a statistical difference in the adjusted mark obtained for mathematics at matriculation level between the groups that passed and failed the 1st year of the veterinary nursing course. The results of this research are not consistent with other research which showed that secondary school mathematics results are not a significant factor in tertiary education. It is recommended that selection criteria for veterinary nurses should in future still include mathematics, but that cognisance should be taken of the mark obtained and students with higher marks (above 57 % given preference.

  14. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  15. "My Attitude, My Responsibility" Investigating the Attitudes and Intentions of Pre-Service Teachers toward Inclusive Education between Teacher Preparation Cohorts in Melbourne and Pretoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subban, Pearl; Mahlo, Dikeledi

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes and intentions of pre-service teachers towards inclusive education, across two teacher preparation institutions in Australia and South Africa. There were multiple aims to the study: among these was a need to explore the impact of contextual factors on pre-service teacher attitudes towards inclusive education, and…

  16. IMPACTS !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  17. impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adámek Vítězslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of non-stationary vibration of an elastic beam caused by a transverse impact loading is studied in this work. In particular, two different approaches to the derivation of analytical solution of the problem are compared. The first one is based on the Timoshenko beam theory, the latter one follows the exact two-dimensional theory. Both mentioned methods are used for finding the response of an infinite homogeneous isotropic beam. The obtained analytical results are then compared and their agreement is discussed in relation to main factors, i.e. the beam geometry, the character of loading and times and points at which the beams responses are studied.

  18. A note on Ruppia species (Ruppiaceae) from the abandoned saltpan in the Gulf of Kutch, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.; Savant, S.B.; Jagtap, T.G.

    and environmental characteristics, confirmed close resemblance of the genus with Ruppia rostellata Koch. However, pollen morphology is suggestive of an ecological adaptation or a new variety of R. rostellata. Vegetation remains for the short period (June-October...

  19. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Olah, Angela; McCurry, Matthew R; Potze, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    -resolution digital data that improves collections accessibility, reduces unnecessary duplication of efforts by researchers, and encourages ongoing imaging-based paleobiological research across a range of South African non-hominin fossil faunas. Because the types, paratypes, and key specimens include globally-distributed mammal taxa, this digital archive not only provides 3D morphological data on taxa fundamental to Neogene and Quaternary South African palaeontology, but also lineages critical to research on African, other Old World, and New World paleocommunities. With such a broader impact of the DNMNH 3D data, we hope that establishing open access to this digital archive will encourage other researchers and institutions to provide similar resources that increase accessibility to paleontological collections and support advanced paleobiological analyses.

  20. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Adams

    high-resolution digital data that improves collections accessibility, reduces unnecessary duplication of efforts by researchers, and encourages ongoing imaging-based paleobiological research across a range of South African non-hominin fossil faunas. Because the types, paratypes, and key specimens include globally-distributed mammal taxa, this digital archive not only provides 3D morphological data on taxa fundamental to Neogene and Quaternary South African palaeontology, but also lineages critical to research on African, other Old World, and New World paleocommunities. With such a broader impact of the DNMNH 3D data, we hope that establishing open access to this digital archive will encourage other researchers and institutions to provide similar resources that increase accessibility to paleontological collections and support advanced paleobiological analyses.

  1. Volhoubare fasiliteitsbestuur in winkelsentrums in Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die redes vir die implementering van die volhoubare fasi li teitsbestuursmetodes. •. Die redes waarom volhoubare fasiliteitsbestuursmetodes nie geïmplementeer word nie. •. Die invloed van volhoubare fasiliteitsbestuurstegnieke op die bestuur en instandhouding van die eiendomme. •. Persepsies en sieninge oor volhou ...

  2. Security 2004: ISSUP Conference: Pretoria, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Ester. Kerneels Breytenbach. Pretoria: Human & Rousseau, 2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    met haar lol of op sinistere manier haar geheue besoedel. Niks hoef aan hom verduidelik te word oor die nar in die vi- sier nie, 'n hangery hoef nie geregverdig te word nie, hoogverraad hoef nie aan hom uitgewys te word in die statute van halsmisdade nie — hy beweeg reeds aan, getransformeer, vlerke aan die voete, sy.

  4. University of Natal, Durban C SIR, Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of seasonal emergence to the swarming of termites which form its main type of food. INTRODUCTION. Breviceps ... Some thirteen species of Breviceps can be recognized, and they may conveniently be arranged in a sequence according ..... BROADLEY, D. G. 1967. A new species of Probreviceps (Amphibia) from Rhodesia.

  5. Mammal Research Unit, University of Pretoria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territorial males formed a network of territories, although single territorial males could also be observed. ... territorial advertising, although he was not aware of their social significance in a wildebeest population. ...... The very pronounced urination-Flehmen sequence of the genus Connochaetes has not been reported in ...

  6. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZOOLOGICA AFRICANA. VOL 12 numbers of animals in these two age classes could not be used to estimate ages from birth dates as Fisher & Perry (1970) did on the grey squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis. TABLE 1. Sample size of bush squirrels, Paraxerus c. cepapi, collected from different localities. Locality. Naboomspruit.

  7. Mammal Research Unit, University of Pretoria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burchell (1823) described the solitary black wildebeest bulls as far back as 1823 and their territorial advertising, although he was not aware of their social significance in a wildebeest population. Territorial behaviour in the black wildebeest was mentioned for the first time by Estes. (1969) . ... Present address: Department of ...

  8. Geskiedenis van die Geneeskunde in Pretoria*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 1971 ... Elandspoort het aan Andries van der WaIt behoort en. Daspoort aan Joggem Tweeduim Prinsloo. ... Van der Hoff en die Vierkleur, ook deur horn ontwerp, word vir die eerste keer gehys. Die eerste ... met net 'n ketting van 50 voet, en 'n verkyker tot sy beskikking. Al die strate was 80 voet breed behalwe ...

  9. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of variance and simple linear regression used in this paper, but a more complex analysison such a small sample cannot be justified without a reliable technique for age determina- tion. An analysis of variance of a subjective divisionof adult animals into age classes based on tooth wear (Irby, 1973) and a regression of mass ...

  10. Direct radiative forcing of urban aerosols over Pretoria (25.75°S, 28.28°E) using AERONET Sunphotometer data: First scientific results and environmental impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adesina, AJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available found that monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD, τa) exhibits two maxima that occurred in summer (February) and winter (August) having values of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.14, respectively, high-to-moderate values in spring and thereafter, decreases...

  11. The Impact of an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE Program on the Professional Practice of Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Folake Aluko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of a distance education program offered by the University of Pretoria, South Africa, on the professional practice of teachers. A pilot study was conducted using a combination of surveys and focus group interviews. Findings reveal that the program was beneficial to graduates’ personal development, professional practice, schools, learners, and colleagues. Further, principals who participated in the study attested to the differences they observed between the graduates and other teachers who had not been exposed to such a program. Suggestions for improvements included the introduction of subjects taught at school as areas of specialization, involvement of school principals in the assessment of enrolled students, visits to schools by the organizers, and exposure of students to the practical opportunities offered by the program (with portfolios that could be a part of the assessment.

  12. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant bacterium from Indian saltpan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilla Sankara Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 4.86-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis strain Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant rod shaped bacterium isolated from a salt pan near port of Okha, India. This bacterium is a potential model to study the molecular response of bacteria to salt as well as alkaline stress, as it thrives under both high salt and high pH conditions. The draft genome consist of 4,865,284 bp with 38.2% G + C, 4952 predicted CDS, 157 tRNAs and 8 rRNAs. Sequence was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession JRJU00000000.

  13. die bome reusagtig soos ons was. Hilda Smits. Pretoria: Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te dink later het die park 'n geheime taal begin praat die lig geluidloos soos deur Ma se sif geval die gras stil geword. In hierdie vers maak Smits gebruik van antropomorfisme waarin menslike eienskappe toegeskryf word aan nie- menslike wesens soos diere, plante en dinge, soos byvoorbeeld in reël 5 en reël 7 hierbo.

  14. Incidence of atmospheric pollen in the Pretoria- Witwatersrand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... Department of Botany, University of the Witwatersrand,. Johannesburg. A. CADMAN, M.Se. Aettp,ed 18 lan 1990. have changed considerably since his surveys were undertaken. Not only are there the effects of industrialisation"and changing land-use panerns, but also the results of altered gardening.

  15. Jasmyn. Pieter Fourie. 2008. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis. 67 pp. ISBN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2 Jan 2009 ... Sy is egter soos die boer, Karel, in Koggel- manderman, 'n “has been”, “'n vervalle ou skoonheidsikoon” (vergelyk die flapteks), en baron Carlos se erflating is slegs die moto- riese moment wat tot hierdie gevolgtrekking lei. Sy ontvang die geld op voorwaarde dat sy 'n minnaar werf wat minstens twintig jaar.

  16. Portrette in my gang. Dolf van Niekerk. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    instink en rede kan verder afgelees word uit die metaforiese lading in 'n titel soos Nag op 'n kaal plein (wat, terloops, herinner aan die titel van Bernlef se skitterende Nederlandse vertalings van die Sweedse Nobelprysdigter Tomas. Tranströmer, Het wilde plein). Van Niekerk se belangstelling in die klassiek—in die huidige ...

  17. Poppekas. Deborah Steinmair. Pretoria: LAPA Uitge- wers, 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pende tema, en entrepreneurskap (soos ver- gestalt deur Liam se suksesvolle rekenaar- speletjie-onderneming) word subtiel aange- bied as alternatief wat die individu in staat stel om sy eie drome te verwesenlik. Die uitbeelding van Wiesa as vroulike heldin is ook een van die vele sterkpunte van dié veelvlakkige roman.

  18. Continuity of care of outpatients with schizophrenia in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To study the needs of outpatients suffering from schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. Methods. A qualitative descriptive design was selected to study the needs of a non-probability purposive sample of 50 outpatients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. Data were collected on their ...

  19. Volksmoeders in verset: Afrikaner-vroueoptogte in Pretoria, 1915 en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and petitions, the religious milieu in which the marches were undertaken and the attire of the participants. Public and press reaction to the marches, including the writing of poems on them, are also focussed on. Finally attention is given to references to the participants as “mothers of the nation” and to the legacy of the ...

  20. Vaarwel klein soldaat. Piet van Rooyen. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hedendaagse Japannese manga en anime word Miko dikwels uitgebeeld as gevaarlike vrouekrygers. Die strokiesprentagtige voor- stelling van 'n meisie in 'n gevegsposisie op die voorblad van Vaarwel, klein soldaat kan in verband gebring word met dié genres. Die roman herinner ook aan ander populêre genres.

  1. Incidence of atmospheric pollen in the Pretoria- Witwatersrand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... the atmospheric sample is discussed. S AIr Med J 1991; 79: 84-87. The elegant aerobiological studies of Ordman1,2 have offered the only published South African data in the field of atmos- pheric pollen and spores to date. It is highly likely that these. Department of Botany, University of the Witwatersrand,.

  2. Pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilisation at the Pretoria unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This retrospective study was conducted to ascer- tain the success rate of a university-based in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programme. Over a 4-year period a total of881 patients was aspirated with an. 81,8% embryo transfer (ET) rate. This resulted in. 150 biochemical pregnancies (20,8% per ET), and. 92 births that ...

  3. Early Presbyterian influences at the University of Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    independence, the community of sharing a common task, and the engagement of body, mind and soul. (Orr Macdonald 2000:352). This was the tradition in which both Paterson and Macmillan were reared as children of the manse and they benefited from the opportunities which life in. Scotland presented to them.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Atopy in HIV-infected children in Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which has been found to be present in 45% of asthmatics in. Johannesburg.15. The pathogenesis of eczema is thought to be related to allergen uptake by the Langerhans cells in the skin via specific. IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptors on cell surfaces, resulting in an allergen-specific T-cell response in memory CD4.

  5. Land van skedels. Nicola Hanekom. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die invoeg van foto's geneem tydens die opvoering van die werk) onderstreep so. 'n beskouing. Die flardes gesprekke, kort tonele, wisseling van karakters, gebruik van musiek (sang en dansers) en senso- riese beskrywings, versterk die teks se duidelike verbintenis tot sy opvoerings- gerigtheid. Die ideaal sou wees om.

  6. Goeie dood wat saggies byt. Ilse van Staden. Pretoria: Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hoe 'n boek lyk nie, maar die foto van. 'n aggressiewe hond op die voorblad is meer gepas vir 'n riller as 'n roman wat te doen het met die verhouding tussen mens, dier en die dood. Die titelblad waarop die titel oor twee bladsye in groot, swart letters (waarvan sommige woorde in kursief en sommige in hooflet- ters is) na jou ...

  7. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence (assault).[4]. The high incidence of child fatalities due to road traffic accidents has been well documented worldwide. In San Diego, Fraga et al.[1] reported. (in their study conducted at the medico-legal mortuary) that road traffic fatalites were the leading cause of accidental death (40.2% of cases). In. Nebraska ...

  8. Childhood and adolescent fatalities at the Pretoria Medico-Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brazil, Modelli et al.,[8] reporting on deaths in children <12 years, found the leading external cause of death to be road traffic fatalities (22% of cases). ... Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town. They indicated that 430 children were involved as pedestrians in accidents over a. 12-month period, with 106 ...

  9. An evaluation of the customer service in supermarkets in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    market departments in Woolworths or Woolworths. Foods when we do .... the other stores (Levy & Weitz, 2001:152). Consumer satisfaction however does not necessarily result in store loyalty; consumers who are highly satisfied with a store's CS may for ... ingful information and then apply this consciously or subconsciously ...

  10. Pretoria medical students' perspectives on the assessable attributes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Physician's Charter, 'Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium”, was published by the. Annals of Internal Medicine in February 2002. ... assessing and monitoring attitude de- velopment, and for sensitising staff and students to ...... Tapper-Jones L, Houston H. Assessment of professional attitude and conduct in medi-.

  11. Pretoria medical students' perspectives on assessable attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attributes used to describe professionalism were grouped under four main domains: attitude and personal conduct, teamwork, patient care and professional competence. These correspond, to some extent, with the Charter. Most of the students, however, stressed the humanistic attributes of professional behaviour, ...

  12. Anthropometric status of Pretoria children of four populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total percentage increases per 10 years of growth and average triennial percentage increases were calculated for 11 anthropometric variables in males and females aged 6-15 years from four South African populations studied crossseetionally. The. increase of various measurements for each population was discussed and ...

  13. Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) – the Pretoria experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organ most commonly affected was the stomach, and abdominal pain and weight loss were the most common presenting symptoms. Seventy-six per cent of the patients were treated surgically, and 24% received imatinib. Conclusion. GISTs often present late with nonspecific symptoms, and are frequently discovered ...

  14. Toe Elvis ophou sing. Juanita Aggenbach. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Melanie oor wie se lewe dit hier gaan, grootword en die huis verlaat waar haar pa in sy besopenheid die meubels en haar ma verniel, is die perspektief op byvoorbeeld seks romanties versluierd en al die emo- sionele reaksies ondanks die grimmigheid daarvan gerusstellend eerder as skokkend openbarend.

  15. Genital impacts Genital impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe G Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992. All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diagetic spaces. intend to compare the three images and investigate the nature of their impacts, not directly in terms of morality, but in their relation with two theoretical assumptions: (1 the intense way in which, according to Linda Nicholson (1999, so many cultures insist in interpreting bodies and genitalia as still capable of defining gender characters, and (2 the notion of image, not as representation, but as image itself, as “what it is”, or as “the place of every transformation in the universe”, as suggested first by Bergson (2005, and then by Deleuze (1983-5, Rancière (2001 and Agamben (1995. The Deleuzean retard may indicate the way in which genitalia, as image, turn into enigma, in the very passage from nature to culture. The three shots give back to those clear images of genitalia the property they have always had: their character of central pieces in the game of such passage. The contrast between such simple and clear images and all those complex games corresponds to the nature of the impact I want to investigate. film; genitalia; narrative. I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA

  16. Predicted versus expressed adipokinetic hormones, and other small peptides from the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum: A case study with beetles and moths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Audsley, N.; Clark, K. D.; Weaver, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2008), s. 1124-1139 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) 2053806; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insects * neuropeptides * adipokinetic peptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  17. The impact of crime and the fear thereof on the nature and use of public space in the capital city of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Landman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of insecurity, crime and inequality remain very high in Brazilian and South African cities. Consequently, wealthier residents retreat to protected common spaces behind walls and fences. As a result, there has been a growth of many quasi-public spaces in shopping malls and gated communities. This raises questions regarding the change of public space and the impact of crime and the fear thereof on the use of these spaces. The discussion shows how the form and function of different spaces in the capital city of South Africa, Pretoria, have changed in various parts of the city through neglect, revitalization and privatization and how this have shaped the experience of users in relation to crime and the fear thereof. The paper argues for a more nuanced reading of the transformation of public space. Firstly, it recognizes that in rapidly changing cities of transitional countries there may still be a need for different types of public spaces, including those in gated communities. Secondly, although safety is a major concern among users of public space, it does not imply that gated communities offers the only solution to safe public space. Therefore, alternatives approaches should be considered.

  18. Impact cratering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, further improvement of our understanding of the physico–chemical and geological processes fundamental to the impact cratering process is required for reliable numerical modeling of the process, and also for the correlation of impact magnitude and environmental effects. Over the last few decades, impact ...

  19. Jonkershoek research catchments: history and impacts on commercial forestry in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapman, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available , ADA (2000). A Re-analysis of the South African catchment afforestation experimental data. Water Research Commission Report No. 810/1/00, Pretoria, South Africa. Pp 137. Wicht, CL 1(939) Forest influences research technique at Jonkershoek...

  20. Article Impact Means Journal Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Matzat, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    These days there is a lot of misunderstanding of scientometrics and we often see a confusion of the research with its indicators. Science ministries and university administrators try to push their country's or institution's "research impact" by telling researchers to increase numeric figures that were invented as proxies for later assessment. In obvious juxtaposition to common sense this even leads to direct orders to postdocs "to only publish in high impact journals" and not to engage in oth...

  1. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  2. Triple Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    24 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.5 meters per pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of three aligned meteor impact craters on the floor of a much larger crater in the Noachis Terra region. The craters may have formed together from a single event in which the impactor (the meteor) was broken into three pieces. Location near: 33.9oS, 10.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  3. Impact Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater, roughly the size of the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona, U.S.A., in western Elysium Planitia. Light-toned, windblown ripples of sediment have accumulated in subtle troughs and in the lee -- the downwind side -- of the crater. Location near: 28.4oN, 247.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  4. Een stad, drie rooikoppe, sewe dae. Adeline en Lili Radloff. Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dink duidelik verklap dat hy met 'n diep verbitterdheid rassisties, seksisties en homo- fobies is. Reeds met die “proloog” word daar begin om subtiel spanning op te bou en te sorg dat die leser begin bespiegel. Daar is hoofstukke wat slegs uit dialoog of. 'n telefoonoproep bestaan—'n goeie illustrasie van die skryfreël show, ...

  5. Reasons for inpatients not to seek clarity at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langalibalele H. Mabuza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare practitioners should provide patients with information regarding their clinical conditions. Patients should also feel free to seek clarity on information provided. However, not all patients seek this clarity.Objectives: To explore the reasons inpatients gave for not seeking clarity on information that was received but not understood.Methods: This was a qualitative arm of a larger study, titled ‘Are inpatients aware of the admission reasons and management plans of their clinical conditions? A survey at a tertiary hospital in South Africa’, conducted in 2010. Of the 264 inpatients who participated in the larger study, we extracted the unstructured responses from those participants (n = 152 who had indicated in the questionnaire that there was information they had not understood during their encounter with healthcare practitioners, but that they had nonetheless not sought clarity.Data were analysed thematically.Results: Themes that emerged were that inpatients did not ask for clarity as they perceived healthcare practitioners to be ‘too busy’, aloof, non-communicators and sometimes uncertain about patients’ conditions. Some inpatients had unquestioning trust in healthcare practitioners,whilst others had experiences of bad treatment. Inpatients had poor self-esteem, incapacitating clinical conditions, fear of bad news and prior knowledge of their clinical conditions. Some inpatients stated that they had no reason for not seeking clarity.Conclusion: The reasons for not seeking clarity were based on patients’ experiences with the healthcare practitioners and their perceptions of the latter and of themselves. A programme should be developed in order to educate inpatients on effective communication with their healthcare practitioners.

  6. The Causes of Late Coming among High School Students in Soshanguve, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Maile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Late coming to school has become a major problem in many schools, particularly township schools with serious consequences. Current research has demonstrated that many schools in South Africa are performing badly due to inefficient use of the teaching and learning time. In this article, we argue that while major administrative interventions are undertaken to improve the quality of learning and teaching, it seems that very little attention is paid to late-coming. Late-coming has become a cancer that saps away big interventions and strays the performance of selected township schools in a different direction. The purpose of this research is to investigate the causes of late-coming among high school students in selected secondary schools of Shoshanguve. A qualitative approach was used to draw data from high school students in selected secondary schools of Shoshanguve. The findings reveal that late-coming is common among learners in selected secondary schools of Shoshanguve. It happens every day for varying reasons. We recommended practical solutions ranging from administrative improvement to learner behavioural change.

  7. at 1988 ulceration 1979 of peptic Hospital, Pretoria Ten-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... observed with increasing frequency in the black population of ... urban blacks. In 1979 Robbs and Moshal7 reported a l2-fold increase in DU from 1950 to 1976 in Durban blacks. Part of this increase, however, may have been due to the incieasing ..... The present study does not bear out the comment in the.

  8. Entrepreneurship Education: Enhancing or Discouraging Graduate Start-Up at the University of Pretoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Melodi; Ras, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of BCom Entrepreneurship graduates, as well as a control group to determine whether the exposure to entrepreneurship education can enhance actual business start-up. Information was collected on how they experienced the learning approaches, and the value which they had derived from the degree. This…

  9. Reasons patients leave their nearest healthcare service to attend Karen Park Clinic, Pretoria North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes T. Masango- Makgobela

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: The majority of patients who had attended their nearest clinic were adamant that they would not return. It is necessary to reduce waiting times, thus reducing long queues. This can be achieved by having adequate, satisfied healthcare providers to render a quality service and by organising training for management. Patients can thus be redirected to their nearest clinic and the health centre’s capacity can be increased by procuring adequate drugs. There is a need to follow up on patients’ complaints about staff attitudes.

  10. Fatalities involving illicit drug use in Pretoria, South Africa, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently detected drug was heroin, the presence of which was confirmed in 35.2% of cases, followed by cocaine in. 19.9%. Alcohol in combination with an illicit drug or drugs was detected in 56 cases (36.4%). Conclusions. Results from this study indicate that illicit drugs were implicated in a considerable number ...

  11. Fatalities involving illicit drug use in Pretoria, South Africa, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently detected drug was heroin, the presence of which was confirmed in 35.2% of cases, followed by cocaine in 19.9%. Alcohol in combination with an illicit drug or drugs was detected in 56 cases (36.4%). Conclusions. Results from this study indicate that illicit drugs were implicated in a considerable number ...

  12. Dry matter production curves of Ariki ryegrass pastures at Pretoria | J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigated Ariki ryegrass produced 13,7 and 9,2 m t/ha green dry matter during the first and second growing seasons respectively. It was most productive in spring, because the growth rate decreased throughout the growing season. This necessitated increasingly long periods of absence of 23, 39, 39 and 48 days under ...

  13. Reasons for inpatients not to seek clarity at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langalibalele H. Mabuza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare practitioners should provide patients with information regarding their clinical conditions. Patients should also feel free to seek clarity on information provided. However, not all patients seek this clarity. Objectives: To explore the reasons inpatients gave for not seeking clarity on information that was received but not understood. Methods: This was a qualitative arm of a larger study, titled ‘Are inpatients aware of the admission reasons and management plans of their clinical conditions? A survey at a tertiary hospital in South Africa’, conducted in 2010. Of the 264 inpatients who participated in the larger study, we extracted the unstructured responses from those participants (n = 152 who had indicated in the questionnaire that there was information they had not understood during their encounter with healthcare practitioners, but that they had nonetheless not sought clarity.Data were analysed thematically. Results: Themes that emerged were that inpatients did not ask for clarity as they perceived healthcare practitioners to be ‘too busy’, aloof, non-communicators and sometimes uncertain about patients’ conditions. Some inpatients had unquestioning trust in healthcare practitioners,whilst others had experiences of bad treatment. Inpatients had poor self-esteem, incapacitating clinical conditions, fear of bad news and prior knowledge of their clinical conditions. Some inpatients stated that they had no reason for not seeking clarity. Conclusion: The reasons for not seeking clarity were based on patients’ experiences with the healthcare practitioners and their perceptions of the latter and of themselves. A programme should be developed in order to educate inpatients on effective communication with their healthcare practitioners.

  14. “give us this day our daily bread” – clergy's lived religion in pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    project” has evolved into engagement with manifold challenges that are linked to the locality and the time ..... to prevent burnout. Denominational gatherings are full of such well-meaning but unhelpful workshops. Yet, despite knowing this, most busy clergy cannot take the advice that they freely give to others. The standard.

  15. 24th Annual Seminar on theoretical physics, Pretoria, 10-14 July 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This seminar contains 14 papers which are all indexed separately. Topics covered include: real-time green functions in perturbative thermal field theories; non-perturbative calculations in cavity-QCD; cavity-QCD in a background field and hadrons containing a heavy quark; the quark self-energy in a cavity; the hadron spectrum from lattice QCD; exotic hadrons and the isospin delection rule in K → π π decays; nucleon form factors in the relavistic harmonic oscillator potential for quarks; a dirac description of nuclear polarized beam scattering; coherent nuclear energy levels in a supermanifold; macroscopic description of low-lying isovector 1 + states in deformed nuclei; J/ψ suppression in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; transport coefficients in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; decay of interactions during dislocation unbinding in adlayers; and influence of electron-magnon interaction on electronic and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic 4f-systems

  16. Spectrometer and Radiative Transfer Model Comparison using High Sun In-Situ Observations in Pretoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, MD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is need for reliable in-situ spectral solar irradiance measurements. For instance, the spectrally resolved irradiance may be used to infer its influence on radiative forcing of climate and in solar energy applications. In any case, reliable...

  17. Die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A) aan die Universiteit van Pretoria; Vrae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mer, Maart 1961, bl 5, 9, 10, 16. — 1961b. Logos en Ideologia: Woord en skynwoord. HTS 16, 300-307. Geyser, P A 1986. Nuwe-Testamentici besin oor pseudepigrafie en lesergerigte her- meneutiek. Die Hervormer, Desember 1986, bl 16. — 1987. Leerhandeling en lesers van Lukas 12:35-48. Die Hervormer, Mei 1987, bl.

  18. mission as action in hope in the context of white poverty in pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    labour market have been characterized by a plethora of legislation that was instrumental in maintaining, until the early 1970s, a workforce strictly divided on the basis of race (Bhorat 2001:3). Between 1902 and 1971 the high rate of unemployment, cheap labour, exploitation, job reservation, and other South African labour ...

  19. Determining the availability of, and access to, fresh fruit and vegetables in Arcadia and Eastwood, Pretoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phaphana, HM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that food choices are affected by the food environment. Similarly, the presence of fruit and vegetables in the home results in greater fruit and vegetable consumption by children. A food desert is an area without ready access to fresh...

  20. Die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A) aan die Universiteit van Pretoria; Vrae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    definition is called for and some relevant issues are indicated; an honest evaluation in respect of the political and social context which is reflected in positions adopted, a pastoral compassion which takes note of human misery, cognisance of the

  1. Een stad, drie rooikoppe, sewe dae. Adeline en Lili Radloff. Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Prysenswaardige eienskap van Een stad, drie rooikoppe, sewe dae, is die sonder-hand- skoene gebruik van humor. In hierdie opsig kan die roman beskryf word as 'n misdaad- komedie wat in 'n vernuwing van Marita van der Vyver-styl gelaai is met ironiese, skerp, sarkastiese, droë, byderwetse, tong-in-die-kies humor.

  2. 1 dae vol spanning in 1895-1896: die jameson-inval. pretoria bedreig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Ottoshoop, gevolg deur 'n telegram dat 800 man onder dr. L. S. Jameson ver- moedelik na Johannesburg opruk, ~nsy besit gekry. Daarna is, van militere kant, teenmaatreels getref wat, op 2 Januarie 1896, tot die oorgawe van die invallers op die plaas Vlakfontein, naby Doornkop, gelei het. Na die oorgawe het dr.

  3. Fate and behavior of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles and a bacterial viability assessment in a simulated wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available . Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered 485 Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment. Accounts of Chemistry 486 Research, DOI: 10.1021/ar300030n. 487 488 19 17. Woodrow Wilson Institute, Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory. 489... Impacts Research Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P.O. 8 Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 9 2Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag 10 X680, Pretoria, South Africa3Water...

  4. The first decapeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in Heteroptera: A novel AKH from a South African saucer bug, Laccocoris spurcus (Naucoridae, Laccocorinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Gäde, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2011), s. 454-460 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Laccocoris spurcus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2011

  5. The facilitation of adoption and use of text intensive mobile services by low-literate users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matyila, M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of adoption and use of text intensive mobile services by low-literate users. Muzi Matyila 1, 2 , Adele Botha 1, 2 and George Sibiya 1 1 Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa 2 University of South Africa, Pretoria, South... service design in general with potential impact on their socio- economic participation. Funding 27. Funding Centre for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) The flow diagram of PRISMA for study selection involving the stages of identification...

  6. Grazing Impact Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, J.G.; Water, van de W.; Molenaar, J.

    2000-01-01

    An impact oscillator is a periodically driven system that hits a wall when its amplitude exceeds a critical value. We study impact oscillations where collisions with the wall are with near-zero velocity (grazing impacts). A characteristic feature of grazing impact dynamics is a geometrically

  7. Impactitis: The impact factor myth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the early 1960s, Eugene Garfield and Irving Sher created the journal impact factor to help select journals for the Science Citation Index (SCI. Today it has become a widespread subject of controversy even for Garfield, the man who created it who is quoted saying " Impact Factor is not a perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of already being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation". The use of the term "impact factor" has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to include both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors. Journal impact factors generally involve relatively large populations of articles and citations. Individual authors, on average, produce much smaller numbers of articles. Objectives: Impact factor, an index based on the frequency with which a journal′s articles are cited in scientific publications, is a putative marker of journal quality. However, empiric studies on impact factor′s validity as an indicator of quality are lacking. The authors try to evaluate and highlight the validity of Impact Factors and its significance as a tool of assessment for scientific publications. Methods: Analysis of the several reports in literature and from their own point of view. Conclusion: A journal′s impact factor is based on 2 elements: the numerator, which is the number of citations in the current year to any items published in a journal in the previous 2 years, and the denominator, which is the number of substantive articles (source items published in the same 2 years. The impact factor could just as easily be based on the previous year′s articles alone, which would give an even greater weight to rapidly changing fields.

  8. Socio-economic impacts of extreme weather events in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available .L. and Vincent, K. 2017: Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa (2nd Ed), CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa. For correspondence about this handbook, please email Claire Davis-Reddy: cdavis@csir.co.za © CSIR 2017. All rights... that in which it is published. ISBN 978-0-620-76522-0 (electronic version) Risk and Vulnerability A HANDBOOK FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA Second Edition CLIMATE Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | i 3.1. Introduction Southern Africa...

  9. Impact of the CSIR heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) on the performance of the SA road network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) on the performance of the SA road network L DU PLESSIS, C RUST AND E HORAK CSIR Built Environment PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: lduplessis@csir.co.za - www.csir.co.za Trade growth in South Africa... deterioration of a road over its design life (usually 20 years) in as little as three months. The HVS utilises unique instruments to measure and analyse the engineering performance of the road structure and individual material layers. This enables...

  10. Impacted Wisdom Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacted wisdom teeth Overview Impacted wisdom teeth are third molars at the back of the mouth that don't have enough room to ... to tooth decay and gum disease than other teeth are. Impacted wisdom teeth that cause pain or other dental ...

  11. Impacted wisdom teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Thomas B.; Susarla, Srinivas M.

    2014-01-01

    Impacted wisdom teeth (third molars) occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position. They can cause pain, swelling, and infection, and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone.The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth is high, with some 72% of Swedish people aged 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted wisdom tooth.

  12. Impacted wisdom teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Thomas B; Susarla, Srinivas M

    2010-01-01

    Impacted wisdom teeth occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position. They can cause pain, swelling, and infection, and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone.The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth is high, with some 72% of Swedish people aged 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted third molar.

  13. Jupiter G Impact Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This mosaic of WFPC-2 images shows the evolution of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G impact site on Jupiter. The images from lower left to upper right show: the impact plume at 07/18/94 07:38 UT (about 5 minutes after the impact); the fresh impact site at 07/18/94 at 09:19 UT (1.5 hours after impact); the impact site after evolution by the winds of Jupiter (left), along with the L impact (right), taken on 07/21/94 at 6:22 UT (3 days after the G impact and 1.3 days after the L impact); and further evolution of the G and L sites due to winds and an additional impact (S) in the G vicinity, taken on 07/23/94 at 08:08 UT (5 days after the G impact).This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  14. Impact Effects Calculator. Orbital Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazachev, D.; Naroenkov, S.; Kartashova, A.; Turuntaev, I.; Svetsov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Popova, O.; Podobnaya, E.

    2017-09-01

    Next-generation Impact Calculator for quick assessment of impact consequences is preparing. The estimates of impact effects are revised. The possibility to manipulate with the orbital parameters and to determine impact point is included.

  15. Environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewing, C.

    1986-01-01

    The adoption of US-type environmental impact statements is considered to be approaching. Environmental impact statements are defined as comprehensive analyses of the future effects of measures on environmental conditions with the aim of avoiding ecological disadvantages. The recommendation ratified by the European Communities on June 27, 1985 requires the environmental impact statement to be implemented as a mandatory procedure. The implementation is difficult to realize. Particular problems consist in the alignment of the environmental impact statement with existing administrative procedures and in the operationable formulation of the aims and results of the statement. Paragraph 72 of the administrative procedures law (VwVfG) shows that planning procedures and environmental impact statement are to be treated as two parallel regulations. The structural order of environmental impact statements must therefore be integrated into the regulations of planning procedures. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Impact assessment revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate...... to be addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation...

  17. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  18. Meteoroids Impact the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Most meteoroids are broken up by Earth's atmosphere before they reach the ground. The Moon, however, has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact they excavate a crater and generate a plume of debris. A flash of light at the moment of impact can also be seen. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by telescopes here on Earth. NASA observers use telescopes at the Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALaMO) to routinely monitor the Moon for impact flashes each month when the lunar phase is right. Flashes recorded by two telescope simultaneously rule out false signals from cosmic rays and satellites. Over 400 impact flashes have been observed by NASA since 2005. This map shows the location of each flash. No observations are made near the poles or center line. On average, one impact is observed every two hours. The brightest and longest-lasting impact flash was observed in Mare Imbrium on March 17, 2013. The imaging satellite Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, in orbit around the Moon, discovered the fresh crater created by this impact. The crater is 60 across and was caused by a meteoroid 9 inches in diameter likely traveling at a speed of 57,000 mph!

  19. CSIR Technology Impact 1998

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Technology Impact 1998.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Technology Impact 1998.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  1. Impact studies at Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.; Wicks, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of subsonic impacts on nuclear reactor plant structures have been in progress at Winfrith since 1977. These studies have examined the behaviour of concrete and metal structures under the impact of missiles typifying those derived either from the plant itself or from external sources, such as crashing aircraft. During 1986 the Winfrith programme was expanded to include studies of the behaviour of radioactive materials transport containers under impact conditions. This report initially describes the experimental facilities available for impact studies at Winfrith. These include both compressed air guns, capable of delivering payloads of up to 65 kg at sonic velocity or payloads up to 2 tonnes at speeds up to 45 ms -1 , and drop test facilities for impact testing of models, up to full-scale radioactive materials transport flasks, at relatively low speeds. Supporting facilities include a small concrete manufacturing laboratory to produce concrete targets. Assessments of the resistance of concrete or metal structures to impact damage are performed using empirical or semi-empirical correlations, derived from data obtained in well-characterised experiments, or using structural dynamics finite element codes. The codes used by the analysts and the computing facilities available for impact analysis work are described. Finally the current programme of impact studies is reviewed, recent progress is summarised and future plans outlined. (author)

  2. Change Agents & Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges facing impact assessment is finding ways to work in research and practice that allow appropriate action and critical interrogation og action to enable and support sustainable change.......One of the challenges facing impact assessment is finding ways to work in research and practice that allow appropriate action and critical interrogation og action to enable and support sustainable change....

  3. Asteroid impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some asteroids and comets with Earth-crossing orbit may impact our planet, thus we need to be able to identify the cases which could have a dangerous close approach within a century. This must be done as soon as such an asteroid is discovered, allowing for follow up observations which might contradict the impact possibility, and in the worst case to organize mitigation, possibly including deflection. The mathematical problem of predicting possible impacts, even with very low probabilities, has been solved by our group in the last few years. This paper presents the basic theory of these impact prediction, and discusses how they are practically used in the impact monitoring systems now operational, in particular the CLOMON2 robot of the Universities of Pisa and Valladolid.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Spectral Resolution on Classification of Lowland Native Grassland Communities Based on Field Spectroscopy in Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Melville

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study for the analysis of endangered lowland native grassland communities in the Tasmanian Midlands region using field spectroscopy and spectral convolution techniques. The aim of the study was to determine whether there was significant improvement in classification accuracy for lowland native grasslands and other vegetation communities based on hyperspectral resolution datasets over multispectral equivalents. A spectral dataset was collected using an ASD Handheld-2 spectroradiometer at Tunbridge Township Lagoon. The study then employed a k-fold cross-validation approach for repeated classification of a full hyperspectral dataset, a reduced hyperspectral dataset, and two convoluted multispectral datasets. Classification was performed on each of the four datasets a total of 30 times, based on two different class configurations. The classes analysed were Themeda triandra grassland, Danthonia/Poa grassland, Wilsonia rotundifolia/Selliera radicans, saltpan, and a simplified C3 vegetation class. The results of the classifications were then tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons. The results of the study indicated that hyperspectral resolution provides small but statistically significant increases in classification accuracy for Themeda and Danthonia grasslands. For other classes, differences in classification accuracy for all datasets were not statistically significant. The results obtained here indicate that there is some potential for enhanced detection of major lowland native grassland community types using hyperspectral resolution datasets, and that future analysis should prioritise good performance in these classes over others. This study presents a method for identification of optimal spectral resolution across multiple datasets, and constitutes an important case study for lowland native grassland mapping in Tasmania.

  5. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  6. The Impact of Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Didde; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates whether the empathic abilities of street-level bureaucrats have an impact on their discretionary decision-making. The impact of empathic abilities on decision-making is considered an important research question, as our knowledge remains limited as to the importance...... in correctional facilities in Denmark, with a 67.5% response rate. The findings confirm that discretionary decision-making is affected by the empathic abilities of bureaucrats. However, the impact of empathy depends on the severity of inmates' infringement against the rules. In essence, the findings demonstrate...

  7. Impact damage of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Young T.; Springer, George S.

    1986-01-01

    A model is described for estimating the impact damage of fiber reinforced composite plates. The displacements and stresses are calculated by a three dimensional transient, finite element method of solution of the governing equations applicable to a linearly elastic body. The region in which damage occurs is estimated using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. A computer code was developed which can be used to calculate the impact force, displacements and velocities of the plate and the impact body, stresses and strains in the plate, and the damage area. Sample numerical results are presented illustrating the type of information provided by the code. Comparisons between measured and calculated damage areas are also given.

  8. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  9. Community impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Industrial expansion, whether for resource extraction, refining, production or distribution and particularly the construction of energy facilities, usually has many effects on communities. In the early 1970s, as more experience was gained with large projects and as communities became more sensitive to their needs and rights, the negative effects of projects gained some prominence. Communities questioned whether it was in their best interest to accept changes that large corporations would impose on them. It is in this context that Ontario Hydro, in 1977, set up the first of four community impact agreements for the construction of generating stations. This paper discusses these community impact agreements and how they have become the framework for the management of community impacts. Also, the paper discusses a model for compensating social impacts

  10. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  11. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  12. CSIR Technology Impact 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It presents a rich canvas portrays technology solutions...

  13. Laboratory Impact Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.

    2017-12-01

    The experimental and theoretical programs at the SSERVI Institute for Modeling Plasmas, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) address the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts and the nature of the space environment of granular surfaces interacting with solar wind plasma and ultraviolet radiation. These are recognized as fundamental planetary processes due their role in shaping the surfaces of airless planetary objects, their plasma environments, maintaining dust haloes, and sustaining surface bound exospheres. Dust impacts are critically important for all airless bodies considered for possible human missions in the next decade: the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Phobos, and Deimos, with direct relevance to crew and mission safety and our ability to explore these objects. This talk will describe our newly developed laboratory capabilities to assess the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts on: 1) the gardening and redistribution of dust particles; and 2) the generation of ionized and neutral gasses on the surfaces of airless planetary bodies.

  14. CSIR Technology Impact 2002

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review (1 March 2001 - 28 February 2002) by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas....

  15. Impact Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — IMS (developed w/Iraq mission) is a system for conducting quality portfolio impact analysis, linking projects to strategy through integration of context data. IMS...

  16. CSIR Technology Impact 1994

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It presents a rich canvas portrays technology solutions...

  17. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  18. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  19. CSIR Technology Impact 2003

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review (1 March 2002 - 28 February 2003) by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in various CSIR business units....

  20. CSIR Technology Impact 1993

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It presents a rich canvas portrays technology solutions...

  1. CSIR Technology Impact 2000

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This millennium issue of Technology Impact celebrates the CSIR's contributions during the transitional 1999/2000 year. It presents a rich canvas portrays technology solutions and information which have touched the lives of people both within...

  2. CSIR Technology Impact 1999

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It presents a rich canvas portrays technology solutions...

  3. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  4. In vitro activity of tigecycline against clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nahid H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii raises a big therapeutic challenge in our hospital. Tigecycline, a new glycylcycline with expanded broad spectrum of activity against multi-drug resistant organisms was recently licensed in South Africa. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex. Methods Consecutive clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex were collected between February and July 2010. Species identification and susceptibility testing was performed by Vitek-2 colorimetric compact system with Advanced Expert System (AES. Strains were tested for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results A total of 232 carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii complex were collected over the six months study period; 217 (93.5% of these were modified Hodge test positive. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and 174 (78% susceptible to amikacin whilst 20 (9% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. For tigecycline 169 (75.8% were fully susceptible, 37 (16.6% intermediately resistant and only 17 (7.6% were fully resistant. None of the carbapenem resistant isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavullanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, cefoxitin, cefepime or nitrofurantoin. Conclusion All carbapenem resistant isolates were found to be fully susceptible to colistin; amikacin and tigecycline susceptibility was 78% and 76% respectively. Treatment options for infections due to carbapenem and multi-drug resistant A. baumannii organisms are limited and hence tigecycline and amikacin may be considered. The properties of tigecycline i.e. stability, safety, low toxicity, non cross-resistance with other antibiotics and its efficacy against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii isolates make it a good choice. However, ongoing monitoring of A. baumannii susceptibility to tigecycline is needed.

  5. Thermal performance of heavy-weight and light-weight steel frame construction approaches in the central Pretoria climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available insulated building have been shown to use 18.3% less annual space heating and cooling energy when compared to the high thermal mass building. The good thermal performance results of the light-weight building will help in clearing scepticism to adopting...

  6. A dual process model of diversity outcomes: The case of the South African Police Service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, L.T.B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Molokoane, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related) stream of negative antecedents, mediating passi...

  7. A dual–purpose model of diversity outcomes: the case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leon T.B.; Molokoane, Davey H.; Van de Vijver, Fons J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent (healthrelated) stream of negative antecedents, ...

  8. A dual-process model of diversity outcomes: The case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Leon T.B. Jackson; Fons J.R. van de Vijver; Davey H. Molokoane

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation.Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related) stream of negative antecedents, mediating passiv...

  9. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker’s exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgabutlane, M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a...

  10. Estrogenic activity, chemical levels and health risk assessment of municipal distribution point water from Pretoria and Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zijl, MC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2...

  11. 23rd Annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists, Pretoria, 4-6 July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the twenty third annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists are presented. Papers on the following topics were presented: anatomical pathology, virology, microbiology, chemical biochemistry, and haematology. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered out of scope for INIS

  12. A dual process model of diversity outcomes : The case of the South African Police Service in the Pretoria area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, L.T.B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Molokoane, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a

  13. Less (in Context) is more (Creativity): M-learning as a Short LIved Traveling Idea at the University of Pretoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, Anna; de Schryver, Tom; Twinomurinzi, Hossana; Jordaan, Dolf

    2012-01-01

    Technological innovations in ICTs have unleashed new educational practices worldwide. Most higher education institutions nowadays use different kinds of e-learning. In this paper we will show that constraining local conditions have triggered fast adoption of mobile technology in the distance

  14. The field performance of a 558 kWp ground mounted single-axis PV system in Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kitessa T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available in sunniest parts of the world where the direct normal irradiance (DNI) component of sunlight is relatively high. However, very few studies have been reported on the field performance of single axis tracking systems installed and operated in the Southern...

  15. Trace metals bioaccumulation potentials of three indigenous grasses grown on polluted soils collected around mining areas in Pretoria, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, G. N.; Olowoyo, J. O.; Modise, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phyto remediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in re mediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three indigenous grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of these grasses were introduced into pots containing polluted soil samples after the addition of organic manure. The seeds of the grasses were allowed to germinate and grow to maturity before harvesting. The harvested grasses were later separated into shoots and roots and the trace metal contents were determined using ICP –MS. From all the grasses, the concentrations of trace metals in the roots were more than those recorded in the shoot with a significant difference (P < 0.05). The transfer factor (TF) showed that Zn was the most bioaccumulated trace metals by all the grasses followed by Pb, Mn, and Cu respectively. Chromium concentration from the shoot of the grasses was in the order Urochlora moasambicensis > Themeda trianda > Cynodon dactylon. The study concluded that the three grasses used were all able to bioaccumulate trace metals in a similar proportion from the polluted soils. However, since livestock feed on these grasses, they should not be allowed to feed on the grasses used in this study especially when harvested from a polluted soil due to their bioaccumulative potentials. (au)

  16. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  17. In vitro activity of tigecycline against clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nahid H; Baba, Kamaldeen; Clay, Cornelis; Lekalakala, Ruth; Hoosen, Anwar A

    2012-05-03

    The presence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii raises a big therapeutic challenge in our hospital. Tigecycline, a new glycylcycline with expanded broad spectrum of activity against multi-drug resistant organisms was recently licensed in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex. Consecutive clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex were collected between February and July 2010. Species identification and susceptibility testing was performed by Vitek-2 colorimetric compact system with Advanced Expert System (AES). Strains were tested for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A total of 232 carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii complex were collected over the six months study period; 217 (93.5%) of these were modified Hodge test positive. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and 174 (78%) susceptible to amikacin whilst 20 (9%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. For tigecycline 169 (75.8%) were fully susceptible, 37 (16.6%) intermediately resistant and only 17 (7.6%) were fully resistant. None of the carbapenem resistant isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavullanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, cefoxitin, cefepime or nitrofurantoin. All carbapenem resistant isolates were found to be fully susceptible to colistin; amikacin and tigecycline susceptibility was 78% and 76% respectively. Treatment options for infections due to carbapenem and multi-drug resistant A. baumannii organisms are limited and hence tigecycline and amikacin may be considered. The properties of tigecycline i.e. stability, safety, low toxicity, non cross-resistance with other antibiotics and its efficacy against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii isolates make it a good choice. However, ongoing monitoring of A. baumannii susceptibility to tigecycline is needed.

  18. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  19. Semiconductor projectile impact detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, E. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor projectile impact detector is described for use in determining micrometeorite presence, as well as its flux and energy comprising a photovoltaic cell which generates a voltage according to the light and heat emitted by the micrometeorites upon impact. A counter and peak amplitude measuring device were used to indicate the number of particules which strike the surface of the cell as well as the kinetic energy of each of the particles.

  20. Impact factor distribution revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2017-09-01

    We explore the consistency of a new type of frequency distribution, where the corresponding rank distribution is Lavalette distribution. Empirical data of journal impact factors can be well described. This distribution is distinct from Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution, which were suggested by previous study. By a log transformation, we obtain a bell-shaped distribution, which is then compared to Gaussian and catenary curves. Possible mechanisms behind the shape of impact factor distribution are suggested.

  1. Fracture Behavior under Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    value still is ." the Charpy energy, i.e. the energy to break a Charpy V-notch specimen in a pendulum type impact tester. This material property...Most of the dynamic fracture toughness 3ata have been obtained in the lower impact velocity range with Charpy - and drop weight tests. An overview of...A .-..- ..- -6- =.., lyses (e.g. with Charpy tests [3]), theoretical analyses which some- times are based on nonrealistic assumptions (e.g. infinite

  2. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  3. Centrifuge impact cratering experiment 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Transient crates motions, cratering flow fields, crates dynamics, determining impact conditions from total crater welt, centrifuge quarter-space cratering, and impact cratering mechanics research is documented.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

  5. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  6. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  7. From Pressures to Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2006-01-01

    materials over manufacture or construction through use to disposal or decommissioning and recycling. It is a holistic tool in the sense that it models all relevant environmental impacts from the global (like climate change and ozone depletion) to the local (like land use) and also the loss of resources...... and the background conditions of the receiving environment - the aggregation of emissions over time and space - the fact that the emissions in the inventory represent the impacts from a functional unit, which for products often constitutes a minute fraction of the total output from the manufacturing stage. For waste...... management systems, it is pointed out, that these aspects may be less of a problem than for the typical product systems for which LCA was originally developed, since the environmental impacts from waste management systems are typically dominated by one or a few central waste treatment processes for which...

  8. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  9. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    a better understanding of the processes involved. The wave's approach towards a structure is modelled with classical irrotational flow to obtain the different types of impact profiles that may or may not lead to air entrapment. The subsequent impact is modelled with a novel compressible-flow model...... local error. The high pressures measured during wave impacts on a breakwater are reproduced and it is shown that trapped air can be compressed to a pressure of several atmospheres. Pressure shock waves, reflected off nearby surfaces such as the seabed, can lead to pressures comparable with those...... for a homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...

  10. Economic impact of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-07-05

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees' impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120-$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally.

  11. Impact Through Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    This chapter gives an original response to one of the central questions asked in this book: to what extent does the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) impact domestic political and legal systems and what are its implications? More specifically, how might the CJEU increase the impact...... of its rulings and legal mandates in national judiciaries and legal systems? This question is crucial if we understand that national courts are the key decentralised enforcers of the European Union (EU) law responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of EU law and the rulings and mandates imposed...

  12. Second Impact Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Robert C; Voy, Robert

    1995-06-01

    In brief The known risk of second impact syndrome (SIS) in football has elevated the importance of postconcussion and precompetition exams of injured football players. Six case reports demonstrate that the same mechanism of injury-minor head trauma in a player who still has symptoms from a previous concussion-can cause second impact syndrome in any contact sport. It is important to monitor postconcussion symptoms, which include headache, light-headedness, and impaired consciousness. Return-to-play guidelines for football and boxing provide a basis for making safe activity recommendations for other sports.

  13. Climate change - the impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reysset, Bertrand; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Henique, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde; Pirard, Philippe; Motreff, Yvon; Barbault, Robert; Weber, Jacques; Gate, Philippe; Salagnac, Jean-Luc; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaelle

    2012-01-01

    This special dossier about the impacts of climate change is made of 6 contributions dealing with: the mitigation of climate effects and how to deal with them (Bertrand Reysset); how to dare and transmit (Laurent Billes-Garabedian); littoral risks, the Pas-de-Calais example (Julien Henique); extreme meteorological events and health impacts (Mathilde Pascal, Philippe Pirard, Yvon Motreff); Biodiversity and climate: the janus of global change (Robert Barbault, Jacques Weber); adapting agriculture to dryness and temperatures (Philippe Gate); Paris and the future heats of the year 2100 (Jean-Luc Salagnac, Julien Desplat, Raphaelle Kounkou-Arnaud)

  14. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play.......The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...

  15. The Impact Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    The Earth has been subject to hypervelocity impacts from comets and asteroids since its formation, and such impacts have played an important role in the evolution of life on our planet. We now recognize not only the historical role of impacts, but the contemporary hazard posed by such events. In the absence of a complete census of potentially threatening Earth-crossing asteroids or comets (called collectively Near Earth Objects, or NEOs), or even of a comprehensive cur-rent search program to identify NEOs, we can consider the hazard only from a probabilistic perspective. We know the steep power-law relationship between NEO numbers and size, with many more small bodies than large ones. We also know that few objects less than about 50 m in diameter (with kinetic energy near 10 megatons) penetrate the atmosphere and are capable of doing surface damage. But there is a spectrum of possible impact hazards associated with objects from this 10-megaton threshold all the way up to NEOs 5 km or larger in diameter, which are capable of inflicting severe damage on the environment, leading to mass extinction's of species. Detailed analysis has shown that, in general, the larger the object the greater the hazard, even when allowance is made for the infrequency of large impacts. Most of the danger to human life is associated with impacts by objects roughly 2 km or larger (energy greater than 1 million megatons), which can inject sufficient submicrometer dust into the atmosphere to produce a severe short-term global cooling with subsequent loss of crops, leading to starvation. Hazard estimates suggest that the chance of such an event occurring during a human lifetime is about 1:5000, and the global probability of death from such impacts is of the order of 1:20000, values that can be compared with risks associated with other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms. However, the impact hazard differs from the others in that it can be largely

  16. Making a global impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    How can vets, individually and collectively, make an impact on the global stage? Addressing this question at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show, René Carlson, president of the World Veterinary Association, encouraged the profession to play its part locally, nationally and internationally, in tackling current challenges. Kristy Ebanks reports. British Veterinary Association.

  17. impact on embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Tandara

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: In men with poorer semen quality, evaluated by standard semen parameters, a higher proportion of sperm with damaged DNA can also be expected. Higher sperm DNA damage, established by Halosperm test, also had an impact on embryo quality in this group of patients.

  18. Ideas. Innovation. Impact.

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A BRIEF HISTORY. Ideas. Innovation. Impact. SINCE 1970. 12,828 research activities funded. $2.8 billion in grants provided. 4,217 recipient institutions involved. 4,000+ ... communications linking the people of Mongolia. A smooth transition from apartheid ... and communication technologies for development, to name a few.

  19. CSIR Technology Impact 1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology impact report, it’s a selection of report on successful co-operation between the CSIR and South African industry in 1989/1990. This publication aims to measure and highlight the success of the CSIR outputs....

  20. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  1. CSIR Technology Impact 2001

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review (1 March 2000 - 28 February 2001) by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It present a rich canvas...

  2. The impact of ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, E.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Ergonomists offer services to organizations. The goal of their work is to provide safety and health at work in combination with a sound human performance. However, the impact of ergonomics efforts is not always as good as ergonomists and human factors specialists want. This chapter aims to support

  3. The impact of emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetheer, E.L.V.; Trap, H.C.; Gijp, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs), e.g. CO2 methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, has increased gradually in the last century. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) has evaluated the size and impact of this increase. One of the conclusions is that

  4. Bouldery Impact Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    29 November 2004 Meteor impact craters are common the surfaces of most solid objects in the Solar System. They are least common on the volcanically-active moon of Jupiter, Io, and on Earth, where volcanism, tectonism, and erosion have all acted to erase the record of impact cratering. On Mars, erosion has also been vigorous enough to destroy craters. In other areas on Mars, craters have been filled and buried within the planet's bedrock. This October 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a relatively young impact crater on the floor of the outflow channel system of Mangala Valles. The impact ejecta blanket in this case is quite bouldery. Some windblown sediment has partially filled the crater. These features are located near 15.1oS, 149.3oW. The crater is just over 300 meters across, about one third the diameter of the famous Meteor Crater in Arizona. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  5. Impact of rankings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; van Vught, Franciscus A.; Ziegele, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the influence league table performance can have on an institution, affecting its student recruitment, its funding and even its leadership. It goes on to discuss the impact on the sector as a whole in encouraging a frantic reputation race and leading institutions to concentrate

  6. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  7. The Winfrith horizontal impact rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.

    1985-12-01

    The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)

  8. Impacts into porous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin R.; Sweet, William J.; Holsapple, Keith A.

    2018-01-01

    Many small bodies in the solar system have bulk density well below the solid density of the constituent mineral grains in their meteorite counterparts. Those low-density bodies undoubtedly have significant porosity, which is a key factor that affects the formation of impact craters. This paper summarizes the results of lab experiments in which materials with porosity ranging from 43% to 96% were impacted at ∼1800 m/s. The experiments were performed on a geotechnical centrifuge, in order to reproduce the lithostatic overburden stress and ejecta ballistics that occur in large-scale cratering events on asteroids or planetary satellites. Experiments performed at various accelerations, up to 514G, simulate the outcomes of impacts at size scales up to several tens of km in diameter. Our experiments show that an impact into a highly porous cohesionless material generates a large ovoid-shaped cavity, due to crushing by the outgoing shock. The cavity opens up to form a transient crater that grows until the material flow is arrested by gravity. The cavity then collapses to form the final crater. During collapse, finely crushed material that lines the cavity wall is carried down and collected in a localized region below the final crater floor. At large simulated sizes (high accelerations), most of the crater volume is formed by compaction, because growth of the transient crater is quickly arrested. Nearly all ejected material falls back into the crater, leaving the crater without an ejecta blanket. We find that such compaction cratering and suppression of the ejecta blankets occur for large craters on porous bodies when the ratio of the lithostatic stress at one crater depth to the crush strength of the target exceeds ∼0.005. The results are used to identify small solar system bodies on which compaction cratering likely occurs. A model is developed that gives the crater size and ejecta mass that would result for a specified impact into a porous object.

  9. A modified dis-impaction spring for impacted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Omar Aziz Rizvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth impaction is the retardation in the eruption pattern of a tooth. One of the most commonly impacted teeth is the maxillary canine. However, impaction of mandibular canines is not as common as maxillary canines. Treatment of such impacted teeth usually involves surgical exposure, followed by bonding of an orthodontic attachment to facilitate extrusive movement of the impacted tooth. However, some side-effects on other teeth can be expected which includes the intrusion and tipping of adjacent teeth. In order to prevent side-effects on the adjacent teeth, we present a modified uprighting spring used to extrude an impacted canine.

  10. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures...... are not suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts...

  11. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  12. Perceived Impacts of Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.

  13. Reducing Impacts of Forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    New definitions are provided of intensive and extensive forestry in version 3 of the ecoinvent database. These definitions are based on explicit and easily measured indicators for the most important aspects of forestry management for biodiversity. Unfortunately, many certified forestry products...... come from what would be classified as intensive forestry in the ecoinvent classification. The real challenge is to develop forest management systems that have a neutral or positive biodiversity impact relative to that of plantation forestry. Such truly extensive, biodiversity-managed forestry is very...... challenging and not very common today. Ample options exist for increasing yields in intensive and plantation forests, which can be recommended as having lower biodiversity impact than similar products from other management systems, certified or not....

  14. Cross-impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzić Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.

  15. Pipe whip and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years changes in economic and safety considerations in nuclear power plants have resulted in a need to examine the problem of pipe whip in greater detail. Consequently, experimental programmes were set up in France, North America and Britain. Results from these tests combined with analytical work indicate that pipe whip followed by impact with surrounding pipework and structures may not be as serious as had been believed. Impact loads have been found to be much less (at least five times) than those predicted to the appropriate design regulations. Hence, the use of pipe whip restraints may have been overconservative. The use of fewer, better designed restraints, would result in greater accessibility of pipework, a reduced need for inspection of restraints, and a considerable financial saving. (author)

  16. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    by LCA software, but the underlying principles, models and factors should still be well understood by practitioners to ensure the insight that is needed for a qualified interpretation of the results. This chapter teaches the fundamentals of LCIA and opens the black box of LCIA with its characterisation...... models and factors to inform the reader about: (1) the main purpose and characteristics of LCIA, (2) the mandatory and optional steps of LCIA according to the ISO standard, and (3) the science and methods underlying the assessment for each environmental impact category . For each impact category......, the reader is taken through (a) the underlying environmental problem, (b) the underlying environmental mechanism and its fundamental modelling principles, (c) the main anthropogenic sources causing the problem and (d) the main methods available in LCIA. An annex to this book offers a comprehensive...

  17. Ankyloglossia its impact breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success. © 2014 AWHONN.

  18. Impacts of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trappl, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book, which is intended to serve as the first stage in an iterative process of detecting, predicting, and assessing the impacts of Artificial Intelligence opens with a short "one-hour course" in AI, which is intended to provide a nontechnical informative introduction to the material which follows. Next comes an overview chapter which is based on an extensive literature search, the position papers, and discussions. The next section of the book contains position papers whose richness...

  19. Impact craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; ,

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  20. Second-impact syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C

    1998-01-01

    Second impact syndrome (SIS) occurs when an athlete who has sustained an initial head injury, most often a concussion, sustains a second head injury before symptoms associated with the first have fully cleared. While most commonly reported in football, the SIS can occur during any sport that can produce head blows. Any athlete still complaining of post-concussion symptoms after a head injury must not be allowed to return to play.

  1. Hypervelocity impact of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.J.; Anderson, W.F.; Archer, B.

    1982-01-01

    Blocks of concrete and various other materials were impacted by high speed copper jets at the centre of one face, the resulting transient phenomena were measured using ultra high speed photography and various electrical signal transducers. Measurements were made of the jet velocity, penetration rate, crack velocity and initiation time, and strain pulse propagation. Post test measurements were made using electron microscopy, ultra sonics and stereoscopic photography. (orig.) [de

  2. Novel Research Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fenner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Citation counts and more recently usage statistics provide valuable information about the attention and research impact associated with scholarly publications. The open access publisher Public Library of Science (PLOS has pioneered the concept of article-level metrics, where these metrics are collected on a per article and not a per journal basis and are complemented by real-time data from the social web or altmetrics: blog posts, social bookmarks, social media and other.

  3. Towards enhanced CSR impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, Leiv; Swanson, Phil

    2004-01-01

    This paper was produced by ECON Analysis in conjunction with the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) for the Norwegian Research Council's 'Petropol' programme. It is part of a joint project entitled, 'Oil companies and the new petroleum provinces: ethics, business and politics'. This paper examines the possibilities for partnerships between oil companies and multilateral government institutions to address the negative impacts of oil projects that often prevent the resulting revenues leading to social and economic benefits for the host country (author) (ml)

  4. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  5. Knowledge dissemination: Determining impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, D

    2007-07-17

    Full Text Available Impact A Paper Presented at IFLA Durban 2007 Knowledge Management (KM) Best Practices/Lessons Learned 1 Day Workshop 17 August, 2007 Howard College Campus of the University of Kwazulu Natal Presented... cannot be assessed without information about the (extent) number of users and the degree (intensity) of adoption of improved techniques, and the incremental effects of these techniques on the production costs and output. The adoption of any technology...

  6. Milestones and Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  7. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  8. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  9. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  10. Climate impacts on agribusiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.; Kooten, G.C. Van

    1991-01-01

    Predicted effect of climatic change on primary agriculture are combined with knowledge of linkages of agribusiness to primary agriculture to predict the vulnerability of agribusiness to climate change. Prairie economies are extremely dependent on agricultural incomes and activities. Primary agriculture accounts for 17% of Manitoba's value added for goods producing sectors, 40% for Saskatchewan, and 10-15% for Alberta. Additional economic activity is related to providing inputs to agriculture and transporting, marketing or processing agricultural products, and is referred to as agribusiness. Input/output models have been used to relate agribusiness and agriculture impacts, and predict effects ranging from a $1.3 million gain to a $21 million loss. Many climate change scenarios enhance agricultural productivity relative to baseline conditions. Economic impacts will likely be as important due to effects of climate change on world markets and competition as from direct impacts on yields, however studies have shown both increases and decreases in yields from these areas under climate change. 6 refs

  11. Tornado missile impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    UCRL-15910 specifies wind and tornado missiles for moderate- and high-hazard DOE facilities. Wall-barrier specimens have been tested at the Tornado Missile Impact Facility at Texas Tech University. The facility has an air-activated tornado missile cannon capable of firing 2x4 timber planks weighing 12 lb at speeds up to 150 mph and 3-in-diameter steel pipes weighing 75 lb at speeds to 7 5 mph. Wall barriers tested to date include reinforced concrete walls from 4-in. to 10-in. thick; 8-in. and 12-in. walls of reinforced concrete masonry units (CMU); two other masonry wall configurations consisting of an 8-in. CMU with a 4-in. clay-brick veneer and a 10-in. composite wall with two wythes of 4-in. clay brick. The impact test series is designed to determine the impact speed that will produce backface spall of each wall barrier. A set of 15 wall sections has been constructed and tested at this time. Preliminary finding suggest that all cells of CMU walls must be grouted to prevent missile penetration. Walls recommended in the workshop on UCRL-15910 provide acceptable protection if cracking can be accepted

  12. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  13. Remarks on impact shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepaczko, J. R.

    1998-10-01

    A review is presented on recent progress in shear testing of materials at high and very high strain rates. Some experimental techniques are discussed which allow for materials testing in shear up to 10 6 ls. More detailed informations are provided on experimental techniques based on the Modified Double Shear specimen loaded by direct impact. This technique has been applied so far to test a variety of materials, including construction, armor and inoxidable steels, and also aluminum alloys. The double shear configuration has also been applied to test sheet metals, mostly used in the automotive industry, in a wide range of strain rates. Details of both techniques, including measuring systems and elastic wave propagation in tubes, are discussed. In addition, a new experimental configuration which can be applied for experimental studies of adiabatic shear propagation and high speed machining is discussed. The role of adiabatic heating at different rates of shearing is also discussed, including transition from pure isothermal to pure adiabatic deformation. It appears that the initial impact velocity is an important parameter in development of plastic localization. Finally, a new development is discussed in determination of the Critical Impact Velocity in shear. A comparison is shown between recent experimental findings and a simple analytic estimation. The CIV in shear is a certain mode of adiabatic failure which occurs at relatively high shear velocities of adjacent material layers. Numerical simulations support the existence of the CIV in shear which can be recognized to some extent as a material constant.

  14. Understanding Traditional Research Impact Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Sebastian, Arjun S; Kaye, I David; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher has been judged by the number of publications he or she has published in peer-review, indexed, high impact journals. However, to quantify the impact of research in the wider scientific community, a number of traditional metrics have been used, including Impact Factor, SCImago Journal Rank, Eigenfactor Score, and Article Influence Score. This article attempts to provide a broad overview of the main traditional impact metrics that have been used to assess scholarly output and research impact. We determine that there is no perfect all-encompassing metric to measure research impact, and, in the modern era, no single traditional metric is capable of accommodating all facets of research impact. Academics and researchers should be aware of the advantages and limitations of traditional metrics and should be judicious when selecting any metrics for an objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  15. Social Impact Assessment for Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) comprises the processes of analyzing, monitoring, and managing the social consequences of planned interventions (Vanclay 2003; Esteves et al. 2012). Planned interventions can be projects, plans, programs, or policies. SIA arose alongside Environmental Impact Assessment

  16. The first identified neuropeptide in the insect order Megaloptera: A novel member of the adipokinetic hormone family in the alderfly Sialis lutaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2009), s. 477-482 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:National Research Foundation Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Arthropods * Insects * Megaloptera Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.705, year: 2009

  17. some considerations on bible translation as complex process 1.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The definition of “translation” adopted by a particular translator will have a critical impact on the course taken by the translation process.3 It is this preconceived idea (definition) of what a translation entails that determines. 1. Prof. Jan G. van der Watt, Department of New Testament, Faculty of Theolo- gy, University of Pretoria, ...

  18. The use of social networking tools for innovative service delivery at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networking tools are impacting on the scholarly and research activities of staff and students in the academic environment. The university library has an important part to play in supporting these endeavours and a Web 2.0/Library 2.0 strategy has been in place in the University of Pretoria Library for a number of years.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butler, G. Vol 45, No 1 (2011) - Articles Supervisor perceptions of the academic literacy requirements of postgraduate students at the University of Pretoria Abstract · Vol 47, No 2 (2013) - Articles Discipline-specific versus generic academic literacy intervention for university education: An issue of impact? Abstract.

  20. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Auerswald, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 3, (2006), s. 705-713 ISSN 0264-6021 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) 2053806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone (AKH) * arthropod * neuropeptide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.100, year: 2006

  1. Measuring Research Impact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  2. Impacts of European drought events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, Kerstin; Kohn, Irene; Blauhut, Veit; Loon, Van Anne F.; Melsen, Lieke A.; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that can cause a wide range of impacts affecting the environment, society, and the economy. Providing an impact assessment and reducing vulnerability to these impacts for regions beyond the local scale, spanning political and sectoral boundaries, requires systematic

  3. How to be impactful [Editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    2007-01-01

    We are being increasingly called upon to judge how impactful the work of various individuals is to the scientific and professional communities. At universities we are asked to judge how impactful the publications of our colleagues are when they come up for promotion and tenure; on faculty search committees we are asked to judge how impactful the various candidates will...

  4. Making An Impact: Shatter Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lisa M.; Plautz, Michael R.; Crews, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, a group of geologists discovered a large number of shatter cones in southwestern Montana. Shatter cones are a type of metamorphosed rock often found in impact structures (the remains of a crater after a meteor impact and years of Earth activity). Scientists have discovered only 168 impact craters around the world. If rocks could talk,…

  5. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  6. Graphene ultracapacitors: structural impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixin; Ji, Xiaobo; Deng, Wentao; Chen, Qiyuan; Shen, Chen; Banks, Craig E

    2013-04-07

    The structural effects of graphene on the electrochemical properties of graphene-based ultracapacitors are investigated for the first time, where the competitive impacts resulting from the edge content, specific surface area, edge/basal defects, oxygen-containing groups and metal oxides/surfactant impurities are taken into consideration, demonstrating that not one element, but all are responsible for the final behavior of graphene-based ultracapacitors. This work will be of wide importance to research producing graphene-based energy storage/generation devices.

  7. Social impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1997-01-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. 'How safe is safe enough' is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  8. Social impact of accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Isao [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. `How safe is safe enough` is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  9. Health equity impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  11. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  12. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasant Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. Methods The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. Results We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Conclusion Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive

  13. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Mays, Nicholas; Pleasant, Andrew; Walt, Gill

    2006-10-18

    Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive categories that helped them systematically identify a range of specific and

  14. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, D.; England, J.; Rothermel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs

  15. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  16. Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William; Shirley, Mark; Moratto, Zachary; Colaprete, Anthony; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Hensley, Scott; Wilson, Barbara; Slade, Martin; Kennedy, Brian; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft (SSC) separated approx. 9 hours before impact and performed a small braking maneuver in order to observe the Centaur impact plume, looking for evidence of water and other volatiles, before impacting itself. This paper describes the registration of imagery of the LCROSS impact region from the mid- and near-infrared cameras onboard the SSC, as well as from the Goldstone radar. We compare the Centaur impact features, positively identified in the first two, and with a consistent feature in the third, which are interpreted as a 20 m diameter crater surrounded by a 160 m diameter ejecta region. The images are registered to Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) topographical data which allows determination of the impact location. This location is compared with the impact location derived from ground-based tracking and propagation of the spacecraft's trajectory and with locations derived from two hybrid imagery/trajectory methods. The four methods give a weighted average Centaur impact location of -84.6796 deg, -48.7093 deg, with a 1s uncertainty of 115 m along latitude, and 44 m along longitude, just 146 m from the target impact site. Meanwhile, the trajectory-derived SSC impact location is -84.719 deg, -49.61 deg, with a 1 alpha uncertainty of 3 m along the Earth vector and 75 m orthogonal to that, 766 m from the target location and 2.803 km south-west of the Centaur impact. We also detail the Centaur impact angle and SSC instrument pointing errors. Six high-level LCROSS mission requirements are shown to be met by wide margins. We hope that these results facilitate further analyses of the LCROSS experiment data and follow-up observations of the impact region

  17. Hypervelocity impacts into graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, S.; Cheesman, C.; Day, D.; Harrison, W.; Price, S.

    2011-03-01

    Studies have been conducted into the characterisation of the behaviour of commercial graphite (brittle) when subjected to hypervelocity impacts by a range of projectiles. The experiments were conducted with a two-stage gas gun capable of launching projectiles of differing density and strength to speeds of about 6kms-1 at right angles into target plates. The damage caused is quantified by measurements of the crater depth and diameters. From the experimental data collected, scaling laws were derived which correlate the crater dimensions to the velocity and the density of the projectile. It was found that for moderate projectile densities the crater dimensions obey the '2/3 power law' which applies to ductile materials.

  18. Accounting for Universities’ Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach that aims to comprehensively account for scientists’ academic engagement and commercialization activities. While previous research has pointed to the economic and social impact of these activities, it has also been hampered by the difficulties of accurately quantifying them....... Our approach complements university administrative records with data retrieved from external sources and surveys to quantify academic consulting, patenting, and academic entrepreneurship. This allows us to accurately account for ‘independent’ activity, i.e., academic engagement and commercialization...... by not accounting for independent activities. However, with the exception of consulting, we find no significant differences between individuals involved in supported (university-recorded) and independent activity, respectively. Our study contributes to work concerned with developing appropriate and accurate...

  19. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  20. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute...... and researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating...

  1. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  2. Economic Impact of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela PĂDURE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

  3. CITYZEN climate impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutz, Martin (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    We have estimated the impact of climate change on the chemical composition of the troposphere due to changes in climate from current climate (2000-2010) looking 40 years ahead (2040-2050). The climate projection has been made by the ECHAM5 model and was followed by chemistry-transport modelling using a global model, Oslo CTM2 (Isaksen et al., 2005; Srvde et al., 2008), and a regional model, EMEP. In this report we focus on carbon monoxide (CO) and surface ozone (O3) which are measures of primary and secondary air pollution. In parallel we have estimated the change in the same air pollutants resulting from changes in emissions over the same time period. (orig.)

  4. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Communication impacting financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  6. Impacted Teeth: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Czochrowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    A tooth normally erupts when half to three-quarters of its final root length has developed. Tooth impaction is usually diagnosed well after this period and is generally asymptomatic. It is principally for this reason that patients seek treatment later than optimal. Tooth impaction is a common problem in daily orthodontic practice and, in most cases, it is recognized by chance in a routine dental examination. Therefore, it is very important that dental practitioners are aware of this condition, since early detection and intervention may help to prevent many harmful complications. The treatment of impacted teeth requires multidisciplinary cooperation between orthodontists, oral surgeons and sometimes periodontists. Orthodontic treatment and surgical exposure of impacted teeth are performed in order to bring the impacted tooth into the line of the arch. The treatment is long, more complicated and challenging. This article presents an overview of the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and complications associated with the management of impacted teeth.

  7. [Impacts of numerology on acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wu, Changqiu; Wu, Xueyi

    2016-04-01

    Numerology has a long history in China and has the profound impacts on every academic field in TCM, with acupuncture involved. In this paper, the impacts on acupuncture were discussed in different aspects such as the numbers of meridians, the length of meridian, the time taboo of acupuncture, acupuncture manipulation and time acupuncture. It was found that numerology had laid the critical impact on acupuncture and had the profound imprint nowadays. It is of great significance to study the numerology theory in its impacts on acupuncture, in the exploration on the theories behind acupuncture as well as the comprehensive understanding of acupuncture.

  8. Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, C.E.; Taylor, J.W.; Court, D.B.

    1975-07-01

    The Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT) is used for safely impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources that have been heated to 2000 0 C. Impact velocities reach 300 m/s (1000 ft/s). A gas gun with a 178-mm (7-in.) bore is used to accelerate the heat source, which is heated by a furnace built into the projectile. Double containment of the impacted heat source is obtained by two vessels that are sealed directly to the gun muzzle. The impact occurs in the inner vessel, and parts of the projectile jam into and thereby close each vessel. The inner vessel, containing the impacted heat source, is removed from the gun and is placed inside a glovebox for disassembly and heat-source recovery. IFIT's modular structure makes it versatile and adaptable to many types of tests. Many applications have demonstrated its versatility and, more important, its capability for impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources safely. An approximate theoretical relation is used to predict proper conditions for achieving desired impact velocities. Bore lubricants and projectile-seal design are also important for achieving proper impact velocities

  9. Management of multiple impacted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An impacted or missing permanent tooth can add significant complications to an otherwise straightforward case. When multiple impacted teeth are present, the case complexity increases further. Developing a treatment sequence, determining appropriate anchorage, and planning and executing sound biomechanics can be a challenge. The following case report illustrates a patient with three retained primary teeth and three impacted permanent canines. After careful treatment planning and extraction of multiple primary teeth;, followed by attempted guided eruption of impacted teeth, the patient finished with a significantly improved functional and aesthetic result.

  10. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  11. Concrete structures under projectile impact

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the authors present their theoretical, experimental and numerical investigations into concrete structures subjected to projectile and aircraft impacts in recent years. Innovative approaches to analyze the rigid, mass abrasive and eroding projectile penetration and perforation are proposed. Damage and failure analyses of nuclear power plant containments impacted by large commercial aircrafts are numerically and experimentally analyzed. Ultra-high performance concrete materials and structures against the projectile impact are developed and their capacities of resisting projectile impact are evaluated. This book is written for the researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of protective structures and terminal ballistics.

  12. Rights, regulation and bureaucratic impact: The impact of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contemplating the extent to which rights-based litigation is conducive to positive social change, attention ought to be paid to the bureaucratic impact of court judgments that vindicate rights against the State. As a case study of such impact, this article considers the effects of human rights litigation on the regulation of ...

  13. Seasonal impact of quarry mining effluent discharge impacted soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the impact quarry mining effluent discharge impacted soil on growth parameters and phytochemical constituents of edible vegetables. Three quarry mining sites were used for the study that covered wet and dry seasons. Plant growth such as plant height, leaf area, internodes and plant ...

  14. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  15. The impact of 'terminator' technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Meer, van der I.J.M.; Louwaars, N.; Beekwilder, J.; Eaton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic use-restriction technologies enable the developers of transgenic plants or animals to protect their variety or breed from unauthorized use in a biological way. The use of 'terminator technology' can have different impacts on farmers and breeders. If the technology is effective, it impacts on

  16. Fukushima accident - reasons and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident influenced dramatically the current view on safety of nuclear facilities. Consideration about possible impacts of natural catastrophe in design of nuclear facilities seems to be much more important than before. European commission is focused on the stress-tests at nuclear power plants. His paper will go more in details having in mind reasons and impacts of Fukushima accident (Author)

  17. Caecal impaction in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, K.L.; Bright, R.M.; Wright, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    A seven-year-old, intact male dobermann with a four-week history of anorexia was diagnosed as having impaction of the caecum with inspissated faeces. Radiographic and histopathological findings revealed impaction of the caecum and a mild subacute locally extensive typhlitis. Typhlectomy was curative and no further problems have been reported

  18. Research Impact and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Alis

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2010-11 study involving senior researchers from seven disciplines, this article explores critically some of the diverse interpretations of impact in different disciplines, sub-fields and modes of research, and researchers' views about how these interpretations articulate with top-down impact agendas and with university structures…

  19. Research impact: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Raftery, James; Hanney, Steve; Glover, Matthew

    2016-05-23

    Impact occurs when research generates benefits (health, economic, cultural) in addition to building the academic knowledge base. Its mechanisms are complex and reflect the multiple ways in which knowledge is generated and utilised. Much progress has been made in measuring both the outcomes of research and the processes and activities through which these are achieved, though the measurement of impact is not without its critics. We review the strengths and limitations of six established approaches (Payback, Research Impact Framework, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences, monetisation, societal impact assessment, UK Research Excellence Framework) plus recently developed and largely untested ones (including metrics and electronic databases). We conclude that (1) different approaches to impact assessment are appropriate in different circumstances; (2) the most robust and sophisticated approaches are labour-intensive and not always feasible or affordable; (3) whilst most metrics tend to capture direct and proximate impacts, more indirect and diffuse elements of the research-impact link can and should be measured; and (4) research on research impact is a rapidly developing field with new methodologies on the horizon.

  20. The Impact of Montessori Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushamba, Ashley; Burney, Sonya Franklin; Kent, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the impact of School Y's Montessori approach on their students' academic achievement, perceptions of executive functioning skills, and the school's culture. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of length of enrollment on academic achievement in a Montessori upper elementary and middle school…

  1. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of

  2. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic impacts and their effects on the earth's surface are discussed. The manner in which the object impacts with the earth is described. The formation of crytovolcanic structures by craters is examined. Examples of cosmic debris collisions with earth, in particular the Tunguska explosion of 1908 and the Meteor Crater in Arizona, are provided.

  3. Managing for Sustainable Development Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, C.S.L.; Batjes, Karen; Wigboldus, S.A.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.; Dickson Baguma, Sylvester

    2017-01-01

    This guide is about managing development initiatives and organizations towardssustainable development impact. It builds on the work of Guijt and Woodhill inthe 2002 IFAD publication Managing for Impact in Rural Development: A Guide for Project M&E. Since then, the managing for sustainable

  4. PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OF FAECAL IMPACTION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.MrsOdebode

    this condition. KEY WORDS: faecal impaction, megacolon, modified passive mobilization, abdominal distention. INTRODUCTION. Faecal impaction is a large mass of dry, hard stool that accumulates in the rectum due to unresolved constipation (Creason and Sparks, 2000). The dryness of the mass makes it very difficult to ...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  6. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  7. Impact. Volume 3, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; And Others

    This issue of Impact, a bi-monthly magazine produced by the ERIC Center at The University of Michigan, examines a variety of viewpoints, issues and explorations about out future world. Included is a speech by B.F. Skinner, a presentation on the future and its impact on life/career planning, a curriculum plan for a course in futuristics, and…

  8. Radiological impacts of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Kanakri, Salwa; Budeir, Youssef; Khalily, Hussam; Al Hamwi, Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian phosphogypsum (PG) piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The data revealed that the concentrations of the radionuclides were enhanced in the treated phosphate ore. In PG, (226)Ra content had a mean activity of 318 Bq kg(-1). The uranium content in PG was low, ca. 33 Bq kg(-1), because uranium remained in the phosphoric acid produced. Over 80% of (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb present partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase significantly the concentration of (222)Rn or gamma rays exposure dose in the area studied. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y(-1). The geometric mean of total suspended air particulates (TSP) ca. 85 μg m(-3). The activity concentration of the radionuclides in filtrates and runoff waters were below the detection limits (ca. 0.15 mBq L(-1) for (238)U, 0.1 mBq L(-1) for (232)Th and 0.18 mBq L(-1) for both of (210)Po and (210)Pb); the concentration of the radionuclides in ground water samples and Qattina Lake were less than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the World Health Organisation, WHO, (10, 1 and 0.1 Bq L(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and both of (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively). Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles recorded the highest activity concentrations, i.e. 26, 33, 28, 61 and 40 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively, due to the prevailing western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil (13-32 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 24.9-62.2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 10-32 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th). The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Higher concentrations of the radionuclides were

  9. Impact Crater in Coastal Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector L; Lasta, Carlos A.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Impact craters are geological structures attributed to the impact of a meteoroid on the Earth's (or other planet's) surface (Koeberl and Sharpton. 1999). The inner planets of the solar system as well as other bodies such as our moon show extensive meteoroid impacts (Gallant 1964, French 1998). Because of its size and gravity, we may assume that the Earth has been heavily bombarded but weathering and erosion have erased or masked most of these features. In the 1920's, a meteor crater (Mark 1987) was identified in Arizona and to this first finding the identification of a large number of impact structures on Earth followed (Hodge 1994). Shock metamorphic effects are associated with meteorite impact craters. Due to extremely high pressures, shatter cones are produced as well as planar features in quartz and feldspar grains, diaplectic glass and high-pressure mineral phases such as stishovite (French 1998).

  10. Ejecta evolution during cone impact

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2014-07-07

    We present findings from an experimental investigation into the impact of solid cone-shaped bodies onto liquid pools. Using a variety of cone angles and liquid physical properties, we show that the ejecta formed during the impact exhibits self-similarity for all impact speeds for very low surface tension liquids, whilst for high-surface tension liquids similarity is only achieved at high impact speeds. We find that the ejecta tip can detach from the cone and that this phenomenon can be attributed to the air entrainment phenomenon. We analyse of a range of cone angles, including some ogive cones, and impact speeds in terms of the spatiotemporal evolution of the ejecta tip. Using superhydrophobic cones, we also examine the entry of cones which entrain an air layer.

  11. Aerosol measurements over Southern Africa using LIDAR, satellite and sun-photometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available .O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Lynwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), 11-15 August 2009 3Department of Physics...

  12. Acoustic modelling of Sepedi affricates for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria Marelie Davel, CSIR. Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria Febe de Wet, CSIR. Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria ABSTRACT Automatic speech recognition...

  13. Multiple births in Schlieffen's bat, Nycticeius schlieffenii (Peters, 1859)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the southern African subregion. M. van der Merwe and I.L. Rautenbach. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria and Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. Nycticeius schlieffenii is a monestrous species that ...

  14. Einstein His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World

    CERN Document Server

    Sessler, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).

  15. Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights)

  16. Análise da matéria orgânica associada ao sal marinho : definição de potenciais marcadores moleculares com base na composição volátil e presença de derivados glicosilados e polissacarídeos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabel Mendes da

    2014-01-01

    Sea salt is a natural product obtained from the evaporation of seawater in saltpans due to the combined effect of wind and sunlight. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for protection and re-valorisation of saltpans intrinsically associated to the quality of sea salt that can be evaluated by its physico-chemical properties. These man-made systems can be located in different geographical areas presenting different environmental surroundings. During the crystallization process, organic compou...

  17. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  18. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  19. Behind the scenes of GS: the impact of IMPACT

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Carrying out a job at CERN can be a complicated task, with coordinators reaching across departments to manage personnel, ensure safety and minimise the impact of their activities on the rest of the Laboratory.  To help coordinators with this tough task, the GS Department developed IMPACT, the platform that, since 2011, has unified CERN's major experiment, accelerator and injector coordination tools.   When planning interventions both large and small, IMPACT (the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool) is the go-to gizmo on every CERN coordinator's tool belt. "IMPACT is a central repository of activity requests that standardises the way work is declared at CERN," says Benoit Daudin, GS-AIS-PM Section Leader. "If you need to intervene in any of CERN's major facilities, you need to declare this work on IMPACT. The tool will analyse the job and see whose approval is required. This could simply b...

  20. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  1. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  2. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  3. Computerized evaluation of flood impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J.; Quach, T.T.; Marche, C.; Lessard, G.

    1998-01-01

    A computerized evaluation process for assessing the economic impacts of a potential dam failure is described. The DOMINO software, which was developed by Hydro-Quebec, takes into account flow data from dam break simulations of floods, the territory involved, plus the economic evaluations of the real estate and infrastructures affected. Some examples of software applications and impact evaluations are presented. The principal elements involved in estimating economic or other types of impacts induced by natural flooding or dam failure, are: (1) flow forecasting, (2) defining the contour of the involved territory, and (3) accounting for the various impacts identified in the affected zone. Owing to its wide range of functions and utilities, DOMINO has proven to be a very useful, user-friendly and portable decision-making tool. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Impact of conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  5. Impact of conflict in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Touré

    2006-01-01

    Since independence, few African countries have beenspared violence and armed conflict. Two West Africanresearch networks recently organised an internationalcolloquium to assess the impact and develop linkagesbetween education, peace and democracy.

  6. Drop impact on superheated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan; Staat, Hendrik J J; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-20

    At the impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated above the liquid's boiling point, the droplet either immediately boils when it contacts the surface ("contact boiling"), or without any surface contact forms a Leidenfrost vapor layer towards the hot surface and bounces back ("gentle film boiling"), or both forms the Leidenfrost layer and ejects tiny droplets upward ("spraying film boiling"). We experimentally determine conditions under which impact behaviors in each regime can be realized. We show that the dimensionless maximum spreading γ of impacting droplets on the heated surfaces in both gentle and spraying film boiling regimes shows a universal scaling with the Weber number We (γ~We(2/5)), which is much steeper than for the impact on nonheated (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) surfaces (γ~We(1/4)). We also interferometrically measure the vapor thickness under the droplet. © 2012 American Physical Society

  7. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  8. Impact History of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bottke, W. F.; Norman, M. V.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Fassett, C. I.; Hiesinger, H.; Joy, K. H.; Mazrouei, S. A.; Nemchin, A.; Neumann, G. A.; Zellner, N. E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Establishing an absolute planetary chronology has important ramifications for understanding the early structure of the solar system and the geologic history of the planets. The Moon is the cornerstone for understanding this impact history.

  9. Habitat Particle Impact Monitoring System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is the development of particle impact detection technology for application to habitable space exploration modules, both in space and on...

  10. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  11. Impact evaluation of infrastructure interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Ole Winckler; White, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers in this vo......The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers...... in this volume. Understanding impact means understanding the context in which an intervention takes place and the channels through which the impact on outcomes is expected to occur. Such analysis typically requires mixing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The analysis will also anticipate...

  12. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2009 Chemical Society of Ethiopia. ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: abrishgk@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SHEBA TANNERY (ETHIOPIA) EFFLUENTS ON. THE SURROUNDING WATER BODIES. Abraha Gebrekidan*, Gebrekidan Gebresellasie and Afework Mulugeta.

  14. Visualizing the Impacts of Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two activities with investigation procedures to aid students in examining the extent and impact of biomass burning and deforestation in Brazil as an example of the global problem. Provides background information, tables, and diagrams. (five references) (MCO)

  15. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  16. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied....

  17. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  19. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  20. Impact test on a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, R.F.; Shimura, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A carbon steel pipe was submitted to a series of progressive impact loadings on a drop table. Strain and acceleration were measured in relevant places of the pipe and recorded in time and frequency domain. The pipe withstood impact loads up to 560 G without any visual deformation being noticed. Strains 50% over the yield point strain were measured. A high level of damping coming from the supports may have attenuated the response of the pipe. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. The Impact of Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera Garcia, Elma

    1984-01-01

    This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...

  2. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1990-01-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  3. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs.

  4. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  5. Impact-limiting materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Duffey, T.A.; McConnell, P.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of impact-limiting materials have been characterized which have applications in packages for the transport of radioactive materials. These materials are aluminum honeycombs, polyurethane foams, and aluminum foams. The results of the materials characterization have indicated strengths and weaknesses for each type of material. The polyurethane foams provide good impact limiting ability and excellent thermal insulation. However, they burn when subjected to the regulatory thermal event in the presence of air. The aluminum honeycombs provide excellent impact resistance in specific impact orientations. However, they provide relatively poor resistance to thermal assault. Finally, the aluminum foams exhibit relatively poor impact energy absorption capacities, significant variability in energy absorption, and limited thermal insulation. The development of the figures of merit examined the response of the materials to the impact event with the intent of maximizing the energy absorption of the materials with respect to either the volume or mass of the materials. Three figures of merit will be presented for the structural response. The figure of merit for the thermal event is based on minimizing the heat flux to the containment boundary. The paper presents a discussion of the test methods, a summary of the data and the figures of merit for each material. (J.P.N.)

  6. Impact of Neutrino Oscillation Measurements on Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-11-30

    Neutrino oscillation data had been a big surprise to theorists, and indeed they have ongoing impact on theory. I review what the impact has been, and what measurements will have critical impact on theory in the future.

  7. K-T impact(s): Continental, oceanic or both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Murali, A. V.; Ryder, G.; Burke, K.

    1988-01-01

    Although geochemical and mineralogical evidence indicate that a major accretionary event occurred at the K-T boundary, no impact crater of suitable size and age was recognized. The 35 km Manson Structure, Iowa, was suggested recently as a possibility and Ar-40/Ar-39 determinations indicate that its formation age is indistinguishable from that of the K-T boundary. In order to test a possible association between Manson and the K-T boundary clay, the geochemistry and mineralogy of the K-T boundary clays at the Scollard Canyon section, Alberta and the Starkville South section, Colorado are compared with three dominant lithologies affected by the Manson impact: Proterozoic red clastics, underlying late-state granites, and gneisses. The chemical and mineralogical makeup of the Scollard Canyon boundary clay and its clastic constituents are presented, commenting on the implications for impact models. An impact into crystalline material of continental affinity appears to be required to explain the mineralogy and chemistry of the Scollard Canyon (and other Western N. American K-T sections). The low REE abundances of some K-T boundary layers are unusual but perhaps attempts should be made to understand the contributions of individual crustal components (e.g., carbonates, arkoses) as well as the potential for alteration involving these and other elements during and after impact-induced vaporization, before mantle excavation is invoked. If further studies confirm the results of published studies of marine boundary clays that indicate an oceanic target, attention must be paid to the possibility that multiple impacts occurred at the K-T boundary - one or more on the continents and one or more in the ocean.

  8. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Zadel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.

  9. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  10. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  11. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  12. SCIX IMPACT ON DWPF CPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2011-07-14

    A program was conducted to systematically evaluate potential impacts of the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The program involved a series of interrelated tasks. Past studies of the impact of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and monosodium titanate (MST) on DWPF were reviewed. Paper studies and material balance calculations were used to establish reasonable bounding levels of CST and MST in sludge. Following the paper studies, Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulant was modified to have both bounding and intermediate levels of MST and ground CST. The SCIX flow sheet includes grinding of the CST which is larger than DWPF frit when not ground. Nominal ground CST was not yet available, therefore a similar CST ground previously in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was used. It was believed that this CST was over ground and that it would bound the impact of nominal CST on sludge slurry properties. Lab-scale simulations of the DWPF CPC were conducted using SB10 simulants with no, intermediate, and bounding levels of CST and MST. Tests included both the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. Simulations were performed at high and low acid stoichiometry. A demonstration of the extended CPC flowsheet was made that included streams from the site interim salt processing operations. A simulation using irradiated CST and MST was also completed. An extensive set of rheological measurements was made to search for potential adverse consequences of CST and MST and slurry rheology in the CPC. The SCIX CPC impact program was conducted in parallel with a program to evaluate the impact of SCIX on the final DWPF glass waste form and on the DWPF melter throughput. The studies must be considered together when evaluating the full impact of SCIX on DWPF. Due to the fact that the alternant flowsheet for DWPF has not been selected, this study did not

  13. Leadership impact in organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venet Shala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand the impact of organizational leadership and its performance analyzing the concepts and styles of leadership behaviors within organization, in our study case LOGI-KOS, describing good performance through successful leadership impact and its values. Throughout the study, different leadership theories are mentioned. There are two methods which are used to gather information, qualitative and quantitative method. Eye to eye interviews have been organized with the CEO of the organization which is part of our study case and surveys are filled by employees. Empiric study is made possible through surveys in which took part over 28 out of 36 employees. As of the information which was gathered, it indicates that in our case study the leadership behaviors had huge impact within the performance of the organization, which is one of the key factors for success.

  14. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    -choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results...... showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs...... after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies...

  15. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Victim impact panels : their impact on DWI recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Victim Impact Panel (VIP) is a group of three or four speakers who were seriously injured or whose loved one was killed in a driving while intoxicated (DWI) crash. VIPs present personal stories to DWI offenders with the primary goal of reducing D...

  17. The Pandemic and its Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pandemic has a long history, but the term of “pandemic” is still not been defined by many medical texts. There have been many significant pandemics recorded in human history, and the pandemic related crises have caused enormous negative impacts on health, economies, and even national security in the world. This article will explore the literature for the concept and history of pandemics; summarises the key features of a pandemics, and discusses the negative impacts on health, economy, social and global security of pandemics and disease outbreaks.

  18. The Selby Coalfield impact study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutt, J.; Henderson, R.; Kumi-Ampofo, F.; Thursfield, D. [Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds (United Kingdom). Leeds Business School

    2002-07-01

    This report considers the likely economic and social impacts. It sets out proposals for the establishment of a Selby Mines Closure Task Force. There is a need to mitigate the economic and social impacts of the potential closure and to develop a re-invigorated focus on a sub-regional skills, re-training and regeneration and planning programme co-ordinating the wide range of stakeholders who will need to be involved. 26 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs. 12 maps., 9 apps.

  19. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  20. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  1. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  2. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  3. Large meteoroid's impact damage: review of available impact hazard simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ibáñez, M.; Gritsevich, M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The damage caused by meter-sized meteoroids encountering the Earth is expected to be severe. Meteor-sized objects in heliocentric orbits can release energies higher than 108 J either in the upper atmosphere through an energetic airblast or, if reaching the surface, their impact may create a crater, provoke an earthquake or start up a tsunami. A limited variety of cases has been observed in the recent past (e.g. Tunguska, Carancas or Chelyabinsk). Hence, our knowledge has to be constrained with the help of theoretical studies and numerical simulations. There are several simulation programs which aim to forecast the impact consequences of such events. We have tested them using the recent case of the Chelyabinsk superbolide. Particularly, Chelyabinsk belongs to the ten to hundred meter-sized objects which constitute the main source of risk to Earth given the current difficulty in detecting them in advance. Furthermore, it was a detailed documented case, thus allowing us to properly check the accuracy of the studied simulators. As we present, these open simulators provide a first approximation of the impact consequences. However, all of them fail to accurately determine the caused damage. We explain the observed discrepancies between the observed and simulated consequences with the following consideration. The large amount of unknown properties of the potential impacting meteoroid, the atmospheric conditions, the flight dynamics and the uncertainty in the impact point itself hinder any modelling task. This difficulty can be partially overcome by reducing the number of unknowns using dimensional analysis and scaling laws. Despite the description of physical processes associated with atmospheric entry could be still further improved, we conclude that such approach would significantly improve the efficiency of the simulators.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahoshi, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Schmauder, S.; Ludwig, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an impact test by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to evaluate embrittlement of bcc Fe at different temperatures. A new impact test model is developed for MD simulation. The typical fracture behaviors show transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and a history of the impact loads also demonstrates its transition. We conclude that the impact test by MD could be feasible. (orig.)

  5. Sense-making and Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts.......The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts....

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahoshi, Y.; Schmauder, S.; Ludwig, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an impact test by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to evaluate embrittlement of bcc Fe at different temperatures. A new impact test model is developed for MD simulation. The typical fracture behaviors show transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and a history of the impact loads also demonstrates its transition. We conclude that the impact test by MD could be feasible. (orig.)

  7. Impact of radioactive waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, D.; Rogers, L.E.; Uresk, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Impact assessment of radioactive waste management operations is considered separately for nonradiological impact on biota, impact on ecosystem structure and function and radiological impact on biota. Localized effects related to facility construction and maintenance activities probably occur but the large expanse of relatively undisturbed surrounding landscape minimizes any overall effects

  8. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  9. Aerosol impacts on scene contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Piazzolla, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Stein, K.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols scatter and absorb radiation, which impacts greatly on the amount of solar radiation reaching a surface, thereby changing the amount of radiation available for heating up a target. The presence of aerosols also reduces the amount of target radiation that reaches the sensor, and

  10. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  11. Grad II: An Impact Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard P.; Mayberry, Maurice E.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of an integrated computer program called GRAD II (Graduate Resume Accumulation and Distribution) which allows a direct communication link between job-seeking students and potential employers. Response was generally favorable although a better mix of employers was needed. (JAC)

  12. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  13. Meteorite impact in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  14. Migrationlab Social Impact Report 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pana, L.; Vicherat, Mattar D.A.

    2016-01-01

    This report offers an overview on the Welcome to the Living Room (WTTLR) activities during the research and development year within the ECF Idea Camp R&D Grant 2016. The results reveal the growth of Migrationlab as an organization as well as the positive impact our activities have for those joining

  15. Drop Impact on Superheated Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tuan; Staat, Erik-Jan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    At the impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated above the liquid’s boiling point, the droplet either immediately boils when it contacts the surface (“contact boiling”), or without any surface contact forms a Leidenfrost vapor layer towards the hot surface and bounces back (“gentle film

  16. Impact assessment in EU lawmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne Claartje Margreet

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission introduced impact assessment (IA) in 2002 following recommendations from the Mandelkern group on Better Regulation. The basic rationale of IA is that proposals must be prepared on the basis of an analysis of whether regulatory intervention is needed and whether it is

  17. Taylor impact of glass rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmott, G.R.; Radford, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of soda-lime and borosilicate glass rods was examined during classic and symmetric Taylor impact experiments for impact pressures to 4 and 10 GPa, respectively. High-speed photography and piezoresistive gauges were used to measure the failure front velocities in both glasses, and for impact pressures below ∼2 GPa the failure front velocity increases rapidly with increasing pressure. As the pressure was increased above ∼3 GPa, the failure front velocities asymptotically approached maximum values between the longitudinal and shear wave velocities of each material; at ∼4 GPa, the average failure front velocities were 4.7±0.5 and 4.6±0.5 mm μs -1 for the soda-lime and borosilicate specimens, respectively. The observed mechanism of failure in these experiments involved continuous pressure-dependent nucleation and growth of microcracks behind the incident wave. As the impact pressure was increased, there was a decrease in the time to failure. The density of cracks within the failed region was material dependent, with the more open-structured borosilicate glass showing a larger fracture density

  18. pollution sources and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The second conference on analytical nuclear and conventional technics and their applications which took place in Meknes (Morocco) under the theme ''pollution sources and environmental impacts'' from 27 to 29 Novenber 2008 discussed the various aspects of the use of analytical techniques applied to issues of environmental pollution [fr

  19. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    of common source of contamination. The meat quality was found to be impaired by high levels of Zn, Cu and Cd and indicates widespread contamination of the environment by these trace metals. KEY WORDS. KEY WORDS: Heavy metals, Goat muscles, Edible offal's, Environmental impact. INTRODUCTION. Environmental ...

  1. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  2. Collocation Impact on Team Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eccles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The collocation of software development teams is common, specially in agile software development environments. However little is known about the impact of collocation on the team’s effectiveness. This paper explores the impact of collocating agile software development teams on a number of team effectiveness factors. The study focused on South African software development teams and gathered data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The key finding was that collocation has a positive impact on a number of team effectiveness factors which can be categorised under team composition, team support, team management and structure and team communication. Some of the negative impact collocation had on team effectiveness relate to the fact that team members perceived that less emphasis was placed on roles, that morale of the group was influenced by individuals, and that collocation was invasive, reduced level of privacy and increased frequency of interruptions. Overall through it is proposed that companies should consider collocating their agile software development teams, as collocation might leverage overall team effectiveness.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  4. Electricity production and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovic, B.

    2005-01-01

    An impact is considered of different energy resources on the environment, with special reference to acid rains, NOx emission and greenhouse gases, land use, and biological diversity. Power generation and consumption ratio was compared for different sources. An overview is given of electricity sources in specific conditions of Croatia being a party to the Kyoto protocol.(author)

  5. Impact on Learning Award, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents the 1998 winners of Impact on Learning Awards, recognition given to K-12 public schools that have solved real-world problems with design, engineering, and technology solutions. Categories represented include auditoriums, cafeterias, classrooms, commons areas, early-childhood learning centers, libraries, lobbies, and science and computer…

  6. Impact assessment of commodity standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary commodity standards are widely used to enhance the performance of tropical agro-food chains and to support the welfare and sustainability of smallholder farmers. Different methods and approaches are used to assess the effectiveness and impact of these certification schemes at

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production activities in any industry may “harm the environment through their damaging effects on air, water, soil and biodiversity.”1. To protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment (“EIA”) of investment projects in order to identify their potential harms. Appropriate measures should be ...

  8. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  9. Robots: An Impact on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, LaVon; Maness, Marion

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on robotics and robots, considering impact of robots on the workplace and concerns of the work force. Discusses incorporating robotics into the educational system at all levels, exploring industry-education partnerships to fund introduction of new technology into the curriculum. New funding sources and funding…

  10. Kjeller's impact in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1992-08-01

    This lecture is an attempt to assess the impact in the Netherlands of the bilateral co-operation with Norway in the field of nuclear energy during the fifties and sixties. The story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller Norway is told

  11. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  12. Climate geopolitics. Negotiations, strategies, impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, Francois

    2015-01-01

    As countries are not equal in front of the climate change issue (some contribute more than the others, some will be more heavily impacted, some are more dependent on fossil energies, some could be affected by population movements related to the degradation of their environment), and as countries are to adopt measures for a more sustainable development while facing huge geopolitical challenges which affect international negotiations, this book aims at describing and analysing these issues which illustrate serious imbalances between countries. These issues relate to the development of energy policies, to geographical and demographic constraints. The author describes how the climate has become an international political issue, and a field of complex interactions with international relationships. After having recalled the origins of greenhouse gas emissions and their main expected impacts, he analyses the various responsibilities, describes these different impacts, outlines how global warming is basically unfair: the less responsible countries will be more impacted than the responsible ones. He also discusses mechanisms of international cooperation which have been implemented to address this issue: adaptation and mitigation policies, associated negotiations. He notices that the strongest mitigation efforts are, the least necessary adaptation efforts will be. He discusses the issue of financing and necessary financial and technological transfers to help southern countries in reducing their emissions without compromising their development. He highlights the current status of negotiations, their organisation, the present actors and forces, and their main point of tension

  13. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  14. Implementation impacts of PRL methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, J.A.; Krupa, J.F.; Meadors, R.E.; Odum, J.V.; Rodrigues, G.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report responds to a DOE-SR request to evaluate the impacts from implementation of the proposed Plutonium Recovery Limit (PRL) methodology. The PRL Methodology is based on cost minimization for decisions to discard or recover plutonium contained in scrap, residues, and other plutonium bearing materials. Implementation of the PRL methodology may result in decisions to declare as waste certain plutonium bearing materials originally considered to be a recoverable plutonium product. Such decisions may have regulatory impacts, because any material declared to be waste would immediately be subject to provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The decision to discard these materials will have impacts on waste storage, treatment, and disposal facilities. Current plans for the de-inventory of plutonium processing facilities have identified certain materials as candidates for discard based upon the economic considerations associated with extending the operating schedules for recovery of the contained plutonium versus potential waste disposal costs. This report evaluates the impacts of discarding those materials as proposed by the F Area De-Inventory Plan and compares the De-Inventory Plan assessments with conclusions from application of the PRL. The impact analysis was performed for those materials proposed as potential candidates for discard by the De-Inventory Plan. The De-Inventory Plan identified 433 items, containing approximately 1% of the current SRS Pu-239 inventory, as not appropriate for recovery as the site moves to complete the mission of F-Canyon and FB-Line. The materials were entered into storage awaiting recovery as product under the Department's previous Economic Discard Limit (EDL) methodology which valued plutonium at its incremental cost of production in reactors. An application of Departmental PRLs to the subject 433 items revealed that approximately 40% of them would continue to be potentially recoverable as product plutonium

  15. Open Access Makes an Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Böker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymers published its first issue in December 2009. At that time, the editorial board and publisher were determined to lead the journal to become another MDPI success story, proving that open access publishing and high quality publications, ensured by a rigorous peer-review procedure, followed by fast publication of accepted manuscripts can be achieved. Three and a half years later, after more than 153,000 article downloads in 2012, the journal received its first impact factor (2012 JCR IF: 1.687. Today, Polymers is proud to be the number one open access journal in the category of “Polymer Science”. In order to achieve this, we relied on an editorial board with well-known members from the polymer community, a professional staff and a vision that there is room alongside the established “high impact” journals for publishing science. Recently, the editor in chief of Science, Bruce Alberts, wrote an editorial [1] in favor of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA, which states that the impact factor must not be used as “a surrogate measure of the quality of individual research articles [2]”. Even though the impact factor certainly is so far the best available measure of the quality of a journal and its impact on the scientific community, when it comes to the single manuscripts published, “there is still no other way to evaluate the quality of scientific papers, but to read them [3]”. Therefore, Polymers celebrates its first impact factor with an appropriate critical distance towards bibliometric data and feels encouraged to continue on the chosen path. With this in mind, I encourage you, our readers, to continuously evaluate the scientific quality of the articles published in Polymers by reading, discussing and citing them.

  16. Power station impacts: socio-economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, John; Elson, Martin; Barrett, Brendan; Wee, D. Van der

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the local social and economic impacts of a proposed nuclear power station development at Hinkley Point in Somerset. The proposed development, Hinkley Point C, would be an addition to the existing Hinkley Point A Magnox station, commissioned in 1965, and the Hinkley Point B Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) station, commissioned in 1976. It is hoped that the study will be of assistance to the CEGB, the Somerset County and District Councils and other agencies in their studies of the proposed development. In addition, the study seeks to apply and further develop the methodology and results from previous studies by the Power Station Impacts (PSI) team for predicting the social and economic effects of proposed power station developments on their localities. (author)

  17. Collection of Hirudinea submitted by F.M. Chutter (national institute for water research, Pretoria) and the geographical distribution of Hirudinea in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sciacchitano, I

    1963-08-01

    Full Text Available The leeches collected from the Vaal Barrage and from the streams and rivers of the Vaal dam Catchment Barrage by F.andM. from Chutter, which I have just studied, constitute a collection of 121 specimens. I sincerely thank Mr F. M. Chutter for having...

  18. Implementation workshop of WHO guidelines on evaluation of malaria vaccines: Current regulatory concepts and issues related to vaccine quality, Pretoria, South Africa 07 Nov 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei Mei; Baca-Estrada, Maria; Conrad, Christoph; Karikari-Boateng, Eric; Kang, Hye-Na

    2015-08-26

    The current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the quality, safety and efficacy of recombinant malaria vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum were adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012 to provide guidance on the quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects of recombinant malaria vaccines. A WHO workshop was organised to facilitate implementation into African (national/regional) regulatory practices, of the regulatory evaluation principles outlined in the guidelines regarding quality aspects. The workshop was used also to share knowledge and experience on regulatory topics of chemistry, manufacturing and control with a focus on vaccines through presentations and an interactive discussion using a case study approach. The basic principles and concepts of vaccine quality including consistency of production, quality control and manufacturing process were presented and discussed in the meeting. By reviewing and practicing a case study, better understanding on the relationship between consistency of production and batch release tests of an adjuvanted pre-erythrocytic recombinant malaria vaccine was reached. The case study exercise was considered very useful to understand regulatory evaluation principles of vaccines and a suggestion was made to WHO to provide such practices also through its Global Learning Opportunities for Vaccine Quality programme. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The functioning and behaviour of biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, attending the outpatient department at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Sundarlall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is gradually being acknowledged as a functionally impairing disorder across the lifespan, underscored by heritability. Nonetheless, lack of ADHD (adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder data from South Africa is alarming which could be due to either the unawareness of ADHD symptoms or underutilization of available screening measures. Undiagnosed ADHD may influence family- and working lives unpleasantly. Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1 identified either positive or negative subgroups; the Weiss functional impairment rating scale (WFIR-S for functional impairment and the Jerome driving questionnaire (JDQ for risk-taking behaviour specifically driving. Results: Of the 39 (48% parents who experienced impairment in all seven areas of functioning, 23 (59% screened negative for ADHD, while 16 (41% screened positive. A significant association was found between parents who screened either positive or negative for ADHD and functional impairment across five of the seven individual categories namely family, work, self-concept, life-skills and social functioning. Conclusion: This study emphasized the high incidence of functional impairment in parents of ADHD children. Although a substantial number of parents screened negative for ADHD, they still reported impairment in functioning; probably due to undiagnosed ADHD with comorbid psychiatric disorders, and/or parental stress due to the complex behaviour of the child. Parents of children diagnosed with ADHD should be screened for functional impairment followed by referral for psychiatric assessment and parent management training to achieve better clinical outcomes.

  20. Children and Families in Distress: Working Papers from a Seminar (Pretoria, South Africa, July 25-26, 1991). Research Programme on Marriage and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, D. R.; And Others

    This collection contains papers presented at a research seminar on children and families. The papers are: (1) "Children in Transition and Crisis" (Solly Dreman); (2) "The Child and the Family" (Dolores M. Luiz and Josua P. P. Fullard); (3) "Support Systems for Children of Divorce" (Diane Braude); (4) "Children…

  1. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa, 29-30 November 2012 Pretoria, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available . J. Muamba Mukanya, and T. R. Niesler, ?Multi-accent acoustic modelling of South African English,? Speech Communication, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 801?813, 2012. [2] E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, B. Kortmann, R. Mesthrie, and C. Upton, Eds., A Handbook..., ?Language-independent and language- adaptive acoustic modeling for speech recognition,? Speech Commun., vol. 35, pp. 31?51, 2001. [9] J. C. Roux, P. H. Louw, and T. R. Niesler, ?The African Speech Technology project: An assessment,? in Proc. LREC, Lisbon...

  3. Retrieval of atmospheric boundary layer height by CSIR NLC mobile LIDAR, Pretoria (25.5° S; 28.2° E), South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the preliminary methods for detection of the boundary layer based on backscattered signals from a mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) developed at Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR...

  4. Clustered impacts - Experiments and implications. [cratering mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of impact by clusters of projectiles are experimentally studied by launching grouped projectiles of aluminum shot, steel shot, iron filings, and sand. Cratering efficiency is considered as a function of a dimensionless parameter related to projectile size and impact velocity. The effects of different target and projectile densities on cratering efficiency are examined. Crater morphology is addressed by considering a typical example, reviewing the systematics between cluster dispersion and crater morphology for vertical impacts, and examining oblique angle impacts which have relevance for planetary secondary cratering processes. These results are compared with impacts by single bodies with different strengths. The evolution of the ejecta plume for clustered impacts is compared to that for single-body impacts for vertical and oblique impacts from 1.3 to 1.8 km/s. The experimental results are discussed in the context of planetary surface processes, emphasizing processes in an atmosphere-free environment and secondary impact cratering.

  5. Coastal Hazards Impacts And Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna D. Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communitys participation in the activities like the preparation and creation of historical timeline. resource and hazard mapping as well as vulnerability assessment matrix VAM are effective tools in determining hazards impacts and interventions of a certain locality. The most common hazards are typhoons saltwater intrusion floods and drought. Data were collected through focus group discussions FGDs from respondents along coastal areas. Findings revealed that natural calamities had great impact to livelihood properties and health. The damaged business operations fishing and agricultural livelihood led to loss of income likewise the sources of water were also contaminated. Planned interventions include launching of periodic education and awareness program creation of evacuation centers and relocation sites rescue centers installation of deep well water pumps and irrigation systems solid waste management drainage and sea walls construction canal rehabilitationdredging tree planting and alternative livelihood programs.

  6. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmann, S.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa influences patients' lives in many ways. It is therefore necessary to focus on the effects of the disease on daily life in order better to define patient-related outcomes in hidradenitis suppurativa studies. Interviews were conducted with 12 patients with hidradenitis...... suppurativa. Initial single interviews were followed by semi-structured and structured qualitative focus group interviews in order to improve the richness of the data and obtain in-depth understanding of the impact of the topics. Important topics were found to relate to aspects of interpersonal contact......, especially in relation to smell and appearance, various emotional reactions, and feelings of lack of control. It was found that hidra-denitis suppurativa has a great emotional impact on patients and promotes isolation due to fear of stigmati-zation. Shame and irritation are frequent and relate to smell...

  7. Burned forests impact water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallema, Dennis W; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V; Norman, Steven P; Cohen, Erika C; Liu, Yongqiang; Bladon, Kevin D; McNulty, Steven G

    2018-04-10

    Wildland fire impacts on surface freshwater resources have not previously been measured, nor factored into regional water management strategies. But, large wildland fires are increasing and raise concerns about fire impacts on potable water. Here we synthesize long-term records of wildland fire, climate, and river flow for 168 locations across the United States. We show that annual river flow changed in 32 locations, where more than 19% of the basin area was burned. Wildland fires enhanced annual river flow in the western regions with a warm temperate or humid continental climate. Wildland fires increased annual river flow most in the semi-arid Lower Colorado region, in spite of frequent droughts in this region. In contrast, prescribed burns in the subtropical Southeast did not significantly alter river flow. These extremely variable outcomes offer new insights into the potential role of wildfire and prescribed fire in regional water resource management, under a changing climate.

  8. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  9. Impact behavior of a superball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-03-01

    When a superball is incident with backspin on a horizontal surface, at an angle near the normal, it bounces backwards and with a reversal in the spin direction. The effect is less noticeable with other balls, which may bounce with reduced spin and without a reversal in the spin direction. The outcome depends on the friction force acting on the ball. Measurements with several different rubber balls are presented showing that the time history of the friction force, the resulting tangential impulse, and the resulting tangential coefficient of restitution all depend on both the coefficient of sliding friction and the ratio of the tangential vibration period to the impact duration of the ball. Grip and slip phases of the bounce are identified visually by allowing the ball to impact on chalk lines drawn on a blackboard, and by video-recording the bounce of a rectangular block of rubber.

  10. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  11. Social Impact of SSH Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    More than 38 percent of the funding allocated under the European Union’s Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon2020, is dedicated to research on societal challenges such as health, energy and climate. This amounts to 29.7 billion Euros in funding for research with the explicit aim...... of making social impact. However, the social sciences and humanities (SSH) have only played a marginal role in the societal challenges of Horizon2020. According to Science Europe, the pan-European association for research councils and foundations, only 26.7 percent of the topics under the Horizon2020’s...... societal challenges explicitly invite contributions from SSH research. If we look at the humanities in isolation, it is only around 10 percent of the topics. The marginal role of SSH in Horizon2020 is, among other things, the result of an inadequate understanding of the social impact of SSH research...

  12. Ice storms and forest impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irland, L C

    2000-11-15

    Ice storms, or icing events, are important meteorological disturbances affecting forests over a surprisingly large portion of the USA. A broad belt extending from east Texas to New England experiences major ice storms at least once a decade; and truly major events occur in the heart of this belt once or twice a century. In the areas most affected, icing events are a factor that shapes stand composition, structure, and condition over wide areas. Impacts of individual storms are highly patchy and variable, and depend on the nature of the storm. Impacts also depend on how (or if) forest managers conduct subsequent salvage cuttings. Important research needs remain to be considered by the forest ecology and meteorology communities. At present, how ice storm frequency and severity may change with future climate change is unknown.

  13. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  14. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  15. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  16. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  17. Cultural Impacts in Managerial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius Guinea

    2006-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view, it has been stated that there is a considerable probability that some cultural aspects could affect the economic environment and, consequently, the managerial accounting. While this statement has a certain suppositional degree, we will try to test the importance of culture within the managerial accounting. Several empirical approaches underline the existence of a powerful impact of the national culture on the managerial accounting systems. Moreover, it is c...

  18. Impacts of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Various methods of conducting surveys and analyses to determine the attitude of the public toward the energy crisis are discussed. Models to determine the impact of the energy crisis and proposed alternative sources of energy on the social structure are analyzed. The various interest groups which are concerned with energy and the nature of their interest are identified. The government structure for controlling resource production and allocation is defined.

  19. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malai, Marius

    1996-01-01

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  20. Impact of Alaskan gas subsidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) with an assessment of the impact of the Alaska natural gas tax credit proposed and passed in the United States Senate energy bill. In particular, Purvin and Gertz evaluated the impact of the Alaskan gas subsidy on potential Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea production as well as existing and future production from other areas including Western Canada, the Rocky Mountains in the United States, and the Gulf Coast. The mechanisms through which other producing areas are affected were described and the typical volumetric impact is presented using gas models developed by Purvin and Gertz. The GNWT wants to maximize the benefits of Arctic gas development for its constituents but believes that its interests will be negatively impacted by subsidized Alaskan gas which will be applied for the period beginning in 2010. The tax credit sets a floor price of $3.25 (US)/MMBtu. Purvin and Gertz concludes that the Alaskan gas subsidy would produce a misallocation of resources and distort the continental North American natural gas market. It would encourage over investment in Alaskan gas production because the credit works as a false signal to the privileged few that divert resources from higher value activities to lower value activities. The winners of the Alaskan gas subsidy would be Alaskan producers and the Alaskan economy. The losers would be other resource owners, producers, and American taxpayers because they would finance the subsidy through a tax credit mechanism. There would be an overall loss to the economy because of sub-optimal allocation of resources. In addition, producers in existing producing areas such as the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region would face lower market prices as a result of the subsidy, thereby reducing their investments. It was concluded that the Alaskan gas subsidy is counterproductive from the perspective of a secure continental supply of natural gas. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the global climate system, the constituents of the earth atmosphere, the natural greenhouse effect and its enhancement through man-made impacts, particularly the increasing CO 2 emissions. The establishment of climate models and their information value are explained, referring e.g. to the signs given by experimental data, indicating a global warming. The author stresses the need for international, concerted action to avoid emissions contributing to global warming. (orig.) [de

  2. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  4. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  5. Full-scale aircraft impact test for evaluation of impact force-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Sugano, T.; Tsubata, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Suzuki, M.; Ohrui, S.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parrish, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes measurements used to evaluate the impact force of a rigid barrier against head on impacting aircraft. The authors uses the results to evaluate existing analytical methods for prediction of the impact force

  6. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  7. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  8. Global warming impacts of chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article

  9. Economic impact of PCI remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

  10. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  11. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  12. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: About this journal. Journal Home > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Electron impact study of potassium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    An ''elastic'' scattering study for low impact energies (5--20 ev) is reported for electron impact excitation of KOH. The ''elastic'' scattering is regarded as the sum of elastic rotational and vibrational contributions to the scattering

  15. The ecological impacts of marine debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A.J.; Franeker, Van Jan A.; Thompson, Richard C.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological

  16. Impact of microbial distributions on food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, J.; Jackson, T.; Jewell, K.; Jongenburger, I.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses mechanisms impacting on physical distributions of microorganisms in foods, characteristics and suitability of frequency distributions employed to model microbial distributions, and the impact of both physical and frequency distributions on illness risk and food safety

  17. Iowa's renewable energy and infrastructure impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Objectives : Estimate traffic growth and pavement deterioration due to Iowas growing renewable energy industries in a multi-county area. : Develop a traffic and fiscal impact model to help assess the impact of additional biofuels plants on...

  18. Impact microcraters on an Australasian microtektite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Sudhakar, M.

    has a welded promontory, is unique. The projectiles that produced the impacts defined varying trajectories and velocities, ranging from hypervelocity to low velocity (a few 10 m/s). The impacts took place while the microtektite was in flight...

  19. "Impact 4" Berliinis ja Poznanis / Vappu Thurlow

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thurlow, Vappu, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    5.-10. IX Berliinis ja Poznanis toimunud neljandast rahvusvahelisest graafikakonverentsist "Impact" alapealkirjaga "Kontakt". Eestist osalesid Loit Jõekalda, Eve Kask, Karin Laansoo ja Vappu Thurlow. 2007. a. Tallinnas toimuva "Impact 5", alapealkirjaga "Slices of Time/Lõigutud aeg", kontseptsioon

  20. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  2. Livestock extension programmes participation and impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock extension programmes participation and impact on smallholder cattle productivity in Kwazulu-Natal: A propensity score matching approach. ... The study concludes with some policy implications. Keywords: Agricultural Extension, Cattle production, Impact evaluation, Propensity Score Matching, South Africa.

  3. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  5. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  6. Finnish food chain impacts on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Kurppa, Sirpa; Virtanen, Yrjö

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the food chain’s environmental impacts was conducted using an environmentalaccounting model developed specifically for the Finnish food chain. The model is based on production and environmental impact data from year 2005. The model considers both Finnish production and Finnish imports in addition to their transport. The targets of the evaluation were the environmental impacts, in 2005, stemming from production. Environmental impacts of the end-use phase were not assessed....

  7. Impact microcrater morphology on Australian microtektites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Khedekar, V.D.

    ). Timing of ImpactsThe small microtektites, which have the largest numberof erosive craters, seem to have been caught in a dense swarm of fast-moving projectiles in the mm and sub-m sizes. Thatlarge microtektites have fewer craters and that those... existing models on impacts, Prasad and Sudhakar (1998)suggested that differential velocities between the ejecta ofdifferent sizes leads to collisions, and further, multiplesequential impacts in the dense swarm add to the number of impacts on each...

  8. Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassol, S.J.; Zijderveld, J.; Moll, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to an unprecedented four-year scientific study of the region conducted by an international team of 300 scientists. At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century, along with a significant portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as the region is projected to warm an additional 4-7C by the year 2100. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, according to the final report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The assessment was commissioned by the Arctic Council (a ministerial intergovernmental forum comprised of the eight Arctic countries and six Indigenous Peoples organizations) and the International Arctic Science Committee (an international scientific organization appointed by 18 national academies of science). The assessment's projections are based on a moderate estimate of future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and incorporate results from five major global climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [nl

  9. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of environmental threats to farm lands and the environment in the selected areas. Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a result of land exposure ...

  10. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits ...

  12. Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kieren Torres; Bailey, Melanie J.; Berhanu, Deborah; Bland, Phil A.; Cressey, Gordon; Howard, Lauren E.; Jeynes, Chris; Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.; Stolojan, Vlad; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2013-12-01

    Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400km2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem--including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants--survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event.

  13. Backcountry impact management: Lessons from research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    1994-01-01

    Recreational use of backcountry inevitably impacts environments intended for preservation. Where use is light or where management programs provide adequate protection, impacts need not be unacceptably severe. However, where use is heavy and protective actions are inadequate, impacts may be severe and widespread. Trails may become deeply eroded trenches or mudholes and...

  14. Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, N.; de Bruin, K.G.; Bartolo, D.; Josserand, C.; Bonn, D.

    2014-01-01

    The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid

  15. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact...) for the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property...

  16. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  17. Impact of modern agriculture on environment-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Behl, R.K.; Tauro, P.; Joshi, U.N.

    1995-11-01

    The present volume titled Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment is the outcome of the Proceedings of the Indo-German Conference on Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment, a seminar organized by Haryana Agricultural University in 1993 and deals with certain areas of the environmental aspects of agriculture including its radiological impacts. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately

  18. Recent Impacts on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Bowles, Z. R.; Daubar, I.; Povilaitis, R.; Thompson, S. D.; Thompson, T. J.; Wagner, R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) observations, an understanding of impact rates of meteoroids meteors in Earth's atmosphere [4], recent impacts recorded on Mars [5,6,7], and lunar 'flashes' (likely impacts) observed by teams such as those at Marshall Space Flight Center [8]. Since July of 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) collects meter scale Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, with repeat coverage in areas of high interest. Planned and serendipitous re-imaging with similar illumination conditions provides the means to detect temporal surface changes with the ultimate goal of measuring the current flux of impacts on the Moon. To easily detect a change at the surface, NAC-pairs separated in time (temporal pair), with similar illumination geometries are compared. Overlapping regions in a temporal pair are map projected and co-registered and a ratio is computed (second observation / first observation) and examined for temporal anomalies. Some changes are clearly distinguished as newly formed craters with rims and ejecta, while others are simply small (a few pixels) reflectance changes (crater not resolved). Detections are categorized as relatively high reflectance changes (HRC) or low reflectance changes (LRC) relative to the surrounding substrate. To date the LRCs outnumber the HRCs by a factor of ten. Clusters (>3) of changes were discovered in 48 temporal pairs. So far, we have identified 599 individual changes, with 547 LRCs and 48 HRCs. Of the 599 detections, sixteen represent resolved craters, and of these diameters range up to 20 m, suggesting bolide sizes up to ~1 m diameter. The total surface area examined to date is ~25,000 square km and the maximum time window between repeat images is 2.5 years, yielding an estimated minimum 364,000 new lunar craters per year (or one crater per year for every 104 square km) detectable at the scale of NAC images (secondary or primary events), assuming all temporal changes are due to impacts. The

  19. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  20. Ancient Impact Basin on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This feature on Europa was seen as a dark, diffuse circular patch on a previous Galileo global image of Europa's leading hemisphere on April 3, 1997. The 'bulls-eye' pattern appears to be a 140- kilometer (86-mile) wide impact scar (about the size of the island of Hawaii) which formed as the surface fractured minutes after a mountain-sized asteroid or comet slammed into the satellite. This approximately 214-kilometer (132-mile) wide picture is the product of three images which have been processed in false color to enhance shapes and compositions.North is toward the top of this picture, which is illuminated from sunlight coming from the west. This color composite reveals a sequence of events which have modified the surface of Europa. The earliest event was the impact which formed the Tyre structure at 34 degrees north latitude and 146.5 degrees west longitude. The impact was followed by the formation of the reddish lines superposed on Tyre. The red color designates areas that are probably a dirty water ice mixture. The fine blue-green lines crossing the region from west to east appear to be ridges which formed after the crater.The images were taken on April 4, 1997, at a resolution of 595 meters (1950 feet) per picture element and a range of 29,000 kilometers (17,900 miles). The images were taken by Galileo's solid state imaging (CCD) system.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Generic behaviours in impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-02-15

    From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)

  2. Cultural Impacts in Managerial Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Guinea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available From the theoretical point of view, it has been stated that there is a considerable probability that some cultural aspects could affect the economic environment and, consequently, the managerial accounting. While this statement has a certain suppositional degree, we will try to test the importance of culture within the managerial accounting. Several empirical approaches underline the existence of a powerful impact of the national culture on the managerial accounting systems. Moreover, it is clear for everybody that the companies’ strategic objectives are often expressed in numerical terms, but they are chosen according to the culture.

  3. Impacts of appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, P.; Kesselring, J.

    1992-12-01

    Federal efficiency standards for appliances limit the range of models available on the market. Utility energy efficiency programs often encourage consumers to purchase the most efficient of the remaining options, but more-stringent efficiency standards could have a significant impact on such utility efforts. Using long-run technology scenario forecasting, EPRI-sponsored researchers studied ways in which the interplay of technological change, federal standards, utility efficiency programs, and market forces could affect future energy markets for three major residential end uses: refrigeration, central air conditioning, and water heating. The researchers reached several important conclusions about utility demand-side management efforts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  5. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  6. Impact of TPP on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Data on environmental impact and action on people health of enterprises of coal industry, and coal and natural gas TPP were analyzed. Volume of harmful substances discharge to the atmosphere on the replace of 30 billion m 3 of gas by the Kansko-Achinsk and Kuznetsk coal (for three variants of use) was calculated. The calculations presented that the drop of gas supply at TPP with the simultaneous increase of coal consumption could give rise to the significant growth of harmful discharges to the environment [ru

  7. The social impact of computers

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Richard S

    1992-01-01

    The Social Impact of Computers should be read as a guide to the social implications of current and future applications of computers. Among the basic themes presented are the following: the changing nature of work in response to technological innovation as well as the threat to jobs; personal freedom in the machine age as manifested by challenges to privacy, dignity, and work; the relationship between advances in computer and communications technology and the possibility of increased centralization of authority; and the emergence and influence of artificial intelligence and its role in decision

  8. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  9. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  10. Low Impact Development Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project creates a Low Impact Development (LID) Master Plan to guide and prioritize future development of LID projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The LID Master Plan applies to developed areas across the Laboratory and focuses on identifying opportunities for storm water quality and hydrological improvements in the heavily urbanized areas of Technical Areas 03, 35 and 53. The LID Master Plan is organized to allow the addition of LID projects for other technical areas as time and funds allow in the future.

  11. Creative Leadership for Social Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejenova, Silviya; Højgaard Christiansen, Lærke

    2018-01-01

    This study explores how creative leadership unfolds in the pursuit of social purpose. Drawing on the case of an architectural firm’s development of novel social housing model, we identify claims of three creative leadership processes and of scaling up for social impact. The study expands...... the conceptualization of creative leadership to the context of social change. It also adds to the understanding of creative industries by suggesting social purpose as a distinctive, yet underexplored driver of innovation and a source of different balancing act, as well as an important frontier for research...... on and practice in the creative industries....

  12. Nanomedicine science, business, and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Hehenberger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    By covering the science, business, and societal impact of nanomedicine, this book makes a strong case for funding of basic research, for effective translation of scientific breakthroughs into clinical care of patients, and for close collaboration among all stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem. It covers the underlying science and technology of nanomedicine in detail to help understand the great promise of nanomedicine across all disease areas. Although rich and deep in content, the book attempts to introduce the topic of nanomedicine to a wide audience. Scientific jargon is avoided and adv

  13. Terrestrial impact melt rocks and glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, B. O.; Reimold, W. U.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of meteorite and comet impact on Earth are rock brecciation, the formation of shock metamorphic features, rock melting, and the formation of impact structures, i.e. simple craters, complex craters, and multi-ring basins. Large events, such as the 65-Ma Chicxulub impact, are believed to have had catastrophic environmental effects that profoundly influenced the development of life on Earth. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize some of the voluminous literature on impact melting, one important aspect of planetary impact, provide some comments on this process, and to make suggestions for future research. The products of impact melting are glasses, impact melt rocks, and pseudotachylites. Our treatise deals mainly with the geological setting, petrography, and major-element chemistry of melt rocks and glasses. Impact glasses, in several petrographic aspects, are similar to volcanic glasses, but they are associated with shock metamorphosed mineral and rock fragments and, in places, with siderophile element anomalies suggestive of meteoritic contamination. They are found in allogenic breccia deposits within (fall-back 'suevite') and outside (fall-out 'suevite') impact craters and, as spherules, in distal ejecta. Large events, such as the K/T boundary Chicxulub impact, are responsible for the formation of worldwide ejecta horizons which are associated with siderophile element anomalies and shock metamorphosed mineral and rock debris. Impact glasses have a bulk chemical composition that is homogeneous but exemptions to this rule are common. On a microscopic scale, however, impact glasses are commonly strikingly heterogeneous. Tektites are glasses ejected from craters over large distances. They are characterized by very low water and volatile contents and element abundances and ratios that are evidence that tektites formed by melting of upper crustal, sedimentary rocks. Four tektite strewn-fields are known, three of which can be tied to specific impact

  14. Impact structures in Africa: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    More than 50 years of space and planetary exploration and concomitant studies of terrestrial impact structures have demonstrated that impact cratering has been a fundamental process – an essential part of planetary evolution – ever since the beginning of accretion and has played a major role in planetary evolution throughout the solar system and beyond. This not only pertains to the development of the planets but to evolution of life as well. The terrestrial impact record represents only a small fraction of the bombardment history that Earth experienced throughout its evolution. While remote sensing investigations of planetary surfaces provide essential information about surface evolution and surface processes, they do not provide the information required for understanding the ultra-high strain rate, high-pressure, and high-temperature impact process. Thus, hands-on investigations of rocks from terrestrial impact craters, shock experimentation for pressure and temperature calibration of impact-related deformation of rocks and minerals, as well as parameter studies pertaining to the physics and chemistry of cratering and ejecta formation and emplacement, and laboratory studies of impact-generated lithologies are mandatory tools. These, together with numerical modeling analysis of impact physics, form the backbone of impact cratering studies. Here, we review the current status of knowledge about impact cratering – and provide a detailed account of the African impact record, which has been expanded vastly since a first overview was published in 1994. No less than 19 confirmed impact structures, and one shatter cone occurrence without related impact crater are now known from Africa. In addition, a number of impact glass, tektite and spherule layer occurrences are known. The 49 sites with proposed, but not yet confirmed, possible impact structures contain at least a considerable number of structures that, from available information, hold the promise to be able to

  15. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  16. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHone, J.F.; Dietz, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures)

  17. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  18. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.A.; Adams, S.M.; Kumar, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  19. MIGRATION IMPACT ON ECONOMICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  20. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  1. Magnetic hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for DNA isolation from faeces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trachtová, Š.; Obermajer, T.; Španová, A.; Matijašić, B. B.; Rogelj, I.; Horák, Daniel; Rittich, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 555, č. 1 (2012), s. 263-270 ISSN 1542-1406. [International Conference on Frontiers of Polymers and Advanced Materials /11./. Pretoria, 22.05.2011-27.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : DNA isolation * magnetic microspheres * mouse faeces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2012

  2. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  3. Comparison of Impact Duration Between Experiment and Theory From Charpy Impact Test

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said N.B.; Ali M.B.; Zakaria K.A.; Daud M.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the comparison of impact duration between experiment and theory from impact signal through a Charpy test. Recently, the number of accidents on the highway has been increased and it depends on the impact duration of material that have the ability to provide adequate protection to passengers from harmful and improve occupant survivability during crash event. Charpy impact test was implemented on different material and thickness but at the same striker velocity. Impact signal...

  4. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  5. Impact of Demonetization on Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Syngle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the psychosocial impact of demonetization of 2016 in India in two opposing strata of women in the context of their social backgrounds. It provides valuable insights into the social behavior of women before, during, and after demonetization. It attempts to analyze the reasons behind the observed social behavior as well. This study demonstrates that irrespective of the social strata, difficulties encountered by women in the aftermath of demonetization were similar in the community surveyed but responses appeared to be dictated by social background and awareness. In addition, this study underscores a need for greater awareness creation with respect to various social schemes launched by the government among the women, particularly those working in unorganized sector for their greater financial inclusion.

  6. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  7. International impact research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.; Hammitt, William E.; Cole, David N.

    1998-01-01

    To be sustainable, ecotourism requires the protection of natural environments and processes both from development and operation of the tourism infrastructure, and from the activities of ecotourists within protected areas. This book chapter reviews the international literature on the study of visitor or recreation-related resource impacts with special reference to ecotourism. Four case examples are presented to characterize the geographic scope, focus, and principal findings of this recreation ecology literature and its relevance to ecotourism management. Case examples include the Cairngorms National Nature Reserve, Scotland; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; the Central American tropics; and wildlife viewing in Kenya?s protected areas. Implications for the management of international protected areas and ecotourism resources are discussed.

  8. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  9. Impacts of globalization in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Andriani; Mechili, Aggelos; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Globalization describes the interplay of macro-social forces across cultures. The purpose of this study is a systematic review of the bibliography on the impacts of globalization in health. The consequences of globalization on health present a twofold dimension, on the one hand affects the health of the population and on the other hand organization and functioning of health systems. As a result of globalization, there has been an undeniable economic development and technological progress to support the level of health around the world, improving the health status of certain populations with a beneficial increase in life expectancy. In many aspects globalization is good but there are many problems too.

  10. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  11. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  12. Climate change impacts and adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    , the inseparability of the development and climate agendas, and the rate of assimilation of climate and development information in key institutions. They are drawn from the Development Under Climate Change (DUCC) project carried out by UNU-WIDER of which the countries of the Greater Zambeze Valley formed a part......In this article, we assert that developing countries are much better prepared to undertake negotiations at the Conference of the Parties in Paris (CoP21) as compared to CoP15 in Copenhagen. An important element of this is the accumulation of knowledge with respect to the implications of climate...... change and the ongoing internalization thereof by key institutions in developing countries. The articles in this special issue set forth a set of technical contributions to this improved understanding. We also summarize five major lessons related to uncertainty, extreme events, timing of impacts...

  13. Impact of glucocorticoid on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Odaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is currently an area of great interest in neuroscience. It is closely linked to brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodevelopmental disease. Both embryonic and adult neurogeneses are influenced by glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal glands in response to a variety of stressors. Moreover, proliferation/differentiation of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs is affected by glucocorticoids through intracellular signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, hedgehog, and Wnt. Our review presents recent evidence of the impact of glucocorticoids on NSPC behaviors and the underlying molecular mechanisms; this provides important information for understanding the pathological role of glucocorticoids on neurogenesis-associated brain diseases.

  14. Academic appropriation and Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of appropriation of scientific knowledge and the indicators designed to measure its impact is being hotly debated in Iberoamerica right now. I will separate what I call academic appropriation of knowledge from what many authors have called social appropriation of knowledge. The former isrelated to knowledge communication and transference practices in scientific communities, and the latter has to do with the multiple ways in which knowledge goes to society. This editorial will address academic appropriation.Academic appropriations are found in many levels: the first is that performed by colleagues (peers who use this knowledge, and citations are the indicators of usage. This is a sensitive indicator, and thus vulnerable to citation dynamics in academic communities. For example, communities with low levels of knowledge use are generally endogamic and have low international collaboration.They are also characterised by not easily modifying their citation habits. In this sense, a part of these citations generally make themselves invisible, this is, they do not acknowledge neither their own efforts, not those made by local peer groups (regional, and are negatively paradoxical, even when proclaimed in an anti-mainstream science discourse. At the same time, they downplay their own production or the regional production, and ground their work on the production that they claim to go beyond.On the other hand, research groups with an important output can improve or decrease the visibility of other groups and journals, since the amount of work ends up concentrating citations in particular works or journals, which affects themeasures derived from citation-expressed impacts. In this sense, and as a response with additional elements for assessing academic production, it is suggested that: 1. The quartile of the journal be used, since it gives a more accurate idea of its dynamics and shows the journal in relation to other journals with its variability

  15. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISILEANU Emilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2. The woven and knitted samples from 100% cotton, cotton/PES blend and 100% PES were treated by impregnation on the laboratory padding machine, drying and condensing on the machine for drying-condensing-heat setting, with the following recipes: 50g/l RUCOSTAR EEE6+20 ml 5% nano-Ag dispersion, or 10% nano-CeO2 in ethylene glycol, respectively water and 0,5ml acetic acid 60% for products from 100% cotton and PES/cotton and 50g/l NUVA N 2114 liquid with the same percent of nanoparticles but with 1 ml/l acetic acid 60%, in case of 100% PES samples. The samples were treated in 2 steps – hydrophobic/ oleo phobic in the first stage and hydrophobic/ oleo phobic/ functionalization with nano-Ag and nano-CeO2 in the second stage. The complex characterization of both type of materials : hydrophobic and oleo phobic properties, color change, whitening degree, DCS, FT-IR, SEM and microbiology, evidenced through the obtained results the justness of the selection for: the raw materials (100% cotton, cotton/PES, 100% PES, the weave (plain, twill, rib, pique, the fabric tightness and fabric cover etc. These data allowed the elaboration of textile material’s specifications for impact plates.

  16. Distributional Aspects of Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J. Tol; Kuik, O.J.; Downing, T.; Smith, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review about the state of knowledge on the distributional aspects of climate change impacts. The paper is largely limited to the distribution of impacts between countries (in Section 2). Although there are virtually no estimates reported in the literature, the distribution of impacts within countries is also important. Impact estimates for different sectors (agriculture, health, sea level rise) provides little guidance for estimating differential impacts within countries. It is even harder to find estimates based on social classes. The paper restricts itself to equity about the consequences of climate change. Equity issues about the consequences of emission reduction are ignored here, but should of course be part of a policy analysis. Equity issues about procedures for decision making are also ignored. The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 reviews recent estimates of the regional impacts of climate change. Section 3 discusses alternative ways of aggregating regional impact estimates. Section 4 focusses on the vulnerability of the poor to climate change impacts, both with respect to exposure as well as to their limited capacity for adaptation. Section 5 discusses the impacts of economic development and other dynamic changes on vulnerability. The paper abstains from a discussion of aggregating climate change impacts over time, partly because the literature on that is too substantial to be reviewed here, and partly because, under virtually all scenarios, the current generation is the poorest and therefore particularly worthy in equity considerations. In Section 6 we present salient conclusions

  17. Study on Impact Behavior and Impact Force of Bridge Pier Subjected to Vehicle Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyuan Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of vehicle-pier collision accidents has significant influences on the safety of bridge structures. In order to study the impact behavior of bridge piers, a vehicle-double-pier collision numerical model was developed by LS-DYNA. Nonlinear material constitutive laws considering the strain-rate effect were used. The reliability of numerical analyses was validated. Parametric studies were carried out to investigate the effects of impact velocity, impact mass, and concrete and steel strength on the impact behaviors of piers and the impact forces. The relationship between failure modes of the impacted piers and impact energy was analyzed. Based on the numerical analysis results, the current impact design provisions of AASHTO, Eurocode, and JTG D60 were found to be unconservative, which could result in that piers designed with the current standard codes were vulnerable to the large impact energy. The recommended value of equivalent static force in the current standards is unreasonable.

  18. Impact of the "salary scholarship" impact profile and student achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga, Vanesa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, within the framework of the Strategy 2015, the implementation of scholarships, grants and wages especially adapted to the new situation of the European Higher Education, intended to ensure access to university education to those most disadvantaged social groups economically. This research makes an ex post facto, descriptive-comparative aimed at assessing the impact of the grant salary, as an economic factor, on equity, access and academic performance in the first year of college. The study was conducted with a total of 10,394 new students in the 2010-11 cohort at the University of Barcelona, from the database from the institution itself. A total of 642 students agreed to grant salary, with differences depending on the branch of knowledge, gender, and the path to college. In relation to their peers, scholarship students come from families with occupations and / or study less, so scholarships model contributes to equity in access. In relation to performance analysis, scholarship students enrolled and present, on average, a larger number of subjects in order to meet the academic requirements for scholarship renewal, but the results are final academic in several branches knowledge, influenced negatively. One possible explanation is the largest academic pressure of this group in a phase usually complicated: the transition to college.

  19. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  20. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel