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Sample records for pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design

  1. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  2. Using Pretest-Posttest Research Designs to Enhance Jury Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Goodman-Delahunty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When lay jurors are unfamiliar with key evidentiary issues, expert evidence, judicial instructions and group deliberation may enhance their understanding of this evidence. Systematic steps to assess the relationship between juror biases in cases of child sexual abuse are offered as an example to illustrate a programmatic research approach. Using pretest-posttest research designs, the effectiveness of three traditional legal procedural safeguards to reduce common jury misconceptions in the context of simulated trials were tested and compared. By measuring mock-juror knowledge before and after each intervention, knowledge gains attributable to these interventions were distinguished from practice effects. Unexpected increases in acquittals following deliberation underscored the importance of adding adequate control groups and of testing deliberation effects in jury simulation studies. Benefits of this research paradigm to assist courts, legal counsel and policy makers in devising effective methods to enhance jury decisions in complex criminal cases are discussed. Cuando los miembros del jurado popular no están familiarizados con los temas probatorios clave, las pruebas periciales, las instrucciones judiciales y la deliberación de grupo pueden mejorar su comprensión de las evidencias. Se ofrecen pasos sistemáticos para evaluar la relación entre sesgos del jurado en casos de abusos a menores como un ejemplo para ilustrar un enfoque de investigación programática. Se probó y comparó la efectividad de tres garantías procesales jurídicas tradicionales para reducir los malentendidos comunes de los jurados en el contexto de juicios simulados, usando patrones de investigación pre y post análisis. Al medir el conocimiento de jurados en juicios simulados antes y después de cada intervención, se distinguían los conocimientos adquiridos atribuibles a estas intervenciones. Un aumento inesperado de absoluciones después de la deliberación pon

  3. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  4. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  5. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  6. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  7. Measuring Student Learning in Social Statistics: A Pretest-Posttest Study of Knowledge Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study used a pretest-posttest design to measure student learning in undergraduate statistics. Data were derived from 185 students enrolled in six different sections of a social statistics course taught over a seven-year period by the same sociology instructor. The pretest-posttest instrument reveals statistically significant gains in…

  8. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 9: collecting data from quasi-experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Ariel M; Becker, Betsy Jane; Duvendack, Maren; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Shemilt, Ian; Waddington, Hugh

    2017-09-01

    To identify variables that must be coded when synthesizing primary studies that use quasi-experimental designs. All quasi-experimental (QE) designs. When designing a systematic review of QE studies, potential sources of heterogeneity-both theory-based and methodological-must be identified. We outline key components of inclusion criteria for syntheses of quasi-experimental studies. We provide recommendations for coding content-relevant and methodological variables and outlined the distinction between bivariate effect sizes and partial (i.e., adjusted) effect sizes. Designs used and controls used are viewed as of greatest importance. Potential sources of bias and confounding are also addressed. Careful consideration must be given to inclusion criteria and the coding of theoretical and methodological variables during the design phase of a synthesis of quasi-experimental studies. The success of the meta-regression analysis relies on the data available to the meta-analyst. Omission of critical moderator variables (i.e., effect modifiers) will undermine the conclusions of a meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Edward B.

    With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

  10. The need for quasi-experimental methodology to evaluate pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, F R; Cuesta, A

    1993-01-01

    Family planning program managers may be easily misled by conclusions about the effects of price increases on the demand for services when the findings are based on pre-experiments such as the single-group pretest-posttest study, generally believed to be practical. This report presents financial and service data from clinics of the Asociación Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE) in Ecuador, which, analyzed according to the single-group pretest-posttest design, would suggest that the demand for intrauterine device services is inelastic. However, considerable demand elasticity is detected when data are analyzed according to more rigorous quasi-experimental designs. Using the single-group pretest-posttest design for pricing studies is too flawed to be considered practical. Wherever possible, strong designs should be used in operations research, especially in pricing studies.

  11. A Quasi-Experimental Study on Using Short Stories: Statistical and Inferential Analyses on the Non-English Major University Students' Speaking and Writing Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Jaya Nur

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using short stories significantly improve the speaking and writing achievements. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design or comparison group design was used in this research. The population of this research was the all first semester undergraduate…

  12. Empirical Likelihood-Based Estimation of the Treatment Effect in a Pretest-Posttest Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A

    2008-09-01

    The pretest-posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest-posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175).

  13. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Quasi-Experimental Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L; Braun, Barbara I; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt, nonrandomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into 3 major types: interrupted time-series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  14. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 8: identifying quasi-experimental studies to inform systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Eyers, John; Jones, Andrew M; Shemilt, Ian; Wang, Grace; Johansen, Marit; Fiander, Michelle; Rothstein, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. Research, guidance, and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings, and personal communication. Current practice and research evidence were summarized. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-four records were retrieved by database searches, and additional documents were obtained by other searches. QE studies are challenging to identify efficiently because they have no standardized nomenclature and may be indexed in various ways. Reliable search filters are not available. There is a lack of specific resources devoted to collecting QE studies and little evidence on where best to search. Searches to identify QE studies should search a range of resources and, until indexing improves, use strategies that focus on the topic rather than the study design. Better definitions, better indexing in databases, prospective registers, and reporting guidance are required to improve the retrieval of QE studies and promote systematic reviews of what works based on the evidence from such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 7: assessing the assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter; Bommer, Christian; Ebert, Cara; Barreto, Mauricio; Djimeu, Eric; Haber, Noah; Waddington, Hugh; Rockers, Peter; Sianesi, Barbara; Bor, Jacob; Fink, Günther; Valentine, Jeffrey; Tanner, Jeffrey; Stanley, Tom; Sierra, Eduardo; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Atun, Rifat; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experimental designs are gaining popularity in epidemiology and health systems research-in particular for the evaluation of health care practice, programs, and policy-because they allow strong causal inferences without randomized controlled experiments. We describe the concepts underlying five important quasi-experimental designs: Instrumental Variables, Regression Discontinuity, Interrupted Time Series, Fixed Effects, and Difference-in-Differences designs. We illustrate each of the designs with an example from health research. We then describe the assumptions required for each of the designs to ensure valid causal inference and discuss the tests available to examine the assumptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient satisfaction is biased by renovations to the interior of a primary care office: a pretest-posttest assessment.

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    Tièche, Raphaël; da Costa, Bruno R; Streit, Sven

    2016-08-11

    Measuring quality of care is essential to improve primary care. Quality of primary care for patients is usually assessed by patient satisfaction questionnaires. However, patients may not be able to judge quality of care without also reflecting their perception of the environment. We determined the effect that redesigning a primary care office had on patient satisfaction. We hypothesized that renovating the interior would make patients more satisfied with the quality of medical care. We performed a Pretest-Posttest analysis in a recently renovated single-practice primary care office in Grenchen, Switzerland. Before and after renovation, we distributed a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction in four domains. We chose a Likert scale (1 = very poor to 6 = very good), and 12 quality indicators, and included two consecutive samples of patients presenting at the primary care office before (n = 153) and after (n = 153) interior design renovation. Response rate was high (overall 85 %). The sample was similar to the enlisted patient collective, but the sample population was older (60 years) than the collective (52 years). Patient satisfaction was higher for all domains after the office was renovated (p patient satisfaction, including satisfaction in domains otherwise unchanged. Physician skills and patient satisfaction sometimes depend on surrounding factors that may bias the ability of patients to assess the quality of medical care. These biases should be taken into account when quality assessment instruments are designed for patients.

  17. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 1: introduction: two historical lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Røttingen, John-Arne; Rockers, Peter; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to contrast the historical development of experiments and quasi-experiments and provide the motivation for a journal series on quasi-experimental designs in health research. A short historical narrative, with concrete examples, and arguments based on an understanding of the practice of health research and evidence synthesis. Health research has played a key role in developing today's gold standard for causal inference-the randomized controlled multiply blinded trial. Historically, allocation approaches developed from convenience and purposive allocation to alternate and, finally, to random allocation. This development was motivated both by concerns for manipulation in allocation as well as statistical and theoretical developments demonstrating the power of randomization in creating counterfactuals for causal inference. In contrast to the sequential development of experiments, quasi-experiments originated at very different points in time, from very different scientific perspectives, and with frequent and long interruptions in their methodological development. Health researchers have only recently started to recognize the value of quasi-experiments for generating novel insights on causal relationships. While quasi-experiments are unlikely to replace experiments in generating the efficacy and safety evidence required for clinical guidelines and regulatory approval of medical technologies, quasi-experiments can play an important role in establishing the effectiveness of health care practice, programs, and policies. The papers in this series describe and discuss a range of important issues in utilizing quasi-experimental designs for primary research and quasi-experimental results for evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 11: supporting the production and use of health systems research syntheses that draw on quasi-experimental study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Bärnighausen, Till; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-01

    To describe the infrastructure available to support the production of policy-relevant health systems research syntheses, particularly those incorporating quasi-experimental evidence, and the tools available to support the use of these syntheses. Literature review. The general challenges associated with the available infrastructure include their sporadic nature or limited coverage of issues and countries, whereas the specific ones related to policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence include the lack of mechanism to register synthesis titles and scoping review protocols, the limited number of groups preparing user-friendly summaries, and the difficulty of finding quasi-experimental studies for inclusion in rapid syntheses and research syntheses more generally. Although some new tools have emerged in recent years, such as guidance workbooks and citizen briefs and panels, challenges related to using available tools to support the use of policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence arise from such studies potentially being harder for policymakers and stakeholders to commission and understand. Policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers need to expand the coverage and institutionalize the use of the available infrastructure and tools to support the use of health system research syntheses containing quasi-experimental evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selecting and Improving Quasi-Experimental Designs in Effectiveness and Implementation Research.

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    Handley, Margaret A; Lyles, Courtney R; McCulloch, Charles; Cattamanchi, Adithya

    2018-04-01

    Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Although these designs are often referred to and summarized in terms of logistical benefits, there is still uncertainty about (a) selecting from among various QEDs and (b) developing strategies to strengthen the internal and external validity of QEDs. We focus here on commonly used QEDs (prepost designs with nonequivalent control groups, interrupted time series, and stepped-wedge designs) and discuss several variants that maximize internal and external validity at the design, execution and implementation, and analysis stages.

  20. Pretest-Posttest-Posttest Multilevel IRT Modeling of Competence Growth of Students in Higher Education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Gerardus J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated

  1. Effects of a job crafting intervention program on work engagement among Japanese employees: a pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Imamura, Kotaro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-10-24

    Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention (Time 2), and a one-month follow-up (Time 3). The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3) as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t = 2.20, p = 0.03) in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3). The program also significantly improved job crafting (t = 2.36, p = 0.02: Cohen's d = 0.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3) and reduced psychological distress (t = -2.06, p = 0.04: Cohen's d = -0.15 at Time 2 and -0.31 at Time 3). The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000024062 . Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.

  2. Intermanual transfer effect in young children after training in a complex skill: mechanistic, pseudorandomized, pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2015-05-01

    Intermanual transfer implies that motor skills learned on one side of the body transfer to the untrained side. This effect was previously noted in adults practicing with a prosthesis simulator. The study objective was to determine whether intermanual transfer is present in children practicing prosthetic handling. A mechanistic, pseudorandomized, pretest-posttest design was used. The study was conducted in a primary school in the Netherlands. The participants were children who were able-bodied (N=48; 25 boys, 23 girls; mean age=5.1 years) and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group performed 5 training sessions using a prosthesis simulator on the training arm. Before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 6 days after (retention test) the training program, their ability to handle the prosthesis with the contralateral (test) arm was measured. The control group only performed the tests. Half of the children performed the tests with the dominant hand, and the other half performed the tests with the nondominant hand. During the tests, movement time and control of force were measured. An interaction effect of group by test was found for movement time. Post hoc tests revealed significant improvement in the experimental group between the posttest and the retention test. No force control effect was found. Only children who were able-bodied were included. Measurements should have been masked and obtained without tester interference. The fact that 4 children whose results were slower than the mean result discontinued training may have biased the findings. The intermanual transfer effect was present in 5-year-old children undergoing training in prosthetic handling. After training of one hand, children's movement times for the other, untrained hand improved. This finding may be helpful for training children who are novice users of a prosthesis. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. Intermanual transfer in training with an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis simulator: a mechanistic, randomized, pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2013-01-01

    Intermanual transfer may improve prosthetic handling and acceptance if used in training soon after an amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intermanual transfer effects can be detected after training with a myoelectric upper-limb prosthesis simulator. A mechanistic, randomized, pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 48 right-handed participants (25 women, 23 men) who were able-bodied were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group performed a training program of 5 days' duration using the prosthesis simulator. To determine the improvement in skill, a test was administered before, immediately after, and 6 days after training. The control group only performed the tests. Training was performed with the unaffected arm, and tests were performed with the affected arm (the affected arm simulating an amputated limb). Half of the participants were tested with the dominant arm and half with the nondominant arm. Initiation time was defined as the time from starting signal until start of the movement, movement time was defined as the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task, and force control was defined as the maximal applied force on a deformable object. The movement time decreased significantly more in the experimental group (F₂,₉₂=7.42, P=.001, η²(G)=.028) when compared with the control group. This finding is indicative of faster handling of the prosthesis. No statistically significant differences were found between groups with regard to initiation time and force control. We did not find a difference in intermanual transfer between the dominant and nondominant arms. The training utilized participants who were able-bodied in a laboratory setting and focused only on transradial amputations. Intermanual transfer was present in the affected arm after training the unaffected arm with a myoelectric prosthesis simulator, and this effect did not depend on laterality. This

  4. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 6: risk of bias assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Hugh; Aloe, Ariel M; Becker, Betsy Jane; Djimeu, Eric W; Hombrados, Jorge Garcia; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George; Reeves, Barney

    2017-09-01

    Rigorous and transparent bias assessment is a core component of high-quality systematic reviews. We assess modifications to existing risk of bias approaches to incorporate rigorous quasi-experimental approaches with selection on unobservables. These are nonrandomized studies using design-based approaches to control for unobservable sources of confounding such as difference studies, instrumental variables, interrupted time series, natural experiments, and regression-discontinuity designs. We review existing risk of bias tools. Drawing on these tools, we present domains of bias and suggest directions for evaluation questions. The review suggests that existing risk of bias tools provide, to different degrees, incomplete transparent criteria to assess the validity of these designs. The paper then presents an approach to evaluating the internal validity of quasi-experiments with selection on unobservables. We conclude that tools for nonrandomized studies of interventions need to be further developed to incorporate evaluation questions for quasi-experiments with selection on unobservables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Activating schoolyards: study design of a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf; Troelsen, Jens; Toftager, Mette; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-05-31

    The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design using a mixed method approach including: 1) an exploratory study aimed at providing input for the developing process; 2) an evaluation of the effect of the interventions using a combination of accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven project schools (cases) were selected by means of an open competition and the interventions were developed using a participatory bottom-up approach. The participatory approach and case selection strategy make the study design novel. The use of a mixed methods design including qualitative as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the schoolyard will lead to recommendations for schools undergoing schoolyard renovations at some point in the future.

  6. Effectiveness of therapeutic conversation intervention among caregivers of people with eating disorders: quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Margret; Treasure, Janet; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic conversation intervention in group and caregiver sessions on the supporting role of caregivers. Caregivers of people with eating disorders are known to suffer major difficulties and are in great need of support. Unhelpful parental support strategies can delay the recovery of an individual with an eating disorder. Skill training interventions can equip parents with skills, guidance and techniques by helping them to be a support person and making them one of the most important links in the treatment process. The therapeutic conversation intervention consisted of five group and caregiver sessions and three booster sessions. The Calgary Family Assessment and Calgary Family Intervention Models, the Illness Beliefs Model and the New Maudsley Method were used as theoretical frameworks. The content of the intervention consisted of work on difficult behaviours, feelings and helpful strategies. The participants (n = 58) included primary and secondary caregivers of 12- to 24-year-old patients with eating disorders. Eight caregivers dropped out of treatment. This study had a quasi-experimental design with one pre- and two post-test measures. Between 90-96% of caregivers rated the therapeutic conversation intervention as supportive. Furthermore, the study revealed significant differences in caregiver emotional and cognitive support, illness beliefs, disruptive behaviour and quality of life, negative aspects of care giving demands and caregiver and patient behavioural difficulties after the intervention and/or at follow-up. Therapeutic conversation intervention with caregivers in group and private sessions proved to be beneficial. This outcome provides information for healthcare professionals on how they can help primary caregivers in their supporting role, which can, in turn, improve services in healthcare centres and psychiatric hospitals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Blended learning pedagogy designed for communication module among undergraduate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Devi, M Kamala; Chen, Hui-Chen; Soong, Swee Kit Alan; Ang, Emily

    2018-02-01

    Effective communication is important for nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing students often feel unprepared to communicate effectively with patients and other healthcare workers within the clinical environment. Blended learning pedagogy-based communication skills training can provide an alternative to traditional methods of teaching to enhance students' satisfaction and self-efficacy levels in communicating with others. To examine the effectiveness of blended learning pedagogy in a redesigned communication module among nursing undergraduates in enhancing their satisfaction levels and attitudes towards learning communication module as well as self-efficacy in communication. A single group pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted. Data were collected from August 2016 to November 2016 from 124 nursing undergraduates from a leading nursing school. Blended learning pedagogy was adopted to redesign a communication module that offered a wide array of learning opportunities via face-to-face classroom and online sessions. Validated and reliable instruments were used to measure satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, attitudes towards learning communication, and communication self-efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants had enhanced satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, better attitudes in learning communication skills, and improved communication self-efficacies at posttest (week 13 of the semester) when compared with their pre-test scores (week one of the semester). Participants scored higher in the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, the Communication Skills Attitude Scale, and the communication skills subscale of the Nursing Students Self-Efficacy Scale. Blended learning pedagogy can be effectively used in facilitating communication modules and enhancing student outcomes among nursing undergraduates. The long-term effectiveness of using blended learning pedagogy in

  8. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 12: strengthening global capacity for evidence synthesis of quasi-experimental health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 4: uses and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Shemilt, Ian; Rockers, Peter; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Lavis, John; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Daniels, Karen; Brown, Annette; Bor, Jacob; Tanner, Jeffery; Rashidian, Arash; Barreto, Mauricio; Vollmer, Sebastian; Atun, Rifat

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experimental studies are increasingly used to establish causal relationships in epidemiology and health systems research. Quasi-experimental studies offer important opportunities to increase and improve evidence on causal effects: (1) they can generate causal evidence when randomized controlled trials are impossible; (2) they typically generate causal evidence with a high degree of external validity; (3) they avoid the threats to internal validity that arise when participants in nonblinded experiments change their behavior in response to the experimental assignment to either intervention or control arm (such as compensatory rivalry or resentful demoralization); (4) they are often well suited to generate causal evidence on long-term health outcomes of an intervention, as well as nonhealth outcomes such as economic and social consequences; and (5) they can often generate evidence faster and at lower cost than experiments and other intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using the Montessori approach for a clientele with cognitive impairments: a quasi-experimental study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dominique; Robichaud, Line; Paradis, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The choice of activities responding to the needs of people with moderate to severe dementia is a growing concern for care providers trying to target the need for a feeling of self-accomplishment by adapting activities to the abilities of elderly patients. The activities created by Maria Montessori seem to be adaptable to this clientele. This study evaluates the short-term effects, as compared to regular activities offered in the milieu. This is a quasi-experimental study where each of the 14 participants was observed and filmed in two conditions: during Montessori activities, during regular activities, and one control condition (no activity). The results show that Montessori activities have a significant effect on affect and on participation in the activity. They support the hypothesis that when activities correspond to the needs and abilities of a person with dementia, these positive effects are also observed on behaviours. This study enabled its authors to corroborate the findings presented in the literature and to contribute additional elements on the positive effects of the use of Montessori activities and philosophy. Used with people with moderate to severe dementia these allow the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, their well being, and hence, on their quality of life.

  11. Community health worker interventions are key to optimal infant immunization coverage, evidence from a pretest-posttest experiment in Mwingi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioki, Japheth Mativo; Ouma, James; Ombaka, James Hebert; Onyango, Rosebella Ongutu

    2017-01-01

    Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya. This study sought to establish the effect of CS on infant vaccination Coverage (IVC) in Mwingi west sub-county; Kenya. This was a pretest - posttest experimental study design with 1 pretest and 2 post-test surveys conducted in intervention and control sites. Mwingi west and Mwingi north sub-counties where intervention and control sites respectively. Sample size in each survey was 422 households. Women with a child aged 9-12 months were main respondents. Intervention site end-term evaluation indicated that; the CS increased IVC by 10.1% (Z =6.0241, P health outcomes through immunization coverage, Kenya needs to fast-track nationwide implementation of the CS intervention.

  12. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado-Tello, Fco. P.; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity. PMID:27378991

  13. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado-Tello, Fco P; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity.

  14. Critical need for family-based, quasi-experimental designs in integrating genetic and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lahey, Benjamin B; Turkheimer, Eric; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Researchers have identified environmental risks that predict subsequent psychological and medical problems. Based on these correlational findings, researchers have developed and tested complex developmental models and have examined biological moderating factors (e.g., gene-environment interactions). In this context, we stress the critical need for researchers to use family-based, quasi-experimental designs when trying to integrate genetic and social science research involving environmental variables because these designs rigorously examine causal inferences by testing competing hypotheses. We argue that sibling comparison, offspring of twins or siblings, in vitro fertilization designs, and other genetically informed approaches play a unique role in bridging gaps between basic biological and social science research. We use studies on maternal smoking during pregnancy to exemplify these principles.

  15. Comprehension and Motivation Levels in Conjunction with the Use of eBooks with Audio: A Quasi-Experimental Study of Post-Secondary Remedial Reading Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly W.

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pretest, posttest nonequivalent control group study investigated the comprehension scores and motivation levels of post-secondary remedial reading students in a two-year technical college in Northwest Georgia using an eBook, an eBook with audio, and a print book. After reading a module on Purpose and Tone in the three book…

  16. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 10: synthesizing evidence for effects collected from quasi-experimental studies presents surmountable challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane; Aloe, Ariel M; Duvendack, Maren; Stanley, T D; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Fretheim, Atle; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To outline issues of importance to analytic approaches to the synthesis of quasi-experiments (QEs) and to provide a statistical model for use in analysis. We drew on studies of statistics, epidemiology, and social-science methodology to outline methods for synthesis of QE studies. The design and conduct of QEs, effect sizes from QEs, and moderator variables for the analysis of those effect sizes were discussed. Biases, confounding, design complexities, and comparisons across designs offer serious challenges to syntheses of QEs. Key components of meta-analyses of QEs were identified, including the aspects of QE study design to be coded and analyzed. Of utmost importance are the design and statistical controls implemented in the QEs. Such controls and any potential sources of bias and confounding must be modeled in analyses, along with aspects of the interventions and populations studied. Because of such controls, effect sizes from QEs are more complex than those from randomized experiments. A statistical meta-regression model that incorporates important features of the QEs under review was presented. Meta-analyses of QEs provide particular challenges, but thorough coding of intervention characteristics and study methods, along with careful analysis, should allow for sound inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. City Connects: Building an Argument for Effects on Student Achievement with a Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary; Raczek, Anastasia; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St. John, Terrence; An, Chen; Akbayin, Bercem; Dearing, Eric; Foley, Claire

    2015-01-01

    While randomized experimental designs are the gold standard in education research concerned with causal inference, non-experimental designs are ubiquitous. For researchers who work with non-experimental data and are no less concerned for causal inference, the major problem is potential omitted variable bias. In this presentation, the authors…

  18. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 13: realizing the full potential of quasi-experiments for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Although the number of quasi-experiments conducted by health researchers has increased in recent years, there clearly remains unrealized potential for using these methods for causal evaluation of health policies and programs globally. This article proposes five prescriptions for capturing the full value of quasi-experiments for health research. First, new funding opportunities targeting proposals that use quasi-experimental methods should be made available to a broad pool of health researchers. Second, administrative data from health programs, often amenable to quasi-experimental analysis, should be made more accessible to researchers. Third, training in quasi-experimental methods should be integrated into existing health science graduate programs to increase global capacity to use these methods. Fourth, clear guidelines for primary research and synthesis of evidence from quasi-experiments should be developed. Fifth, strategic investments should be made to continue to develop new innovations in quasi-experimental methodologies. Tremendous opportunities exist to expand the use of quasi-experimental methods to increase our understanding of which health programs and policies work and which do not. Health researchers should continue to expand their commitment to rigorous causal evaluation with quasi-experimental methods, and international institutions should increase their support for these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis for Psychopathology Using Family-Based Quasi-Experimental Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Class, Quetzal A; Lahey, Benjamin B; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is a broad theoretical framework that emphasizes how early risk factors have a causal influence on psychopathology. Researchers have raised concerns about the causal interpretation of statistical associations between early risk factors and later psychopathology because most existing studies have been unable to rule out the possibility of environmental and genetic confounding. In this paper we illustrate how family-based quasi-experimental designs can test the DOHaD hypothesis by ruling out alternative hypotheses. We review the logic underlying sibling-comparison, co-twin control, offspring of siblings/twins, adoption, and in vitro fertilization designs. We then present results from studies using these designs focused on broad indices of fetal development (low birth weight and gestational age) and a particular teratogen, smoking during pregnancy. The results provide mixed support for the DOHaD hypothesis for psychopathology, illustrating the critical need to use design features that rule out unmeasured confounding.

  20. Gestalt Intervention Groups for Anxious Parents in Hong Kong: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.

  1. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 2: complementary approaches to advancing global health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experiments have been infrequently used in the health sciences. Focusing on health systems implementation research, this article details key advantages of quasi-experiments and argues that they can complement (but not replace) randomized evaluations. Specifically, it may be possible to use a quasi-experiment to study the causal effect of an intervention that cannot feasibly be randomized or that would be unethical (e.g., because the intervention has become the standard of care) to test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In addition, because they usually take advantage of routinely collected data, quasi-experiments may be feasible when it is too costly (either financially or in terms of the required time) to carry out a RCT - an important advantage in research on health systems, which vary widely between settings. Nonetheless, we argue that RCTs will continue to be indispensable for implementation research because i) the assumptions needed to establish causality with a quasi-experiment are often unverifiable, ii) available data frequently do not allow for a rigorous quasi-experiment, and iii) randomized designs tend to lend themselves more to informing policy makers of causal effects prior to (or during) the full-scale rollout of an intervention than quasi-experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predesigned labels to prevent medication errors in hospitalized patients: a quasi-experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, María Fernanda; Galiano Gálvez, María Alejandra

    2017-09-08

    Our institution implemented the use of pre-designed labeling of intravenous drugs and fluids, administration routes and infusion pumps of to prevent medication errors. To evaluate the effectiveness of predesigned labeling in reducing medication errors in the preparation and administration stages of prescribed medication in patients hospitalized with invasive lines, and to characterize medication errors. This is a pre/post intervention study. Pre-intervention group: invasively administered dose from July 1st to December 31st, 2014, using traditional labeling (adhesive paper handwritten note). Post-intervention group: dose administered from January 1st to June 30th, 2015, using predesigned labeling (labeling with preset data-adhesive labels, color- grouped by drugs, labels with colors for invasive lines). Outcome: medication errors in hospitalized patients, as measured with notification form and record electronics. Tabulation/analysis Stata-10, with descriptive statistics, hypotheses testing, estimating risk with 95% confidence. In the pre-intervention group, 5,819 doses of drugs were administered invasively in 634 patients. Error rate of 1.4 x 1,000 administrations. The post-intervention group of 1088 doses comprised 8,585 patients with similar routes of administration. The error rate was 0.3 x 1,000 (p = 0.034). Patients receiving medication through an invasive route who did not use predesigned labeling had 4.6 times more risk of medication error than those who had used predesigned labels (95% CI: 1.25 to 25.4). The adult critically ill patient unit had the highest proportion of medication errors. The most frequent error was wrong dose administration. 41.2% produced harm to the patient. The use of predesigned labeling in invasive lines reduces errors in medication in the last two phases: preparation and administration.

  3. Impact of engaging middle management in practice interventions on staff support and learning culture: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Burmeister, Liz; Schoonbeek, Sue; Ossenberg, Christine; Gneilding, Julieanne

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different levels of engaging middle management in ward based strategies implemented by a project educator. The challenge for learning in practice is to develop effective teams where experienced staff engage and foster learning with students and other novice staff. A quasi-experimental pre- and post- intervention four group design was conducted from November 2009 to May 2010 across four general surgical and four general medical inpatient matched units in two settings in South East Queensland, Australia. Staff survey data was used to compare control and intervention groups (one actively engaging nurse managers) before and after 'practice learning' interventions. The survey comprised demographic data and data from two validated scales (support instrument for nurses facilitating learning and clinical learning organisational culture). Number of surveys returned pre- and post-intervention was 336 from 713 (47%). There were significant differences across many subscales pertaining to staff perception of support in the intervention groups, with only one change in the control group. The number of significant different subscales in the learning culture was also greater when middle management supported the intervention. Middle management should work closely with facilitators to assist embedding practice interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Quasi-Experimental Design to Evaluate the Use of PythonTutor on Programming Laboratory Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Educational tool is one of the prominent solutions for aiding students to learn course material in Information Technology (IT domain. However, most of them are not used in practice since they do not properly fit student necessity. This paper evaluates the impact of an educational tool, namely PythonTutor, for completing programming laboratory task regarding data structure materials. Such evaluation will be conducted in one semester by implementing a quasi-experimental design. As a result, six findings can be deducted which are: 1 PythonTutor might positively affect student performance when the students have used such tool before; 2 Sometimes, student perspective regarding the impact of educational tool is not always in-sync with actual laboratory result; 3 the impact of PythonTutor might be improved when similar data representation is used consequently for several weeks; 4 the correlation between the use of PythonTutor and student performance might not be significant when the control and intervened group share completely different characteristics; 5 the students might experience some difficulties when they are asked to handle a big task for the first time; and 6 the students might be able to complete a particular weekly task with a promising result if the students have understood the material well.

  5. Evaluation of a caregiver education program to support memory and communication in dementia: a controlled pretest-posttest study with nursing home staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Megan; Smith, Erin R; Baker, Rosemary; Angwin, Anthony J; Pachana, Nancy A; Copland, David A; Humphreys, Michael S; Gallois, Cindy; Byrne, Gerard J; Chenery, Helen J

    2011-11-01

    There is a need for simple multimedia training programs designed to upskill the dementia care workforce. A DVD-based training program entitled RECAPS and MESSAGE has been designed to provide caregivers with strategies to support memory and communication in people with dementia. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effects of the RECAPS and MESSAGE training on knowledge of support strategies, and caregiver satisfaction, in nursing home care staff, and (2) to evaluate staff opinion of the training. A multi-centre controlled pretest-posttest trial was conducted between June 2009 and January 2010, with baseline, immediately post-training and 3-month follow-up assessment. Four nursing homes in Queensland, Australia. All care staff were invited to participate. Of the 68 participants who entered the study, 52 (37 training participants and 15 controls) completed outcome measures at baseline and 3-month follow-up. 63.5% of participants were nursing assistants, 25% were qualified nurses and 11.5% were recreational/activities officers. The training and control groups were compared on the following outcomes: (1) knowledge of memory and communication support strategies, and (2) caregiver satisfaction. In the training group, the immediate effects of training on knowledge, and the effects of role (nurse, nursing assistant, recreational staff) on both outcome measures, were also examined. Staff opinion of the training was assessed immediately post-training and at 3-month follow-up. The training group showed a significant improvement in knowledge of support strategies from baseline to immediately post-training (p=0.001). Comparison of the training and control groups revealed a significant increase in knowledge for the training group (p=0.011), but not for the control group (p=0.33), between baseline and 3-month follow-up. Examination of caregiver satisfaction by care staff role in the training group revealed that only the qualified nurses showed higher levels of

  6. The effect of interprofessional team-based learning among nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arkers Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chan, Lap Ki; Chan, Namkiu; Ganotice, Fraide A; Ho, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    Although interprofessional education has received attention in recent years as a means of providing opportunities for health-care professionals to learn with, from and about other disciplines and enhance the quality of patient care, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. Interprofessional team-based learning was introduced to make it possible for students in different healthcare disciplines to interact with each other, and to prepare them to function effectively within a team in their future career. To examine the effects of interprofessional team-based learning for undergraduate nursing students in terms of knowledge level, readiness for interprofessional learning, attitude towards various aspects of team learning, and perceived collective efficacy. The study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. An interprofessional education program was given to students from two universities in Hong Kong who were in different healthcare disciplines including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, biomedical science, and Chinese medicine programs. The program was based on four phases of student learning- individual readiness assessment test, ice breaking session, team readiness assessment test, and application exercise. Nursing students involved in the program were invited to complete anonymous questionnaires to evaluate their interprofessional team experience. A total of 40 nursing students (9 male, 31 female) participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was identified in their knowledge level (pattitude towards readiness for interprofessional learning, team learning, and perceived collective efficacy (plearning can enhance cross-disciplinary learning and outcomes resulting from team efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Warm Showers on Postpartum Fatigue Among Vaginal-Birth Taiwanese Women: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Lan; Chung, Feng-Fang; Lin, Su-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum fatigue is one of the most common complaints among women following childbirth. As a postpartum ritual practice, Taiwanese women refrain from taking showers while "doing the month." However, warm showers are the systemic application of moist heat, and they maintain physical hygiene, stimulate blood circulation, mitigate discomfort, and provide relaxation. As Taiwanese society becomes increasingly receptive to scientific and contemporary health care practice, more and more women choose to take warm showers after childbirth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of warm showers on postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women in Taiwan. This was a two-group quasi-experimental design. Women took showers in warm water with temperatures ranging between 40 °C and 43 °C for approximately 20 minutes. Postpartum women's fatigue is measured using the 10-item Postpartum Fatigue Scale (PFS). The intervention effect was analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. The study population consisted of 358 vaginal-birth postpartum Taiwanese women aged 20-43 years. Postpartum women who took warm showers showed improvements from their pretest to posttest mean scores of postpartum fatigue compared to postpartum women who did not take warm showers. Warm showers helped to reduce postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women during the study period. Nurses have the unique opportunity to provide the intervention to Taiwanese women who have vaginal birth to help them relieve postpartum fatigue with warm showers while "doing the month" without the taboo of no-showering customary practices in the early postpartum period.

  8. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Zeeman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. Methods/Design This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc. in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations. Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions to be tested. Discussion It is anticipated that the findings of this study

  9. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  10. Social cohesion through football: a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to evaluate a complex health promotion program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Lynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social isolation and disengagement fragments local communities. Evidence indicates that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. Research to identify approaches to best address this is needed. Football United is a program that aims to foster social inclusion and cohesion in areas with high refugee settlement in New South Wales, Australia, through skills and leadership development, mentoring, and the creation of links with local community and corporate leaders and organisations. The Social Cohesion through Football study's broad goal is to examine the implementation of a complex health promotion program, and to analyse the processes involved in program implementation. The study will consider program impact on individual health and wellbeing, social inclusion and cohesion, as well as analyse how the program by necessity interacts and adapts to context during implementation, a concept we refer to as plasticity. The proposed study will be the first prospective cohort impact study to our knowledge to assess the impact of a comprehensive integrated program using football as a vehicle for fostering social inclusion and cohesion in communities with high refugee settlement. Methods/design A quasi-experimental cohort study design with treatment partitioning involving four study sites. The study employs a 'dose response' model, comparing those with no involvement in the Football United program with those with lower or higher levels of participation. A range of qualitative and quantitative measures will be used in the study. Study participants' emotional well being, resilience, ethnic identity and other group orientation, feelings of social inclusion and belonging will be measured using a survey instrument complemented by relevant data drawn from in-depth interviews, self reporting measures and participant observation. The views of key informants from the program and the wider community will

  11. Social cohesion through football: a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to evaluate a complex health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Bunde-Birouste, Anne; Evers, Clifton; Kemp, Lynn; MacKenzie, Julie; Henley, Robert

    2010-10-05

    Social isolation and disengagement fragments local communities. Evidence indicates that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. Research to identify approaches to best address this is needed. Football United is a program that aims to foster social inclusion and cohesion in areas with high refugee settlement in New South Wales, Australia, through skills and leadership development, mentoring, and the creation of links with local community and corporate leaders and organisations. The Social Cohesion through Football study's broad goal is to examine the implementation of a complex health promotion program, and to analyse the processes involved in program implementation. The study will consider program impact on individual health and wellbeing, social inclusion and cohesion, as well as analyse how the program by necessity interacts and adapts to context during implementation, a concept we refer to as plasticity. The proposed study will be the first prospective cohort impact study to our knowledge to assess the impact of a comprehensive integrated program using football as a vehicle for fostering social inclusion and cohesion in communities with high refugee settlement. A quasi-experimental cohort study design with treatment partitioning involving four study sites. The study employs a 'dose response' model, comparing those with no involvement in the Football United program with those with lower or higher levels of participation. A range of qualitative and quantitative measures will be used in the study. Study participants' emotional well being, resilience, ethnic identity and other group orientation, feelings of social inclusion and belonging will be measured using a survey instrument complemented by relevant data drawn from in-depth interviews, self reporting measures and participant observation. The views of key informants from the program and the wider community will also be solicited. The complexity of the

  12. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pself-efficacy compared to students participating in the traditional model. These findings support the use of dedicated education unit and blended clinical partnerships as effective alternatives to the traditional model to promote both clinical self-efficacy and team process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  13. Effect of 3basic life support training programs in future primary school teachers. A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Patón, R; Freire-Tellado, M; Basanta-Camiño, S; Barcala-Furelos, R; Arufe-Giraldez, V; Rodriguez-Fernández, J E

    2017-07-17

    To evaluate the learning of basic life support (BLS) measures on the part of laypersons after 3different teaching programs. A quasi-experimental before-after study involving a non-probabilistic sample without a control group was carried out. Primary school teacher students from the University of Santiago (Spain). A total of 124 students (68.8% women and 31.2% men) aged 20-39 years (M=22.23; SD=3.79), with no previous knowledge of BLS, were studied. Three teaching programs were used: a traditional course, an audio-visual approach and feedback devices. Chest compressions as sole cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill evaluation: average compression depth, compression rate, chest recoil percentage and percentage of correct compressions. Automated external defibrillator: time needed to apply a shock before and after the course. There were significant differences in the results obtained after 2minutes of chest compressions, depending on the training program received, with feedback devices having a clear advantage referred to average compression depth (p<0.001), compression rate (p<0.001), chest recoil percentage (p<0.001) and percentage of correct compressions (p<0.001). Regarding automated external defibrillator, statistically significant differences were found in T after (p=0.025). The teaching course using feedback devices obtained the best results in terms of the quality of chest compressions, followed by the traditional course and audio-visual approach. These favorable results were present in both men and women. All 3teaching methods reached the goal of reducing defibrillation time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a dietary self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ping; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional health plays a crucial role in determining successful ageing and differs by different living area. Although nutritional interventions have long been advocated, little research has directly assessed the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on community-dwelling older adults in urban and rural areas and compared intervention effects on these two populations. To examine the effectiveness of a 12-week dietary self-management programme for salt-, fluid-, fat- and cholesterol-intake behaviours of community-dwelling older adults and to compare these effects in rural- and urban-dwelling older adults. For this quasi-experimental two-group study, older adults (≥65 years old) were recruited from two randomly selected public health centres in a rural north-eastern county and a northern city of Taiwan from January through December 2011. Outcomes included nutritional status, nutritional self-efficacy and health locus of control. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. To compare changes in outcome variables over time between the control (usual care) and intervention (nutritional programme) groups and between the urban- and rural-dwelling participants in the experimental group, we used generalised estimating equation analysis. Of the 129 participants, 120 completed this study (58 in the intervention group and 62 in the control group). After 12 weeks, the intervention group had significantly better nutritional status and higher internal health locus of control than the control group. Moreover, older rural participants who received the intervention tended towards higher nutritional self-efficacy and internal health locus of control than their urban counterparts. Our research findings support the positive effect of our nutritional self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults. The knowledge gained from this study can help stakeholders recognise the need for healthcare policy to establish effective strategies and sustainable

  15. Effects of constructivist teaching methods on bioethics education for nursing students: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Park, Sunghee; Yoo, So Yeon

    2014-05-01

    In order to help nurses advocate for the patient's human rights and ensure respect for life in clinical situations, it is of utmost importance to improve nursing students' capacity to make ethical decisions. This study compares the effects of two constructivist teaching strategies (action learning and cross-examination debate) on nursing students' recognition of bioethical issues, experience of bioethical issues, and attainment of ethical competence. This study used a quasi-experimental (two-group pretest-posttest) design. A nursing college in South Korea. A total of 93 Korean nursing students participated in the study (46 in the action learning group and 47 in the cross-examination debate group). Participants took a bioethics class employing one or the other of the strategies mentioned, 2h a week for 15 weeks. All participants responded twice to a set of questionnaires, at the beginning of the first session and at the end of the last session. After their bioethics education, the students' recognition of bioethical issues improved for both classes; however, the knowledge of students who had participated in action learning improved more than that of the students in the debate-based class. Students in both groups reported more experience of bioethics and exposure to better-quality instruction in bioethics after their classes than previously. Students in both groups also reported improved ethical competency after this education. Positive effects of action learning and cross-examination debate implemented as teaching strategies on nursing students' understanding of bioethical issues and their ethical competency were identified; these findings will be important in the essential task of teaching bioethics to nursing students in order to foster more ethical decision-making and other ethical behavior. © 2013.

  16. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Markus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome, patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome, together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that

  17. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: a study protocol of a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglin, Gunilla; Gustafsson, Markus; Krona, Hans

    2011-09-23

    Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group's pain

  18. The effects of small-scale, homelike facilities for older people with dementia on residents, family caregivers and staff: design of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study

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    Kempen Gertrudis IJM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small-scale and homelike facilities for older people with dementia are rising in current dementia care. In these facilities, a small number of residents live together and form a household with staff. Normal, daily life and social participation are emphasized. It is expected that these facilities improve residents' quality of life. Moreover, it may have a positive influence on staff's job satisfaction and families involvement and satisfaction with care. However, effects of these small-scale and homelike facilities have hardly been investigated. Since the number of people with dementia increases, and institutional long-term care is more and more organized in small-scale and homelike facilities, more research into effects is necessary. This paper presents the design of a study investigating effects of small-scale living facilities in the Netherlands on residents, family caregivers and nursing staff. Methods and design A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study is carried out, in which 2 dementia care settings are compared: small-scale living facilities and regular psychogeriatric wards in traditional nursing homes. Data is collected from residents, their family caregivers and nursing staff at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Approximately 2 weeks prior to baseline measurement, residents are screened on cognition and activities of daily living (ADL. Based on this screening profile, residents in psychogeriatric wards are matched to residents living in small-scale living facilities. The primary outcome measure for residents is quality of life. In addition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, depressive symptoms and social engagement are assessed. Involvement with care, perceived burden and satisfaction with care provision are primary outcome variables for family caregivers. The primary outcomes for nursing staff are job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, job characteristics social support, autonomy and workload are

  19. Evaluation of a combined lifestyle intervention for overweight and obese patients in primary health care : a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Lisa D M; Hendriks, Marike R C; Rutten, Geert M; Spronk, Inge; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Veenhof, Cindy; Nielen, Mark M J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) are designed to reduce risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases through increasing physical activity and improvement of dietary behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a CLI for overweight and obese patients on lifestyle-related risk

  20. Lessons Learned from the Use of Randomized and Quasi-Experimental Field Designs for the Evaluation of Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Andy; Johnson, R. Burke

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2002, the field of education has seen a heavy emphasis on the use of "scientifically based research" for designing and testing the effectiveness of new and existing educational programs. According to NCLB, when addressing basic cause and effect questions scientifically based…

  1. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 5: a checklist for classifying studies evaluating the effects on health interventions-a taxonomy without labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Barnaby C; Wells, George A; Waddington, Hugh

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to extend a previously published checklist of study design features to include study designs often used by health systems researchers and economists. Our intention is to help review authors in any field to set eligibility criteria for studies to include in a systematic review that relate directly to the intrinsic strength of the studies in inferring causality. We also seek to clarify key equivalences and differences in terminology used by different research communities. Expert consensus meeting. The checklist comprises seven questions, each with a list of response items, addressing: clustering of an intervention as an aspect of allocation or due to the intrinsic nature of the delivery of the intervention; for whom, and when, outcome data are available; how the intervention effect was estimated; the principle underlying control for confounding; how groups were formed; the features of a study carried out after it was designed; and the variables measured before intervention. The checklist clarifies the basis of credible quasi-experimental studies, reconciling different terminology used in different fields of investigation and facilitating communications across research communities. By applying the checklist, review authors' attention is also directed to the assumptions underpinning the methods for inferring causality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A.; Wright, Courtney J.; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions...

  3. Multidisciplinary Training on Spiritual Care for Patients in Palliative Care Trajectories Improves the Attitudes and Competencies of Hospital Medical Staff: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Geer, Joep; Veeger, Nic; Groot, Marieke; Zock, Hetty; Leget, Carlo; Prins, Jelle; Vissers, Kris

    2018-02-01

    Patients value health-care professionals' attention to their spiritual needs. However, this is undervalued in health-care professionals' education. Additional training is essential for implementation of a national multidisciplinary guideline on spiritual care (SC) in palliative care (PC). Aim of this study is to measure effects of a training program on SC in PC based on the guideline. A pragmatic multicenter trial using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design as part of an action research study. Eight multidisciplinary teams in regular wards and 1 team of PC consultants, in 8 Dutch teaching hospitals, received questionnaires before training about perceived barriers for SC, spiritual attitudes and involvement, and SC competencies. The effect on the barriers on SC and SC competencies were measured both 1 and 6 months after the training. For nurses (n = 214), 7 of 8 barriers to SC were decreased after 1 month, but only 2 were still after 6 months. For physicians (n = 41), the training had no effect on the barriers to SC. Nurses improved in 4 of 6 competencies after both 1 and 6 months. Physicians improved in 3 of 6 competencies after 1 month but in only 1 competency after 6 months. Concise SC training programs for clinical teams can effect quality of care, by improving hospital staff competencies and decreasing the barriers they perceive. Differences in the effects of the SC training on nurses and physicians show the need for further research on physicians' educational needs on SC.

  4. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pstress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  5. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  6. Can a theory-based educational intervention change nurses' knowledge and attitudes concerning cancer pain management? A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Markus; Borglin, Gunilla

    2013-08-19

    Registered Nurses (RNs) play an important role in caring for patients suffering from cancer pain. A lack of knowledge regarding pain management and the RNs' own perception of cancer pain could act as barriers to effective pain management. Educational interventions that target RNs' knowledge and attitudes have proved promising. However, an intervention consisting of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and demands behavioural and cognitive changes to sustain the effects of the intervention. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate if a theory-based educational intervention could change RNs' knowledge and attitudes to cancer pain and pain management, both four and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control groups was used. The primary outcome was measured using a modified version of the instrument Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKAS) at baseline, four weeks and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention to evaluate its persistence. The intervention's educational curriculum was based on the principles of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and consisted of interactive learning activities conducted in workshops founded on evidence-based knowledge. The RN's own experiences from cancer pain management were used in the learning process. The theory-based educational intervention aimed at changing RNs knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management measured by primary outcome NKAS resulted in a statistical significant (ptheory-based educational intervention focused at RNs can be effective in changing RN's knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management. However, the high number of dropouts between baseline and four weeks needs to be taken into account when evaluating our findings. Finally, this kind of theory-based educational intervention with interactive learning activities has been sparsely researched and needs to be evaluated further in larger projects

  7. Methods and design of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention: a two group quasi-experimental effectiveness trial

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    Catherine Rogers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an expansion of the target age range to include younger children, who are laying the foundation of their eating patterns and capable of participating in family meal preparations. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by presenting the objectives and research methods of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention study aimed at eliciting positive changes in child diet and weight status. Methods This will be a group quasi-experimental trial with staggered cohort design. Data will be collected via direct measure and questionnaires at baseline, intervention completion (or waiting period for controls, and 10-weeks post-intervention. Setting will be faith-based community center. Participants will be 60 underserved families with at least 1, 4–10 year old child will be recruited and enrolled in the intervention (n = 30 or waitlist control group (n = 30. The intervention (Simple Suppers is a 10-week family meals program designed for underserved families from racial/ethnic diverse backgrounds. The 10, 90-min program lessons will be delivered weekly over the dinner hour. Session components include: a interactive group discussion of strategies to overcome family meal barriers, plus weekly goal setting for caregivers; b engagement in age-appropriate food preparation activities for children; and c group family meal for caregivers and children. Main outcome measures are change in: child diet quality; child standardized body mass index; and frequency of family meals. Regression models will be used to compare response variables results of

  8. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Promoting Playfulness, Parent Competence, and Social Participation in Early Childhood Playgroups: A Pretest Posttest Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah; Hubbell, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an inclusive, community-based playgroup intervention on parent and child outcomes. The role of occupational therapy as part of a team of providers in early childhood was also explored. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 36) were enrolled in one of three playgroup conditions (control, occupational therapy support, and…

  9. Summary of an Investigation into the Relative Effects on Student Performance on a "Block" vs. a "Non-Block" Scheduled Developmental Semester: Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Clifford A., Jr.

    In fall 1980, a block scheduled developmental semester was offered for the first time at the Boyce Campus of the Community College of Allegheny County. The program was composed of three integrated courses: "Man, Time, and Social Change," a social science elective; "Basic Writing Techniques," a developmental English course; and…

  10. Improving access to medicines for non-communicable diseases in rural India: a mixed methods study protocol using quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, N S; Elias, Maya Annie; Pati, Manoj Kumar; Aivalli, Praveenkumar; Munegowda, C M; Bhanuprakash, Srinath; Sadhana, S M; Criel, Bart; Bigdeli, Maryam; Devadasan, Narayanan

    2016-08-22

    India has the distinction of financing its healthcare mainly through out-of-pocket expenses by individual families contributing to catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Nearly 70 % of the expenditure is on medicines purchased at private pharmacies. Patients with chronic ailments are especially affected, as they often need lifelong medicines. Over the past years in India, there have been several efforts to improve drug availability at government primary health centres. In this study, we aim to understand health system factors that affect utilisation and access to generic medicines for people with non-communicable diseases. This study aims to understand if (and how) a package of interventions targeting primary health centres and community participation platforms affect utilisation and access to generic medicines for people with non-communicable diseases in the current district context in India. This study will employ a quasi-experimental design and a qualitative theory-driven approach. PHCs will be randomly assigned to one of three arms of the intervention. In one arm, PHCs will receive inputs to optimise service delivery for non-communicable diseases, while the second arm will receive an additional package of interventions to strengthen community participation platforms for improving non-communicable disease care. The third arm will be the control. We will conduct household and facility surveys, before and after the intervention and will estimate the effect of the intervention by difference-in-difference analysis. Sample size for measuring effects was calculated based on obtaining at least 30 households for each primary health centre spread across three distance-based clusters. Primary outcomes include availability and utilisation of medicines at primary health centres and out-of-pocket expenditure for medicines by non-communicable disease households. Focus group discussions with patients and in-depth interviews with health workers will also be

  11. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne T. M. Vanneste

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students’ medical absenteeism, compared to “medical absenteeism policy as usual”. Methods A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students and a control group (445 students was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student’s medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months. Results In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. Conclusions The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than “medical absenteeism policy as usual”. The effectiveness of the

  12. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van de Goor, Ien A M; Rots-de Vries, Carin M C; Feron, Frans J M

    2016-10-21

    Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student's medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months). In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than "medical absenteeism policy as usual". The effectiveness of the intervention is shown primarily by a decrease in the number of periods reported sick.

  13. Public telesurveillance service for frail elderly living at home, outcomes and cost evolution: a quasi experimental design with two follow-ups

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    Deaudelin Isabelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telesurveillance is a technologically based modality that allows the surveillance of patients in the natural setting, mainly home. It is based on communication technologies to relay information between a patient and a central call center where services are coordinated. Different types of telesurveillance systems have been implemented, some being staffed with non-health professionals and others with health professional, mainly nurses. Up to now, only telesurveillance services staffed with non-health professionals have been shown to be effective and efficient. The objective of this study was to document outcomes and cost evolution of a nurse-staffed telesurveillance system for frail elderly living at home. Methods A quasi experimental design over a nine-month period was done. Patients (n = 38 and caregivers (n = 38 were selected by health professionals from two local community health centers. To be eligible, elders had to be over 65, live at home with a permanent physical, slight cognitive or motor disability or both and have a close relative (the caregiver willing to participate to the study. These disabilities had to hinder the accomplishment of daily life activities deemed essential to continue living at home safely. Three data sources were used: patient files, telesurveillance center's quarterly reports and personal questionnaires (Modified Mini-Mental State, Functional Autonomy Measurement System, Life Event Checklist, SF-12, Life-H, Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology, Caregiver Burden. The telesurveillance technology permitted, among various functionalities, bi-directional communication (speaker-receiver between the patient and the response center. Results A total of 957 calls for 38 registered clients over a 6-month period was recorded. Only 48 (5.0% of the calls were health-related. No change was reported in the elders' quality of life and daily activity abilities. Satisfaction was very

  14. The effect of an interprofessional simulation-based education program on perceptions and stereotypes of nursing and medical students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockeman, Kelly S; Appelbaum, Nital P; Dow, Alan W; Orr, Shelly; Huff, Tanya A; Hogan, Christopher J; Queen, Brenda A

    2017-11-01

    Interprofessional education is intended to train practitioners to collaboratively address challenges in healthcare delivery, and interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) provides realistic, contextual learning experiences in which roles, responsibilities, and professional identity can be learned, developed, and assessed. Reducing negative stereotypes within interprofessional relationships is a prime target for IPSE. We sought to understand whether perceptions of interprofessional education and provider stereotypes change among nursing and medical students after participating in IPSE. We also sought to determine whether changes differed based on the student's discipline. This was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study. The study took place at a large mid-Atlantic public university with a comprehensive health science campus. 147 senior Bachelors of Science in Nursing students and 163 fourth-year medical students participated. Students were grouped into interprofessional teams for a two-week period and participated in three two-hour simulations focused on collaboration around acutely ill patients. At the beginning of the first session, they completed a pretest survey with demographic items and measures of their perceptions of interprofessional clinical education, stereotypes about doctors, and stereotypes about nurses. They completed a posttest with the same measures after the third session. 251 students completed both the pretest and posttest surveys. On all three measures, students showed an overall increase in scores after the IPSE experience. In comparing the change by student discipline, medical students showed little change from pretest to posttest on stereotypes of doctors, while nursing students had a significant increase in positive perceptions about doctors. No differences were noted between disciplines on changes in stereotypes of nurses. This study demonstrated that a short series of IPSE experiences resulted in improved perceptions of

  15. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Continuing professional education may be necessary to refresh and reflect on the communication and motivational interviewing skills of experienced primary care practice nurses. A video-feedback method was designed to improve these skills. Pre-test/posttest control group design. Seventeen Dutch practice nurses and 325 patients participated between June 2010-June 2011. Nurse-patient consultations were videotaped at two moments (T0 and T1), with an interval of 3-6 months. The videotaped consultations were rated using two protocols: the Maastrichtse Anamnese en Advies Scorelijst met globale items (MAAS-global) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Before the recordings, nurses were allocated to a control or video-feedback group. Nurses allocated to the video-feedback group received video-feedback between T0 and T1. Data were analysed using multilevel linear or logistic regression. Nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay significantly more attention to patients' request for help, their physical examination and gave significantly more understandable information. With respect to motivational interviewing, nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay more attention to 'agenda setting and permission seeking' during their consultations. Video-feedback is a potentially effective method to improve practice nurses' generic communication skills. Although a single video-feedback session does not seem sufficient to increase all motivational interviewing skills, significant improvement in some specific skills was found. Nurses' clinical competences were not altered after feedback due to already high standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of an Education and Training Program to Prevent and Manage Patients' Violence in a Mental Health Setting: A Pretest-Posttest Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change.

  17. Evaluation of an Education and Training Program to Prevent and Manage Patients’ Violence in a Mental Health Setting: A Pretest-Posttest Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change. PMID:27490582

  18. Understanding interrelationships among HIV-related stigma, concern about HIV infection, and intent to disclose HIV serostatus: a pretest-posttest study in a rural area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Hu, Zhi; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Naar-King, Sylvie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the interrelationships among HIV-related public and felt stigma, worry of HIV infection, HIV/AIDS knowledge and intention to disclose HIV testing results in a rural area of China, where HIV spread among former commercial blood donors. A one-group pretest-posttest study was conducted among 605 marriage license applicants. The following relationships showed statistical significance in path analysis: (1) HIV/AIDS knowledge --> worry [beta (Standardized coefficient) = -0.39]; (2) worry --> public stigma (beta = 0.27); (3) public stigma --> felt stigma (beta = 0.22); and (4) felt stigma --> intention to disclosure (beta = -0.20). Separate path analyses for males and females generated similar association patterns. HIV counseling reduced perceived worry but exerted little impact on HIV-related stigma and the intention. The pathway from a lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge to increased stigma and to decreased intention to disclose one's serostatus is particularly policy relevant as decreased intention to disclosure may be related to continuing practice of HIV risk behaviors. The findings demonstrate interventions aiming at the reduction of stigma should be targeted at both the individual and community levels.

  19. Commentary: How can family-based quasi-experimental designs and national registers be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology? A reflection on Obel et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Standard observational studies have reported a robust correlation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD in offspring. In the accompanying article, Obel et al. used sibling-comparisons to explore the extent to which unmeasured familial confounding explains this association. This commentary highlights three important implications of the study. At a general level, Obel et al. illustrates how (1) family-based quasi-experimental designs and (2) national registers can be used to address confounding in risk factor studies of psychopathology. At a more specific level, the study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is probably not a causal risk factor for ADHD. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  1. Efficacy of empathy training in nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Baena-Baños, María; Romero-Sánchez, Jose Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Empathy is a competency to be learned by nurses and a therapeutic tool in the helping relationship that has repercussions on the health of both patients and professionals. To determine the efficacy of an experiential training for improving the empathy of nursing students in terms of capacity building, empathic performance and increased learning perception and retention of the material. A quasi-experimental study of a single group with pretest-posttest measurements of the educational intervention and follow-up at one month after the training. Faculty of Nursing, University of Cádiz, Spain. Forty-eight second-year undergraduate university nursing students. The educational intervention was conducted during a single semester, with 20h of training. The methodology of role-playing, behavior assay, and a flipped classroom was followed. Measurements of student performance were collected before and after the intervention. The Reynolds Empathy Scale was used to evaluate the student's perception of his/her performance; The Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure was used to evaluate the patient's perception of the student's behavior during the simulation; and three independent external observers assessed the student's behavior, guided by The Carkhuff Scale. Descriptive analysis and non-parametric contrast tests were performed to compare the scores before and after the training (Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon rank-sum). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used for the correlation between the measurements. The mean scores improved for all of the variables, with the differences being statistically significant. The students assessed their learning positively. The training was shown to be effective for improving the empathy of the university students in the study. The results are promising in terms of the students retaining the competencies adquired. Therefore, this type of experiential training is recommended for empathy training of future health professionals. Copyright

  2. The German Quality Network Sepsis: study protocol for the evaluation of a quality collaborative on decreasing sepsis-related mortality in a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Rüddel, Hendrik; Gründling, Matthias; Putensen, Christian; Reinhart, Konrad

    2018-01-18

    While sepsis-related mortality decreased substantially in other developed countries, mortality of severe sepsis remained as high as 44% in Germany. A recent German cluster randomized trial was not able to improve guideline adherence and decrease sepsis-related mortality within the participating hospitals, partly based on lacking support by hospital management and lacking resources for documentation of prospective data. Thus, more pragmatic approaches are needed to improve quality of sepsis care in Germany. The primary objective of the study is to decrease sepsis-related hospital mortality within a quality collaborative relying on claims data. The German Quality Network Sepsis (GQNS) is a quality collaborative involving 75 hospitals. This study protocol describes the conduction and evaluation of the start-up period of the GQNS running from March 2016 to August 2018. Democratic structures assure participatory action, a study coordination bureau provides central support and resources, and local interdisciplinary quality improvement teams implement changes within the participating hospitals. Quarterly quality reports focusing on risk-adjusted hospital mortality in cases with sepsis based on claims data are provided. Hospitals committed to publish their individual risk-adjusted mortality compared to the German average. A complex risk-model is used to control for differences in patient-related risk factors. Hospitals are encouraged to implement a bundle of interventions, e.g., interdisciplinary case analyses, external peer-reviews, hospital-wide staff education, and implementation of rapid response teams. The effectiveness of the GQNS is evaluated in a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design by comparing the change of hospital mortality of cases with sepsis with organ dysfunction from a retrospective baseline period (January 2014 to December 2015) and the intervention period (April 2016 to March 2018) between the participating hospitals and all other German

  3. Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the ‘Health Scores!’ program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. Methods The intervention was implemented in two settings: professional football clubs and schools. Socially vulnerable children and adolescents (n = 165 intervention group, n = 440 control group, aged 10-14 year) provided self-reported data on dietary habits and physical activity before and after the four-month intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, a process evaluation was conducted. Results No intervention effects were found for several dietary behaviours, including consumption of breakfast, fruit, soft drinks or sweet and savoury snacks. Positive intervention effects were found for self-efficacy for having a daily breakfast (p sports participation no significant intervention effect was found. In total, 92 pupils completed the process evaluation, the feedback was largely positive. Conclusions The ‘Health Scores!’ intervention was successful in increasing psychosocial correlates of a healthy diet and PA. The use of professional football players as a credible source for health promotion was appealing to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:24886227

  4. Evaluating the Cooperative Component in Cooperative Learning: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; English, Linda K.; McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors employed a quasi-experimental research design to examine the efficacy of a cooperative learning pedagogy (i.e., think-pair-share exercises) integrated into sections of microeconomic principles. Materials, exercises, and assessment instruments for all study sections are identical except for the nature of the…

  5. Inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews of health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Røttingen, John-Arne; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-04-01

    Systematic reviews of health systems research commonly limit studies for evidence synthesis to randomized controlled trials. However, well-conducted quasi-experimental studies can provide strong evidence for causal inference. With this article, we aim to stimulate and inform discussions on including quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. We define quasi-experimental studies as those that estimate causal effect sizes using exogenous variation in the exposure of interest that is not directly controlled by the researcher. We incorporate this definition into a non-hierarchical three-class taxonomy of study designs - experiments, quasi-experiments, and non-experiments. Based on a review of practice in three disciplines related to health systems research (epidemiology, economics, and political science), we discuss five commonly used study designs that fit our definition of quasi-experiments: natural experiments, instrumental variable analyses, regression discontinuity analyses, interrupted times series studies, and difference studies including controlled before-and-after designs, difference-in-difference designs and fixed effects analyses of panel data. We further review current practices regarding quasi-experimental studies in three non-health fields that utilize systematic reviews (education, development, and environment studies) to inform the design of approaches for synthesizing quasi-experimental evidence in health systems research. Ultimately, the aim of any review is practical: to provide useful information for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers. Future work should focus on building a consensus among users and producers of systematic reviews regarding the inclusion of quasi-experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Journaling: A quasi-experimental study of student nurses’ reflective learning ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fakude

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning.

  7. Sustaining a Global Social Network: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Ferguson, S L

    2017-03-01

    To examine the longer term impact on the social network of participating nurses in the Global Nursing Leadership Institute (GNLI2013) through using differing frequencies of follow-up to assess impact on maintenance of network cohesion. Social network analysis is increasingly been used by nurse researchers, however, studies tend to use single point-in-time descriptive methods. This study utilizes a repeated measures, block group, control-intervention, quasi-experimental design. Twenty-eight nurse leaders, competitively selected through a double-blind peer review process, were allocated to five action learning-based learning groups. Network architecture, measures of cohesion and node degree frequency were all used to assess programme impact. The programme initiated and sustained connections between nurse leaders drawn from a geographically dispersed heterogeneous group. Modest inputs of two to three e-mails over a 6-month period seem sufficient to maintain connectivity as indicated by measures of network density, diameter and path length. Due to the teaching methodology used, the study sample was relatively small and the follow-up data collection took place after a relatively short time. Replication and further cohort data collection would be advantageous. In an era where many policy solutions are being debated and initiated at the global level, action learning leadership development that utilizes new technology follow-up appears to show significant impact and is worthy of wider application. The approach warrants further inquiry and testing as to its longer term effects on nursing's influence on policy formulation and implementation. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  9. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  10. A peer learning intervention for nursing students in clinical practice education: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Ylva; Mårtensson, Gunilla; Swenne, Christine Leo; Ädel, Eva; Engström, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Studies of peer learning indicate that the model enables students to practice skills useful in their future profession, such as communication, cooperation, reflection and independence. However, so far most studies have used a qualitative approach and none have used a quasi-experimental design to study effects of nursing students' peer learning in clinical practice. To investigate the effects of peer learning in clinical practice education on nursing students' self-rated performance. Quasi-experimental. The study was conducted during nursing students' clinical practice. All undergraduate nursing students (n=87) attending their first clinical practice were approached. Seventy students out of 87 answered the questionnaires at both baseline and follow-up (42 of 46 in the intervention group and 28 of 39 in the comparison group). During the first two weeks of the clinical practice period, all students were supervised traditionally. Thereafter, the intervention group received peer learning the last two weeks, and the comparison group received traditional supervision. Questionnaire data were collected on nursing students' self-rated performance during the second (baseline) and last (follow-up) week of their clinical practice. Self-efficacy was improved in the intervention group and a significant interaction effect was found for changes over time between the two groups. For the other self-rated variables/tests, there were no differences in changes over time between the groups. Studying each group separately, the intervention group significantly improved on thirteen of the twenty variables/tests over time and the comparison group improved on four. The results indicate that peer learning is a useful method which improves nursing students' self-efficacy to a greater degree than traditional supervision does. Regarding the other self-rated performance variables, no interaction effects were found. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Driving Performance among Bioptic Telescope Users with Low Vision Two Years after Obtaining Their Driver's License: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Lachance, Jean-Paul; Deaudelin, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare road safety of new drivers with low vision who have followed a specific pilot bioptic training program with other groups of drivers all matched for age and driving experience. A quasi-experimental design was used two years after drivers obtained their license. Drivers were classified in the experimental group (n = 10,…

  12. Effects of Cloud-Based m-Learning on Student Creative Performance in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Shan; Chen, Si-Yi; Yu, Kuang-Chao; Chu, Yih-Hsien; Chien, Yu-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effects of cloud-based m-learning on students' creative processes and products in engineering design. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was adopted, and 62 university students from Taipei City, Taiwan, were recruited as research participants in the study. The results showed that cloud-based m-learning had a positive…

  13. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  14. Improvement of Iranian nurses' competence through professional portfolio: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Masoud; Moattari, Marzieh; Shahamat, Shohreh; Dobaradaran, Sina; Ravanipour, Mariam

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a portfolio-based professional development program on nurses' competence in a university hospital in Iran. A pre-test/post-test, controlled, quasi-experimental design was used. From the university hospital's 18 general wards, four wards were randomly selected. Two wards were randomly allocated as the experimental group (35 subjects) and two wards as the control group (38 subjects). Nurses in the experimental group participated in a 12-month portfolio-based professional development program and nurses in the control group participated in the routine professional development programs of their wards. The data were collected by the Nurse Competence Scale and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent and paired t-tests. After intervention, the average nurses' competence in the experimental group increased significantly (P nurses' competence. The professional portfolios help nurses update their knowledge, skills, and competence towards their full role as nurses. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. State residence restrictions and forcible rape rates: a multistate quasi-experimental analysis of UCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M

    2015-04-01

    This study examines whether the presence of state residence restrictions resulted in changes in statewide rates of forcible rape. It builds on the limited geographic coverage of prior studies by including state-level Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data across 19 years for 49 states and the District of Columbia. It uses a quasi-experimental research method based on a longitudinal fixed-effects panel model design, which can help control for relatively static differences between states. Results indicate that when a state residence restriction was present, regardless of how it was measured, rates of UCR forcible rape were higher in the state than when the policy was not present. This suggests that residence restrictions, at least at the state level, are not useful as an overall crime prevention measure, but may be useful for increasing detection or reporting levels of such crimes. However, results also suggest that the size of the increase varied by whether the policy only applied to offenders with child victims or also included those with adult victims. Implications for research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The Impact of WhatsApp Use on Success in Education Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Levent

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of WhatsApp use for education and determine the opinions of students towards the process. The study was designed in mixed research model which combines both qualitative and quantitative data. In the quantitative aspect of the study, quasi-experimental design, with a pretest-posttest control…

  17. The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Reports of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Thomas J.; Coons, Laura M.; O'barr, Gregory; Khatami, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of scenario planning on participant ratings of resilience. Design/methodology/approach: The research design is a quasi experimental pretest/posttest with treatment and control groups. Random selection or assignment was not achieved. Findings: Results show a significant difference in…

  18. Evaluation of a School-Based Multicomponent Nutrition Education Program to Improve Young Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelip, Michael; Kinsler, Janni; Thai, Chan Le; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a multicomponent nutrition education program on student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs). Design: Quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research design; 3 study conditions (Intervention+, Intervention, Comparison). Setting: Six schools from the Los Angeles…

  19. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  20. Journaling: a quasi-experimental study of student nurses' reflective learning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakude, L P; Bruce, J C

    2003-08-01

    The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning. The study design enabled comparisons between two groups: one group of students assigned to do journaling (experimental group) and another group of students (control group) who did not journal. The students in the experimental group were given a period of eight weeks to journal their clinical experiences. At the end of this period, both groups were given an exercise, based on a clinical situation, to analyse reflectively and a comparison made on their performance. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and Fisher's Exact Test was used to determine the significance of differences observed within and between groups. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better in exploring alternatives of action (p < 0.10) and formulating responses in similar future situations (p < 0.05) during the process of reflection. There was no significant difference between the groups' scores with regard to their ability to describe the clinical experience, to explore their related feelings, to evaluate the experience and to interpret/create meaning for themselves. Recommendations are made for continued student support and guidance during clinical education if reflection is considered to enhance reflective, thoughtful nursing practice.

  1. Historic and Ethnic Music Found to Increase Geographic Understanding: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ronald; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes a quasi-experimental study, which demonstrated that integration of historic and ethnic music into the American history curriculum may lead to increased knowledge of the cultural and physical geography of the United States as well as enhanced student engagement. An experiment (n = 215) conducted with eighth grade students…

  2. Reflections on Critical Thinking: Lessons from a Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussendorf, Jeannie; Rogol, Natalie C.

    2018-01-01

    In a pre/post quasi-experimental study assessing the impact of a specific curriculum on critical thinking, the authors employed a critical thinking curriculum in two sections of a U.S. foreign policy class. The authors found that the interactive and scaffolded critical thinking curriculum yielded statistically significant critical thinking…

  3. Quasi-experimental evidenceon the relationbetween child care subsidiesand child care quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Jongen, E.; Leseman, Paul P M; Plantenga, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present quasi-experimental evidence on the relation between child care subsidies and child care quality. We exploit the difference in fund- ing of private and public centers in the Netherlands. A recent subsidy cut reduced funding for private centers while funding for public

  4. Peer tutoring – assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...

  5. Effects of Mathematical Vocabulary Instruction on Students' Achievement in Mathematics in Secondary Schools of Murang'a County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjiru, Benson; O-Connor, Miheso

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a study whose main objective was to determine the effects of mathematical vocabulary instruction on students' achievement in Mathematics in Secondary schools in Murang'a County, Kenya. The study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design and was conducted in the two purposively selected…

  6. Effects of Desktop Virtual Reality Environment Training on State Anxiety and Vocational Identity Scores among Persons with Disabilities during Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Andre Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how desktop virtual reality environment training (DVRET) affected state anxiety and vocational identity of vocational rehabilitation services consumers during job placement/job readiness activities. It utilized a quantitative research model with a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design plus some qualitative descriptive…

  7. The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Decision-Making Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Thomas J.; Nimon, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This research examines changes in decision-making styles as a result of participation in scenario planning. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design and several nonparametric tests were used to analyze data gathered from research participants in a technology firm in the Northeastern United States. Results show that participants tend to…

  8. Mathematical Critical Thinking and Curiosity Attitude in Problem Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy: A Study in Number Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetriuslita; Wahyudin; Jarnawi

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe and analyze result of applying Problem-Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy (PBLCCS) in increasing students' Mathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA). Adopting a quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design and using mixed method with…

  9. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  10. A first-level evaluation of a family intervention for adolescent social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used a quasi-experimental One-Group Pretest-Posttest design to assess change from pre- to post-intervention using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the McMaster General Functioning Scale, Goal Attainment, Parent Stress Scale and the Kansas Parenting Satisfaction Scale. Both parent- and ...

  11. Word Learning during Reading: Effects of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Wagovich, Stacy A.; Manfra, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Most vocabulary growth during the school-age years occurs incidentally. However, little is understood about the influence of language skills on word knowledge growth during reading. Using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, we examined incidental word learning through reading, considering the presence/absence of supportive context and…

  12. An Evaluation of Nutrition Education Program for Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemirembe, Olive M. K.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Gurgevich, Elise; Yoder, Edgar P.; Ingram, Patreese D.

    2011-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design consisting of pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest comparison control group was used. Nutrition knowledge and behaviors were measured at pretest (time 1) posttest (time 2) and delayed posttest (time 3). General Linear Model (GLM) repeated measure ANCOVA results showed that youth who received nutrition education…

  13. Effects of school location on students' learning outcomes in practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of school location on students' learning outcomes in practical physics. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design was used. Three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels for each of the three dependent variables. The sample consisted of 526 Senior Secondary ...

  14. Fear Appeals and College Students' Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions toward Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina

    2014-01-01

    This study used Witte's extended parallel process model to examine the relationships between the use of fear appeals and college students' attitudes and behavioral intentions toward global warming. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred forty-one college students from six communication courses at two universities…

  15. Impact of Integrated Science and English Language Arts Literacy Supplemental Instructional Intervention on Science Academic Achievement of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jamar Terry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction…

  16. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in online…

  17. Effects of Integrating Children's Literature and DVD Films into a College EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the use of children's literature and DVD films on EFL adult language learning. A total of 89 non-English majors enrolled in two Freshman English classes participated in the study. The study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest comparison group design. The participants in the…

  18. Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling) on creative thinking of fourthgrade female students in the course of Heaven Gifts. Research Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest design with control group on 60 fourth-grade female ...

  19. Effectiveness of Blended Learning and Elearning Modes of Instruction on the Performance of Undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…

  20. The Influence of Strengths-Based Development on Leadership Practices among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Alina Black

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the influence of strengths-based development on leadership practices among undergraduate college students while controlling for gender, years of leadership experience, and number of completed leadership courses using a quasi-experimental approach with a randomized control-group pretest-posttest research design. The sample…

  1. The Effects of Learning-Style Based Activities on Students' Reading Comprehension Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions in English Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of learning-style based activities on students' reading comprehension skills and self-efficacy perceptions in English foreign language classes. A quasi-experimental, matching-only pretest-posttest control group design was utilized. The study was conducted with freshmen university students majoring in Elementary…

  2. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  3. The Effects of a Mobile Gamification App on Elementary Students' Spanish Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachels, Jason R.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.

    2018-01-01

    A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, non-equivalent control group design was used to examine the effect of a mobile gamification application on third and fourth grade students' Spanish language achievement and student academic self-efficacy. In this study, the treatment group's Spanish language instruction was through the use of…

  4. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  5. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  6. The effect of behavioural objectives used as advance organizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural objectives were used as advance organizers to teach some senior secondary school year two (SSS 2) mathematics topics. The study adopted a pretest, posttest control group quasi experimental design. Ninety SSS 2 students from two purposively selected senior secondary schools, who were the participants, ...

  7. Instruction in text-structure as a determinant of senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the effectiveness of instruction in text-structure on achievement of students in English narrative text. The pretest-posttest control group quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. The participants were 120 students in intact classes from four purposively selected senior secondary schools in ...

  8. Investigating the Effectiveness of Audio Input Enhancement on EFL Learners' Retention of Intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negari, Giti Mousapour; Azizi, Aliye; Arani, Davood Khedmatkar

    2018-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the effects of audio input enhancement on EFL learners' retention of intensifiers. To this end, two research questions were formulated. In order to address these research questions, this study attempted to reject two null hypotheses. Pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was employed to…

  9. Efficacy of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour Training and their combination in handling psychological adjustment problems of the empty nesters after retirement. The study adopted the pre-test, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design using a 4x2 factorial matrix.

  10. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  11. The Impact of Cross-Age Peer Tutoring on Third and Sixth Graders' Reading Strategy Awareness, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Hilde; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the impact of an experimental reading intervention focusing on explicit reading strategy instruction and cross-age peer tutoring on third and sixth graders' reading strategy awareness, cognitive and metacognitive reading strategy use, and reading comprehension achievement. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was…

  12. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  13. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  14. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills and Writing Skills through the Variation in Non-Traditional Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, Parlindungan; Feranie, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to identify the impacts of embedding non-traditional writing tasks within the course of modern physics conducted to the students of Physics Education and Physics Study Programs. It employed a quasi-experimental method with the pretest-posttest control group design. The used instruments were tests on conceptual mastery, tests on…

  15. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  16. Smoke-Free School Policy and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  17. How supportive supervision influences immunization session site practices: a quasi-experimental study in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Pati, Sanghamitra; Nallala, Srinivas; Chauhan, Abhimanyu S; Anasuya, Anita; Som, Meena; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Routine immunization (RI) is a key child survival intervention. Ensuring acceptable standards of RI service delivery is critical for optimal outcomes. Accumulated evidences suggest that 'supportive supervision' improves the quality of health care services in general. During 2009-2010, the Government of Odisha and UNICEF jointly piloted this strategy in four districts to improve RI program outcomes. The present study aims to assess the effect of this strategy on improvement of skills and practices at immunization session sites. A quasi-experimental 'post-test only' study design was adopted to compare the opinion and practices of frontline health workers and their supervisors in four intervention districts (IDs) with two control districts (CDs). Altogether, we interviewed 111 supervisor-supervisee (health worker) pairs using semi-structured interview schedules and case vignettes. We also directly observed health workers' practices during immunization sessions at 111 sites. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. The mean knowledge score of supervisors in CDs was significantly higher than in intervention groups. Variegated responses were obtained on case vignettes. The control group performed better in solving certain hypothetically asked problems, whereas the intervention group scored better in others. Health workers in IDs gave a lower rating to their respective supervisors' knowledge, skill, and frequency of supervision. Logistics and vaccine availability were better in CDs. Notwithstanding other limitations, supportive supervision may not have independent effects on improving the quality of immunization services. Addressing systemic issues, such as the availability of essential logistics, supply chain management, timely indenting, and financial resources, could complement the supportive supervision strategy in improving immunization service delivery.

  18. Learning with older people--Outcomes of a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Nursing students' interest in older people nursing needs to be enhanced, as there is a demand for competent nurses who prefer to work in older people nursing. Educational approaches involving older people are encouraging; they increase positive learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Learning with Older People Programme (LOPP) in terms of nursing students' interest in older people nursing, their attitudes towards older people and their knowledge level about ageing. A quasi-experimental, pre-post-test design with non-equivalent comparison group was used. Two different Finnish nursing schools geographically apart from each other. A nonprobability, convenience sample of nursing students (n=87; n=46 in the intervention group, n=41 in the comparison group) in the middle of their 3.5 year bachelor degree studies and enrolled in compulsory theoretical older people nursing courses participated in the study. Data were collected in 2014 using a structured questionnaire that included background questions, students' interest in older people nursing as a primary outcome measure and their attitudes towards older people and knowledge level about ageing as secondary outcome measures. The data were analysed statistically. In the intervention group, students' interest in older people nursing was significantly higher and their attitudes towards older people were more positive than those of students in the comparison group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the students' knowledge level about ageing. An educational approach involving older people resulted in encouraging outcomes. It is worth considering whether or not older people could be a valuable resource for nursing education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  20. Comparing the effects of community service and imprisonment on reconviction: results from a quasi-experimental Danish study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n = 1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic...... service eligibility assessments and registry databases, provide powerful controls over potential selection mechanisms in the multivariate analyses. Furthermore, contrary to previous studies, the current study limits itself to subjects officially assessed and deemed eligible for community service sentences....... Results Imprisonment is associated with a higher rate of recidivism and the result is statistically significant at conventional statistical levels. Conclusions Community service (CS) compared to imprisonment appears to cause a lower reconviction rate in general. Additional research is needed to shed light...

  1. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children's physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine if chil...... Ethical Committee in the Capital Region of Denmark protocol number H-4-2014-FSP . 5 March, 2014....

  2. "Teamwork in hospitals": a quasi-experimental study protocol applying a human factors approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today's specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires and investigate healthcare personnel's perception of teamwork in hospitals (Part 1). Further to explore the impact of an inter-professional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome (Part 2). To address the aims, a descriptive, and explorative design (Part 1), and a quasi-experimental interventional design will be applied (Part 2). The study will be carried out in five different hospitals (A-E) in three hospital trusts in Norway. Frontline healthcare personnel in Hospitals A and B, from both acute and non-acute departments, will be invited to respond to three Norwegian translated teamwork questionnaires (Part 1). An inter-professional teamwork intervention in line with the TeamSTEPPS recommend Model of Change will be implemented in a surgical ward at Hospital C. All physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses in the intervention ward and two control wards (Hospitals D and E) will be invited to to survey their perception of teamwork, team decision making, safety culture and attitude towards teamwork before intervention and after six and 12 months. Adult patients admitted to the intervention surgical unit will be invited to survey their perception of quality of care during their hospital stay before intervention and after six and 12 month. Moreover, anonymous patient registry data from local registers and data from patients' medical records will be collected (Part 2). This study will help to understand the impact of an inter-professional teamwork

  3. Fine-particulate Air Pollution from Diesel Emission Control and Mortality Rates in Tokyo: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse health outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether decline in air pollution from regulatory action improves public health. We evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control ordinance introduced in 2003 on mortality rates in 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from October 2000 to September 2012, taking into account change in mortality rates in a reference population (Osaka) with a introduction of such a regulation in 2009. We obtained daily counts of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) during the study period. We employed interrupted time-series analysis to analyze the data. Decline in NO2 during the study period was similar in the two areas, while decline in PM2.5 and the improvement in age-standardized mortality rates were greater in Tokyo's 23 wards compared with Osaka. Even after adjusting for age-standardized mortality rates in Osaka, percent changes in mortality between the first 3-year interval (October 2000 to September 2003) and the last 3-year interval (October 2009 to September 2012) were -6.0% for all causes, -11% for cardiovascular disease, -10% for ischemic heart disease, -6.2% for cerebrovascular disease, -22% for pulmonary disease, and -4.9% for lung cancer. We did not observe a decline in mortality from other causes. This quasi-experimental study in Tokyo suggests that emission control was associated with improvements in both air quality and health outcomes.

  4. Rationale, Design, Samples, and Baseline Sun Protection in a Randomized Trial on a Skin Cancer Prevention Intervention in Resort Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Cutter, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during recreation is a risk factor for skin cancer. A trial evaluating an intervention to promote advanced sun protection (sunscreen pre-application/reapplication; protective hats and clothing; use of shade) during vacations. Materials and Methods Adult visitors to hotels/resorts with outdoor recreation (i.e., vacationers) participated in a group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled quasi-experimental design in 2012–14. Hotels/resorts were pair-matched and randomly assigned to the intervention or untreated control group. Sun protection (e.g., clothing, hats, shade and sunscreen) was measured in cross-sectional samples by observation and a face-to-face intercept survey during two-day visits. Results Initially, 41 hotel/resorts (11%) participated but 4 dropped out before posttest. Hotel/resorts were diverse (employees=30 to 900; latitude=24o 78′ N to 50o 52′ N; elevation=2 ft. to 9,726 ft. above sea level), and had a variety of outdoor venues (beaches/pools, court/lawn games, golf courses, common areas, and chairlifts). At pretest, 4,347 vacationers were observed and 3,531 surveyed. More females were surveyed (61%) than observed (50%). Vacationers were mostly 35–60 years old, highly educated (college education = 68%) and non-Hispanic white (93%), with high-risk skin types (22%). Vacationers reported covering 60% of their skin with clothing. Also, 40% of vacationers used shade; 60% applied sunscreen; and 42% had been sunburned. Conclusions The trial faced challenges recruiting resorts but result show that the large, multi-state sample of vacationers were at high risk for solar UV exposure. PMID:26593781

  5. Rationale, design, samples, and baseline sun protection in a randomized trial on a skin cancer prevention intervention in resort environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Beck, Larry; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during recreation is a risk factor for skin cancer. A trial evaluated an intervention to promote advanced sun protection (sunscreen pre-application/reapplication; protective hats and clothing; use of shade) during vacations. Adult visitors to hotels/resorts with outdoor recreation (i.e., vacationers) participated in a group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled quasi-experimental design in 2012-14. Hotels/resorts were pair-matched and randomly assigned to the intervention or untreated control group. Sun. protection (e.g., clothing, hats, shade and sunscreen) was measured in cross-sectional samples by observation and a face-to-face intercept survey during two-day visits. Initially, 41 hotel/resorts (11%) participated but 4 dropped out before posttest. Hotel/resorts were diverse (employees=30 to 900; latitude=24° 78' N to 50° 52' N; elevation=2ft. to 9726ft. above sea level), and had a variety of outdoor venues (beaches/pools, court/lawn games, golf courses, common areas, and chairlifts). At pretest, 4347 vacationers were observed and 3531 surveyed. More females were surveyed (61%) than observed (50%). Vacationers were mostly 35-60years old, highly educated (college education=68%) and non-Hispanic white (93%), with high-risk skin types (22%). Vacationers reported covering 60% of their skin with clothing. Also, 40% of vacationers used shade; 60% applied sunscreen; and 42% had been sunburned. The trial faced challenges recruiting resorts but result showed that the large, multi-state sample of vacationers were at high risk for solar UV exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  7. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. LaCaille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion, persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Results Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! intervention. Conclusions This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with

  8. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeboordse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children’s body mass index (BMI. In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. Methods In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200 in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200 in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’, is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called ‘The Physical Activity School’, is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. Discussion A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted

  9. Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niks Irene MW

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1 a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2 a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. Discussion The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1 how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2 the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3 indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.

  10. Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niks, Irene M W; de Jonge, Jan; Gevers, Josette M P; Houtman, Irene L D

    2013-02-19

    It is well-known that health care workers in today's general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1) a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2) a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1) how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2) the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3) indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.

  11. Constipation prophylaxis in children undergoing orthopedic surgery: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegazzi, Laila Sara; Seliner, Brigitte; Imhof, Lorenz

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of constipation prophylaxis administered with the support of an advanced practice nurse. A quasi-experimental study with a historical control group of 112 pediatric (age 1-18) orthopedic patients and an intervention group of 59 patients was conducted in a surgical ward in Switzerland. The implementation of a standardized constipation prophylaxis led to an absolute risk reduction (27%) of constipation. Fisher's exact test showed a significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in the two samples, p = .001. Constipation prophylaxis is a necessity in pediatric orthopedics. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Background: Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children's physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine...... to treat' (ITT) approach. The amount of EOtC the participants were exposed to was monitored. Associations between time spent in different physical activity intensities and EOtC group and sex were assessed using generalised linear models adjusted for age. In a second analysis, we modified the sample using...

  13. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  14. Educational intervention for collecting sputum for tuberculosis: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Salem, Julia Ignez; Fujimoto, Luciana Botinelly Mendonça; Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro de Lucena; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2016-06-07

    to evaluate the quality of the sputum sample before and after the Nursing guidance to patients. this is a quasi-experimental research design, single group type, before and after, non-randomized study. The study enrolled patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, respiratory symptomatic patients for over three weeks, aged over 18 years, of both genders and without tuberculosis history in the last two years. The educational intervention consisted of individualized guidance on the collection of sputum sample, which was based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Brazil and on the explanatory folder delivery. in this study participated 138 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The results showed significant increase of the samples with purulent particles, volume greater than 5 mL and increased rate of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, after the educational intervention. it was shown that after the educational intervention, it was observed sputum samples with better quality, with satisfactory aspect and volume for the effectiveness of the bacilloscopic examination. avaliar a qualidade da amostra de escarro antes e após as orientações de Enfermagem ao paciente. estudo com delineamento de pesquisa quase experimental, do tipo grupo único, antes e depois, não randomizado. Participaram do estudo pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar, sintomáticos respiratórios por mais de três semanas, maiores de 18 anos, de ambos os sexos e sem antecedente de tuberculose nos últimos dois anos. A intervenção educativa consistiu em orientações individualizadas sobre a coleta da amostra de escarro, fundamentadas nas diretrizes do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil e na entrega de folder explicativo. participaram 138 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar. Os resultados evidenciaram importante acréscimo das amostras com partículas purulentas, volume maior que 5mL e aumento na taxa de pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose, após a

  15. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  16. The effect of meditation on physical and mental health in junior college students: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ping; Su, Whei-Ming; Huang, Chen-Kuan

    2009-12-01

    Physical stress and mental stress are increasingly common phenomena in our rapidly changing and stressful modern society. Research has found meditation to produce positive and demonstrable stress reduction effects on brain and immune functions. This study is grounded in traditional Chinese philosophical mores that teach a process summarized by the keynote activities of "calm, still, quiet, consider, and get" and the potential of this process to reduce stress in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of meditation on the physical and mental health of junior college students. This research employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants included 242 freshmen from a junior college in Taiwan selected using a convenience sampling technique. Participants were then randomly separated into experimental (n = 119) and control (n = 123) groups. The project duration was 18 weeks, during which the experimental group received 2 hours of meditation treatment per week, for a total of 36 hours. Both groups completed pretest and posttest Life Adaptation Scale forms, which included questionnaires addressing information on physical and mental distress and positive and negative coping strategies. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Findings showed that the effect of the experiment treatment was significant when student physical and mental distress pretest scores were controlled. Physical and mental symptoms in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group. Meditation can help students to adapt to life stressors. This study also provides support for traditional Chinese wisdom, which promotes meditation as one way to improve health.

  17. Effect of an antismoking advertisement on cinema patrons' perception of smoking and intention to smoke: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-07-01

    To assess the effect of an antismoking advertisement under real-world conditions. Design Quasi-experimental study. Multiplex cinema in Kiel, Germany; 4073 patrons were surveyed after having viewed a movie. Some 4005 patrons were > or = 10 years old (28.7% between 10 and 17 years). A total of 654 subjects (16.3%) were smokers. In the intervention condition (weeks 1 and 3), a 30-second antismoking advertisement-accentuating long-term health consequences of smoking and promoting cessation-was shown prior to all movies; in the control condition (weeks 2 and 4) no such spot was shown. (i) Awareness of smoking in the movie, (ii) approval of smoking in the movie, (iii) attitude towards smoking, (iv) intention to smoke in the future and (v) desire to smoke among smokers. Findings Patrons who were exposed to the antismoking advertisement were more likely to be female, but did not differ with respect to smoking status. After controlling for gender differences, patrons exposed to the antismoking advertisement had (i) higher awareness of smoking in the movies, (ii) lower levels of approval of smoking in the movies, and (iii) a more negative attitude towards smoking in general compared with those not exposed. Among smokers, smoking in the movies increased urge to smoke, but there was no interaction between smoking in the movies and experimental condition. Study results suggest that placing an antismoking advertisement before movies can affect attitudes towards smoking, bolstering evidence in support of such policies.

  18. Can art therapy reduce death anxiety and burnout in end-of-life care workers? a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Potash, Jordan; Hy Ho, Andy; Chan, Faye; Lu Wang, Xiao; Cheng, Carol

    2014-05-01

    The need for empathy and the difficulties of coping with mortality when caring for the dying and the bereaved can cause psychological, emotional, and spiritual strain. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of art-therapy-based supervision in reducing burnout and death anxiety among end-of-life care workers in Hong Kong. Through a quasi-experimental design, 69 participants enrolled in a 6-week, 18-hour art-therapy-based supervision group, and another 63 enrolled in a 3-day, 18-hour standard skills-based supervision group (n=132). Pre- and post-intervention assessments were carried out with three outcome measures: the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised. The data was analysed using paired sample t-tests. Significant reductions in exhaustion and death anxiety and significant increases in emotional awareness were observed for participants in the art-therapy-based supervision group. This study provides preliminary evidence that art-therapy-based supervision for end-of-life care workers can reduce burnout by enhancing emotional awareness and regulation, fostering meaning-making, and promoting reflection on death.

  19. Effect of simulation on knowledge, self-confidence, and skill performance in the USA: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Ann M; Underwood, Patricia W

    2016-09-01

    In health care, high-fidelity simulation has been shown to result in increased student learning outcomes when compared to low-fidelity simulation. With educational facilities investing significant amounts of money into purchasing high-fidelity simulators, it is imperative to identify if the midlevel simulator, which is less costly, will result in the same learning outcomes. In this study, we examined the effect of midlevel-fidelity simulation versus low-fidelity simulation on Bachelor of Science in Nursing nursing students' knowledge, self-confidence, and skill performance. A quasi-experimental design examined the effects of midlevel-fidelity simulation (n = 37) versus low-fidelity simulation (case study) (n = 37) in junior-level nursing students. There was a significant difference for both groups in knowledge and skill performance (measured with a mini Objective Structured Clinical Examination), but not between the groups. Unexpectedly, the case-study group had a higher level of self-confidence (self-reported). The results of this study indicate that further research is needed to support faculties' selection of learning strategies with the lowest cost and highest effectiveness in achieving the desired learning outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Wellness room as a strategy to reduce occupational stress: quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Belini Jacques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare occupational stress levels of nurse staff working in the surgical unit before and after the intervention “wellness room”. Method: Quasi-experimental study with a sample of 60 nurse staff working in a surgical unit of a teaching hospital in the Southern Region of Brazil. The intervention was conducted in a room in the workplace for six months and consisted of sections of aesthetic care, relaxation, lectures and workshops to reduce occupational stress. Data were collected through the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire before and after the intervention, and the comparative analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test. Results: After the intervention, there was a decrease in demand and an increase in control and in the social support received at work in all professional categories, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The intervention “wellness room” reduced occupational stress levels in the sample studied; however, it was not a significant decrease.

  1. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  2. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khurram Azmat

    Full Text Available Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan.We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11.Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1% was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers.Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the

  3. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Khurram Azmat, Syed; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the service providers

  4. Volunteering and mortality risk: a partner-controlled quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Rosato, Michael; Moriarty, John; Leavey, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    The consensus that volunteering is associated with a lower mortality risk is derived from a body of observational studies and therefore vulnerable to uncontrolled or residual confounding. This potential limitation is likely to be particularly problematic for volunteers who, by definition, are self-selected and known to be significantly different from non-volunteers across a range of factors associated with better survival. This is a census-based record-linkage study of 308 733 married couples aged 25 and over, including 100 571 volunteers, with mortality follow-up for 33 months. We used a standard Cox model to examine whether mortality risk in the partners of volunteers was influenced by partner volunteering status-something expected if the effects of volunteering on mortality risk were due to shared household or behavioural characteristics. Volunteers were general more affluent, better educated and more religious than their non-volunteering peers; they also had a lower mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR)adj = 0.78: 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71, 0.85 for males and HRadj = 0.77: 95% CI = 0.68, 0.88 for females]. However, amongst cohort members who were not volunteers, having a partner who was a volunteer was not associated with a mortality advantage (HRadj = 1.01: 95% CI = 0.92, 1.11 for men and HRadj = 1.00: 95% CI = 0.88, 1.13 women). This study provides further evidence that the lower mortality associated with volunteering is unlikely to be due to health selection or to residual confounding arising from unmeasured selection effects within households. It therefore increases the plausibility of a direct causal effect. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  5. Developing the Pieta House Suicide Intervention Model: a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Surgenor, Paul Wg

    2015-01-01

    While most crisis intervention models adhere to a generalised theoretical framework, the lack of clarity around how these should be enacted has resulted in a proliferation of models, most of which have little to no empirical support. The primary aim of this research was to propose a suicide intervention model that would resolve the client\\'s suicidal crisis by decreasing their suicidal ideation and improve their outlook through enhancing a range of protective factors. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of this model on negative and positive outlook.

  6. Predesigned labels to prevent medication errors in hospitalized patients: a quasi-experimental design study

    OpenAIRE

    María Fernanda Morales-González; María Alejandra Galiano Gálvez

    2017-01-01

    Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La seguridad en la administración de medicamentos requiere sistemas de prevención de errores. Para prevenirlos, se implementó como estrategia el uso de un etiquetado prediseñado de medicamentos y fluidos intravenosos de las vías de administración y bombas de infusión. OBJETIVO Evaluar la efectividad del etiquetado prediseñado en la disminución de errores de medicación en las fases de preparación y administración, en pacientes hospitalizados con vías invasivas...

  7. Using the Montessori Approach for a Clientele with Cognitive Impairments: A Quasi-Experimental Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dominique; Robichaud, Line; Paradis, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: The choice of activities responding to the needs of people with moderate to severe dementia is a growing concern for care providers trying to target the need for a feeling of self-accomplishment by adapting activities to the abilities of elderly patients. The activities created by Maria Montessori seem to be adaptable to this…

  8. The harmony of programs package: Quasi-experimental evidence on deworming and canteen interventions in rural Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Diallo, F.L.; Raymond, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a unique and large-scale quasi-experimental data to study the effect of deworming and school meals programs as a package on educational outcomes (pupils' test scores: aggregate, French or math; enrollment, promotion or dropout rates) in rural Senegal. We extend the endogenous

  9. Quasi-Experimental Evidence of Peer Effects in First-Year Economics Courses at a Chinese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qihui; Tian, Guoqiang; Okediji, Tade O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article implement a quasi-experimental strategy to estimate peer effects in economic education by exploiting the institutional setting in a large public university in China, where roommates are randomly assigned conditional on a student's major and province of origin. They found significant impacts of peer academic quality,…

  10. An Investigation of Fifth Grade Students' Conceptual Development of Probability through Activity Based Instruction: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Catlioglu, Hakan; Birgin, Osman; Erdem, Emrullah

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of activity-based instruction and traditional instruction on fifth grade primary school students' conceptual development of probability. The study was conducted through quasi-experimental method and carried out with 50 5th grade primary school students, 25 for experimental group and 25 for control group. The…

  11. Enhancing (In)Formal Learning Ties in Interdisciplinary Management Courses: A Quasi-Experimental Social Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei

    2018-01-01

    While interdisciplinary courses are regarded as a promising method for students to learn and apply knowledge from other disciplines, there is limited empirical evidence available whether interdisciplinary courses can effectively "create" interdisciplinary students. In this innovative quasi-experimental study amongst 377 Master's…

  12. Does Training in Table Creation Enhance Table Interpretation? A Quasi-Experimental Study with Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wong, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative and statistical literacy are core domains in the undergraduate psychology curriculum. An important component of such literacy includes interpretation of visual aids, such as tables containing results from statistical analyses. This article presents results of a quasi-experimental study with longitudinal follow-up that tested the…

  13. A Quasi-Experimental Study Investigating the Effect of Scent on Students' Memory of Multiplication Facts and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted with two fifth grade classrooms to investigate the effect of scent on students' acquisition and retention of multiplication facts and math anxiety. Forty participants received daily instruction for nine weeks, using a strategy-rich multiplication program called Factivation. Students in the Double Smencil…

  14. Quasi-experimental Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy on Reliving Migraine Headaches in Migraine Sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EBRAHIMI MOGHADAM, Hosein; KARIMI, Ahoo; SEIFI, Kimia

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on relieving migraine headaches in migraine sufferers. Materials & Methods In this quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test method, the samples were outpatients of public hospitals in Ilam City, southwestern Iran since May-Jul 2010. They were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and divided into experimental and control groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 16 and via multivariate covariance method. Results Cognitive-behavioral therapy affected on reducing the duration of symptoms of migraine in sufferers (P<0.05). Conclusion Cognitive behavioral therapy effects on reducing the time duration of symptoms of migraine headaches. Thistherapeutic method increases the level of individual, familial, social and occupational activities by reducing the time duration of symptoms and this method helps the individuals to resume their activities and regain their previous control instead of founding themselves incapable and helpless due to the pain they suffer from. PMID:29201122

  15. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  16. Quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of a flipped classroom for teaching adult health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Esther O; Park, Ji Hyun

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of flipped learning as one of the teaching methods of active learning has been left unexamined in nursing majors, compared to the frequent attempts to uncover the effectiveness of it in other disciplines. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of flipped learning pedagogy in an adult health nursing course, controlling for other variables. The study applied a quasi-experimental approach, comparing pre- and post-test results in learning outcomes. Included in this analysis were the records of 81 junior nursing major students. The convenience sampling method was used to select the participants. Those in the experimental group were exposed to a flipped classroom experience that was given after the completion of their traditional class. The students' learning outcomes and the level of critical thinking skills were evaluated before and after the intervention of the flipped classroom. After the flipped classroom experience, the scores of the students' achievement in subject topics and critical thinking skills, specifically intellectual integrity and creativity, showed a greater level of increase than those of their controlled counterparts. This remained true even after controlling for previous academic performance and the level of creativity. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the flipped classroom as a measure of active learning by applying a quantitative approach. But, regarding the significance of the initial contribution of flipped learning in the discipline of nursing science, carrying out a more authentic experimental study could justify the impact of flipped learning pedagogy. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  17. Effect of Iranian Ministry of Health protocols on cesarean section rate: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavangi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Alishahi Tabriz, Amir

    2013-05-29

    High Cesarean section rate is a major health problem in developing countries. This study was established to evaluate the effectiveness of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education protocols on Cesarean section rate trend. Through a non-concurrent controlled quasi-experimental study, Cesarean section rate in Shohada-e-Tajrish and Taleghani hospitals in Tehran was compared during 2008-2009. Intervention group included 578 participants hospitalized because of premature rupture of membranes, prolonged pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation, vaginal bleeding and premature labor in first and second trimester underwent interventions based on MOHME new protocol. On the other hand 594 cases as control group were selected during the same time before the intervention and underwent routine treatments. Descriptive statics, t-test, chi square and univariate analysis were used when appropriate. Basic characteristics in two groups had no statistically significant difference. Cesarean section applied for 360 (67.8%) women in case group and on the other hand, 270 (48.8%) Cesarean sections were done for control group (PComplication of pregnancies had increased by 6% in intervention group (PCesarean section rate. Providing appropriate service may increase the ability of service providers to find more indications for Cesarean section.

  18. Effect of Education on Asthma Control in Children: A Quasi- Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Kalantari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly in recent decades1 especially in lower socioeconomic groups and in minority populations. Because of the increasing prevalence of asthma among children in worldwide and Iran, the importance of timely control of the disease after its diagnosis and few studies on the effect of education on asthma control in Iran, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education on asthma control in children. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 104 Iranian children (6-14 years old with asthma referred to asthma and allergy clinic of Children's Medical Center in Tehran were studied via convenience sampling method. Recruitment was occurred between 2011 to 2014. Subjects randomly were divided into two equal groups of intervention and control. For intervention group, common education as well as special education in format of booklet, pamphlets, CD and group training sessions were applied every two weeks within the first two months of follow up and every two months then after. While, the control group received usual careResults: The means of FEV1/ FVC change, frequency of admission to the ED, hospitalization and absence from school and use of steroids were significantly different before and after education in the intervention group. While changes among measured parameters in the control group were not significantly different.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that specific education has significant helpful effect on asthma attack control in children.

  19. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  20. Placebo-controlled trial of nebulization with adrenaline in acute bronchiolitis: a quasi-experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.F.; Iqbal, S.M.; Sultan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory obstruction. of small In children that occurs In first two years of life and is by fever, rhinitis, cough, tachypnoea, expiratory wheeze and increased respiratory effort To study efficacy of nebulized adrenaline compared with placebo in acute bronchiolitis. Quasi-experimental study carried out at Department of aediatrics, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital, Lahore from October 2006 through March 2007. After consent from parents, sixty children of age between 2 months to 2 years with the first episode consistent with clinical case definition of bronchiolitis were included by using convenient sampling. clinical scoring system was used to grade the severity of disease as well as to monitor the efficacy of intervention. Those having score = 8 were randomly allocated to the two study groups. The information was recorded at 0 minute and effect of each method of treatment was followed for 90 minutes. Results: Our study population was 60 children. The mean age was 11:1:6 Months. Male to female ratio was 1.2: 1. Mean weight of the Children was 9:1:3 kg. Improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation, and length of hospital at 0 and 90 minutes was noted in both groups but when compared with placebo, there was no Statistically significant difference. Conclusion: There is no difference in the efficacy of nebulization with adrenaline compared with placebo in the management of acute bronchiolitis. (author)

  1. Increasing active travel: results of a quasi-experimental study of an intervention to encourage walking and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Michael; Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Witten, Karen; Abrahamse, Wokje; Woodward, Alistair

    2015-12-01

    There is increased interest in the effectiveness and co-benefits of measures to promote walking and cycling, including health gains from increased physical activity and reductions in fossil fuel use and vehicle emissions. This paper analyses the changes in walking and cycling in two New Zealand cities that accompanied public investment in infrastructure married with programmes to encourage active travel. Using a quasi-experimental two-group pre-post study design, we estimated changes in travel behaviour from baseline in 2011 to mid-programme in 2012, and postprogramme in 2013. The intervention and control cities were matched in terms of sociodemographic variables and baseline levels of walking and cycling. A face-to-face survey obtained information on walking and cycling. We also drew from the New Zealand Travel Survey, a national ongoing survey of travel behaviour, which was conducted in the study areas. Estimates from the two surveys were combined using meta-analysis techniques. The trips and physical activity were evaluated. Relative to the control cities, the odds of trips being by active modes (walking or cycling) increased by 37% (95% CI 8% to 73%) in the intervention cities between baseline and postintervention. The net proportion of trips made by active modes increased by about 30%. In terms of physical activity levels, there was little evidence of an overall change. Comparing the intervention cities with the matched controls, we found substantial changes in walking and cycling, and conclude that the improvements in infrastructure and associated programmes appear to have successfully arrested the general decline in active mode use evident in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Increasing access to institutional deliveries using demand and supply side incentives: early results from a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serwadda David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services related to unmotivated health workers and inadequate supplies. Most public health interventions in Uganda have addressed only selected supply side issues, and universities have focused their efforts on providing maternal services at tertiary hospitals. To demonstrate how reforms at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS can lead to making systemic changes that can improve maternal health services, a demand and supply side strategy was developed by working with local communities and national stakeholders. Methods This quasi-experimental trial is conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda. The supply side component includes health worker refresher training and additions of minimal drugs and supplies, whereas the demand side component involves vouchers given to pregnant women for motorcycle transport and the payment to service providers for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. The trial is ongoing, but early analysis from routine health information systems on the number of services used is presented. Results Motorcyclists in the community organized themselves to accept vouchers in exchange for transport for antenatal care, deliveries and postnatal care, and have become actively involved in ensuring that women obtain care. Increases in antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were demonstrated, with the number of safe deliveries in the intervention area immediately jumping from Conclusions Transport and service vouchers appear to be a viable strategy for rapidly increasing maternal care. MakCHS can design strategies together with stakeholders using a learning-by-doing approach to take advantage of community resources.

  3. Increasing access to institutional deliveries using demand and supply side incentives: early results from a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Waiswa, Peter; Rahman, M Hafizur; Makumbi, Fred; Kiwanuka, Noah; Okui, Olico; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Nalwadda, Gorette; Serwadda, David; Pariyo, George W; Peters, David H

    2011-03-09

    Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services related to unmotivated health workers and inadequate supplies. Most public health interventions in Uganda have addressed only selected supply side issues, and universities have focused their efforts on providing maternal services at tertiary hospitals. To demonstrate how reforms at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) can lead to making systemic changes that can improve maternal health services, a demand and supply side strategy was developed by working with local communities and national stakeholders. This quasi-experimental trial is conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda. The supply side component includes health worker refresher training and additions of minimal drugs and supplies, whereas the demand side component involves vouchers given to pregnant women for motorcycle transport and the payment to service providers for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. The trial is ongoing, but early analysis from routine health information systems on the number of services used is presented. Motorcyclists in the community organized themselves to accept vouchers in exchange for transport for antenatal care, deliveries and postnatal care, and have become actively involved in ensuring that women obtain care. Increases in antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were demonstrated, with the number of safe deliveries in the intervention area immediately jumping from Voucher revenues have been used to obtain needed supplies to improve quality and to pay health workers, ensuring their availability at a time when workloads are increasing. Transport and service vouchers appear to be a viable strategy for rapidly increasing maternal care. MakCHS can design strategies together with stakeholders using a learning-by-doing approach to take advantage of

  4. Maternal and neonatal health impact of obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania: a quasi experimental before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Aline; Ravit, Marion; Ridde, Valéry; Dossa, Inès; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Bedecarrats, Florent; Dumont, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    A variety of health financing schemes shaped on pre-payment scheme have been implemented across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to address the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In Mauritania, the Obstetric Risk Insurance package (ORI) focusing on maternal and perinatal health has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002. Here, our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of the ORI in increasing facility-based delivery rates, as well as increases in family planning, antenatal and postnatal care, caesarean delivery and neonatal health, from demographic and health survey data between 2002 and 2011. We also examined whether the effects of the ORI varied between strata of the population. The study was based on a quasi-experimental before-and-after design to assess the causal link between availability of ORI and increase in use of maternal health services and neonatal mortality. In combination with geographical information system, difference-in-differences and odd ratio approaches were used to address our objectives. Indicators of access to care for pregnant women and neonatal health and improved in both non-intervention and intervention groups during the study period. There was no global effect of the availability of ORI on facility-based delivery rates, nor on the use of antenatal and postnatal care services, except for qualified antenatal services. However, delivery rates in local health centres with ORI increased more rapidly than in those with no ORI, the contrary was shown for hospitals. Caesarean delivery and family planning decreased with ORI. Although late neonatal mortality rates remained low in the country, a significant decrease was seen in districts without ORI. Except for some strata of the population, ORI has not really met its objective of attracting more pregnant women towards facility-based health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  5. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Quasi-Experimental Study of a Movement and Preliteracy Program for 3- and 4-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveApproximately 28% of children are not ready for kindergarten, 91% are inactive according to current guidelines, and 21% are overweight/obese. Early intervention to strengthen movement and preliteracy skills may help to curb the concerning rates of poor school readiness, inactivity, obesity, and subsequently positively impact health across the lifespan. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a motor and preliteracy skill program for a community sample of 3- to 4-year-old children.MethodsA quasi-experimental study design was used. The program was run for 1 h/week for 10 weeks and consisted of movement skill instruction, free play, and an interactive reading circle with care-giver involvement throughout each session. Movement and preliteracy skills were assessed in all children pre- and post-intervention using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2nd edition, the Preschool Word and Print Awareness tool, and the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening tool.ResultsNineteen families (experimental group, n = 8; control group, n = 11 were recruited (mean age = 3 years, 8 m; 47% male. There was a significant effect of group on gross motor raw scores overall [F(1, 16 = 4.67, p < 0.05; ωp2=0.16] and print-concept knowledge [F(1, 16 = 11.9, p < 0.05; ωp2=0.38].ConclusionThis study was one of the first to examine the impact of a community-based movement skill and preliteracy program with care-giver involvement in preschool children. Future research should continue to explore the effects of the program with larger and more diverse samples on multiple health and developmental outcomes.Clinical Trial RegistrationPlay and Preliteracy among Young Children (PLAY NCT02432443.

  7. Promoting Healthy Behaviors among Egyptian Mothers: A Quasi-Experimental Study of a Health Communication Package Delivered by Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, Angela; Abdelmegeid, Ali; Dwivedi, Vikas; Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Khadka, Neena; Rawlins, Barbara; Gibson, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made at the household level, for example, to seek antenatal care or breastfeed, can have a direct impact on the health of mothers and newborns. The SMART Community-based Initiatives program in Egypt worked with community development associations to encourage better household decision-making by training community health workers to disseminate information and encourage healthy practices during home visits, group sessions, and community activities with pregnant women, mothers of young children, and their families. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the program, with household surveys conducted before and after the intervention in intervention and comparison areas. Survey questions asked about women's knowledge and behaviors related to maternal and newborn care and child nutrition and, at the endline, exposure to SMART activities. Exposure to program activities was high in intervention areas of Upper Egypt: 91% of respondents reported receiving home visits and 84% attended group sessions. In Lower Egypt, these figures were 58% and 48%, respectively. Knowledge of danger signs related to pregnancy, delivery, and newborn illness increased significantly more in intervention than comparison areas in both regions (with one exception in Lower Egypt), after controlling for child's age and woman's education; this pattern also occurred for two of five behaviors (antenatal care visits and consumption of iron-folate tablets). Findings suggest that there may have been a significant dose-response relationship between exposure to SMART activities and certain knowledge and behavioral indicators, especially in Upper Egypt. The findings demonstrate the ability of civil society organizations with minimal health programming experience to increase knowledge and promote healthy behaviors among pregnant women and new mothers. The SMART approach offers a promising strategy to fill gaps in health education and counseling and strengthen community support for behavior

  8. Jamie's Ministry of Food: Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Immediate and Sustained Impacts of a Cooking Skills Program in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flego, Anna; Herbert, Jessica; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Swinburn, Boyd; Reynolds, John; Moodie, Marj

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours. Methods A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1), immediately post program (T2) and 6 months post completion (T3) for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1) and just before program commencement (T2). The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time. Subjects All adult participants (≥18 years) who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate. Results In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (Pcooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase). Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group. Conclusions Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community-based strategy to influence diet quality. PMID

  9. Changes in physical activity and sedentary time in the Finnish Schools on the Move program: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Henna L; Hirvensalo, Mirja H; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Laine, Kaarlo; Laakso, Lauri; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Schools on the Move program is to create a more active and pleasant school day through physical activity (PA). In this quasi-experimental design, we compared changes in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) during the school day and outside school hours for Grades 1-9 over two academic years in four program schools and two reference schools. Altogether 319 girls and boys aged 7-15 participated in the study between 2010 and 2012. MVPA and ST were measured four times over the 1.5-year follow-up period for seven consecutive days, using a hip-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear growth curve modeling was used to examine the effect of the program on MVPA and ST during follow-up. School day MVPA increased (P = 0.010) and school day ST decreased (P = 0.008) in program primary schools (Grades 1-6) more compared with the reference schools. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the difference in change (from the first to the last measurement) were small (d = 0.18 and d = -0.27, respectively). No differences in the changes of leisure-time or whole-day MVPA and ST between the program and reference schools were observed during follow-up. In conclusion, the changes in school day MVPA and ST did not translate into positive effects across the whole day. More effective and longer promotion actions are needed for positive changes in PA and ST, especially in lower secondary schools and for all daily segments. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Reducing salt in bread: a quasi-experimental feasibility study in a bakery in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Sosa-Zevallos, Vanessa; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    To explore salt content in bread and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing salt contained in 'pan francés' bread. The study had two phases. Phase 1, an exploratory phase, involved the estimation of salt contained in bread as well as a triangle taste test to establish the amount of salt to be reduced in 'pan francés' bread without detection by consumers. In Phase 2, a quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study assessed the effects of the introduction of low-salt bread on bakery sales. A municipal bakery in Miraflores, Lima, Peru. Sixty-five clients of the bakery in Phase 1 of the study; sales to usual costumers in Phase 2. On average, there was 1·25 g of salt per 100 g of bread. Sixty-five consumers were enrolled in the triangle taste test: fifty-four (83·1 %) females, mean age 58·9 (sd 13·7) years. Based on taste, bread samples prepared with salt reductions of 10 % (P=0·82) and 20 % (P=0·37) were not discernible from regular bread. The introduction of bread with 20 % of salt reduction, which contained 1 g of salt per 100 g of bread, did not change sales of 'pan francés' (P=0·70) or other types of bread (P=0·36). Results were consistent when using different statistical techniques. The introduction of bread with a 20 % reduction in salt is feasible without affecting taste or bakery sales. Results suggest that these interventions are easily implementable, with the potential to contribute to larger sodium reduction strategies impacting the population's cardiovascular health.

  11. [Five steps to decreasing nosocomial infections in large immature premature infants: A quasi-experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Ana; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Carmen; Lloreda García, José María; Fernández Fructuoso, José Ramón; Gómez Santos, Elisabet; García González, Verónica

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,500g at birth or delivered at <32 weeks gestation, admitted in the 12 months before and after the measures were implemented (January 2014). The measures consisted of: optimising hand washing, following a protocol for insertion and handling of central intravenous catheters, encouraging breastfeeding; applying a protocol for rational antibiotic use, and establishing a surveillance system for multi-resistant bacteria. The primary endpoint was to assess the incidence of hospital-acquired infections before and after implementing the interventions. Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8.7 and 2.7 hospital-related infections/1,000 hospital stay days in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively (P<.05). Additionally, patients in the treatment group showed a statistically-significant decrease in days on mechanical ventilation, use of blood products, and vasoactive drugs. The strategy, based on implementing five specific measures in a unit with a high rate of hospital-related infections, proved effective in reducing their incidence. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. 'Change4Life Smart Swaps': quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Levy, Louis B

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the impact on food purchasing behaviour of the 'Change4Life Smart Swaps' campaign to encourage families to make small changes to lower-fat or lower-sugar versions of commonly eaten foods and drinks. Quasi-experimental study comparing the proportion of swaps made by an intervention group (267 families who had signed up to the 'Smart Swaps' campaign promoted through various media, including television and radio advertising in early 2014) and a comparison group (135 families resident in Wales, signed up for 'Change4Life' materials, but not directly exposed to the 'Smart Swaps' campaign). During weeks 1, 2 and 3 of the campaign participants were asked to record their purchases of dairy products, carbonated drinks and breakfast cereals, using a mobile phone app questionnaire, when making a purchase within the category. England and Wales. Families registered with 'Change4Life'. In weeks 2 and 3 a significantly higher percentage of the intervention group had made 'smart swaps' than the comparison group. After week 3, 58 % of participants had swapped to a lower-fat dairy product compared with 26 % of the comparison group (P<0·001), 32 % of the intervention group had purchased a lower-sugar drink compared with 19 % of the comparison group (P=0·01), and 24 % had made a change to a lower-sugar cereal compared with 12 % of the comparison group (P=0·009). In the short term a national campaign to change purchase habits towards healthier products may have some merit but the sustainability of change requires further investigation.

  13. Examining pitch and numerical magnitude processing in congenital amusia: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2016-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a developmental disorder associated with deficits in pitch height discrimination or in integrating pitch sequences into melodies. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated whether there is an association between pitch and numerical processing deficits in congenital amusia. Since pitch height discrimination is considered a form of magnitude processing, we investigated whether individuals with amusia present an impairment in numerical magnitude processing, which would reflect damage to a generalized magnitude system. Alternatively, we investigated whether the numerical processing deficit would reflect a disconnection between nonsymbolic and symbolic number representations. This study was conducted with 11 adult individuals with congenital amusia and a control comparison group of 6 typically developing individuals. Participants performed nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude comparisons and number line tasks. Results were available from previous testing using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and a pitch change detection task (PCD). Compared to the controls, individuals with amusia exhibited no significant differences in their performance on both the number line and the nonsymbolic magnitude tasks. Nevertheless, they showed significantly worse performance on the symbolic magnitude task. Moreover, individuals with congenital amusia, who presented worse performance in the Meter subtest, also presented less precise nonsymbolic numerical representation. The relationship between meter and nonsymbolic numerical discrimination could indicate a general ratio processing deficit. The finding of preserved nonsymbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and mental number line representations, with impaired symbolic number processing, in individuals with congenital amusia indicates that (a) pitch height and numerical magnitude processing may not share common neural representations, and (b) in addition to pitch processing, individuals with

  14. Effect of integrated school-based nutrition education on optimal dietary practices and nutritional status of school adolescents in Southwest of Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-12-15

    Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (pnutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.

  15. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Effectiveness of a nurse-led preadmission intervention for parents of children with profound multiple disabilities undergoing hip-joint surgery: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a family-centered care (FCC) intervention provided by an advanced practice nurse (APN) for parents of children with profound disabilities undergoing surgery. In a quasi-experimental design, we used the MPOC-20 to assess satisfaction with FCC and interviews to identify potential mechanisms for improving satisfaction. There was a positive effect on the MPOC-20 domain "general information," albeit with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.35). The interviewed parents expected additional support. Emphasis should be placed on providing comprehensive care coordination by an experienced APN. Shared care management is crucial in improving FCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of the Japanese 5S management method on patients’ and caretakers’ satisfaction: a quasi-experimental study in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Kanamori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 5S method is a lean management tool for workplace organization, with 5S being an abbreviation for five Japanese words that translate to English as Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In Senegal, the 5S intervention program was implemented in 10 health centers in two regions between 2011 and 2014. Objective: To identify the impact of the 5S intervention program on the satisfaction of clients (patients and caretakers who visited the health centers. Design: A standardized 5S intervention protocol was implemented in the health centers using a quasi-experimental separate pre-post samples design (four intervention and three control health facilities. A questionnaire with 10 five-point Likert items was used to measure client satisfaction. Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the intervention's effect on the client satisfaction scores, represented by an equally weighted average of the 10 Likert items (Cronbach's alpha=0.83. Additional regression analyses were conducted to identify the intervention's effect on the scores of each Likert item. Results: Backward stepwise linear regression (n=1,928 indicated a statistically significant effect of the 5S intervention, represented by an increase of 0.19 points in the client satisfaction scores in the intervention group, 6 to 8 months after the intervention (p=0.014. Additional regression analyses showed significant score increases of 0.44 (p=0.002, 0.14 (p=0.002, 0.06 (p=0.019, and 0.17 (p=0.044 points on four items, which, respectively were healthcare staff members’ communication, explanations about illnesses or cases, and consultation duration, and clients’ overall satisfaction. Conclusions: The 5S has the potential to improve client satisfaction at resource-poor health facilities and could therefore be recommended as a strategic option for improving the quality of healthcare service in low- and middle-income countries. To explore more effective

  18. Impact of the Japanese 5S management method on patients’ and caretakers’ satisfaction: a quasi-experimental study in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Shogo; Castro, Marcia C.; Sow, Seydou; Matsuno, Rui; Cissokho, Alioune; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background The 5S method is a lean management tool for workplace organization, with 5S being an abbreviation for five Japanese words that translate to English as Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain. In Senegal, the 5S intervention program was implemented in 10 health centers in two regions between 2011 and 2014. Objective To identify the impact of the 5S intervention program on the satisfaction of clients (patients and caretakers) who visited the health centers. Design A standardized 5S intervention protocol was implemented in the health centers using a quasi-experimental separate pre-post samples design (four intervention and three control health facilities). A questionnaire with 10 five-point Likert items was used to measure client satisfaction. Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the intervention's effect on the client satisfaction scores, represented by an equally weighted average of the 10 Likert items (Cronbach's alpha=0.83). Additional regression analyses were conducted to identify the intervention's effect on the scores of each Likert item. Results Backward stepwise linear regression (n=1,928) indicated a statistically significant effect of the 5S intervention, represented by an increase of 0.19 points in the client satisfaction scores in the intervention group, 6 to 8 months after the intervention (p=0.014). Additional regression analyses showed significant score increases of 0.44 (p=0.002), 0.14 (p=0.002), 0.06 (p=0.019), and 0.17 (p=0.044) points on four items, which, respectively were healthcare staff members’ communication, explanations about illnesses or cases, and consultation duration, and clients’ overall satisfaction. Conclusions The 5S has the potential to improve client satisfaction at resource-poor health facilities and could therefore be recommended as a strategic option for improving the quality of healthcare service in low- and middle-income countries. To explore more effective intervention modalities

  19. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-03-01

    We designed and tested an intervention that used dialogue-based groups to engage infants' fathers and grandmothers to support optimal infant feeding practices. The study's aim was to test the effectiveness of increased social support by key household influencers on improving mothers' complementary feeding practices. Using a quasi-experimental design, we enrolled mothers, fathers, and grandmothers from households with infants 6-9 months old in 3 rural communities (1 intervention arm with fathers, 1 intervention arm with grandmothers, and 1 comparison arm) in western Kenya. We engaged 79 grandmothers and 85 fathers in separate dialogue groups for 6 months from January to July 2012. They received information on health and nutrition and were encouraged to provide social support to mothers (defined as specific physical actions in the past 2 weeks or material support actions in the past month). We conducted a baseline household survey in December 2011 in the 3 communities and returned to the same households in July 2012 for an endline survey. We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and logistic regression to evaluate the intervention. We surveyed 554 people at baseline (258 mothers, 165 grandmothers, and 131 fathers) and 509 participants at endline. The percentage of mothers who reported receiving 5 or more social support actions (of a possible 12) ranged from 58% to 66% at baseline in the 3 groups. By endline, the percentage had increased by 25.8 percentage points (P=.002) and 32.7 percentage points (P=.001) more in the father and the grandmother intervention group, respectively, than in the comparison group. As the number of social support actions increased in the 3 groups, the likelihood of a mother reporting that she had fed her infant the minimum number of meals in the past 24 hours also increased between baseline and endline (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.30; P=.047). When taking into account the interaction effects of

  20. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Bo Schneller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education outside the classroom (EOtC is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children’s physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine if children who participate regularly in EOtC spend more time being physically active than children who do not. Methods In the 2014/2015 study TEACHOUT, classes were recruited in pairs such that each EOtC class had a non-EOtC comparison class at the same school and grade level. Participants in 17 EOtC classes and 16 comparison parallel classes across Denmark wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer taped to the lower back for seven consecutive days. Data from 201 EOtC participants (63.3% girls, age 10.82 ± 1.05, and 160 comparison participants (59.3% girls, age 10.95 ± 1.01 were analysed using an ‘intention to treat’ (ITT approach. The amount of EOtC the participants were exposed to was monitored. Associations between time spent in different physical activity intensities and EOtC group and sex were assessed using generalised linear models adjusted for age. In a second analysis, we modified the sample using a ‘per protocol’ (PP approach, only including EOtC and comparison class pairs where the EOtC class had >150 min and the comparison had <150 min of EOtC during the measured week. Results On average, EOtC participants spent 8.4 (ITT and 9.2 (PP minutes more in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day than comparison participants (p < 0.05. However, EOtC boys spent 18.7 (ITT and 20.8 (PP minutes more in MVPA per day than comparison boys (p < 0.01, while there were no significant between-group differences for girls. Conclusions For boys, EOtC was associated with more daily time being spent moderately and vigorously physically active. No differences were observed for girls. Implementing EOtC into schools’ weekly practice can be

  1. Is poker a game of skill or chance? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gerhard; von Meduna, Marc; Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Due to intensive marketing and the rapid growth of online gambling, poker currently enjoys great popularity among large sections of the population. Although poker is legally a game of chance in most countries, some (particularly operators of private poker web sites) argue that it should be regarded as a game of skill or sport because the outcome of the game primarily depends on individual aptitude and skill. The available findings indicate that skill plays a meaningful role; however, serious methodological weaknesses and the absence of reliable information regarding the relative importance of chance and skill considerably limit the validity of extant research. Adopting a quasi-experimental approach, the present study examined the extent to which the influence of poker playing skill was more important than card distribution. Three average players and three experts sat down at a six-player table and played 60 computer-based hands of the poker variant "Texas Hold'em" for money. In each hand, one of the average players and one expert received (a) better-than-average cards (winner's box), (b) average cards (neutral box) and (c) worse-than-average cards (loser's box). The standardized manipulation of the card distribution controlled the factor of chance to determine differences in performance between the average and expert groups. Overall, 150 individuals participated in a "fixed-limit" game variant, and 150 individuals participated in a "no-limit" game variant. ANOVA results showed that experts did not outperform average players in terms of final cash balance. Rather, card distribution was the decisive factor for successful poker playing. However, expert players were better able to minimize losses when confronted with disadvantageous conditions (i.e., worse-than-average cards). No significant differences were observed between the game variants. Furthermore, supplementary analyses confirm differential game-related actions dependent on the card distribution, player status

  2. A quasi-experimental study of the impact of school start time changes on adolescent sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Herman, Allison N; Oakes, J Michael; Whitaker, Robert C

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether simultaneous school start time changes (delay for some schools; advance for others) impact adolescents' sleep. Quasi-experimental study using cross-sectional surveys before and after changes to school start times in September 2015. Eight middle (grades 7-8), 3 secondary (grades 7-12), and 8 high (grades 9-12) schools in Fairfax County (Virginia) public schools. A total of 2017 (6% of ~34,900) students were surveyed before start time changes, and 1180 (3% of ~35,300) were surveyed after. A 50-minute delay (7:20 to 8:10 am) in start time for high schools and secondary schools and a 30-minute advance (8:00 to 7:30 am) for middle schools. Differences before and after start time changes in self-reported sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Among respondents, 57.5% were non-Hispanic white, and 10.3% received free or reduced-priced school meals. Before start time changes, high/secondary and middle school students slept a mean (SD) of 7.4 (1.2) and 8.4 (1.0) hours on school nights, respectively, and had a prevalence of daytime sleepiness of 78.4% and 57.2%, respectively. Adjusted for potential confounders, students with a 50-minute delay slept 30.1 minutes longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.3-36.0) on school nights and had less daytime sleepiness (-4.8%; 95% CI, -8.5% to -1.1%), whereas students with a 30-minute advance slept 14.8 minutes less (95% CI, -21.6 to -8.0) and had more daytime sleepiness (8.0%; 95% CI, 2.5%-13.5%). Both advances and delays in school start times are associated with changes in adolescents' school-night sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Larger changes might occur with later start times. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying the Apos Theory to Improve Students Ability to Prove in Elementary Abstract Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Arnawa, I Made; sumarno, Utari; Kartasasmita, Bana; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2007-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group design. The experiment group is treated by APOS theory instruction (APOS),that implements four characteristics of APOS theory, (1) mathematical knowledge was constructed through mental construction: actions, processes, objects, and organizing these in schemas, (2) using computer, (3) using cooperative learning groups, and (4) using ACE teaching cycle (activities, class discussion, and exercise). The control group ...

  4. The Effectiveness of Group Therapy based on Reality Therapy on Rebuild of Relationship Beliefs in Working Married Women of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    لیلا رمزی اسلامبولی; احمد علیپور; زهره سپهری شاملو; حسین زارع

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of group therapy based on reality therapy on relationship beliefs in working married women. This study was a quasi-experimental one with pretest-posttest, followup design with control group. Ninety one female married employees of Mashhad participated in this study with sampling in access and completed Relationship Beliefs Inventory. Thirty persons with higher scores randomly allocated in experimental and control groups (each gr...

  5. Educational intervention for liver transplantation candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...

  6. Integrating SQ4R Technique with Graphic Postorganizers in the Science Learning of Earth and Space

    OpenAIRE

    Djudin, Tomo; Amir, R

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of integrating SQ4R reading technique with graphic post organizers on the students' Earth and Space Science learning achievement and development of metacognitive knowledge. The pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design was employed in this quasi-experimental method. The sample which consists of 103 seventh grade of secondary school students of SMPN 1 Pontianak was drawn by using intact group random sampling technique. An achievement test and a questio...

  7. Teaching Grammar-in-context and Its Impact in Minimizing Students' Grammatical Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Yadhi Nur

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated...

  8. Improving Junior High Schools’ Critical Thinking Skills Based on Test Three Different Models of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Miftahul Fuad; Siti Zubaidah; Susriyati Mahanal; Endang Suarsini

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2) to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female students. This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The population in...

  9. Web-based Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for reducing residual depressive symptoms: An open trial and quasi-experimental comparison to propensity score matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Felder, Jennifer N; Boggs, Jennifer M; Gallop, Robert; Segal, Zindel V

    2014-12-01

    Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has been shown to effectively prevent relapse and reduce residual depressive symptoms (RDS), yet it faces barriers to dissemination. The present study examined Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), the first web-based approach to deliver the core content of MBCT. Of the 107 recurrently depressed individuals screened, 100 elected to enroll in the study and received MMB in an 8-session open trial with 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptom severity, rumination and mindful awareness, and program engagement. A quasi-experimental comparison between MMB participants and propensity matched case-controls receiving usual depression care (UDC) (N = 100) also was conducted. The full sample and the subgroup with residual depressive symptoms (N = 42) showed significantly reduced depressive severity, which was sustained over six months, and improvement on rumination and mindfulness. Examination of acceptability of MMB indicated that 42% of participants within the full sample and 36% of the RDS subgroup completed all 8 sessions and 53% within the full sample and 50% within the RDS subgroup completed at least 4 sessions, and that participants engaged with daily mindfulness practice. MMB also was associated with significant reduction in RDS severity as compared to quasi-experimental propensity matched controls. Although the use of a non-randomized design, with potential unmeasured differences between groups, and short interval of clinical follow-up were limitations, findings from this study support the web-based delivery of MBCT and suggest clinical benefits for participants with histories of depression and with RDS, relative to those receiving usual care alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburt, Helen; Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Oduola, Sheri; Craig, Tom K J

    2013-06-13

    Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patient's care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. 'Recovery, individual and practice', describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and

  11. Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Krevers, Barbro; Bendtsen, Preben

    2015-01-22

    Non-communicable diseases are a leading cause of death and can largely be prevented by healthy lifestyles. Health care organizations are encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. This study evaluates the impact of a team initiative on healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care. A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design compared three intervention centres that had implemented lifestyle teams with three control centres that used a traditional model of care. Outcomes were defined using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting regular practice of lifestyle promotion; implementation, fidelity to the original lifestyle team protocol. Data collection methods included a patient questionnaire (n = 888), a staff questionnaire (n = 120) and structured interviews with all practice managers and, where applicable, team managers (n = 8). The chi square test and problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the questionnaire and interview data, respectively. Reach: patients at control centres (48%, n = 211) received lifestyle promotion significantly more often compared with patients at intervention centres (41%, n = 169). Effectiveness: intervention staff was significantly more positive towards the effectiveness of lifestyle promotion, shared competency and how lifestyle promotion was prioritized at their centre. Adoption: 47% of staff at intervention centres and 58% at control centres reported that they asked patients about their lifestyle on a daily basis. all intervention centres had implemented multi-professional teams and team managers and held regular meetings but struggled to implement in-house referral structures for lifestyle promotion, which was used consistently among staff. Intervention centres did not show higher rates than control centres on reach of patients

  12. Evaluation of the 'Ladder to the Moon, Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme' staff training: Two quasi-experimental case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Swinson, Tom; Orrell, Martin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of the CCSEP on care home staff in two care settings for older people in one nursing home and one residential home. Care homes provide personal care and accommodation for older people. The English Dementia Strategy aims to improve the quality of service provision for people with dementia. This includes specific mention of improving the quality of life in care homes and as such includes objectives related to developing the workforce knowledge and skills. The Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP) is a staff training approach based on the Positive Psychology framework that uses theatre- and film-based activities. This study used a wait-list controlled design. However, the data analysis plan was amended to reflect difficulties in data collection, and a quasi-experimental case study approach was consequently utilised. Outcome measures for staff attitudes and beliefs were as follows: Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff; Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire; Job Satisfaction Index; Brief Learning Transfer System Inventory; and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience. The Quality of Interaction Schedule (QUIS) was used to observe changes in staff-resident interaction. Fifty staff in two care homes completed the questionnaires and forty-one undertook formal CCSEP training. In Home A (nursing home), there was no significant change in any of the measures. In Home B (residential home), the QUIS showed an increase in positive interactions post intervention; a significant increase in the Building Relationship subscale of Sense of Competence; and a significant increase in staff sense of hopefulness towards people with dementia. The Brief Learning Transfer System Inventory showed a significant decrease post-intervention. The intervention did not significantly affect the happiness or job satisfaction of care home staff. The results of this study provide tentative evidence about the efficacy of this staff training

  13. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-08-16

    Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. A quasi-experimental pre-post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8-12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications

  14. Electoral Mobilization for European Parliament Elections – A Portuguese Quasi-Experimental Plan for The 2004/2009 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge De Sá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Parliament (EP elections have registered high rates of abstention and Portugal is no different from all the other EU countries. From a relational marketing paradigm, we have tried to define the concept of local proximity-based political communication, the grounds for a research program based on a quasi-experimental plan aimed at verifying a set of assumptions on the effects of local proximity-based political communication on the mobilization of Portuguese voters for the EP elections of 2004 and 2009. The results are clear: the proximity-based political communication generated significant electoral mobilization in those two elections.

  15. Intermanual Transfer in Training With an Upper-Limb Myoelectric Prosthesis Simulator : A Mechanistic, Randomized, Pretest-Posttest Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Background. Intermanual transfer may improve prosthetic handling and acceptance if used in training soon after an amputation. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intermanual transfer effects can be detected after training with a myoelectric upper-limb prosthesis simulator.

  16. Intermanual Transfer Effect in Young Children After Training in a Complex Skill : Mechanistic, Pseudorandomized, Pretest-Posttest Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Background. Intermanual transfer implies that motor skills learned on one side of the body transfer to the untrained side. This effect was previously noted in adults practicing with a prosthesis simulator. Objective. The study objective was to determine whether intermanual transfer is present in

  17. Implementation of a Care Pathway for Primary Palliative Care in 5 research clusters in Belgium: quasi-experimental study protocol and innovations in data collection (pro-SPINOZA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysen, Bert; Van den Eynden, Bart; Gielen, Birgit; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wens, Johan

    2015-09-28

    Starting with early identification of palliative care patients by general practitioners (GPs), the Care Pathway for Primary Palliative Care (CPPPC) is believed to help primary health care workers to deliver patient- and family-centered care in the last year of life. The care pathway has been pilot-tested, and will now be implemented in 5 Belgian regions: 2 Dutch-speaking regions, 2 French-speaking regions and the bilingual capital region of Brussels. The overall aim of the CPPPC is to provide better quality of primary palliative care, and in the end to reduce the hospital death rate. The aim of this article is to describe the quantitative design and innovative data collection strategy used in the evaluation of this complex intervention. A quasi-experimental stepped wedge cluster design is set up with the 5 regions being 5 non-randomized clusters. The primary outcome is reduced hospital death rate per GPs' patient population. Secondary outcomes are increased death at home and health care consumption patterns suggesting high quality palliative care. Per research cluster, GPs will be recruited via convenience sampling. These GPs -volunteering to be involved will recruit people with reduced life expectancy and their informal care givers. Health care consumption data in the last year of life, available for all deceased people having lived in the research clusters in the study period, will be used for comparison between patient populations of participating GPs and patient populations of non-participating GPs. Description of baseline characteristics of participating GPs and patients and monitoring of the level of involvement by GPs, patients and informal care givers will happen through regular, privacy-secured web-surveys. Web-survey data and health consumption data are linked in a secure way, respecting Belgian privacy laws. To evaluate this complex intervention, a quasi-experimental stepped wedge cluster design has been set up. Context characteristics and involvement

  18. The Web-Based Osteoarthritis Management Resource My Joint Pain Improves Quality of Care: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Hema; Bennell, Kim; Dickson, Chris; Dobson, Fiona; Fransen, Marlene; Jones, Graeme; Hunter, David J

    2015-07-07

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for conservative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), management is often confined to the use of analgesics and waiting for eventual total joint replacement. This suggests a gap in knowledge for persons with OA regarding the many different treatments available to them. Our objective was to evaluate outcomes after usage of a Web-based resource called My Joint Pain that contains tailored, evidence-based information and tools aimed to improve self-management of OA on self-management and change in knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the My Joint Pain website intervention over a 12-month period. The intervention provided participants with general and user-specific information, monthly assessments with validated instruments, and progress-tracking tools. A nationwide convenience sample of 195 participants with self-assessed hip and/or knee OA completed both baseline and 12-month questionnaires (users: n=104; nonusers: n=91). The primary outcome measure was the Health Evaluation Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) to evaluate 8 different domains (health-directed activity, positive and active engagement in life, emotional distress, self-monitoring and insight, constructive attitudes and approaches, skill and technique acquisition, social integration and support, health service navigation) and the secondary outcome measure was the 17-item Osteoarthritis Quality Indicator (OAQI) questionnaire to evaluate the change in appropriateness of care received by participants. Independent t tests were used to compare changes between groups for the heiQ and chi-square tests to identify changes within and between groups from baseline to 12 months for each OAQI item. Baseline demographics between groups were similar for gender (152/195, 77.9% female), age (mean 60, SD 9 years) and body mass index (mean 31.1, SD 6.8 kg/m(2)). With the exception of health service navigation, mean effect sizes from all other heiQ domains

  19. The impact of simulation-based learning on students' English for Nursing Purposes (ENP) reading proficiency: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty

    2013-06-01

    This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pnursing journals among nursing students. However, the benefits to the students of this study is still to be determined, and further exploration is needed with well designed research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A QUASI EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO EVALUATE EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYCERIN MAGNESIUM SULPHATE DRESSING ON PHLEBITIS AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS INFUSION IN SELECTED HOSPITAL,VADODARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra HN, Patel Krupa D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intravenous therapy is indicated for many reasons. A significant number of patients admitted into hospital receive some forms of intravenous therapy through peripheral venous cannula, which is a common procedure carried out in hospital to allow rapid and accurate administration of medication. However, the intravenous cannulation can have undesirable effects, the most of which is phlebitis, which is due to mechanical, chemical or infectious cause. Method: In this study quasi-experimental research approach was used. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample from the selected hospital. The research design adopted for the study was pre-test, post-test control group design. In the present study a sample of 60 hospitalised patients and who met the inclusion criteria was selected from the target population. In this study the instruments used are baseline Performa, structured interview schedule to assess the subjective symptoms and observation scale to observe the objective symptoms. Result: In experimental group post test mean score 1.10, SD was 0.71 respectively. In control group post test mean score 2.53, SD was 0.78 respectively. The obtained value 7.454 statistically was significant at 0.001 levels. So research hypothesis was accepted. So there was significant difference between post intervention phlebitis among the experimental group and control group. Discussion: In the research study findings revealed that Glycerin Magnesium sulphate dressing is highly effective in decrease phlebitis level to the patients.

  1. Impact of a critical care postgraduate certificate course on nurses' self-reported competence and confidence: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Rebecca; Edvardsson, David

    2018-03-13

    Postgraduate education is said to support the development of nurses' professional competence and confidence, essential to the delivery of safe and effective care. However, there is a shortness of empirical evidence to demonstrate an increase to nurses' self-reported confidence and competence on completion of critical care postgraduate certificate-level education. To explore the impact of a critical care postgraduate certificate course on nurses' self-reported competence and confidence. To explore the psychometric properties and performance of the Critical Care Competence and Confidence Questionnaire. A quasi-experimental pre/post-test design. A total population sample of nurses completing a critical care postgraduate certificate course at an Australian University. The Critical Care Competence and Confidence Questionnaire was developed for this study to measure nurses' self-reported competence and confidence at baseline and follow up. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore sample characteristics and changes between baseline and follow-up. Reliability of the questionnaire was explored using Cronbach's Alpha and item-total correlations. There was a statistically significant increase in competence and confidence between baseline and follow-up across all questionnaire domains. Satisfactory reliability estimates were found for the questionnaire. Completion of a critical care postgraduate certificate course significantly increased nurses' perceived competence and confidence. The Critical Care Competence and Confidence Questionnaire was found to be psychometrically sound for measuring nurses' self-reported competence and confidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition attitudes and knowledge in medical students after completion of an integrated nutrition curriculum compared to a dedicated nutrition curriculum: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carolyn O; Ziniel, Sonja I; Delichatsios, Helen K; Ludwig, David S

    2011-08-12

    Nutrition education has presented an ongoing challenge to medical educators. In the 2007-2008 academic year, Harvard Medical School replaced its dedicated Preventive Medicine and Nutrition course with an integrated curriculum. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of the curriculum change on medical student attitudes and knowledge about nutrition. A survey was administered in a quasi-experimental design to students in the last class of the dedicated curriculum (n = 131) and the first class of the integrated curriculum (n = 135) two years after each class completed the required nutrition course. Main measures were attitude scores based on modified Nutrition in Patient care Survey and satisfaction ratings, performance on a nutrition knowledge test, and demographic variables. Two-tailed t-tests were performed. Response rates were 50.4% and 42.2%. There were no differences between the groups in attitude scores from the Nutrition in Patient care Survey (p = 0.43) or knowledge scores (p = 0.63). Students with the integrated curriculum were less satisfied with both the quantity (p nutrition education, and were more likely to have completed optional online nutrition training modules (p = 0.0089). Medical student attitudes and knowledge about nutrition were not affected by the model of nutrition education they receive, though students in an integrated curriculum may feel their education is inadequate and seek additional training.

  3. Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study of Intervention to Increase Participant Retention and Completed Home Visits in the Nurse-Family Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, Erin M.; Baca, Pilar; McClatchey, Maureen W.; Luckey, Dennis W.; Ramsey, Mildred O.; Loch, Joan M.; Lewis, Jan; Blackaby, Terrie S.; Petrini, Mary B.; Smith, Bobbie J.; McHale, Mollie; Perhacs, Marianne; Olds, David L.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention to increase participant retention and engagement in community practice settings of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), an evidence-based program of nurse home visiting for low-income, first-time parents. Using a quasi-experimental design (six intervention and 11 controls sites that delivered the NFP), we compared intervention and control sites on retention and number of completed home visits during a 10-month period after the intervention was initiated. Nurses at the 5 intervention sites were guided in tailoring the frequency, duration, and content of the visits to participants’ needs. NFP nurses at the control sites delivered the program as usual. At intervention sites, participant retention and completed home visits increased from the pre-intervention to intervention periods, while at control sites these outcomes decreased from the pre-intervention to intervention periods, leading to a significant intervention-control difference in change in participant retention (Hazard Ratio: 0.42, p = .015) and a 1.4 visit difference in change in completed home visits (p<.001, ES = 0.36). We conclude that training nurse home visitors to promote adaptation of program dosage and content to meet families’ needs shows promise as a way to improve participant retention and completed home visits. PMID:23832657

  4. Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as usual). A total of 28 high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (aged 13-21 years) were assessed using self- and teacher-ratings at pre- and post-assessment and 2-month follow-up. All participants completed the skills training, and treatment satisfaction was high. Levels of stress, hyperactivity and emotional distress were reduced in the treatment group. The acceptance and commitment therapy group also reported increased prosocial behaviour. These changes were stable or further improved at the 2-month follow-up. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the benefits of acceptance and commitment therapy for autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Effect of music care on depression and behavioral problems in elderly people with dementia in Taiwan: a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chin; Yu, Ching-Len; Chang, Su-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of music care on cognitive function, depression, and behavioral problems among elderly people with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The study had a quasi-experimental, longitudinal research design and used two groups of subjects. Subjects were not randomly assigned to experimental group (n = 90) or comparison group (n = 56). Based on Bandura's social cognition theory, subjects in the experimental group received Kagayashiki music care (KMC) twice per week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the comparison group were provided with activities as usual. Results found, using the control score of the Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly Behavior Rating Scale (baseline) and time of attending KMC activities as a covariate, the two groups of subjects had statistically significant differences in the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Results also showed that, using the control score of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (baseline) and MMSE (baseline) as a covariate, the two groups of subjects had statistically significant differences in the Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly Behavior Rating Scale. These findings provide information for staff caregivers in long-term care facilities to develop a non-invasive care model for elderly people with dementia to deal with depression, anxiety, and behavioral problems.

  6. The effects of using problem-based learning in the clinical nursing education on the students' outcomes in Iran: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiban, Mahnaz; Sangestani, Gita

    2014-11-01

    There are some strategies including problem based learning (PBL) that could enhance the learning experience. This quasi-experimental design was conducted to compare the effects of PBL with traditional clinical education that is commonly used for nursing students. The effects were observed by monitoring differences in their special and general competencies, performance and attitudes towards learning experiences. In 2010, 70, undergraduate nursing students were assigned into two groups as either PBL (n = 34) or Control group (n = 36) at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. The research tools used in this study were: the "students' competency self-evaluation" and the "students' attitudes toward their learning experiences" questionnaires, and also a "Coding system of performance" checklist. The groups were similar in most demographic characteristics. The PBL students' general and special competencies improved in the post-test significantly more than those of the control students (P Problem-based learning fostered nursing students' competency, attitude, and performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching psychomotor skills to beginning nursing students using a web-enhanced approach: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Vincent L

    2007-01-01

    To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats.

  8. The Effect of Self-Care Education on Emotional Intelligence of Iranian Nursing Students: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri; Sedghi, Parisa; Gholami, Mahsan; Faraji, Maryam; Hatkehlouei, Mahdi Babaei

    2018-01-20

    This study aimed to determine the effect of self-care training on emotional intelligence of nursing students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on nursing students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2016. The subjects (60 students) that were collected with random sampling method were divided into experimental and control groups, and then, self-care behaviors were taught to the experimental group' students in 12 sessions by using a checklist. The subjects of control group were not taught. Emotional intelligence was measured by using Bradberry and Greaves' standard questionnaire before and after the intervention. Emotional intelligence scores of students in the experimental group showed positive and significant change between before (75.33 ± 7.23) and after (125.70 ± 7.79) of training (P emotional intelligence of students that improve the likelihood of their success in life.

  9. Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Z A; Welsch, R L; Erickson, J D; Craig, S; Adams, L V; Ross, D A

    2012-01-01

    Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.

  10. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of an On-Line Formative Assessment and Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2010-01-01

    ASSISTments is a web-based math tutor designed to address the need for timely student assessment while simultaneously providing instruction, thereby avoiding lost instruction time that typically occurs during assessment. This article presents a quasi-experiment that evaluates whether ASSISTments use has an effect on improving middle school…

  11. Financing local development: Quasi-experimental evidence from municipalities in Brazil, 1980-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Litschig

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of additional unrestricted grant financing on local public spending, public service provision, schooling, literacy, and income at the community (municipio) level in Brazil. Additional transfers increased local public spending per capita by about 20% with no evidence of crowding out own revenue or other revenue sources. The additional local spending increased schooling per capita by about 7% and literacy ra...

  12. Public health care system, a quasi-experimental study: Acceptance and attitude to implicate clinical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillani Syed Wasif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A six-month longitudinal intervention arm study with a pre-post cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed. A 3-phase objective structured clinical examination (OSCE design was utilized for evaluation of acceptance and attitude of pharmacy students towards clinical pharmacy services. The pre-OSCE survey showed increased disagreement with the role of clinical pharmacists, compared to a significant positive shift in attitude towards their services in the healthcare team after 6 months of the trial. Responses improved for awareness (the current healthcare system could be improved by involving pharmacists, p < 0.02 and positive attitude categories (doctors and nurses would be happy to welcome the services of competent clinical pharmacists as part of their team, p < 0.01 in addition to competency (pharmacists have sufficient clinical training to advise doctors and nurses, p < 0.01. The predictive model suggested a strong positive effect on patient interaction, medical information tasks, clinical decisions on drug-related problems (DRPs, and communication with healthcare professionals (R2 = 0.41, F = 1.51, p < 0.001.

  13. The NASA eClips 4D Program: Impacts from the First Year Quasi-Experimental Study on Video Development and Viewing on Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, B.; Davis, H. B.; Harper-Neely, J.; Bowers, S.

    2017-12-01

    NASA eClips™ is a multi-media educational program providing educational resources relevant to the formal K-12 classroom. Science content for the NASA eClips™ 4D elements is drawn from all four divisions of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) as well as cross-divisional topics. The suite of elements fulfills the following SMD education objectives: Enable STEM education, Improve U.S. scientific literacy, Advance national education goals (CoSTEM), and Leverage efforts through partnerships. A component of eClips™ was the development of NASA Spotlite videos (student developed videos designed to increase student literacy and address misconceptions of other students) by digital media students. While developing the Sptolite videos, the students gained skills in teamwork, working in groups to accomplish a task, and how to convey specific concepts in a video. The teachers felt the video project was a good fit for their courses and enhanced what the students were already learning. Teachers also reported that the students learned knowledge and skills that would help them in future careers including how to gain a better understanding of a project and the importance of being knowledgeable about the topic. The student developed eClips videos were then used as part of interactive lessons to help other students learn about key science concepts. As part of our research, we established a quasi-experimental design where one group of students received the intervention including the Spotlite videos (intervention group) and one group did not receive the intervention (comparison group). An overall comparison of post scores between intervention group and comparison group students showed intervention groups had significantly higher scores in three of the four content areas - Ozone, Clouds, and Phase Change.

  14. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines and health outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2014-10-11

    Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.

  15. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

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    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  16. [Quasi-experimental evaluation of a nutritional educational intervention among home support assistants for the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberger-Gateau, P; Helmer, C; Ouret, S; Gendron, B

    2006-06-01

    The French National Program on Nutrition and Health has defined two specific objectives targeting older persons: (i) to improve their status in calcium and vitamin D and (ii) to prevent undernutrition. Home help provides support in activities of daily living, including meals, to dependent persons. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional education intervention on knowledge and practices among home support assistants for the elderly. Three facilities providing home support in Gironde (France) selected 132 home support assistants to follow an education program and 134 controls. Nutrition training was conducted in the intervention group by a dietician during two half-day sessions in May-June 2004. A non randomized controlled trial design was used for evaluation. Nutritional knowledge (20 questions) and practice (5 questions) of home support assistants were assessed by questionnaire before (April 2004) and after (September 2004) the training period in each group. Satisfaction of the intervention group was also assessed. The intervention group included 101 participants and the control group 106 persons who answered both questionnaires before and after the education program. The intervention group was significantly younger (p educated (p = 0.01) and had less often participated to previous nutrition training (p intervention for their mean scores of knowledge or practices. The intervention group significantly improved its knowledge score (mean gain 2.5 points, p nutritional education was very significant (p intervention in multivariate analyses. Satisfaction of trained home support assistants was very high. An education program of home support assistants for elderly persons can improve their nutritional knowledge, but this study cannot conclude that the intervention was efficient to improve the nutritional status of older persons.

  17. Application of Visual Cues on 3D Dynamic Visualizations for Engineering Technology Students and Effects on Spatial Visualization Ability: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2016-01-01

    Several theorists believe that different types of visual cues influence cognition and behavior through learned associations; however, research provides inconsistent results. Considering this, a quasi-experimental study was done to determine if there are significant positive effects of visual cues (color blue) and to identify if a positive increase…

  18. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of drug utilization reviews on the quality of in-hospital prescribing: a quasi-experimental study

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    Chabot Isabelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug utilization review (DUR programs are being conducted in Canadian hospitals with the aim of improving the appropriateness of prescriptions. However, there is little evidence of their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of both a retrospective and a concurrent DUR programs on the quality of in-hospital prescribing. Methods We conducted an interrupted time series quasi-experimental study. Using explicit criteria for quality of prescribing, the natural history of cisapride prescription was established retrospectively in three university-affiliated hospitals. A retrospective DUR was implemented in one of the hospitals, a concurrent DUR in another, whereas the third hospital served as a control. An archivist abstracted records of all patients who were prescribed cisapride during the observation period. The effect of DURs relative to the control hospital was determined by comparing estimated regression coefficients from the time series models and by testing the statistical significance using a 2-tailed Student's t test. Results The concurrent DUR program significantly improved the appropriateness of prescriptions for the indication for use whereas the retrospective DUR brought about no significant effect on the quality of prescribing. Conclusion Results suggest a retrospective DUR approach may not be sufficient to improve the quality of prescribing. However, a concurrent DUR strategy, with direct feedback to prescribers seems effective and should be tested in other settings with other drugs.

  20. Benefits of smart pumps for automated changeovers of vasoactive drug infusion pumps: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, M; Hernu, R; Bénet, T; Robert, J M; Regad, D; Chabert, B; Malatray, A; Conrozier, S; Serra, P; Lassaigne, M; Vanhems, P; Argaud, L

    2013-11-01

    Manual changeover of vasoactive drug infusion pumps (CVIP) frequently lead to haemodynamic instability. Some of the newest smart pumps allow automated CVIP. The aim of this study was to compare automated CVIP with manual 'Quick Change' relays. We performed a prospective, quasi-experimental study, in a university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU). All adult patients receiving continuous i.v. infusion of vasoactive drugs were included. CVIP were successively performed manually (Phase 1) and automatically (Phase 2) during two 6-month periods. The primary endpoint was the frequency of haemodynamic incidents related to the relays, which were defined as variations of mean arterial pressure >15 mm Hg or heart rate >15 bpm. The secondary endpoints were the nursing time dedicated to relays and the number of interruptions in care because of CVIP. A multivariate mixed effects logistic regression was fitted for analytic analysis. We studied 1329 relays (Phase 1: 681, Phase 2: 648) from 133 patients (Phase 1: 63, Phase 2: 70). Incidents related to CVIP decreased from 137 (20%) in Phase 1 to 73 (11%) in Phase 2 (Ppumps in limiting the frequency of haemodynamic incidents related to relays and in reducing the nursing workload.

  1. Rope skipping increases bone mineral density at calcanei of pubertal girls in Hong Kong: A quasi-experimental investigation.

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    Amy S Ha

    Full Text Available Bone mineral accrual during puberty is important, especially in girls, because it is related to reduced risks of osteoporosis in adulthood. Previous research has shown that jumping or plyometric exercises may be effective in increasing bone mineral density in adolescents. Rope skipping is a form of activity that involves jumping, thus regular skipping may also increase bone mineral density in pubertal girls. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental to examine the effects of rope skipping on girls' bone mineral density and cardiovascular fitness. 176 Hong Kong girls (age = 12.23 ± 1.80 years at baseline were recruited to take part in the study. Bone density at their forearms and calcanei were measured twice over two academic years (mean time between visits was 10.3 months. Using multilevel modeling analyses and adjusting for participants' height and physical activity, we found that girls who participated in weekly rope skipping activities, compared to those who did not, had higher levels of bone density at the calcanei (B = 0.023, p < .01. However, no differences were found for bone density at forearms or participants' cardiovascular fitness. The rates of change of these variables across time were also not significantly different. Results suggest that regular rope skipping may increase girls' bone density at the lower extremities, irrespective of the amount of self-report physical activity. However, further research is required to examine the potential dose-response relation between skipping behaviors and the measured outcomes.

  2. Effects of Team-Based Learning on the Core Competencies of Nursing Students: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun

    2018-04-01

    An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership. This quasi-experimental study enrolled 183 students as participants, with 95 and 88 in the experimental and control groups, respectively. These two groups attended 6 hours (2 hours weekly for 3 weeks) of TBL and lecture-style classes, respectively. Differences in core competencies between the two groups were compared before and after the intervention. The experimental group achieved significantly higher scores for clinical competence skills, communication competence, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership at posttest than at pretest, whereas the control group achieved significantly higher scores for clinical competence skills and critical thinking ability at posttest than at pretest. After the intervention, the experimental group had significantly better clinical competence skills, communication competence, and self-leadership than the control group. TBL is an effective approach method to teaching core competencies in nursing education.

  3. The influence of bonus payments to doctors on hospital revenue: results of a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingzhu; Mills, Anne

    2003-01-01

    There is wide consensus that the ways in which providers are reimbursed by third parties will affect their behaviour and, hence, the efficient use of limited resources and the performance of health systems. However, there seems to be little evidence on how payment to hospital-based doctors affects hospital performance. This paper reports a case study conducted in China on the effects of different types of bonus payment to doctors, with a focus on how bonus payment might have affected hospital revenue growth. This has been an increasingly important goal of public hospitals as they have gained increased autonomy. A set of longitudinal quasi-experimental data, and a set of cross-sectional data, both derived from 108 public hospitals, were used for the analysis. It was found that, when a bonus system was introduced, and when the bonus model switched from one with a weaker incentive to provide services to one with a stronger incentive, there was a consistent sudden increase in the rate of growth of hospital revenue. Bonus type was also associated with the size of hospital service revenue. The results highlight the potential risks of linking remuneration too closely with revenue generation, and the need to ensure adequate attention to mechanisms of control and accountability when hospitals are given greater autonomy.

  4. The quasi experimental study of the influence of advertising creativity and exposure intensity toward buying action with aida approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdan Dede Budiawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement is one of marketing communication forms made by companies to reach sales goal of certain product. Advertising creativity is one of important factors that determines the success of television advertisement, beside that the exposure intensity also be determining factor to make the television advertisement get attention from spectators. To measure the spectators response toward advertisement in this research, the researcher used AIDA model. AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action model is one of popular response hierarchy models for marketer as guidance to implement the marketing communication activities. The thesis analyzes the influence of advertising creativity and exposure intensity toward the buying action as the final stage of consumer in deciding the decision to buy product. The research used quasi experimental study to 80 respondents as the target market of the advertised, that is ice cream of Haan brand. The experiment as done in 2 treatments, treatment 1: one advertising exposure and treatment 2: three advertising exposures. The Mann Whitney difference test with SPSS program showed no significant differences between treatment of 1 exposure and 3 exposures. The SEM PLS analysis showed that advertising creativity influenced significantly to attention, interest, desire and action in buying product.

  5. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  6. The efficacy of an educational intervention on health behaviors in a sample of Turkish female nursing students: a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Belgüzar

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors are a key factors leading to health problems. It remains unclear whether an educational intervention has a long term effect on health behaviors of nursing students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effect of an educational intervention on the health behaviors and examine predictors of change in these behaviors in Turkish female baccalaureate nursing students. Quasi-experimental design with one-group, pre- and posttest, and 3-year follow-up. The study was conducted in a school of nursing in Turkey. One hundred-eight students participated in this study. Data were collected before and after the implementation of the educational intervention by using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-I (HPLP-I). Descriptive statistics, the one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures and multiple linear regression analysis were used. There were significant differences among the three time points in terms of the HPLP-I total and subscales scores (self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition and stress management), except for interpersonal support (p<.05). The positive effect of intervention on the HPLP-I total and health responsibility subscale scores was maintained during the 3-year follow-up period (p<.05). The amount of change from pretest to posttest in the total HPLP-I score was the only predictor of the 3-year change in the total scale score (unstandardized β=0.538; p<.001), after adjustment for the potential confounding factors. The educational intervention was partially effective in improving all health behaviors of the nursing students over the long term. Nursing students who demonstrated higher levels of benefit from the intervention were more likely to have more positive health behaviors at the 3-year point. The findings of this study highlight the importance of the integration of health behaviors within the nursing curriculum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are area-based initiatives able to improve area safety in deprived areas? A quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-07-28

    Numerous area-based initiatives have been implemented in deprived areas across Western-Europe with the aim to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions in these areas. Only few of these initiatives have been scientifically evaluated for their impact on key social determinants of health, like perceived area safety. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of a Dutch area-based initiative called the District Approach on trends in perceived area safety and underlying problems in deprived target districts. A quasi-experimental design was used. Repeated cross-sectional data on perceived area safety and underlying problems were obtained from the National Safety Monitor (2005-2008) and its successor the Integrated Safety Monitor (2008-2011). Study population consisted of 133,522 Dutch adults, including 3,595 adults from target districts. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to assess trends in self-reported general safety, physical order, social order, and non-victimization before and after the start of the District Approach mid-2008. Trends in target districts were compared with trends in various control groups. Residents of target districts felt less safe, perceived less physical and social order, and were victimized more often than adults elsewhere in the Netherlands. For non-victimization, target districts showed a somewhat more positive change in trend after the start of the District Approach than the rest of the Netherlands or other deprived districts. Differences were only statistically significant in women, older adults, and lower educated adults. For general safety, physical order, and social order, there were no differences in trend change between target districts and control groups. Results suggest that the District Approach has been unable to improve perceptions of area safety and disorder in deprived areas, but that it did result in declining victimization rates.

  8. Making the continuum of care work for mothers and infants: Does gender equity matter? Findings from a quasi-experimental study in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Lotus; Atmavilas, Yamini; Hay, Katherine; Silverman, Jay G; Tarigopula, Usha K; Raj, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in continuum of care (CoC) utilization are needed to address inadequate reductions in neonatal and infant mortality in India and elsewhere. This study examines the effect of Ananya, a health system training and community outreach intervention, on reproductive, maternal and newborn health continuum of care (RMNH CoC) utilization in Bihar, India, and explores whether that effect is moderated by gender equity factors (child marriage, restricted mobility and low decision-making control). A two-armed quasi-experimental design compared districts in Bihar that did/did not implement Ananya. Cross-sections of married women aged 15-49 with a 0-5 month old child were surveyed at baseline and two year follow-up (baseline n = 7191 and follow-up n = 6143; response rates 88.9% and 90.7%, respectively). Difference-in-difference analyses assessed program impact on RMNH CoC co-coverage, defined by 9 health services/behaviors for the index pregnancy (e.g., antenatal care, skin-to-skin care). Three-way interactions assessed gender equity as a moderator of Ananya's impact. Participants reported low RMNH CoC co-coverage at baseline (on average 3.2 and 3.0 of the 9 RMNH services/behaviors for Ananya and control groups, respectively). The Ananya group showed a significantly greater increase in RMNH CoC co-coverage (.41 services) compared with the control group over time (pChild marriage attenuated Ananya's impact on utilization of key health services and behaviors. Supporting the health system with training and community outreach can be beneficial to RMNH CoC utilization; additional support is needed to adequately address the unique issues faced by women married as minors.

  9. A Quasi-Experimental Study Analyzing the Effectiveness of Portable High-Efficiency Particulate Absorption Filters in Preventing Infections in Hematology Patients during Construction

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    Gülden Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increased risk of infection for patients caused by construction and renovation near hematology inpatient clinics is a major concern. The use of high-efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA filters can reduce the risk of infection. However, there is no standard protocol indicating the use of HEPA filters for patients with hematological malignancies, except for those who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This quasi-experimental study was designed to measure the efficacy of HEPA filters in preventing infections during construction. Materials and Methods: Portable HEPA filters were placed in the rooms of patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies because of large-scale construction taking place near the hematology clinic. The rates of infection during the 6 months before and after the installation of the portable HEPA filters were compared. A total of 413 patients were treated during this 1-year period. Results: There were no significant differences in the antifungal prophylaxis and treatment regimens between the groups. The rates of infections, clinically documented infections, and invasive fungal infections decreased in all of the patients following the installation of the HEPA filters. When analyzed separately, the rates of invasive fungal infections were similar before and after the installation of HEPA filters in patients who had no neutropenia or long neutropenia duration. HEPA filters were significantly protective against infection when installed in the rooms of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients who were undergoing consolidation treatment, and patients who were neutropenic for 1-14 days. Conclusion: Despite the advent of construction and the summer season, during which environmental Aspergillus contamination is more prevalent, no patient or patient subgroup experienced an increase in fungal infections following the installation of HEPA filters. The protective

  10. Impact of a Mobile Phone Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S; Ma, Ping; High, Robin R; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Rios, Debra M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Swartz, Michael D; Wetter, David W

    2016-01-25

    Greater time spent sedentary is linked with increased risk of breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancers. Given steadily increasing rates of mobile phone ownership, mobile phone interventions may have the potential to broadly influence sedentary behavior across settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impact of a mobile phone intervention that targeted sedentary time in a diverse community sample. Adults participated in a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mobile phone intervention designed to reduce sedentary time through prompts to interrupt periods of sitting. Participants carried mobile phones and wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Intervention participants additionally received mobile phone prompts during self-reported sitting and information about the negative health impact of prolonged sedentariness. The study was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in Dallas, Texas. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the intervention on daily accelerometer-determined estimates of sedentary and active time. Participants (N=215) were predominantly female (67.9%, 146/215) and nonwhite (black: 50.7%, 109/215; Latino: 12.1%, 26/215; other: 5.6%, 12/215). Analyses revealed that participants who received the mobile phone intervention had significantly fewer daily minutes of sedentary time (B=-22.09, P=.045) and more daily active minutes (B=23.01, P=.04) than control participants. A simple mobile phone intervention was associated with engaging in less sedentary time and more physical activity. Findings underscore the potential impact of mobile phone interventions to positively influence sedentary behavior and physical activity.

  11. Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Wang, Xiaoqing; An, Junming; An, Jialu; Zhou, Ning; Sun, Lu; Chen, Hong; Feng, Lin; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded. In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention ( P  strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.

  12. Standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum to improve nursing students' performance during simulated resuscitation: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jian; Hu, Fen; Yu, Si-Hong; Yang, Bing-Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2018-03-14

    Simulation-based curriculum has been demonstrated as crucial to nursing education in the development of students' critical thinking and complex clinical skills during a resuscitation simulation. Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on the performance of students in a resuscitation simulation. To evaluate the impact of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on nursing students' response time in a resuscitation simulation. Two-group, non-randomised quasi-experimental design. A simulation centre in a Chinese University School of Nursing. Third-year nursing students (N = 39) in the Emergency and Intensive Care course were divided into a control group (CG, n = 20) and an experimental group (EG, n = 19). The experimental group participated in a standardised high-technology, simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum. The standardised simulation-based curriculum for third-year nursing students consists of three modules: disaster response, emergency care, and intensive care, which include clinical priorities (e.g. triage), basic resuscitation skills, airway/breathing management, circulation management and team work with eighteen lecture hours, six skill-practice hours and twelve simulation hours. The control group took part in the traditional curriculum. This course included the same three modules with thirty-four lecture hours and two skill-practice hours (trauma). Perceived benefits included decreased median (interquartile ranges, IQR) seconds to start compressions [CG 32 (25-75) vs. EG 20 (18-38); p  0.05] and defibrillation [CG 222 (194-254) vs. EG 221 (214-248); p > 0.05] at the beginning of the course. A simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum was created and well received by third-year nursing students and associated with decreased response time in a

  13. Could Nursing Educational Courses Change the Attitudes of Students to Mental Disorders stigma? A Quasi- Experimental Study in Alborz University of Medical Sciences

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    F. Kordlou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence mental disorders and its burden in the world is one of the most important challenges for health system and service delivery to people with mental disorders need enough and trained manpower. Stigma of mental disorders not only influence patients and their families but also is a barrier for delivering mental health services to the patients, hence beyond the knowledge and expertise, health care providers must have an appropriate attitude especially toward the stigma of mental disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mental health related courses of nursing curriculum on the nursing student’s attitude about mental disorders in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with before and after design was used. All 197 nursing students who had one of the related courses of mental health, were studied for attitudes about mental disorder stigma before and after the semester. Farsi version of OMSHC questionnaire was used to measure nursing student’s attitude. One way ANOVAs, Pearson Correlation and Paired T-Test used for Data analysis. Results: Student’s attitude about mental health stigma didn’t improve after the course lessons. Mental health attitude score was different based on gender (P<0/035 and marital status (P<0.006. There was a weak negative correlation between age and attitude score (r=-0.22, P<0/003. Conclusion: The current educational course and lessons can’t improve the nursing student’s attitudes about the stigma of mental disorders. To get desired outcomes, changing lesson plans and the presentation styles must be considered.

  14. The impact of area-based initiatives on physical activity trends in deprived areas; a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Droomers, Mariël; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-11

    Numerous area-based initiatives (ABIs) have been implemented in deprived neighbourhoods across Europe. These large-scale initiatives aim to tackle the socio-economic and environmental problems in these areas that might influence physical activity (PA). There is little robust evidence of their impact on PA. This study aimed to assess the impact of a Dutch ABI called the District Approach on trends in leisure-time PA in deprived districts. Repeated cross-sectional data on 48401 adults across the Netherlands were obtained from the Integrated Survey on Household Living Conditions (POLS) 2004-2011. 1517 of these adults resided in deprived target districts and 46884 adults resided elsewhere in the Netherlands. In a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series design, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to assess trends in leisure-time walking, cycling, and sports before and during the intervention. Trends in deprived target districts were compared with trends in various control groups. The role of the intensity of environmental interventions was also assessed. Deprived target districts showed a significantly positive change in walking trend between the pre-intervention and intervention period. The trend change in the deprived target districts was significantly larger compared to the rest of the Netherlands, but not compared to other deprived districts. For cycling and sports, neither deprived districts nor control districts showed a significant trend change. For all leisure-time PA outcomes, trend changes were not related to the intensity of environmental interventions in the deprived target districts. Some evidence was found to suggest that ABIs like the District Approach have a positive impact on leisure-time PA in deprived districts, regardless of the intensity of environmental interventions.

  15. Effectiveness of nurse case management compared with usual care in cancer patients at a single medical center in Taiwan: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tsou, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2013-05-31

    In order to improve treatment and care quality for cancer patients, nurse case management model has applied generally in the clinical practice. However there were only few evidence-based studies on the relative benefits in Taiwan. Further analysis and feedback application are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of care quality in cancer patients with nurse case management. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design in a national medical center in Northern Taiwan. Patients diagnosed as lung, liver, breast, colon, buccal or cervical cancers were eligible for inclusion. A total number of 600 subjects randomly selected from the cancer case management system enrolled in the case managed group, and 600 patients who received usual care were randomly selected from cancer registry and enrolled in the control group. The study instrument was developed to measure care effectiveness, including the rates of patient continuing treatment, non-adherence to treatment, prolonged hospitalization, unplanned readmission, and planned admission for active treatment. The content validity of expert was assessed as 0.9. The nurse case management significantly decreased the unplanned readmission rate caused by infection (1.5% vs. 4.7% in the control group, p = 0.002). The rate of patient continuing treatment in the institution significantly increased in the case managed group (93.8% vs. 84.8% in the control group, p nurse case management provided better control in timeliness and continuity of patient treatment. This study demonstrated that cancer case management could improve the effectiveness of cancer care services and concretely illustrated a comprehensive model for oncology patients in Taiwan. In addition, the model could be optimized for further application and improvement of cancer care. Future investigations are needed to develop precise and rigorous evaluation to optimize the utilization of cancer case management.

  16. Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi experimental study

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    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social-emotional and behavioral problems are common in childhood. Early identification of these is important as it can lead to interventions which may improve the child's prognosis. In Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH, a new family-centered method has been implemented to identify these problems in early childhood. Its main features are consideration of the child's developmental context and empowerment of parents to enhance the developmental context. Methods/design In a quasi-experimental study, embedded in routine PCH in the Netherlands, regions in which the family-centered method has been implemented (intervention condition will be compared to "care as usual" regions (control condition. These regions are comparable in regard to socio-demographic characteristics. From more than 3,500 newborn babies, 18-month follow-up data on social-emotional and behavioral development will be obtained. PCH professionals will assess development during each routine well-child visit; participating parents will fill in standardized questionnaires. Primary outcomes in the study are the proportion of social-emotional and behavioral problems identified by PCH professionals in children aged 2-14 and 18 months in both conditions, and the proportion of agreement between the assessment of PCH professionals and parents. In addition, the added value of the family-centered approach will be assessed by comparing PCH findings with standardized questionnaires. The secondary outcomes are the degree to which the needs of parents are met and the degree to which they are willing to disclose concerns. Discussion The family-centered method seems promising for early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems. The results of this study will contribute to evidence-based public health. Trial registration NTR2681

  17. Perceptual Modification of the Built Environment to Influence Behavior Associated with Physical Activity: Quasi-Experimental Field Studies of a Stair Banister Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Rich; Capio, Catherine; Poolton, Jamie; Uiga, Liis

    2018-02-15

    Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs. In study 1, we asked participants (n = 143) to visually estimate the steepness of a set of stairs viewed from the top, when the stair banister was adjusted so that it converged with or diverged from the stairs (± 1.91°) or remained neutral (± 0°). In study 2, the walking behavior of participants (n = 36) was filmed as they approached the stairs to descend, unaware of whether the banister converged, diverged, or was neutral. In study 1, participants estimated the stairs to be steeper if the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. The effect was greater when participants were unaware of the adjustment. In study 2, walking speed was significantly slower when the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. These findings encourage us to speculate about the potential to economically re-engineer features of the built environment to provide opportunities for action (affordances) that invite physical activity behavior or even promote safer navigation of the environment.

  18. Impact of a stand-alone course in gerontological nursing on undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of working with older adults: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Amy Reitmaier; Davies, Susan; Smith, Linda Reveling; Hooks, Tisha; Schanke, Hailee; Loeffler, April; Carr, Courtney; Ratzlaff, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    With an aging population, it is critical that nurses are educated and prepared to offer quality healthcare to this client group. Incorporating gerontology content into nursing curricula and addressing students' perceptions and career choices in relation to working with older adults are important faculty concerns. To examine the impact of a stand-alone course in gerontological nursing on undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of working with older adults and career intentions. Quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test design. Medium-sized state university in the Mid Western United States PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from three student cohorts during the spring semesters of 2012 (n=98), 2013 (n=80) and 2014 (n=88) for a total of N=266 with an average response rate of 85%. A survey instrument was administered via Qualtrics and completed by students prior to, and following completion of the course. There was an overall significant increase (p=0.000) in positive perceptions of working with older adults among nursing students following completion of the course. The majority of participants (83.5%) reported having previous experience with older adults. Those with previous experience had higher perception scores at pre-test than those without (p=0.000). Post-test scores showed no significant difference between these two groups, with both groups having increased perception scores (p=0.120). Student preferences for working with different age groups suggested an overall increase in preference for working with older adults following the course. A course in gerontological nursing, incorporating learning partnerships with community dwelling older adults, promotes positive perceptions of working with older adults, independently of the quality of prior experience. There was some evidence that students changed their preferences of working with different age groups in favor of working with older adults. Further research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms through

  19. Does investment in home visitors lead to better psychological health for HIV-affected families? Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Taylor, Tory M

    2014-01-01

    Children and families affected by HIV are at considerable risk for psychological distress. Community-based home visiting is a common mechanism for providing basic counseling and other services to HIV-affected families. While programs emphasize home visitor training and compensation as means to promote high-quality service delivery, whether these efforts result in measurable gains in beneficiaries' well-being remains largely unanswered. This study employs a longitudinal quasi-experimental design to explore whether these kinds of investments yield concomitant gains in psychological outcomes among beneficiaries. Baseline and follow-up data were collected over a two-year period from children aged 10-17 at the time of program enrollment and their caregivers, with 80% retention. In this sample of 1487 children and 918 caregivers, the psychological health outcomes of those enrolled in programs with home visitors who receive intensive training, organizational support, and regular compensation (termed "paraprofessional") were compared to those enrolled in programs offering limited home visiting services from lay volunteers. Applying multilevel logistic regression, no measurable improvements were found among paraprofessional enrollees, and three outcomes were significantly worse at follow-up regardless of program model. Children's behavior problems became more prevalent even after adjusting for other factors, increasing from 29% to 35% in girls and from 28% to 43% in boys. Nearly one-quarter of girl and boys reported high levels of depression at follow-up, and this was a significant rise over time for boys. Rates of poor family functioning also significantly worsened over time, rising from 30% to 59%. About one-third of caregivers reported high levels of negative feelings at follow-up, with no improvements observed in the paraprofessional group. Results highlight that children's and caregivers' psychological outcomes may be relatively impervious to change even in

  20. Sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities: a quasi-experimental case-control design study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available Following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts, this study examines body functions such as sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities (LD.One hundred and ten participants, 55 adults with LD and 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years filled in a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Adults/Adolescents Sensory Profile (AASP, and the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. Chi-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were conducted to examine group differences related to socio-demographic characteristics and body functions. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between body functions.Significant differences were found between the groups in: (a unique socio-demographic variables: high-schools attended, family status and number of children; (b body functions: low registration and sensory sensitivity (p < .001, sensory avoiding (p = .002, sensory seeking (p = .021 and sleep quality (p < .001. Significant correlations were found between AASP subscale scores and the MSQ final score in each group. Regression analysis revealed that for the entire sample (N = 108, low registration accounted for 10.2% of the variance of sleep quality above group membership (p < .001, while in a separate examination of adults with LD (n = 53, low registration accounted for 19.9% of the variance of sleep quality (p < .001.Adults with LD need to be studied through a health-related perspective such as the ICF model to gain further understanding of their unique characteristics and daily needs. Sensory and sleep functions of adults with LD should be further studied in the context of health related quality of life.

  1. What Works Clearinghouse Study Review Guide Instructions for Reviewing Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Designs. Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For every What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) review, reviewers will be asked to complete a Study Review Guide (SRG). A completed SRG should be a reviewer's independent assessment of the study, relative to the criteria specified in the review protocol and the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook (Handbook). At the end of the review process, a Master…

  2. The effects of auditory hallucination symptom management programme for people with schizophrenia: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Tien-Hao; Lo, Su-Chen; Beckstead, Jason W

    2015-12-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an auditory hallucinatory symptom management programme in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Thirty per cent of chronic schizophrenia patients are still disturbed by hallucinations, which influence their psychological and social well-being, even when they take medication regularly. Fifty-eight people experiencing schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations from psychiatric inpatient rehabilitation wards in northern Taiwan participated in the study, with 29 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group. The experimental group received an auditory hallucinatory symptom management programme. The auditory hallucinatory symptom management programme involved 60-minute meetings once a week, for a total of 10 meetings. The control group received routine care, which included free recreation for 40 minutes and walking for 20 minutes. The participants completed three self-report questionnaires: the Beck Depressive Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Characteristics of Auditory Hallucinations Questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at 3 months and 6 months post intervention. Data collection occurred between March 2010-May 2013. The experimental group showed a non-significant improvement in anxiety symptoms over time. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the experimental group achieved a greater drop in Characteristics of Auditory Hallucinations Questionnaire score than the controls at three and 6 months post intervention. Beck Depressive Inventory II scores in the experimental group (n = 29) had significantly improved in 3 months. The auditory hallucinatory symptom management programme seems to be effective in improving auditory hallucinatory symptoms and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Social cohesion through football: a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to evaluate a complex health promotion program

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, Sally; Bunde-Birouste, Anne; Evers, Clifton; Kemp, Lynn; MacKenzie, Julie; Henley, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Social isolation and disengagement fragments local communities. Evidence indicates that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. Research to identify approaches to best address this is needed. Football United is a program that aims to foster social inclusion and cohesion in areas with high refugee settlement in New South Wales, Australia, through skills and leadership development, mentoring, and the creation of links with local c...

  4. Can surf-lifeguards perform a quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation sailing on a lifeboat? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Palacios-Aguilar, Jose; Rey, Ezequiel; Costas-Veiga, Javier; Lopez-Garcia, Sergio; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Drowning is a high-priority public health problem around the world. The European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 put special emphasis on special environments like open waters. Stopping the drowning process as soon as possible and starting an early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improve survival. Inflatable rescue boats (IRBs) are used around the world in the water rescue of drowning victims. Our objective was to test the quality of CPR performed by surf-lifeguards while sailing on an IRB. A quasi-experimental simulation trial was conducted in Tenerife (Canary Islands-Spain) on September 2015. Ten surf-lifeguards were asked to perform a 2 min CPR on manikins in four different scenarios: (1) onshore, (2) on adrift boat, (3) on a boat sailing at 5 knots and (4) on a boat sailing at 10 knots. CPR was performed individually and was measured by means of CPRmeter (Laerdal, Norway) located on the standard manikin. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used in order to analyse the differences between scenarios. The composite of all CPR variables was over 84% in all conditions, but it was lower when CPR was performed on board: onshore (96.49±3.58%) versus adrift (91.80±3.56, p=0.04), sailing at 5 knots (88.65±5.54, p=0.03) and sailing at 10 knots (84.74±5.56, p=0.001). Surf-lifeguards are able to deliver good-quality CPR even on a moving IRB, but their performance is lower than onshore. This fact should be considered in real cases to balance the risk and benefits of CPR on board. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Evaluating the effect of the Practical Approach to Care Kit on teaching medical students primary care: Quasi-experimental study

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    Robert Mash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is committed to health reforms that strengthen primary health care. Preparing future doctors to work in primary care teams with other professionals is a priority, and medical schools have shifted towards community-based and decentralised training of medical students.Aim: To evaluate the effect on student performance of the Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK (an integrated decision-making tool for adult primary care during the final phase of medical student training at Stellenbosch University.Setting: Clinical rotations in family medicine at clinics in the Western Cape.Methods: Mixed methods involving a quasi-experimental study and focus group interviews. Student examination performance was compared between groups with and without exposure to the PACK during their clinical training. Student groups exposed to PACK were interviewed at the end of their rotations.Results: Student performance in examinations was significantly better in those exposed to the PACK. Students varied from using the PACK overtly or covertly during the consultation to checking up on decisions made after the consultation. Some felt that the PACK was more suitable for nurses or more junior students. Although tutors openly endorsed PACK, very few modelled the use of PACK in their clinical practice.Conclusion: The use of PACK in the final phase of undergraduate medical education improved their performance in primary care. Students might be more accepting and find the tool more useful in the earlier clinical rotations. Supervisors should be trained further in how to incorporate the use of the PACK in their practice and educational conversations.

  6. Impact of the provision of safe drinking water on school absence rates in Cambodia: a quasi-experimental study.

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    Hunter, Paul R; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

    2014-01-01

    Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools. We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio = 0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27-0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR = 0.98 95%CI 0.96-1.00). There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children.

  7. Have health trends worsened in Greece as a result of the financial crisis? A quasi-experimental approach.

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    Vandoros, Sotiris; Hessel, Philipp; Leone, Tiziana; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Health in Greece deteriorated after the recent financial crisis, but whether this decline was caused by the recent financial crisis has not been established. This article uses a quasi-experimental approach to examine the impact of the recent financial crisis on health in Greece. Data came from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey for the years 2006-09. We applied a difference-in-differences approach that compares health trends before and after the financial crisis in Greece with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable with Greece before the crisis. We used logistic regression to model the impact of the financial crisis on poor self-rated health, controlling for demographic confounders. Results provide strong evidence of a statistically significant negative effect of the financial crisis on health trends. Relative to the control population, Greece experienced a significantly larger increase in the odds of reporting poor health after the crisis (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). There was no difference in health trends between Poland and Greece before the financial crisis, supporting a causal interpretation of health declines in Greece as a result of the financial crisis. Results provide evidence that trends in self-rated health in Greece worsened as a result of the recent financial crisis. Findings stress the need for urgent health policy responses to the recent economic collapse in Greece as the full impact of austerity measures unfolds in the coming years.

  8. Revisiting the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring birthweight: a quasi-experimental sibling analysis in Sweden.

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    Sol Pía Juárez

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester, the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify

  9. A complex intervention to improve implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for diagnosis of severe illness in low-income settings: a quasi-experimental study from Uganda

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    Matthew J. Cummings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve management of severely ill hospitalized patients in low-income settings, the World Health Organization (WHO established a triage tool called “Quick Check” to provide clinicians with a rapid, standardized approach to identify patients with severe illness based on recognition of abnormal vital signs. Despite the availability of these guidelines, recognition of severe illness remains challenged in low-income settings, largely as a result of infrequent vital sign monitoring. Methods We conducted a staggered, pre-post quasi-experimental study at four inpatient health facilities in western Uganda to assess the impact of a multi-modal intervention for improving quality of care following formal training on WHO “Quick Check” guidelines for diagnosis of severe illness in low-income settings. Intervention components were developed using the COM-B (“capability,” “opportunity,” and “motivation” determine “behavior” model and included clinical mentoring by an expert in severe illness care, collaborative improvement meetings with external support supervision, and continuous audits of clinical performance with structured feedback. Results There were 5759 patients hospitalized from August 2014 to May 2015: 1633 were admitted before and 4126 during the intervention period. Designed to occur twice monthly, collaborative improvement meetings occurred every 2–4 weeks at each site. Clinical mentoring sessions, designed to occur monthly, occurred every 4–6 months at each site. Audit and feedback reports were implemented weekly as designed. During the intervention period, there were significant increases in the site-adjusted likelihood of initial assessment of temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, mental status, and pulse oximetry. Patients admitted during the intervention period were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with sepsis (4.3 vs. 0.4%, risk ratio 10.1, 95% CI 3.0–31

  10. A Quasi-Experimental Trial in Comparison of Duloxetine and Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Nasrin Dodangi; Nastaran Habibi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comparison of efficacy and safety of duloxetine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and methylphenidate, in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a quasi-experimental trial. Method: Twenty four children aged 6-11 years old, diagnosed with ADHD participated in this 6 weeks clinical trial. Thirteen patients received duloxetine and others received methylphenidate. Conner’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised-short form (CPRS-R-S)...

  11. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study

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    Gifty Apiung Aninanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. Design: A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. Results: PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 (p=0.40 and p=0.50 respectively, with an overall 0.01 difference in difference (p=0.90. Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. Conclusions: The results contribute

  12. Community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women in the reproductive age in Northwestern Ethiopia: a protocol for quasi-experimental study.

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    Semahegn, Agumasie; Torpey, Kwasi; Manu, Abubakar; Assefa, Nega; Ankomah, Augustine

    2017-11-21

    Violence against women is a well understood devastating global pandemic, and human right violation. One in three women experienced intimate partner violence worldwide. In Ethiopia, the level of domestic violence against women is one of the highest in the world. However, Ethiopia is signatory for various conventions and incorporated in legal frameworks. Nevertheless, effective implementation of the existing policy documents, and engaging different stakeholders is very limited. Therefore, we aimed to pilot feasibility of implementing available research evidence and policy documents at community level to prevent domestic violence against women in Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. A community-based quasi-experimental study design will be employed using mixed method. Multistage stratified systematic sampling and purposive sampling will be used to recruit quantitative and qualitative study participants, respectively. A total of 1,269 women will be participated in the intervention, active comparator and control groups. Pre and post-test quantitative data will be collected using face-to-face interview. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth, key informant interview and focus group discussions. advocacy meeting will be held to persuade local politicians and sustain the implementation of community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women. Community representatives will be trained to enhance peer education to promote community awareness and engage stakeholders to transform the traditional gender norm within local context. Awareness creation and husband involvement will be made through integrating the intervention with community health extension program. Only husband involvement will not be promoted in the active comparator to test the role of husband involvement on the domestic violence prevention activities. Intervention progress will be monitored regularly. Gathered data will be entered in Epidata and exported to SPSS (23.0) software for

  13. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

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    Ratanawongsa Neda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be

  14. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme over five years on behavioural risks for cardiovascular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area

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    Tudor-Smith, Chris; Nutbeam, Don; Moore, Laurence; Catford, John

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess the net 5 year effects of intervention of a community based demonstration project, the Heartbeat Wales programme, on modifiable behavioural risks for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Design and setting: Quasi-experimental design comparing results from two independent cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1985 and 1990 in Wales and a matched reference area in north east England. Subjects: Random, stratified samples of people aged 18-64 years (18 538 in 1985 and 13 045 in 1990) in Wales and in north east England (1483 and 4534, respectively). Intervention: A coordinated range of activities for heart health promotion in Wales entailing public education campaigns along with supportive policy and infrastructure change. In the reference area no additional community heart health promotion was planned, though considerable activity did take place, “contaminating” the reference area. Main outcome measures: Fifteen self reported behavioural indicators relating to dietary choice, smoking, frequency of exercise, and weight. Results: Positive changes (for health) in behavioural outcomes were observed among the population in Wales, including a reduction in reported smoking prevalence and improvements in dietary choice. There was no net intervention effect for the programme over and above observed change in the reference area. Conclusions: No definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the efficacy of the programme in terms of behavioural outcomes. With hindsight, the difficulties of evaluating such a complex multifaceted intervention were underestimated. Further debate on the most appropriate methods for assessing the effectiveness of community based health promotion programmes is called for. Key messages Heartbeat Wales was set up in 1985 as a community based programme to demonstrate risk reduction for cardiovascular disease Important changes were observed in modifiable risks for cardiovascular disease in Wales between 1985 and 1990

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of care integration strategies in different healthcare systems in Latin America: the EQUITY-LA II quasi-experimental study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Samico, Isabella; Albuquerque, Paulette; Eguiguren, Pamela; Cisneros, Angelica Ivonne; Rovere, Mario; Bertolotto, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although fragmentation in the provision of healthcare is considered an important obstacle to effective care, there is scant evidence on best practices in care coordination in Latin America. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory shared care strategy in improving coordination across care levels and related care quality, in health services networks in six different healthcare systems of Latin America. Methods and analysis A controlled before and after quasi-experimental study taking a participatory action research approach. In each country, two comparable healthcare networks were selected—intervention and control. The study contains four phases: (1) A baseline study to establish network performance in care coordination and continuity across care levels, using (A) qualitative methods: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a criterion sample of health managers, professionals and users; and (B) quantitative methods: two questionnaire surveys with samples of 174 primary and secondary care physicians and 392 users with chronic conditions per network. Sample size was calculated to detect a proportion difference of 15% and 10%, before and after intervention (α=0.05; β=0.2 in a two-sided test); (2) a bottom-up participatory design and implementation of shared care strategies involving micro-level care coordination interventions to improve the adequacy of patient referral and information transfer. Strategies are selected through a participatory process by the local steering committee (local policymakers, health care network professionals, managers, users and researchers), supported by appropriate training; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions by measuring changes in levels of care coordination and continuity 18 months after implementation, applying the same design as in the baseline study; (4) Cross-country comparative analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study complies with international and national legal

  16. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.

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    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-07-24

    A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical

  17. Population-Tailored Care for Homeless Veterans and Acute Care Use, Cost, and Satisfaction: A Prospective Quasi-Experimental Trial.

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    O'Toole, Thomas P; Johnson, Erin E; Borgia, Matthew; Noack, Amy; Yoon, Jean; Gehlert, Elizabeth; Lo, Jeanie

    2018-02-15

    Although traditional patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are effective for patients with complex needs, it is unclear whether homeless-tailored PCMHs work better for homeless veterans. We examined the impact of enrollment in a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) homeless-tailored PCMH on health services use, cost, and satisfaction compared with enrollment in a traditional, nontailored PCMH. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, quasi-experimental, single-blinded study at 2 VHA medical centers to assess health services use, cost, and satisfaction during 12 months among 2 groups of homeless veterans: 1) veterans receiving VHA homeless-tailored primary care (Homeless-Patient Aligned Care Team [H-PACT]) and 2) veterans receiving traditional primary care services (PACT). A cohort of 266 homeless veterans enrolled from June 2012 through January 2014. Compared with PACT patients, H-PACT patients had more social work visits (4.6 vs 2.7 visits) and fewer emergency department (ED) visits for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (0 vs 0.2 visits); a significantly smaller percentage of veterans in H-PACT were hospitalized (23.1% vs 35.4%) or had mental health-related ED visits (34.1% vs 47.6%). We found significant differences in primary care provider-specific visits (H-PACT, 5.1 vs PACT, 3.6 visits), mental health care visits (H-PACT, 8.8 vs PACT, 13.4 visits), 30-day prescription drug fills (H-PACT, 40.5 vs PACT, 58.8 fills), and use of group therapy (H-PACT, 40.1% vs PACT, 53.7%). Annual costs per patient were significantly higher in the PACT group than the H-PACT group ($37,415 vs $28,036). In logistic regression model of acute care use, assignment to the H-PACT model was protective as was rating health "good" or better. Homeless veterans enrolled in the population-tailored primary care approach used less acute care and costs were lower. Tailored-care models have implications for care coordination in the US Department of Veterans Affairs VA and community health

  18. Station-based deconstructed training model for teaching procedural skills to medical students: a quasi-experimental study

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    Mahdi Panah Khahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seyyed M Razavi1, Mojgan Karbakhsh1, Mahdi Panah Khahi2, Soheila Dabiran1, Sara Asefi3, GhamarH Zaker Shahrak4, Ali R Bad Afrooz41Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of General Practice, 4Clinical Skills Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranBackground: Every procedural skill consists of some microskills. One of the effective techniques for teaching a main procedural skill is to deconstruct the skill into a series of microskills and train students on each microskill separately. When we learn microskills, we will learn the main skill also. This model can be beneficial for tuition on procedural skills.Objective: In this study, we propose a stationed-based deconstructed training model for tuition of each microskill, and then we assessed the medical students’ self-perceived abilities.Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 268 medical students (536 matched pre- and post-questionnaires at the surgical clerkship stage during five consecutive years in three teaching and learning groups. In this study, we taught each skill in 10 steps (proposed model to the students. We then evaluated the students’ self-perceived abilities using a pre- and post-self-assessment technique. SPSS v13 software with one-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests were used for data collection and analysis.Results: Assessment of medical students’ perceived abilities before and after training showed a significant improvement (P < 0.001 in both cognitive and practical domains. There were also significant differences between the three teaching and learning groups (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences for the different years of training regarding the observed improvement.Conclusion: This study suggests that deconstructing the practical skills into microskills and tuition of those microskills via the separated structured educational stations is effective according to the students’ self

  19. Implementation of a disability management policy in a large healthcare employer: a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Cameron A; Skivington, Kathryn; Lay, Morgan; Lifshen, Marni; Etches, Jacob; Chambers, Andrea

    2017-06-17

    This study describes the process and outcomes of the implementation of a strengthened disability management policy in a large Canadian healthcare employer. Key elements of the strengthened policy included an emphasis on early contact, the training of supervisors and the integration of union representatives in return-to-work (RTW) planning. The study applied mixed methods, combining a process evaluation within the employer and a quasi-experimental outcome evaluation between employers for a 3-year period prior to and following policy implementation in January 2012. Staff in the implementation organisation (n=4000) and staff in a peer group of 29 large hospitals (n=1 19 000). Work disability episode incidence and duration. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of the implementation process were predominantly positive. Over the 6-year observation period, there were 624 work disability episodes in the organisation and 8604 in the comparison group of 29 large hospitals. The annual per cent change in episode incidence in the organisation was -5.6 (95% CI -9.9 to -1.1) comparable to the annual per cent change in the comparison group: -6.2 (-7.2 to -5.3). Disability episode durations also declined in the organisation, from a mean of 19.4 days (16.5, 22.3) in the preintervention period to 10.9 days (8.7, 13.2) in the postintervention period. Reductions in disability durations were also observed in the comparison group: from a mean of 13.5 days (12.9, 14.1) in the 2009-2011 period to 10.5 days (9.9, 11.1) in the 2012-2014 period. The incidence of work disability episodes and the durations of work disability declined strongly in this hospital sector over the 6-year observation period. The implementation of the organisation's RTW policy was associated with larger reductions in disability durations than observed in the comparison group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  20. Efficacy of multicomponent culturally tailored HIV/ STI prevention interventions targeting foreign female entertainment workers: a quasi-experimental trial.

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    Lim, Raymond B T; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tai, Bee Choo; Chen, Mark I-C; Chan, Roy K W; Wong, Mee Lian

    2018-02-14

    We assessed the efficacy of a multicomponent culturally tailored HIV/STI prevention intervention programme on consistent condom use and STI incidence among foreign Thai and Vietnamese female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Singapore. We conducted a quasi-experimental pretest and post-test intervention trial with a comparison group. We recruited 220 participants (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) for the comparison group, followed by the intervention group (same number) from the same sites which were purposively selected after a 3-month interval period. Both groups completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire and STI testing for cervical gonorrhoea and Chlamydia, as well as pharyngeal gonorrhoea at baseline and 6-week follow-up. The peer-led intervention consisted of behavioural (HIV/STI education and condom negotiation skills), biomedical (STI screening and treatment services) and structural components (access to free condoms). We used the mixed effects Poisson regression model accounting for clustering by establishment venue to compute the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) of the outcomes at follow-up. At follow-up, the intervention group was more likely than the comparison group to report consistent condom use for vaginal sex with paid (aRR 1.77; 95% CI 1.71 to 1.83) and casual (aRR 1.81; 95% CI 1.71 to 1.91) partners. For consistent condom use for oral sex, this was aRR 1.50; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.82 with paid and aRR 1.54; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.95 with casual partners. STI incidence at follow-up was significantly lower in the intervention (6.8 per 100 FEWs) than the comparison (14.8 per 100 FEWs) group (aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.55). This trial was effective in promoting consistent condom use for vaginal and oral sex as well as reducing STI incidence among the foreign Thai and Vietnamese FEWs in Singapore. The feasibility of scaling up the interventions to all entertainment establishments in Singapore should be assessed. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a voucher scheme combined with obstetrical quality improvements: quasi experimental results from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Mayora, Crispus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda has declined significantly during the last 20 years, but Uganda is not on track to reach the millennium development goal of reducing MMR by 75% by 2015. More evidence on the cost-effectiveness of supply- and demand-side financing programs to reduce maternal mortality could inform future strategies. This study analyses the cost-effectiveness of a voucher scheme (VS) combined with health system strengthening in rural Uganda against the status quo. The VS, implemented in 2010, provided vouchers for delivery services at public and private health facilities (HF), as well as round-trip transportation provided by private sector workers (bicycles or motorcycles generally). The VS was part of a quasi-experimental non-randomized control trial. Improvements in institutional delivery coverage (IDC) rates can be estimated using a difference-in-difference impact evaluation method and the number of maternal lives saved is modelled using the evidence-based Lives Saved Tool. Costs were estimated from primary and secondary data. Results show that the demand for births at HFs enrolled in the VS increased by 52.3 percentage points. Out of this value, conservative estimates indicate that at least 9.4 percentage points are new HF users. This 9.4% bump in IDC implies 20 deaths averted, which is equivalent to 1356 disability-adjusted-life years (DALYs) averted. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the status quo and VS's most conservative effectiveness estimates shows that the VS had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted of US$302 and per death averted of US$20 756. Although there are limitations in the data measures, a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio persists even under extreme assumptions. Demand-side vouchers combined with supply-side financing programs can increase attended deliveries and reduce maternal mortality at a cost that is acceptable. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  2. In-State and Interstate Associations Between Gun Shows and Firearm Deaths and Injuries: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthay, Ellicott C; Galin, Jessica; Rudolph, Kara E; Farkas, Kriszta; Wintemute, Garen J; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-12-19

    Gun shows are an important source of firearms, but no adequately powered studies have examined whether they are associated with increases in firearm injuries. To determine whether gun shows are associated with short-term increases in local firearm injuries and whether this association differs by the state in which the gun show is held. Quasi-experimental. California. Persons in California within driving distance of gun shows. Gun shows in California and Nevada between 2005 and 2013 (n = 915 shows) and rates of firearm-related deaths, emergency department visits, and inpatient hospitalizations in California. Compared with the 2 weeks before, postshow firearm injury rates remained stable in regions near California gun shows but increased from 0.67 injuries (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.80 injuries) to 1.14 injuries (CI, 0.97 to 1.30 injuries) per 100 000 persons in regions near Nevada shows. After adjustment for seasonality and clustering, California shows were not associated with increases in local firearm injuries (rate ratio [RR], 0.99 [CI, 0.97 to 1.02]) but Nevada shows were associated with increased injuries in California (RR, 1.69 [CI, 1.16 to 2.45]). The pre-post difference was significantly higher for Nevada shows than California shows (ratio of RRs, 1.70 [CI, 1.17 to 2.47]). The Nevada association was driven by significant increases in firearm injuries from interpersonal violence (RR, 2.23 [CI, 1.01 to 4.89]) but corresponded to a small increase in absolute numbers. Nonfirearm injuries served as a negative control and were not associated with California or Nevada gun shows. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Firearm injuries were examined only in California, and gun show occurrence was not randomized. Gun shows in Nevada, but not California, were associated with local, short-term increases in firearm injuries in California. Differing associations for California versus Nevada gun shows may be due to California's stricter firearm regulations. National

  3. Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

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    Azam Iqbal S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum anxiety and depression is a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on the cognitive and social development of the infant. Globally postpartum depression has been widely investigated but as anxiety is a more prominent feature of postpartum depression we assessed the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their associated factors in post partum women. Methods A quasi-experimental study investigating the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child growth and development was conducted in two peri-urban, multiethnic, communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan. A house to house questionnaire based survey was done by trained field workers; 420 consenting pregnant women were identified and data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables was collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother's levels of anxiety and depression were assessed after one month, two months, six months and twelve months of childbirth; this was two step process: initially an indigenous, validated screening instrument Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist's interview based on DSM IV criteria. Women found to be anxious and depressed at least once out of four assessments were considered for the computation of overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression as well as its risk factors. However, point prevalence's of postpartum anxiety and depression were also reported at each assessment time. Two sixty seven women could be followed for one year. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression were used to see the association of different factors. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression was found to be 28.8 percent. Domestic violence, difficulty in breast feeding at birth and unplanned current pregnancy

  4. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention

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    Eves Frank F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour. Methods Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300. Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site. In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site. The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854 and descent (29,352 at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253. Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing, logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing, and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire. Results Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66 than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34. Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they

  5. Acceptability and utility of an electronic psychosocial assessment (myAssessment) to increase self-disclosure in youth mental healthcare: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Technology is increasingly being used in youth mental healthcare to support service delivery and improve health outcomes. The current study trialed a new electronic psychosocial application (myAssessment) that aims to provide a holistic assessment of relevant risk and protective factors in youth mental healthcare. The study aimed to determine whether myAssessment was acceptable to all users, and whether it affected: reporting of certain behaviors and ratings of self-disclosure; youth ratings of control, fears of judgmental reactions or time-efficiency; clinician ratings of time-efficiency or their ability to formulate a treatment plan; and the therapeutic alliance. The application was tested at a youth mental health service using a quasi-experimental two phase Treatment-as-Usual/Intervention design. Three hundred thirty nine youth and 13 clinicians participated across both phases. Reporting of behaviors, self-disclosure, youth control, judgmental reactions, time efficiency, ability to formulate treatment plans, and the therapeutic alliance were compared between groups. myAssessment was found to be widely accepted by both young people and clinicians. Use of myAssessment resulted in reporting of behaviors that were 2.78 through 10.38 times higher for a variety of substances (use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, sedatives, hallucinogens, and opioids), in identifying non-heterosexual sexual orientation, having had sex, an STI check, sex without a condom, having felt pressured to have sex in the past, having self-harmed, and in having put themselves in an unsafe situation. Participants who used the application also reported being less likely to lie on past experiences of being bullied, substance use, and self-harm. Use of the application resulted in improved youth ratings of time efficiency in session. The application was found to have no impact on youth control, judgmental reactions, formulation of treatment plans, or the therapeutic alliance. Electronic psychosocial

  6. Does the number of free nicotine patches given to smokers calling a quitline influence quit rates: results from a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offer of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT can be a cost-effective marketing strategy to induce smokers to call a telephone quitline for quitting assistance. However, the most cost-effective supply of free NRT to provide to smokers who call a quitline remains unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that smokers who call a telephone quitline and are given more free nicotine patches would report higher quit rates upon follow-up 12 months later. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to assess nicotine patch usage patterns and quit rates among five groups of smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline (NYSSQL between April 2003 and May 2006 and were mailed 2-, 4-, 6- or 8-week supplies of free nicotine patches. The study population included 2,442 adult (aged 18 years or older current daily smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day, who were willing to make a quit attempt, and reported no contraindications for using the nicotine patch. Outcome variables assessed included the percentage of smokers who reported that they had not smoked for at least 7-days at the time of a 12 months telephone follow-up survey, sustained quitting, delayed quitting and nicotine patch use. Results Quit rates measured at 12 months were higher for smokers in the groups who received either 2, 6, or 8 weeks of free patches. The lowest quit rate was observed among the group of Medicaid/uninsured smokers who were eligible to receive up to six weeks of free patches. The quit rate for the 4-week supply group did not differ significantly from the 6-week or 8-week groups. These patterns remained similar in an intent-to-treat analysis of 12-month quit rates and in an analysis of sustained quitting. Conclusion No clear cut dose response relationship was observed between the number of free nicotine patches sent to smokers and smoking outcomes. Baseline diferences in the characteristics of the groups compared could account for the null

  7. The effectiveness of telehealth care on caregiver burden, mastery of stress, and family function among family caregivers of heart failure patients: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chen, Wan-Chou; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2012-10-01

    Telehealth care was developed to provide home-based monitoring and support for patients with chronic disease. The positive effects on physical outcome have been reported; however, more evidence is required concerning the effects on family caregivers and family function for heart failure patients transitioning from the hospital to home. To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing-led transitional care combining discharge plans and telehealth care on family caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function in family caregivers of heart failure patients compared to those receiving traditional discharge planning only. This is a quasi-experimental study design. Sixty-three patients with heart failure were assessed for eligibility and invited to participate in either telehealth care or standard care in a medical centre from May to October 2010. Three families refused to participate in data collection. Thirty families who chose telehealth care after discharge from the hospital to home comprised the experimental group; the others families receiving discharge planning only comprised the comparison group. Telenursing specialist provided the necessary family nursing interventions by 24-h remote monitoring of patients' health condition and counselling by telephone, helping the family caregivers successfully transition from hospital to home. Data on caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function were collected before discharge from the hospital and one month later at home. Effects of group, time, and group×time interaction were analysed using Mixed Model in SPSS (17.0). Family caregivers in both groups had significantly lower burden, higher stress mastery, and better family function at one-month follow-up compared to before discharge. The total score of caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function was significantly improved for the family caregivers in the experimental group compared to the comparison group at posttest. Two subscales of family function

  8. Increased access to care and appropriateness of treatment at private sector drug shops with integrated management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea: a quasi-experimental study in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Awor

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug shops are a major source of care for children in low income countries but they provide sub-standard care. We assessed the feasibility and effect on quality of care of introducing diagnostics and pre-packaged paediatric-dosage drugs for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at drug shops in Uganda. METHODS: We adopted and implemented the integrated community case management (iCCM intervention within registered drug shops. Attendants were trained to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in each fever case and count respiratory rate in each case of cough with fast/difficult breathing, before dispensing recommended treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design in one intervention and one non-intervention district, we conducted before and after exit interviews for drug seller practices and household surveys for treatment-seeking practices in May-June 2011 and May-June 2012. Survey adjusted generalized linear models and difference-in-difference analysis was used. RESULTS: 3759 (1604 before/2155 after household interviews and 943 (163 before/780 after exit interviews were conducted with caretakers of children under-5. At baseline, no child at a drug shop received any diagnostic testing before treatment in both districts. After the intervention, while no child in the non-intervention district received a diagnostic test, 87.7% (95% CI 79.0-96.4 of children with fever at the intervention district drug shops had a parasitological diagnosis of malaria, prior to treatment. The prevalence ratios of the effect of the intervention on treatment of cough and fast breathing with amoxicillin and diarrhoea with ORS/zinc at the drug shop were 2.8 (2.0-3.9, and 12.8 (4.2-38.6 respectively. From the household survey, the prevalence ratio of the intervention effect on use of RDTs was 3.2 (1.9-5.4; Artemisinin Combination Therapy for malaria was 0.74 (0.65-0.84, and ORS/zinc for diarrhoea was 2.3 (1.2-4.7. CONCLUSION: iCCM can be utilized to improve

  9. Impact of a passive social marketing intervention in community pharmacies on oral contraceptive and condom sales: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Karen B; Aquilino, Mary L; Batra, Peter; Marshall, Vince; Losch, Mary E

    2015-02-13

    Almost 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unwanted or mistimed. Notably, just over one-half of unintended pregnancies occurred when birth control was being used, suggesting inappropriate or poor use or contraceptive failure. About two-thirds of all women who are of reproductive age use contraceptives, and oral hormonal contraceptives remain the most common contraceptive method. Often, contraceptive products are obtained in community pharmacies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a pharmacy-based intervention would impact sales of contraceptive products in pharmacies. This study was conducted in Iowa and used a quasi-experimental design including 55 community pharmacies (independent and grocery) in 12 counties as the intervention and 32 grocery pharmacies in 10 counties as a comparison group. The passive intervention was focused towards 18-30 year old women who visited community pharmacies and prompted those of childbearing age to "plan your pregnancy" and "consider using birth control". The intervention was delivered via educational tri-fold brochures, posters and 'shelf talkers.' Data sources for evaluation were contraceptive sales from intervention and comparison pharmacies, and a mixed negative binomial regression was used with study group*time interactions to examine the impact of the intervention on oral contraceptive and condom sales. Data from 2009 were considered baseline sales. From 2009 to 2011, condom sales decreased over time and oral contraceptives sales showed no change. Overall, the units sold were significantly higher in grocery pharmacies than in independent pharmacies for both contraceptive types. In the negative binomial regression for condoms, there was an overall significant interaction between the study group and time variables (p = 0.003), indicating an effect of the intervention, and there was a significant slowing in the drop of sales at time 3 in comparison with time 1 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically

  10. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Handley, Margaret A; Quan, Judy; Sarkar, Urmimala; Pfeifer, Kelly; Soria, Catalina; Schillinger, Dean

    2012-01-26

    Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and functional status with

  11. Adding a Social Marketing Campaign to a School-Based Nutrition Education Program Improves Children's Dietary Intake: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Cates, Sheryl C; Hersey, James; Montgomery, Doris; Shelley, Mack; Hradek, Christine; Kosa, Katherine; Bell, Loren; Long, Valerie; Williams, Pamela A; Olson, Sara; Singh, Anita

    2016-08-01

    Evidence supports the use of social marketing campaigns to improve nutrition knowledge and reinforce the effects of nutrition education programs. However, the additional effects of parent-focused social marketing with nutrition education have received little attention. Our aim was to assess the impact of the Iowa Nutrition Network's school-based nutrition education program (Building and Strengthening Iowa Community Support for Nutrition and Physical Activity [BASICS]) and the benefits of adding a multichannel social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) to increase parent-directed communication. A quasi-experimental design with three study conditions compared a school-based nutrition education program (BASICS) with a school-based and social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) and a no-treatment comparison group. The study included 1,037 third-grade students attending 33 elementary schools and their parents. Measures included parents' reports of their children's in-home consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) and use of low-fat/fat-free milk. Data on F/V were collected using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist; and data on milk use were collected using two questions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multilevel, mixed-effect regression models that account for correlation within repeated measures and children within school were used to compare the mean change over time in the outcome variable for one study group with the mean change over time for another study group. Children in BASICS increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.16 cups (P=0.04) compared with children in the comparison group. Children in BASICS Plus increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.17 cups (P=0.03) and mean consumption of vegetables by 0.13 cups (P=0.02). Children in BASICS Plus were 1.3 times (P=0.05) more likely to use low-fat/fat-free milk than children in either the BASICS group or the comparison group

  12. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninanya, Gifty Apiung; Howard, Natasha; Williams, John E; Apam, Benjamin; Prytherch, Helen; Loukanova, Svetla; Kamara, Eunice Karanja; Otupiri, Easmon

    2016-01-01

    Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs) were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 ( p =0.40 and p =0.50 respectively), with an overall 0.01 difference in difference ( p =0.90). Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. The results contribute evidence on the effects of PBIs on motivational constructs among

  13. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-18

    To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Shah, Sachin J; O'Brien, Rourke; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsai, Alexander C

    2017-04-01

    The effects of changes in immigration policy on health outcomes among undocumented immigrants are not well known. We aimed to examine the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme, a 2012 US immigration policy that provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. We did a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period January, 2008, to December, 2015. We included non-citizen, Hispanic adults aged 19-50 years in our analyses. We used a difference-in-differences strategy to compare changes in health outcomes among individuals who met key DACA eligibility criteria (based on age at immigration and at the time of policy implementation) before and after programme implementation versus changes in outcomes for individuals who did not meet these criteria. We additionally restricted the sample to individuals who had lived in the USA for at least 5 years and had completed high school or its equivalent, in order to hold fixed two other DACA eligibility criteria. Our primary outcomes were self-reported overall health (measured on a 5 point Likert scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] scale), the latter was administered to a random subset of NHIS respondents. Our final sample contained 14 973 respondents for the self-reported health outcome and 5035 respondents for the K6 outcome. Of these individuals, 3972 in the self-reported health analysis and 1138 in the K6 analysis met the DACA eligibility criteria. Compared with people ineligible for DACA, the introduction of DACA was associated with no significant change among DACA-eligible individuals in terms of self-reported overall health (b=0·056, 95% CI -0·024 to 0·14, p=0·17) or the likelihood of reporting poor or fair health (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·66-1·44

  15. The Effect of Physical Activity on Resiliency and Productivity and Reducing Staff Absence Based on Public Health of University’s Female Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Habiby Vatan, Maryam; Noorbakhsh, Mahvash; Nourbakhsh, Parivash; Navabi Nejad, Shokoh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of 12-week physical activity on resiliency and productivity reducing staff absence based on public health of the female staff of Islamic Azad University. In this paper, we used the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study designs The method of this research was semi-experimental and carried out having pre-test and post-test with pre –post design with two control and experimental groups. The statistical population of the research consisted ...

  16. Bio-Energy during Finals: Stress Reduction for a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Alice; Hildreth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine the effectiveness of a bio-energy intervention on self-reported stress for a convenience sample of university students during dead week, a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design was used. Thirty-three students participated, serving as their own controls. After participants had consented, a 15-min Healing Touch intervention followed enrollment. Self-reported stress was significantly reduced after the bio-energy (Healing Touch) intervention. Bio-energy therapy has shown to be beneficial in reducing stress for students during dead week, the week before final examinations. Further research is needed.

  17. Pengaruh Olah Raga Bayi untuk Perkembangan Motorik Kasar dan Motorik Halus di Kelurahan Mataram Timur Kecamatan Mataram Kodya Mataram

    OpenAIRE

    Asri, Suko; Purnama, Dewi; Hanafi, Fachrudi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research'sain is to know the influence of baby gym to the development of rude motorik and soft motorik in baby's age 4-12 months, in Kelurahan Mataram Timur, the reason is there is no research before. Methods: The researchis by using quasi experimental approach with "Pretest-Posttest with Control Group Design". Target population of health babies on 4-12 months that fill the criteria inclusi and record in 5 Posyandu. The result of selection from 162 babies, 38 respondence which is ...

  18. The promise of spirit at work: increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment and reducing turnover and absenteeism in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjerski, Val; Skrypnek, Berna J

    2008-10-01

    The effectiveness of a spirit at work program in long-term care was evaluated using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. These findings, along with focus group results, provide strong support that the program increased spirit at work, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational culture (particularly teamwork and morale), leading to a reduction in turnover and absenteeism--two major concerns in the long-term care sector. This study suggests that implementation of a spirit at work program is a relatively inexpensive way to enhance the work satisfaction of employees, increase their commitment to the organization (thus reducing turnover and absenteeism), and ultimately improve the quality of resident care.

  19. Preliminary Findings of a Technology-Delivered Sexual Health Promotion Program for Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Quasi-Experimental Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Charles H; Kuhn, Tamara; Huxley, Danielle; Kennel, Jamie; Withers, Elizabeth; Lomonaco, Carmela G

    2017-10-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men (MSM), yet there are few evidence-based interventions specifically designed for black MSM communities. In response, the authors created Real Talk, a technology-delivered, sexual health program for black MSM. The objective of our study was to determine whether Real Talk positively affected risk reduction intentions, disclosure practices, condom use, and overall risk reduction sexual practices. The study used a quasi-experimental, 2-arm methodology. During the first session, participants completed a baseline assessment, used Real Talk (intervention condition) or reviewed 4 sexual health brochures (the standard of care control condition), and completed a 10-minute user-satisfaction survey. Six months later, participants from both conditions returned to complete the follow-up assessment. A total of 226 participants were enrolled in the study, and 144 completed the 6-month follow-up. Real Talk participants were more likely to disagree that they had intended in the last 6 months to bottom without a condom with a partner of unknown status (mean difference=-0.608, P=.02), have anal sex without a condom with a positive man who was on HIV medications (mean difference=-0.471, P=.055), have their partner pull out when bottoming with a partner of unknown HIV status (mean difference=-0.651, P=.03), and pull out when topping a partner of unknown status (mean difference=-0.644, P=.03). Real Talk participants were also significantly more likely to disagree with the statement "I will sometimes lie about my HIV status with people I am going to have sex with" (mean difference=-0.411, P=.04). In terms of attitudes toward HIV prevention, men in the control group were significantly more likely to agree that they had less concern about becoming HIV positive because of the availability of antiretroviral medications (mean difference=0.778, P=.03) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PReP) (mean

  20. Hands-On Crops! How Long-Term Activities Improve Students' Knowledge of Crop Species. A Pretest-Posttest Study of the Greenhouse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Eva-Maria; Lechner-Walz, Cornelia; Dreesmann, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    In terms of sustainability, renewable resources, nourishment and healthy diet, crops are important to the public. Thus, knowledge of crops is needed in order to enable people to participate in public discussions and take responsibility. This is in contrast to former surveys showing that students' knowledge of and interest in plants in general,…

  1. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. BACKGROUND: Continuing professional education may be

  2. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Background: Continuing professional education may be

  3. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Doubé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate “Correct”/”Incorrect” feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a “Wizard of Oz” experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human “Wizard” will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  4. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Carding, Paul; Flanagan, Kieran; Kaufman, Jordy; Armitage, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate "Correct"/"Incorrect" feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a "Wizard of Oz" experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human "Wizard" will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  5. Influence of Training on First-Year Nursing Department Students' Attitudes on Death and Caring for Dying Patients: A Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Birgül

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.

  6. Curriculum Evaluation and Revision in a Nascent Field: The Utility of the Retrospective Pretest-Posttest Model in a Homeland Security Program of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, William V., Sr.; Pelfrey, William V., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Although most academic disciplines evolve at a measured pace, the emerging field of homeland security must, for reasons of safety and security, evolve rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the establishment of a graduate educational program for key officials holding homeland security roles. Because homeland security is a nascent…

  7. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  8. Changing job-related burnout after intervention--a quasi-experimental study in six human service organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal study design to analyze the development of burnout at worksites and to study the effect of interventions intended to reduce the level of burnout at individual level. METHODS: At baseline the study, sample consisted of 1024 individuals divided at six organizations and 18...... worksites in the human service sector. Four different types of interventions were identified: external and internal reorganizations, educational days, and consultancy. Burnout defined as work related, client related, and personal burnout was measured by means of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory at baseline...... of interventions did not reduce the level of burnout in our study....

  9. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  10. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Quasi-experimental Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Using Two Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.

  11. Creating an environment for patient safety and teamwork training in the operating theatre: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Carl-Johan; Kalman, Sigridur; Sandelin, Annika; Färnert, May-Lena; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Jylli, Leena

    2015-03-01

    Positive safety and a teamwork climate in the training environment may be a precursor for successful teamwork training. This pilot project aimed to implement and test whether a new interdisciplinary and team-based approach would result in a positive training climate in the operating theatre. A 3-day educational module for training the complete surgical team of specialist nursing students and residents in safe teamwork skills in an authentic operative theatre, named Co-Op, was implemented in a university hospital. Participants' (n=22) perceptions of the 'safety climate' and the 'teamwork climate', together with their 'readiness for inter-professional learning', were measured to examine if the Co-Op module produced a positive training environment compared with the perceptions of a control group (n=11) attending the conventional curriculum. The participants' perceptions of 'safety climate' and 'teamwork climate' and their 'readiness for inter-professional learning' scores were significantly higher following the Co-Op module compared with their perceptions following the conventional curriculum, and compared with the control group's perceptions following the conventional curriculum. The Co-Op module improved 'safety climate' and 'teamwork climate' in the operating theatre, which suggests that a deliberate and designed educational intervention can shape a learning environment as a model for the establishment of a safety culture.

  12. Protocol for project IMPACT (improving millions hearts for provider and community transformation): a quasi-experimental evaluation of an integrated electronic health record and community health worker intervention study to improve hypertension management among South Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Priscilla M; Zanowiak, Jennifer; Goldfeld, Keith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Masoud, Ahmad; Beane, Susan; Kumar, Rashi; Laughlin, Phoebe; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Thorpe, Lorna; Islam, Nadia

    2017-12-06

    The Million Hearts® initiative aims to prevent heart disease and stroke in the United States by mobilizing public and private sectors around a core set of objectives, with particular attention on improving blood pressure control. South Asians in particular have disproportionately high rates of hypertension and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and social barriers to accessing healthcare. Interventions utilizing Health information technology (HIT) and community health worker (CHW)-led patient coaching have each been demonstrated to be effective at advancing Million Hearts® goals, yet few studies have investigated the potential impact of integrating these strategies into a clinical-community linkage initiative. Building upon this initiative, we present the protocol and preliminary results of a research study, Project IMPACT, designed to fill this gap in knowledge. Project IMPACT is a stepped wedge quasi-experimental study designed to test the feasibility, adoption, and impact of integrating CHW-led health coaching with electronic health record (EHR)-based interventions to improve hypertension control among South Asian patients in New York City primary care practices. EHR intervention components include the training and implementation of hypertension-specific registry reports, alerts, and order sets. Fidelity to the EHR intervention is assessed by collecting the type, frequency, and utilization of intervention components for each practice. CHW intervention components consist of health coaching sessions on hypertension and related risk factors for uncontrolled hypertensive patients. The outcome, hypertension control (Project IMPACT builds upon the evidence base of the effectiveness of CHW and Million Hearts® initiatives and proposes a unique integration of provider-based EHR and community-based CHW interventions. The project informs the effectiveness of these interventions in team-based care approaches, thereby, helping to develop relevant sustainability

  13. Quality and safety in the transitional care of the elderly (phase 2): the study protocol of a quasi-experimental intervention study for a cross-level educational programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Marianne; Groene, Oliver; Testad, Ingelin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn N; Heskestad, Randi N; Aase, Karina

    2014-07-31

    Transitional care and patient handover are important areas to ensure quality and safety in elderly healthcare services. Previous studies showed that healthcare professionals have little knowledge of the setting they are transferring patients to and a limited understanding of roles and functions; these constitute barriers to effective communication and shared care responsibilities across levels of care. The main objective is to implement a cross-level education-based intervention programme with healthcare professionals aimed at (1) increasing professionals' awareness and competencies about quality and safety in the transitional care of the elderly; (2) creating a discussion platform for knowledge exchange and learning across levels and units of care and (3) improving patient safety culture, in particular, in transitional care. A quasi-experimental control group study design with an intervention group and a control group; this includes a pretest, post-test and 1-year follow-up test assessment of patient safety culture. Qualitative data will be collected during the intervention programme and between the measurements. The study design will be beneficial for addressing the effects of the cross-level educational intervention programme on reports of patient safety culture and for addressing the feasibility of the intervention measures. The study has been approved by the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics in Norway, Ref. No. 2011/1978. The study is based on informed written consent; informants can withdraw from the study at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, in peer review journals and through public presentations outside the scientific community. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Multiple Neuroimaging Measures for Examining Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Older Adults: A Quasi-experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, seed-based functional connectivity (FC, and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state. We focused on whether there were common regions showing changes after exercise across these measures and which measure was closely correlated with cognitive improvement. After the six-week exercise program, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in memory and executive function on neuropsychological tests, and in memory recall on an emotional memory task. The common brain regions that showed significant changes across different measures were the right striatum and the posterior cingulate (PCC. After exercise, the PCC showed decreased ReHo and increased volume, and the striatum did not show volume loss as the control group did and increased its FC with the cingulate, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Moreover, the connectivity change between the striatum and the thalamus was correlated with the improvement of executive function. This result implicates the striatum and the PCC associated network in physical exercise. Our work highlights the effectiveness of multi-modality neuroimaging measures in investigating neuroplasticity.

  15. The differential impact of the financial crisis on health in Ireland and Greece: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2014-10-01

    Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey a (DID) approach was implemented that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a 'control' population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Logistic regression using a (DID) approach. A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Greece (OR = 1.216; CI = 1.11-1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis on the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Ireland (OR = 0.97; CI = 0.81-1.16). DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis led to higher prevalence of reporting poor health in Greece but not in Ireland. Although the research design does not allow the authors to directly assess the role of specific policies, contextual factors including policy responses may have contributed to the different effect of the crisis on the health of the two countries.

  16. Effectiveness of a novel and scalable clinical decision support intervention to improve venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE causes morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, and regulators and payors are encouraging the use of systems to prevent them. Here, we examine the effect of a computerized clinical decision support (CDS intervention implemented across a multi-hospital academic health system on VTE prophylaxis and events. Methods The study included 223,062 inpatients admitted between April 2007 and May 2010, and used administrative and clinical data. The intervention was integrated into a commercial electronic health record (EHR in an admission orderset used for all admissions. Three time periods were examined: baseline (period 1, and the time after implementation of the first CDS intervention (period 2 and a second iteration (period 3. Providers were prompted to accept or decline prophylaxis based on patient risk. Time series analyses examined the impact of the intervention on VTE prophylaxis during time periods two and three compared to baseline, and a simple pre-post design examined impact on VTE events and bleeds secondary to anticoagulation. VTE prophylaxis and events were also examined in a prespecified surgical subset of our population meeting the public reporting criteria defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Patient Safety Indicator (PSI. Results Unadjusted analyses suggested that “recommended”, “any”, and “pharmacologic” prophylaxis increased from baseline to the last study period (27.1% to 51.9%, 56.7% to 78.1%, and 42.0% to 54.4% respectively; p  Conclusions The CDS intervention was associated with an increase in “recommended” and “any” VTE prophylaxis across the multi-hospital academic health system. The intervention was also associated with increased VTE rates in the overall study population, but a subanalysis using only admissions with appropriate POA documentation suggested no change in VTE rates, and a prespecified analysis of a surgical

  17. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  18. Impact of Flipped Classroom Design on Student Performance and Perceptions in a Pharmacotherapy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Cathy L.; Demps, Elaine L.; Bowman, John D.; Panahi, Ladan; Boyle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a flipped classroom design would improve student performance and perceptions of the learning experience compared to traditional lecture course design in a required pharmacotherapy course for second-year pharmacy students. Design. Students viewed short online videos about the foundational concepts and answered self-assessment questions prior to face-to-face sessions involving patient case discussions. Assessment. Pretest/posttest and precourse/postcourse surveys evaluated students’ short-term knowledge retention and perceptions before and after the redesigned course. The final grades improved after the redesign. Mean scores on the posttest improved from the pretest. Postcourse survey showed 88% of students were satisfied with the redesign. Students reported that they appreciated the flexibility of video viewing and knowledge application during case discussions but some also struggled with time requirements of the course. Conclusion. The redesigned course improved student test performance and perceptions of the learning experience during the first year of implementation. PMID:27073286

  19. Impact of Flipped Classroom Design on Student Performance and Perceptions in a Pharmacotherapy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Cathy L; Demps, Elaine L; Farris, Charlotte; Bowman, John D; Panahi, Ladan; Boyle, Paul

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine whether a flipped classroom design would improve student performance and perceptions of the learning experience compared to traditional lecture course design in a required pharmacotherapy course for second-year pharmacy students. Design. Students viewed short online videos about the foundational concepts and answered self-assessment questions prior to face-to-face sessions involving patient case discussions. Assessment. Pretest/posttest and precourse/postcourse surveys evaluated students' short-term knowledge retention and perceptions before and after the redesigned course. The final grades improved after the redesign. Mean scores on the posttest improved from the pretest. Postcourse survey showed 88% of students were satisfied with the redesign. Students reported that they appreciated the flexibility of video viewing and knowledge application during case discussions but some also struggled with time requirements of the course. Conclusion. The redesigned course improved student test performance and perceptions of the learning experience during the first year of implementation.

  20. A quasi-experimental study to assess the effect of technology-assisted training on correct endorsement of pressure ulcer preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklebust, JoAnn; Magnan, Morris A

    2009-02-01

    The two-fold purpose of the Detroit Medical Center (DMC) Braden Scale Training Module is to teach nurses to use the Braden Scale to correctly assess pressure ulcer risk and to effectively plan risk-based prevention interventions. A pre-test, post-test, two-group, quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of web-based DMC Braden Scale Training on staff nurses' ability to correctly endorse the use or non-use of 10 commonly-used risk-based pressure ulcer preventive interventions for patients at different levels of risk for pressure ulceration. "Regular" or "new" users of the Braden Scale from three hospitals assessed 102 patients. On eight out of 10 preventive interventions, the percentages of correct endorsements were higher for patients at extreme levels of risk (generally not at risk or high/very high risk) than they were for patients at midlevels of risk. Correct endorsement of prevention interventions was unaffected by group membership. Training substantially improved ability to correctly endorse interventions, but for new user only. Importantly, patients at midlevels of risk may be more vulnerable to pressure ulceration than their risk assessments indicate simply because nurses have great difficulty determining which preventive interventions should be implemented for this group of patients. Alternative approaches to training are needed to ensure that regular users of the Braden Scale are adequately prepared to use risk-based information to effectively plan pressure ulcer prevention.

  1. Psychological recovery after intensive care: Outcomes of a long-term quasi-experimental study of structured nurse-led follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasdóttir, Rannveig J; Jónsdóttir, Helga; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Sigurdsson, Gisli H

    2018-02-01

    To compare psychological recovery of patients receiving structured nurse-led follow-up and patients receiving usual care after intensive care discharge. Quasi-experimental study. Single centre, university hospital, mixed intensive care patient population. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression measured three and four times over 12 months after intensive care discharge. Disturbing memories of the intensive care stay and psychological reactions (that one's life was in danger, threat to physical integrity, intense fear, helplessness, horror) three months after intensive care. A mixed effect model tested differences between the groups over time and regression model predicted post-traumatic stress at three months. The experimental group had significantly more symptoms of post-traumatic stress and anxiety than the control group over the 12 months. Patients from both groups had severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Patients with post-traumatic stress at three months had disturbing memories and psychological reactions. The structured nurse-led follow-up did not improve patients' measured outcomes of psychological recovery after intensive care. Patients with severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress are of concern. Emphasis needs to be placed on disturbing memories of the intensive care stay and psychological reactions when constructing intensive care nurse-led follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-impact practices and first-year seminars: A quasi-experimental study measuring change in academic self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Applewhite, Stephanie

    First-year seminars, high-impact practices, and academic self-efficacy have been identified as relevant to the successful transition process from high school to college. This study investigated the interconnections between freshman academic self-efficacy, high-impact practices, zone of proximal development and first-year seminars. This research contributed to the understandings of the significance of high-impact practices in the development of academic self-efficacy in freshman students. As colleges strive to improve retention from the freshman to sophomore years, it is useful to identify the relevance of high-impact practices within a first-year seminar on academic self-efficacy. A two-group, quasi-experimental study using a pre/post survey was conducted at a regional comprehensive university in east Texas in which 800 students were given a pre and post survey to measure academic self-efficacy. After matching for fidelity, eleven sections were identified for the control group (104 participants) and eleven sections (91 participants) were selected for the experiment group. The findings revealed that the overall gain in the mean of both groups from the pre to post survey was statistically significant. While the students in the high-impact sections reported a higher post mean on the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale than those who did not receive high-impact instruction, the gain was not statistically significant.

  3. From Correlates to Causes: Can Quasi-Experimental Studies and Statistical Innovations Bring Us Closer to Identifying the Causes of Antisocial Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Strait, Luciana B.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal, epidemiological studies have identified robust risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, including harsh and coercive discipline, maltreatment, smoking during pregnancy, divorce, teen parenthood, peer deviance, parental psychopathology, and social disadvantage. Nevertheless, because this literature is largely based on observational studies, it remains unclear whether these risk factors have truly causal effects. Identifying causal risk factors for antisocial behavior would be informative for intervention efforts and for studies that test whether individuals are differentially susceptible to risk exposures. In this paper, we identify the challenges to causal inference posed by observational studies and describe quasi-experimental methods and statistical innovations that may move us beyond discussions of risk factors to allow for stronger causal inference. We then review studies that use these methods and we evaluate whether robust risk factors identified from observational studies are likely to play a causal role in the emergence and development of youth antisocial behavior. For most of the risk factors we review, there is evidence that they have causal effects. However, these effects are typically smaller than those reported in observational studies, suggesting that familial confounding, social selection, and misidentification might also explain some of the association between risk exposures and antisocial behavior. For some risk factors (e.g., smoking during pregnancy, parent alcohol problems) the evidence is weak that they have environmentally mediated effects on youth antisocial behavior. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention efforts to reduce antisocial behavior and for basic research on the etiology and course of antisocial behavior. PMID:22023141

  4. Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in a sample of Iranian women undergoing cardiac catheterization: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mitra; Eybpoosh, Sana; Hazrati, Maryam

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in women undergoing cardiac catheterization. It was a quasi-experimental study. The participants had no history of hallucination, anxiety, or other psychological problems. Participants had to be conscious and have attained at least sixth-grade literacy level. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes TT), a placebo group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes simulated touch), and a control group (n = 23; did not receive any therapy). Data were collected using Spielberger's anxiety test, cardiac dysrhythmia checklist, and vital signs recording sheet. Statistical analyses were considered to be significant at α = .05 levels. Sixty-nine women ranging in age from 35 to 65 years participated. TT significantly decreased state anxiety p < 0.0001 but not trait anxiety (p = .88), decreased the incidence of all cardiac dysrhythmias p < 0.0001 except premature ventricular contraction (p = .01), and regulated vital signs p < 0.0001 in the intervention group versus placebo and control group. TT is an effective approach for managing state anxiety, regulating vital signs, and decreasing the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia during stressful situations, such as cardiac catheterization, in Iranian cardiac patients.

  5. The Economic Impact of Government Policy on Market Prices of Low-Fat Pork in South Korea: A Quasi-Experimental Hedonic Price Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun No Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact of the government policy which aims to increase the consumption of low-fat pork cuts because of the concerns regarding asymmetric consumption between high-fat and low-fat pork cuts. Using hedonic price methods combined with quasi-experimental approaches we estimate the subsequent impact of food policy on the price of low-fat pork cuts using a time series of sales data. This study utilized an effective approach which has been widely employed for policy evaluation to produce plausible estimates of the economic values generated by the government policy. We find the existence of market segmentation and different impacts of the policy between markets. While the market price for high-fat pork cuts has remained stable, the price for low-fat pork cuts has slightly increased since the policy has been implemented. This paper illustrates that government’s policy can be a good strategy to maintain sustainability of the food industry by improving the balance in pork consumption and the management of stocks.

  6. Student Preferences and Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Classes Using Myers-Briggs Indicator: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seta Boghikian-Whitby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study investigated students’ cognitive personality type using the Myers-Briggs personality Type Indicator (MBTI in Internet-based Online and Face-to-Face (F2F modalities. A total of 1154 students enrolled in 28 Online and 32 F2F sections taught concurrently over a period of fourteen years. The study measured whether the sample is similar to the national average percentage frequency of all 16 different personality types; whether specific personality type students preferred a specific modality of instructions and if this preference changed over time; whether learning occurred in both class modalities; and whether specific personality type students learned more from a specific modality. Data was analyzed using regression, t-test, frequency, and Chi-Squared. The study concluded that data used in the study was similar to the national statistics; that no major differences in preference occurred over time; and that learning did occur in all modalities, with more statistically significant learning found in the Online modality versus F2F for Sensing, Thinking, and Perceiving types. Finally, Sensing and Thinking (ST and Sensing and Perceiving (SP group types learned significantly more in Online modality versus F2F.

  7. Effect of 6-month community-based exercise interventions on gait and functional fitness of an older population: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Branco, Marco; Moniz-Pereira, Vera; André, Helô-Isa; Veloso, António P; Carnide, Filomena

    2018-01-01

    Gait ability in older adults has been associated with independent living, increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of a community-based periodized exercise intervention on the improvement of gait parameters and functional fitness in an older adult group compared with a non-periodized program. A quasi-experimental study with follow-up was performed in a periodized exercise group (N=15) and in a non-periodized exercise group (N=13). The primary outcomes were plantar pressure gait parameters, and the secondary outcomes were physical activity, aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables were recorded at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Both programs were tailored to older adults' functional fitness level and proved to be effective in reducing the age-related decline regarding functional fitness and gait parameters. Gait parameters were sensitive to both the exercise interventions. These exercise protocols can be used by exercise professionals in prescribing community exercise programs, as well as by health professionals in promoting active aging.

  8. Hospital in the Nursing Home program reduces emergency department presentations and hospital admissions from residential aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lijun; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Jingzhou; Sun, Jiandong; Dingle, Kaeleen; Purtill, Rhonda; Tapp, Sam; Lukin, Bill

    2016-02-09

    There has been considerable publicity regarding population ageing and hospital emergency department (ED) overcrowding. Our study aims to investigate impact of one intervention piloted in Queensland Australia, the Hospital in the Nursing Home (HiNH) program, on reducing ED and hospital attendances from residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A quasi-experimental study was conducted at an intervention hospital undertaking the program and a control hospital with normal practice. Routine Queensland health information system data were extracted for analysis. Significant reductions in the number of ED presentations per 1000 RACF beds (rate ratio (95 % CI): 0.78 (0.67-0.92); p = 0.002), number of hospital admissions per 1000 RACF beds (0.62 (0.50-0.76); p Home program could be effective in reducing ED presentations and hospital admissions from RACF residents. Implementation of the program across a variety of settings is preferred to fully assess the ongoing benefits for patients and any possible cost-savings.

  9. Impact of educational intervention on willingness-to-pay for suicide prevention: a quasi-experimental study among university students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime

    2018-06-01

    Many individuals show negative attitudes toward the use of taxes for suicide prevention. Activities that enhance knowledge and awareness of suicide and suicide prevention may increase willingness to pay (WTP) for suicide prevention. WTP is the amount that a consumer will pay for a product or service. The present study examined the influence of educational activities on enhancing knowledge and awareness of suicide and its prevention on WTP. We conducted a quasi-experimental study to examine the influence of lectures on suicide by comparing the amount of change in WTP between two groups over the same period: an intervention group (n = 92) comprising students who participated in the lectures and a control group (n = 128) comprising general university students recruited through an Internet-based survey. A t-test showed that the amount of change was significantly larger in the intervention group (t (152.31) = 2.25, p = .026). Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that increased WTP was significantly correlated with an annual household income of JPY 4-6 million or higher. It may be appropriate to conclude that participation in lectures about suicide is effective in increasing WTP for suicide prevention.

  10. The effects of pediatric community simulation experience on the self-confidence and satisfaction of baccalaureate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Jaclynn; Rossman, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Simulation in nursing education is a means to transform student learning and respond to decreasing clinical site availability. This study proposed an innovative simulation experience where students completed community based clinical hours with simulation scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a pediatric community simulation experience on the self-confidence of nursing students. Bandura's (1977) Self-Efficacy Theory and Jeffries' (2005) Nursing Education Simulation Framework were used. This quasi-experimental study collected data using a pre-test and posttest tool. The setting was a private, liberal arts college in the Midwestern United States. Fifty-four baccalaureate nursing students in a convenience sample were the population of interest. The sample was predominantly female with very little exposure to simulation prior to this study. The participants completed a 16-item self-confidence instrument developed for this study which measured students' self-confidence in pediatric community nursing knowledge, skill, communication, and documentation. The overall study showed statistically significant results (t=20.70, pStudents also reported a high level of satisfaction with their simulation experience. The data demonstrate that students who took the Pediatric Community Based Simulation course reported higher self-confidence after the course than before the course. Higher self-confidence scores for simulation participants have been shown to increase quality of care for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yelp for Prescribers: A Quasi-Experimental Study of Providing Antibiotic Cost Data and Prescription of High-Cost Antibiotics in an Academic and Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kira L; Varkey, Jay; Rykowski, Justin; Mohan, Arun V

    2015-08-01

    Physicians frequently prescribe antibiotics to inpatients without knowledge of medication cost. It is not well understood whether providing cost data would change prescribing behavior. To evaluate the association between providing cost data alongside culture and antibiotic susceptibility results and prescribing of high-cost antibiotics. Quasi-experimental pre-post analysis. Inpatients diagnosed with bacteremia or urinary tract infection in two tertiary care hospitals. Cost category data for each antibiotic ($, $$, $$$, or $$) were added to culture and susceptibility testing results available to physicians. Average cost category of antibiotics prescribed to patients after the receipt of susceptibility testing results. There was a significant decrease in the average cost category of antibiotics per patient after the intervention (pre-intervention = 1.9 $ vs. post-intervention = 1.7 $, where 1.5 $ would mean that the average number of dollar signs for antibiotics prescribed was between $ and $$, p = 0.002). After adjusting for age, insurance type, and prior length of stay, the odds ratio (OR) of a patient's average antibiotic being higher cost vs. lower cost after the intervention compared to before the intervention was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56, 0.98]. The intervention was associated with a 31.3% reduction in the average cost per unit of antibiotics prescribed (p antibiotics. This intervention is intuitive, low cost, and may shift providers toward lower cost medications when equally acceptable options are available.

  12. An individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue among frail older people: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y-W; Lai, Claudia Ky; Siu, Parco M; Kwong, Enid; Tse, Mimi My

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. Community health centres. A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.

  13. Testing the effectivity of the mixed virtual reality training Into D'mentia for informal caregivers of people with dementia: protocol for a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütten, Linda Helena; Mark, Ruth Elaine; Maria Janssen, Ben Wilhelmus Jacobus; Rietsema, Jan; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sitskoorn, Margriet Maria

    2017-08-21

    Informal caregivers for people with dementia (hereafter: caregivers) often feel (over)burdened by the care for a loved one with dementia, and this can have various deleterious effects on both caregivers and patients. Support for caregivers is urgently needed, and for this reason, a dementia simulator (Into D'mentia) was developed in which caregivers experience what it is like to have dementia. The simulator attempts to heighten caregivers' empathy and understanding for the patient and, in turn, diminish their own caregiver burden. The current study evaluates whether the simulator is effective on a number of outcomes. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study is ongoing in the Netherlands. We aim to recruit 142 caregivers in total divided over two groups: 71 caregivers in the intervention group and 71 caregivers in the control group. All participants will complete interviews and questionnaires at four time points: at baseline, 1 week, 2.5 months and 15 months after the training. The primary outcomes include empathy, caregiver burden, caregiver's sense of competence, social reliance, anxiety, depression and caregivers' subjective and objective health. This study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol has been approved by the local ethics committees. This study is registered with The Netherlands National Trial Register (NNTR5856). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. TNF-alpha inhibition could reduce biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: A 52-week echo-Doppler based quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Garrido-Pareja, Fermín; Ruiz-Carrascosa, José Carlos; Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo

    2017-10-28

    Psoriasis is associated to endothelial dysfunction, which causes impaired vascular functioning. TNF-α blockers have shown the ability to improve vascular functioning in psoriasis. The nailfold vessel resistance index (NVRI) assesses microvascular functioning at nailfold. The objectives of the study is to assess the effect of the TNF-α inhibition with adalimumab on NVRI. Quasi-experimental study. Fifteen patients with moderate-severe psoriasis received adalimumab 40mg sc according to label information. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 12, 24 and 52 weeks after study intervention. A reduction of -0.09±0.02 (P<.01) in NVRI and a -11.2±2,41ng/ml (P<.001) in E-selectin was observed at week 52. Adalimumab could produce a progressive and sustained reduction of vessel resistance at nailfold and E-selectin in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Using the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Haugen, Tommy; Berntsen, Sveinung; Guttormsen, Vigdis; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haraldstad, Kristin; Meland, Eivind; Abildsnes, Eirik

    2016-10-18

    In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction. A subsidiary aim of the intervention study is to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among those participating in the intervention study. The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children. In order to gather information on local opportunities and barriers, interviews with key stakeholders and a 1-year pilot study was conducted. The main study has used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Locally based Healthy Life Centers and Public Health Clinics are responsible for recruiting families and conducting the intervention. The effect of the study will be measured both at completion of the 6 months intervention study and 6 and 18 months after the intervention period. An ecological approach was used as a basis for developing the intervention. The behavioral models and educational strategies include individual family counselling meetings, workshops focusing on regulation of family life, nutrition courses, and physical activity groups providing tailored information and practical learning sessions. Parents will be educated on how to use these strategies at home, to further support their children in improving their behaviors. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for development of this family-based intervention study targeting overweight and obese children, 6-10 years old. This program, if feasible and effective, may be adjusted to local contexts and

  16. The Glasgow 'Deep End' Links Worker Study Protocol: a quasi-experimental evaluation of a social prescribing intervention for patients with complex needs in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Grant, Lesley; Chng, Nai Rui; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; McConnachie, Alex; Bakhshi, Andisheh; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    'Social prescribing' can be used to link patients with complex needs to local (non-medical) community resources. The 'Deep End' Links Worker Programme is being tested in general practices serving deprived populations in Glasgow, Scotland. To assess the implementation and impact of the intervention at patient and practice levels. Study design : Quasi-experimental outcome evaluation with embedded theory-driven process evaluation in 15 practices randomized to receive the intervention or not. Complex intervention : Comprising a practice development fund, a practice-based community links practitioner (CLP), and management support. It aims to link patients to local community organizations and enhance practices' social prescribing capacity. Study population : For intervention practices, staff and adult patients involved in referral to a CLP, and a sample of community organization staff. For comparison practices, all staff and a random sample of adult patients. Sample size : 286 intervention and 484 comparator patients. Outcomes : Primary patient outcome is health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Secondary patient outcomes include capacity, depression/anxiety, self-esteem, and healthcare utilization. Practice outcome measures include team climate, job satisfaction, morale, and burnout. Outcomes measured at baseline and 9 months. Processes : Barriers and facilitators to implementation of the programme and possible mechanisms through which outcomes are achieved. Analysis plan : For outcome, intention-to-treat analysis with differences between groups tested using mixed-effects regression models. For process, case-study approach with thematic analysis. This evaluation will provide new evidence about the implementation and impact of social prescribing by general practices serving patients with complex needs living in areas of high deprivation.

  17. Novel Effects of Traditional Wooden Toothbrush on Bowel Motility Symptoms in Spinal Cord Injury Patients; Findings from a Pilot Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Feizi, Awat; Heidari, Zahra; Tabibian, Seyed Reza; Shaabani, Pooria; Iraj, Bijan; Adibi, Payman; Varzaneh, Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional wooden toothbrush usage on most severe constipation, which usually occurs in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. In a quasi-experimental study, 61 SCI patients were selected who had injuries in different spinal levels (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), and severe constipation from one defection in a few days to 3 weeks. They were recommended to use traditional wooden toothbrush for 5 min twice a day, after breakfast and dinner, over a 6 weeks period. Two proper standard scales, called neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD), and "Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS)," were used for evaluating the changes in patients' gastrointestinal (GI) habits during the period of using the wooden toothbrush. Through these scales (NBD and CAS), the therapeutic effects of traditional wooden toothbrush usage on the severity of constipation before and after intervention were measured. The mean of NBD and CAS scores were reduced significantly, from 8.95 ± 0.78 and 3.34 ± 0.28; respectively, to 3.03 ± 0.57 and 1.74 ± 0.25, after 6 weeks using traditional wooden toothbrush ( P toothbrush lead to the improvement of bowel and defecation problems in SCI patients. Yet more studies, particularly randomized control clinical trials are needed to investigate the effect of using wooden toothbrush on other GI reflexes. In addition, if some clinical trials are devised to study the effects of wooden toothbrush on both conscious and unconscious patients in ICU, best results are expected to be found on keeping their mouth and teeth hygiene, as well as, getting rid of their constipations.

  18. A HEALth Promotion and STRESS Management Program (HEAL-STRESS study) for prehypertensive and hypertensive patients: a quasi-experimental study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darviri, C; Artemiadis, A K; Protogerou, A; Soldatos, P; Kranioutou, C; Vasdekis, S; Varvogli, L; Nasothimiou, E; Vasilopoulou, E; Karantzi, E; Linardatou, A; Michou, M; Chrousos, G P

    2016-06-01

    Current hypertension guidelines advocate strategies encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviours. So far, there is a paucity of studies for the efficacy of such multifaceted programmes. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week health-promotion programme for lowering blood pressure (BP) in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study using wait-list controls of 548 patients. The intervention group was administered with an 8-week health-promotion intervention. Measurements included home BP, smoking, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depression, anxiety and Health Locus of Control. After adjusting for confounders, the intervention group had a significant reduction in both systolic BP (SBP; mean -2.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.29 to -3.96) and diastolic BP (DBP; mean -1.0, 95% CI: -0.93 to -1.9) compared with controls. In all, 14.9% of patients in the intervention group had >10 mm Hg reduction in SBP vs 4.4% in the control group (P5 mm Hg reduction vs 12.5% in the control group (P=0.01, NNT=11). In terms of effect size, moderate-to-large improvements of BMI, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, external and chance Health Locus of Control were recorded. Changes in SBP and DBP were attributed to BMI and depressive symptom reductions, respectively. Comprehensive non-pharmaceutical programmes for BP management are strongly encouraged. Their long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain to be established by future research.

  19. Effectiveness of community service models for increasing routine immunization coverage at primary healthcare facilities in a rural district of Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Pongpanich, S.; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Pakistan Routine Immunization coverage has been reported to be significantly low due to multiple factors that results in high number of deaths in children under 5. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of integrating Community Services to improve Routine immunization coverage in rural district of Pakistan. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with control and intervention arms was conducted in government Basic Health units catchment population of Panjgur by interviewing household head/Fathers. Total 234 household head including fathers were interviewed during this baseline survey. Community service model was used for to increase routine immunization coverage at catchment area of Basic Health unit (BHU) in intervention group while routine services were given in control BHU. Results: 230 parents completed the questionnaire during the end line after three months of intervention. There were no significant differences found between two groups at baseline but after the intervention, there was statistically significance difference (<0.05) between both groups knowledge and practices regarding routine immunization. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in control group reported (>0.05) after the intervention period. Overall immunization status after intervention where fully immunization status in intervention group after intervention was 88.8% as compared to control group after intervention was 13.6% for partial immunization status in intervention group after intervention was 11.1% as compared to control group after intervention was 81.1 for the Non-Immunization status in intervention group after intervention was 0% as compared to control group after intervention was 5.1%. Conclusions: Community Service Model has significantly improved the Knowledge and Practices among households/parents of children under 5 in the intervention arm. (author)

  20. A Quasi-experimental Evaluation of Performance Improvement Teams in the Safety-Net: A Labor-Management Partnership Model for Engaging Frontline Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Brian Yoshio; Dixit, Ravi K; Berry, Sandra H; Steers, W Neil; Brook, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Unit-based teams (UBTs), initially developed by Kaiser Permanente and affiliated unions, are natural work groups of clinicians, managers, and frontline staff who work collaboratively to identify areas for improvement and implement solutions. We evaluated the UBT model implemented by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services in partnership with its union to engage frontline staff in improving patient care. We conducted a quasi-experimental study, comparing surveys at baseline and 6 months, among personnel in 10 clinics who received UBT training to personnel in 5 control clinics. We also interviewed staff from 5 clinics that received UBT training and 3 control clinics. We conducted 330 surveys and 38 individual, semi-structured interviews with staff at an outpatient facility in South Los Angeles. Each UBT leader received an 8-hour training in basic performance improvement methods, and each UBT was assigned a team "coach." Our outcome measure was 6-month change in the "adaptive reserve" score, the units' self-reported ability to make and sustain change. We analyzed transcripts of the interviews to find common themes regarding the UBT intervention. The survey response rate was 63% (158/252) at baseline and 75% (172/231) at 6 months. There was a significant difference-in-change in adaptive reserve between UBTs and non-UBTs at 6 months (+0.11 vs -0.13; P = .02). Nine of the 10 UBTs reported increases in adaptive reserve and 8 UBTs reported decreased no-show rates or patient length of stay in clinic. Staff overwhelmingly felt the UBTs were a positive intervention because it allowed all levels of staff to have a voice in improvement. Our results indicate that partnership between management and unions to engage frontline staff in teams may be a useful tool to improve delivery of health care in a safety-net setting.

  1. Effects of an intensive clinical skills course on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence: A quasi-experimental post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyun

    2018-02-01

    To foster nursing professionals, nursing education requires the integration of knowledge and practice. Nursing students in their senior year experience considerable stress in performing the core nursing skills because, typically, they have limited opportunities to practice these skills in their clinical practicum. Therefore, nurse educators should revise the nursing curricula to focus on core nursing skills. To identify the effect of an intensive clinical skills course for senior nursing students on their self-confidence and clinical competence. A quasi-experimental post-test study. A university in South Korea during the 2015-2016 academic year. A convenience sample of 162 senior nursing students. The experimental group (n=79) underwent the intensive clinical skills course, whereas the control group (n=83) did not. During the course, students repeatedly practiced the 20 items that make up the core basic nursing skills using clinical scenarios. Participants' self-confidence in the core clinical nursing skills was measured using a 10-point scale, while their clinical competence with these skills was measured using the core clinical nursing skills checklist. Independent t-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The mean scores in self-confidence and clinical competence were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. This intensive clinical skills courses had a positive effect on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence for the core clinical nursing skills. This study emphasizes the importance of reeducation using a clinical skills course during the transition from student to nursing professional. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The association between dry needling-induced twitch response and change in pain and muscle function in patients with low back pain: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Walker, Michael J; Rettig, Charles; Davis, Joel; Nelson, Chenae; Su, Jonathan; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Hebert, Jeffrey J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between dry needling-induced twitch response and change in pain, disability, nociceptive sensitivity, and lumbar multifidus muscle function, in patients with low back pain (LBP). Quasi-experimental study. Department of Defense Academic Institution. Sixty-six patients with mechanical LBP (38 men, 28 women, age: 41.3 [9.2] years). Dry needling treatment to the lumbar multifidus muscles between L3 and L5 bilaterally. Examination procedures included numeric pain rating, the Modified Oswestry Disability Index, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound imaging assessment of lumbar multifidus muscle function before and after dry needling treatment. Pain pressure threshold (PPT) was used to measure nocioceptive sensitivity. The percent change in muscle thickness from rest to contraction was calculated to represent muscle function. Participants were dichotomized and compared based on whether or not they experienced at least one twitch response on the most painful side and spinal level during dry needling. Participants experiencing local twitch response during dry needling exhibited greater immediate improvement in lumbar multifidus muscle function than participants who did not experience a twitch (thickness change with twitch: 12.4 [6]%, thickness change without twitch: 5.7 [11]%, mean difference adjusted for baseline value, 95%CI: 4.4 [1 to 8]%). However, this difference was not present after 1-week, and there were no between-groups differences in disability, pain intensity, or nociceptive sensitivity. The twitch response during dry needling might be clinically relevant, but should not be considered necessary for successful treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Together We STRIDE: A quasi-experimental trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-level obesity intervention for Hispanic children in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Bishop, Sonia; Cisneros, Oralia; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti

    2018-04-01

    Hispanic children are disproportionally overweight and obese compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts in the US. Community-wide, multi-level interventions have been successful to promote healthier nutrition, increased physical activity (PA), and weight loss. Using community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages community members in rural Hispanic communities is a promising way to promote behavior change, and ultimately weight loss among Hispanic children. Led by a community-academic partnership, the Together We STRIDE (Strategizing Together Relevant Interventions for Diet and Exercise) aims to test the effectiveness of a community-wide, multi-level intervention to promote healthier diets, increased PA, and weight loss among Hispanic children. The Together We STRIDE is a parallel quasi-experimental trial with a goal of recruiting 900 children aged 8-12 years nested within two communities (one intervention and one comparison). Children will be recruited from their respective elementary schools. Components of the 2-year multi-level intervention include comic books (individual-level), multi-generational nutrition and PA classes (family-level), teacher-led PA breaks and media literacy education (school-level), family nights, a farmer's market and a community PA event (known as ciclovia) at the community-level. Children from the comparison community will receive two newsletters. Height and weight measures will be collected from children in both communities at three time points (baseline, 6-months, and 18-months). The Together We STRIDE study aims to promote healthier diet and increased PA to produce healthy weight among Hispanic children. The use of CBPR approach and the engagement of the community will springboard strategies for intervention' sustainability. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02982759 Retrospectively registered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to Enhance the Dietary and Iron-Folate Intake during Pregnancy- A Quasi Experimental Study among Rural Pregnant Women of Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Srivastava, Ratan Kumar; Singh, Gyan Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Behavior Change Communications (BCC) play a decisive role in modifying socio-cultural norms affecting the perception and nutritional practices during pregnancy. To examine the effectiveness of 'Trials of Improved Practices' (TIPs) on dietary and iron-folate intake during pregnancy. Community based quasi experimental study with a control group. Four villages of Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi, India from May 2010 and recruited from August 2010. End line assessment, after 12 weeks of intervention, was completed in April 2011. Pregnant women in 13-28 weeks of gestation. TIPs was implemented in addition to ongoing essential obstetric care services in two villages through 3 home (assessment, negotiation and evaluation) visits and only assessment and evaluation visits in the other two control villages. Interpersonal communication, endorsing the active participation of family members and home based reminder materials were the TIPs based strategies. The effect of TIPs was assessed by comparing key outcome variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Hemoglobin%, anemia prevalence, weight gain, compliance for iron-folate supplementation and dietary intake of calorie, protein, calcium and iron. A total of 86 participants completed the study. At the end, mean hemoglobin levels were 11.5±1.24 g/dl and 10.37±1.38 g/dl in the TIPs and control groups, respectively. The prevalence of anemia reduced by half in TIPs group and increased by 2.4% in the control group. Weight gain (grams/week) was significantly (parea. TIPs strategy could be further explored on larger sample representing different socio-cultural and geographical areas. Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI/2015/02/005517.

  5. The GReat-Child™ Trial: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention on Whole Grains with Healthy Balanced Diet to Manage Childhood Obesity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hui Chin; Poh, Bee Koon; Abd Talib, Ruzita

    2018-01-30

    Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG). Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming wholegrain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during screening were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the entire intervention program. The IG children underwent six 30-min nutrition education lessons and had school delivery of wholegrain food on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Parents of IG children attended 1-h individual diet counseling. Anthropometric outcomes including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ), body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured at baseline [T0], post-intervention [T1] (3rd month) and follow-up [T2] (9th month). Results: IG showed significantly lower BAZ (weighted difference: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.21, -0.03; p = 0.009), body fat percentage (weighted difference: -2.6%; 95% CI: -3.7, -1.5; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.4 cm; 95% CI: -3.8, -1.0; p = 0.001) compared to CG. IG reported significantly lower body fat percentage (weighted difference: -3.4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.0; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.1 cm; 95% CI: -3.7, -0.5; p = 0.014) at T1 compared to T0. Conclusions: The GReat-Child Trial made a positive impact in managing childhood obesity. It can be incorporated into childhood obesity intervention programs that are being implemented by the policy makers.

  6. Intervention on whole grain with healthy balanced diet to manage childhood obesity (GReat-Child™trial): study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H C; Poh, B K; Ruzita, Abd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, and has led to the development of many interventions. However, no intervention has emphasized whole grains as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Therefore, this article describes the protocol of a 12-week multi-component, family-based intervention on whole grain, using a healthy balanced diet for managing childhood obesity. The GReat-Child trial utilize a quasi-experimental method in which two schools in Kuala Lumpur are assigned to intervention and control groups. The eligibility criteria are overweight/obese children, aged 9 through 11 years, who has no serious co-morbidities. The children who report consuming whole-grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during the screening will be excluded. The study sample is characterized by anthropometric measurements (weight, height, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), whole grain and nutrient intakes (3-day 24-h diet recalls), and their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards whole grain. The 12-week intervention is comprised of three components addressing behaviour, personal and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory: (1) individual diet counselling for the parents; (2) six 30-min nutrition education classes and (3) school delivery of whole-grain foods; The control school does not receive any interventions, however, for ethical purposes, a health talk is conducted after the entire GReat-Child Trial is completed. The GReat-Child trial represents a novel approach to examining the effectiveness of the intervention of whole grain in a healthy balanced diet on managing childhood obesity. We anticipate that this trial will reveal not only whether whole grain intervention will be effective in managing childhood obesity, but also provide greater insights into the acceptance of whole grain among Malaysian children.

  7. Towards an optimal composition of general practitioners and nurse practitioners in out-of-hours primary care teams: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Biezen, Mieke; Wensing, Michel; van der Burgt, Regi; Laurant, Miranda

    2017-05-30

    To gain insights into the ability of general practitioners (GPs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) to meet patient demands in out-of-hours primary care by comparing the outcomes of teams with different ratios of practitioners. Quasi-experimental study. A GP cooperative (GPC) in the Netherlands. Team 2 (1 NP, 3 GPs) and team 3 (2 NPs, 2 GPs) were compared with team 1 (4 GPs). Each team covered 35 weekend days. All 9503 patients who were scheduled for a consultation at the GPC through a nurse triage system. The primary outcome was the total number of consultations per provider for weekend cover between 10:00 and 18:00 hours. Secondary outcomes concerned the numbers of patients outside the NPs' scope of practice, patient safety, resource use, direct healthcare costs and GPs' performance. The mean number of consultations per shift was lower in teams with NPs (team 1: 93.9, team 3: 87.1; pteams with NPs (team 2, 5.2%; team 3, 8.3%) compared with GPs only (team 1 3.5%) (pTeam 3 referred more patients to the emergency department (14.7%) compared with team 1 (12.0%; p=0.028). In teams with NPs, GPs more often treated urgent patients (team 1: 13.2%, team 2: 16.3%, team 3: 21.4%; pteam 1: 11.1%, team 2: 11.8%, team 3: 16.7%; pteams with a ratio of up to two GPs and two NPs provided sufficient capacity to provide care to all patients during weekend cover. Areas of concern are the number of consultations, delay in patient care and referrals to the emergency department. NCT02407847. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The added value of a family-centered approach to optimize infants' social-emotional development: A quasi-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen A Reijneveld

    Full Text Available Family-centered care (FCC has been related to positive healthcare outcomes in pediatric care. Our aim was to assess whether an FCC approach also leads to better and earlier identification of social-emotional problems and less child psychosocial problems at age 18 months.In a quasi-experimental study within routine well-child care in the Netherlands, we compared those regions in which an FCC approach was implemented (FCC-JointStart to those regions with "care-as-usual" (CAU, including all children. In all regions, professionals performed well-child visits (2-18 months and assessed social-emotional problems, or risks developing these, by rating outcomes of assessments as "not optimal" or as "a problem." We compared FCC-JointStart and CAU regarding the rates of newly identified (risks for social-emotional problems, the pace of identification over time, and the child's psychosocial wellbeing at eighteen months as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. For participants that received extra care, we compared FCC-JointStart and CAU regarding the severity of parent-reported problems. Parents were blinded, professionals were not.5658 parents (68% agreed to participate in the study. In the FCC-JointStart group, risks were identified more frequently, though differences were small (24.7% versus 22.0%, odds ratio (95%-confidence interval adjusted for confounders: 1.44 (0.96; 2.18, Phi = .03. Risks were also identified earlier (p = .008, and additional care was provided to more severe cases than in CAU. Effect sizes r ranged from 0.17 (PSBC to 0.22 (FAD. CBCL scores at 18 months did not differ between groups.FFC-JointStart may contribute to more and earlier identification of risks for social-emotional problems and of families that need additional care, but not to fewer child psychosocial problems at age 18 months.Netherlands Trial Register NTR2681.

  9. Structured nurse-led follow-up for patients after discharge from the intensive care unit: Prospective quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasdóttir, Rannveig J; Jones, Christina; Sigurdsson, Gisli H; Jónsdóttir, Helga

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a structured 3-month nurse-led follow-up of patients after discharge from intensive care and measure its effects on health status. Patients requiring intensive care stay frequently have lengthy and incomplete recovery suggesting need for additional support. The effects of intensive care nurse-led follow-up have not been sufficiently elucidated. A prospective, quasi-experimental study of patients who received structured nurse-led follow-up from intensive care nurses after discharge from intensive care until 3 months afterwards. The control group received usual care. Of 574 patients assessed for eligibility, from November 2012 - May 2015, 168 were assigned to the experimental group (N = 73) and the control group (N = 75). Primary outcome was health status, measured with eight scales of Short Form-36v2, before the intensive care admission and at four time points until 12 months after intensive care. A mixed effect model tested differences between the groups over time. Criteria for Reporting Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions 2 guideline, guided the reporting of the intervention. The structured nurse-led follow-up did not improve patients' health status compared with usual care (mixed effect model, p = .078-.937). The structured nurse-led follow-up did not reveal an effect on the intensive care patients studied. Further examination of intensive care nurse-led follow-up is needed, taking into account the heterogeneity of the patient population, variations in length of ward stay, patients' health care needs during the first week at home after discharge from general ward and health status before intensive care admission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The GReat-Child™ Trial: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention on Whole Grains with Healthy Balanced Diet to Manage Childhood Obesity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Hui Chin Koo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG and control (CG. Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming wholegrain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during screening were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG completed the entire intervention program. The IG children underwent six 30-min nutrition education lessons and had school delivery of wholegrain food on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Parents of IG children attended 1-h individual diet counseling. Anthropometric outcomes including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured at baseline [T0], post-intervention [T1] (3rd month and follow-up [T2] (9th month. Results: IG showed significantly lower BAZ (weighted difference: −0.12; 95% CI: −0.21, −0.03; p = 0.009, body fat percentage (weighted difference: −2.6%; 95% CI: −3.7, −1.5; p < 0.001 and waist circumference (weighted difference: −2.4 cm; 95% CI: −3.8, −1.0; p = 0.001 compared to CG. IG reported significantly lower body fat percentage (weighted difference: −3.4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.0; p < 0.001 and waist circumference (weighted difference: −2.1 cm; 95% CI: −3.7, −0.5; p = 0.014 at T1 compared to T0. Conclusions: The GReat-Child Trial made a positive impact in managing childhood obesity. It can be incorporated into childhood obesity intervention programs that are being implemented by the policy makers.

  11. The effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese overweight and obese women: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is associated with substantially elevated risk of adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. This quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess whether a lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and excessive gestational weight (GWG) gain among Chinese overweight women. Convenience samples of 74 women in gestational weeks 8-12 with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2) were enrolled. They were divided into intervention (N=37) or control group (N=37) according to the time sequence of seeing the doctor. The intervention group was provided with exercise, dietary, weight gain counseling and detailed plans at weeks 8-12 and every month in the second trimester. In addition, each counseling session included a personalized feedback based on their 5-day-records. Follow-up phone calls or emails were conducted every week between antenatal visits. The control group was just provided with exercise, dietary and weight gain counseling at weeks 8-12, besides the usual health education provided at the O&G outpatient department. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a lower incidence of gestational diabetes in the intervention group (9/32, 28.1%) compared with the control group (19/34, 55.9%), p=0.023. Women in the intervention group gained much less weight (6.86 ± 2.31 versus 10.08 ± 3.84 kg, p=0.000) at the end of second trimester. Lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and prevent excessive maternal weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of School-Based Quasi-Experimental Nutrition and Food Safety Health Education for Primary School Students in Two Poverty-Stricken Counties of West China.

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    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available Few studies on nutrition and food safety education intervention for students in remote areas of China were reported. The study aimed to assess the questionnaire used to measure the knowledge, attitude and behavior with respect to nutrition and food safety, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a quasi-experimental nutrition and food safety education intervention among primary school students in poverty-stricken counties of west China.Twelve primary schools in west China were randomly selected from Zhen'an of Shaanxi province and Huize of Yunnan province. Six geographically dispersed schools were assigned to the intervention group in a nonrandom way. Knowledge, attitude and behavior questionnaire was developed, assessed, and used for outcome measurement. Students were investigated at baseline and the end of the study respectively without follow-up. Students in intervention group received targeted nutrition and food safety lectures 0.5 hour per week for two semesters. Item response theory was applied for assessment of questionnaire, and a two-level difference-in-differences model was applied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention.The Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was 0.84. According to item response model, 22 knowledge items, 6 attitude items and 8 behavior items showed adequate discrimination parameter and were retained. 378 and 478 valid questionnaires were collected at baseline and the end point. Differences of demographic characteristics were statistically insignificant between the two groups. Two-level difference-in-differences models showed that health education improved 2.92 (95% CI: 2.06-3.78 and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.37-4.47 in knowledge and behavior scores respectively, but had no effect on attitude.The questionnaire met the psychometric standards and showed good internal consistence and discrimination power. The nutrition and food safety education was effective in improving the knowledge and behavior of primary school

  13. Assessment of School-Based Quasi-Experimental Nutrition and Food Safety Health Education for Primary School Students in Two Poverty-Stricken Counties of West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    Few studies on nutrition and food safety education intervention for students in remote areas of China were reported. The study aimed to assess the questionnaire used to measure the knowledge, attitude and behavior with respect to nutrition and food safety, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a quasi-experimental nutrition and food safety education intervention among primary school students in poverty-stricken counties of west China. Twelve primary schools in west China were randomly selected from Zhen'an of Shaanxi province and Huize of Yunnan province. Six geographically dispersed schools were assigned to the intervention group in a nonrandom way. Knowledge, attitude and behavior questionnaire was developed, assessed, and used for outcome measurement. Students were investigated at baseline and the end of the study respectively without follow-up. Students in intervention group received targeted nutrition and food safety lectures 0.5 hour per week for two semesters. Item response theory was applied for assessment of questionnaire, and a two-level difference-in-differences model was applied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. The Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was 0.84. According to item response model, 22 knowledge items, 6 attitude items and 8 behavior items showed adequate discrimination parameter and were retained. 378 and 478 valid questionnaires were collected at baseline and the end point. Differences of demographic characteristics were statistically insignificant between the two groups. Two-level difference-in-differences models showed that health education improved 2.92 (95% CI: 2.06-3.78) and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.37-4.47) in knowledge and behavior scores respectively, but had no effect on attitude. The questionnaire met the psychometric standards and showed good internal consistence and discrimination power. The nutrition and food safety education was effective in improving the knowledge and behavior of primary school students in

  14. Effect of 6-month community-based exercise interventions on gait and functional fitness of an older population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalho F

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fátima Ramalho,1,2 Rita Santos-Rocha,1,2 Marco Branco,1,2 Vera Moniz-Pereira,2 Helô-Isa André,2 António P Veloso,2 Filomena Carnide2 1Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior (ESDRM, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Rio Maior, Portugal; 2Laboratory of Biomechanics and Functional Morphology, Interdisciplinary Centre for the Study of Human Performance (CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics (FMH, University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada, Portugal Background: Gait ability in older adults has been associated with independent living, increased survival rates, fall prevention, and quality of life. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of exercise interventions in the maintenance of gait parameters.Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of a community-based periodized exercise intervention on the improvement of gait parameters and functional fitness in an older adult group compared with a non-periodized program.Methods: A quasi-experimental study with follow-up was performed in a periodized exercise group (N=15 and in a non-periodized exercise group (N=13. The primary outcomes were plantar pressure gait parameters, and the secondary outcomes were physical activity, aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, agility, and balance. These variables were recorded at baseline and after 6 months of intervention.Results: Both programs were tailored to older adults’ functional fitness level and proved to be effective in reducing the age-related decline regarding functional fitness and gait parameters. Gait parameters were sensitive to both the exercise interventions. Conclusion: These exercise protocols can be used by exercise professionals in prescribing community exercise programs, as well as by health professionals in promoting active aging. Keywords: mobility, community exercise programs, active aging, plantar pressure analysis, ground reaction forces, gait properties

  15. Qualitative research skills for social work: theory and practice, by Malcolm Carey. Quasi-experimental research designs, by Bruce A. Thyer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    De to bøger (Malcolm Carey resp. Bruve A. Thyer) præsenteres i oversigtsform, og begge kan anvendes som håndbøger i kvalitativ forskning, hvor især Thyers tilgang til quasi-eksperimentelle forskningsdesign synes at udfylde et hul i dansk faglitteratur...

  16. The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric; Chase, Rhea M; Zayzay, John; Finnegan, Amy; Puffer, Eve S

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents. The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention. Following a baseline assessment of 201 enrolled parents in July 2014, all program and study activities were halted due to the outbreak of EVD. Following the EVD crisis, we conducted a tracking survey with parents who completed the baseline survey 12 months prior. In both rounds, we presented parents with 12 digital comic strips of a child misbehaving and asked them to indicate how they would react if they were the parent in the stories. Parents from households with reported EVD sickness or death became more 'harsh' (Glass's delta = 1.41) in their hypothetical decision-making compared with non-exposed parents, t (167)=-2.3, p   <  0.05. Parents from households that experienced EVD-related sickness or death not only reported significantly more household conflict and anxiety, but also reported that their child exhibited fewer difficulties. Results support the need for family-based interventions, including strategies to help parents learn alternatives to harsh punishment.

  17. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students : Effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots – de Vries, C.M.; Feron, F.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational

  18. Impact of a socio-educational intervention to improve the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia: A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Belmonte, Susanna; Benachi Sandoval, Narly

    2017-10-13

    To evaluate the impact of a socio-educational intervention to improve the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia. Out of 132 eligible candidates, 128 patients participated with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (ACR 1990/2010), over 18 years of age, who did not have cognitive problems or mental disorders in acute phase and lived in the catchment area of the participating CAPs. The patients underwent intervention for 5 weeks to strengthen self-management of pain and improve quality of life. Socio-demographic variables, satisfaction and quality of life (SF-36) were studied. Pre-post measurements were made on the 128 participants and follow-up at 2 months on 120 (8 did not agree to be contacted). Comparing the pre-post-intervention scores (non-parametric Wilcoxon test), it was found that 71.09% reported a higher perception of quality of life in the Mental health domain and lower percentage of improvement (28.91%) in the Physical role domain. When comparing pre-post-follow-up scores (Friedman's test), mean perception improved in all domains and remained at 2-month follow-up (P<.001). Finally, the average satisfaction with the intervention received was 90.55% (SD 9.86; min. 41, max. 100). When assessing the impact of the intervention, there was an improvement in the post and follow-up scores. This finding is largely due to the fact that the intervention strengthens the patient's self-mastery of their abilities to control pain and improve their perception of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. "PowerUp"!: A Tool for Calculating Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes and Minimum Required Sample Sizes for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper and the accompanying tool are intended to complement existing supports for conducting power analysis tools by offering a tool based on the framework of Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes (MDES) formulae that can be used in determining sample size requirements and in estimating minimum detectable effect sizes for a range of individual- and…

  20. Linking highway improvements to changes in land use with quasi-experimental research design : a better forecasting tool for transportation decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    An important issue for future improvement and extensions of highways will be the ability of projects to sustain challenges to Environmental Impact Statements based upon forecasts of regional growth. A legal precedent for such challenges was establish...

  1. Use of and short-term impacts of new cycling infrastructure in inner-Sydney, Australia: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris

    2015-10-06

    Given increasing investment in new cycling infrastructure, it is important to understand its impacts. The Sydney Transport and Health Study evaluates a new 2.4 km bi-directional separated bicycle path in inner-Sydney. This paper describes the users of the new bicycle path, and examines its short-term impacts upon cycling behaviour and perceptions of the local environment. Data were collected from two bike counts at two intersections on the new bicycle path in the intervention area in 2013 and 2014. On-line surveys collected individual participant data in the intervention area and a similar comparison area before the bicycle path was built (2013), and 12 months later (four months after completion) (n = 512). The data included self-reported cycling behaviour, use of the new bicycle path and perceptions of changes in the local environment. Bike counts at two sites on the new bicycle path reported an increase of 23% and 97% respectively at 12 months. However, among the participants in the cohort, there was no change in the self-reported weekly frequency of cycling. One in six (approximately 15%) participants reported using the new bicycle path, with most users (76%) living in the intervention area. Bicycle path users were most likely to be frequent riders (at least weekly) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.50, 95 % CI 3.93-14.31], be a high intensity recreational rider (AOR = 4.38, 95 % CI 1.53-12.54) or a low intensity transport rider (AOR = 2.42, 95 % CI 1.17-5.04) and live closer to the bicycle path (AOR = 1.24, 1.13-1.37). Perceptions that the neighbourhood was more pleasant, that there were more people walking and cycling were significantly higher in the intervention area at 12 months (both P values bicycle path were associated with the use of the new bicycle path. Increased use of the new bicycle path as reported by the participants in the intervention area and increased cycling recorded by the bike counts may be due to existing cyclists changing routes to use the new path, and more cyclists from outside the study area using the new path, as study participants did not increase their frequency of cycling. Increases in cycling frequency in the intervention neighbourhood may require a longer lead time, additional promotional activities and further maturation of the Sydney bicycle path network. Understanding how new cycling infrastructure impacts communities can influence the promotion of such infrastructure.

  2. Large-scale investment in green space as an intervention for physical activity, mental and cardiometabolic health: study protocol for a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-04-06

    'Green spaces' such as public parks are regarded as determinants of health, but evidence from tends to be based on cross-sectional designs. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a large-scale investment in approximately 5280 hectares of green space stretching 27 km north to south in Western Sydney, Australia. A Geographic Information System was used to identify 7272 participants in the 45 and Up Study baseline data (2006-2008) living within 5 km of the Western Sydney Parklands and some of the features that have been constructed since 2009, such as public access points, advertising billboards, walking and cycle tracks, BBQ stations, and children's playgrounds. These data were linked to information on a range of health and behavioural outcomes, with the second wave of data collection initiated by the Sax Institute in 2012 and expected to be completed by 2015. Multilevel models will be used to analyse potential change in physical activity, weight status, social contacts, mental and cardiometabolic health within a closed sample of residentially stable participants. Comparisons between persons with contrasting proximities to different areas of the Parklands will provide 'treatment' and 'control' groups within a 'quasi-experimental' study design. In line with expectations, baseline results prior to the enhancement of the Western Sydney Parklands indicated virtually no significant differences in the distribution of any of the outcomes with respect to proximity to green space preintervention. Ethical approval was obtained for the 45 and Up Study from the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the University of Western Sydney Ethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through partner organisations (the Western Sydney Parklands and the National Heart Foundation of Australia), as well as to policymakers in parallel with scientific papers and conference presentations. Published by

  3. Using the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Holte Stea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6–10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction. A subsidiary aim of the intervention study is to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among those participating in the intervention study. Methods/design The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children. In order to gather information on local opportunities and barriers, interviews with key stakeholders and a 1-year pilot study was conducted. The main study has used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Locally based Healthy Life Centers and Public Health Clinics are responsible for recruiting families and conducting the intervention. The effect of the study will be measured both at completion of the 6 months intervention study and 6 and 18 months after the intervention period. An ecological approach was used as a basis for developing the intervention. The behavioral models and educational strategies include individual family counselling meetings, workshops focusing on regulation of family life, nutrition courses, and physical activity groups providing tailored information and practical learning sessions. Parents will be educated on how to use these strategies at home, to further support their children in improving their behaviors. Discussion A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for development of this family-based intervention study targeting overweight and obese children, 6–10 years old. This program, if

  4. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs to Enhance the Dietary and Iron-Folate Intake during Pregnancy- A Quasi Experimental Study among Rural Pregnant Women of Varanasi, India.

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    Siddharudha Shivalli

    Full Text Available Behavior Change Communications (BCC play a decisive role in modifying socio-cultural norms affecting the perception and nutritional practices during pregnancy.To examine the effectiveness of 'Trials of Improved Practices' (TIPs on dietary and iron-folate intake during pregnancy.Community based quasi experimental study with a control group.Four villages of Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi, India from May 2010 and recruited from August 2010. End line assessment, after 12 weeks of intervention, was completed in April 2011.Pregnant women in 13-28 weeks of gestation.TIPs was implemented in addition to ongoing essential obstetric care services in two villages through 3 home (assessment, negotiation and evaluation visits and only assessment and evaluation visits in the other two control villages. Interpersonal communication, endorsing the active participation of family members and home based reminder materials were the TIPs based strategies. The effect of TIPs was assessed by comparing key outcome variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention.Hemoglobin%, anemia prevalence, weight gain, compliance for iron-folate supplementation and dietary intake of calorie, protein, calcium and iron.A total of 86 participants completed the study. At the end, mean hemoglobin levels were 11.5±1.24 g/dl and 10.37±1.38 g/dl in the TIPs and control groups, respectively. The prevalence of anemia reduced by half in TIPs group and increased by 2.4% in the control group. Weight gain (grams/week was significantly (p<0.01 higher in TIPs group (326.9±91.8 vs. 244.6±97.4. More than 85% of the PW in TIPs group were compliant for Iron-folate and only 38% were compliant among controls. The mean intake of protein increased by 1.78gm in intervention group and decreased by 1.81 gm in controls (p<0.05. More than two thirds of PW in TIPs group were taking one extra meal and only one third of controls were doing the same.TIPs found to be an effective

  5. Impact of a private sector living wage intervention on depressive symptoms among apparel workers in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-03

    Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15-16 months postintervention. Workers' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6 ± 9.3 vs 14.7 ± 11.6, p = 0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β = -5.4, 95% CI -8.5 to -2.3, p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced depressive symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  6. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk

  7. Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study

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    Azam Iqbal S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety/depression, the rate of recurrence and the interval preceding recurrence in women during first two and a half years after childbirth. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, community women from two under-privileged communities were trained in data gathering, teaching healthy child-rearing practices, basic counseling skills, and screening for anxiety/depression by using an indigenously developed questionnaire, the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. The diagnosis was further confirmed by a clinical psychologist using DSM IV criteria. After obtaining consent, 420 women were screened and 102 were identified as having anxiety/depression. Screening was carried out after 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of a live birth. Only 62 out of 102 agreed to be counseled and received eight weekly sessions. AKUADS was re-administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the beginning of counseling; this was followed by the clinical psychologist's interview for confirmation of response. After recovery, screening was continued every 3 months for detection of recurrence throughout the study period. Out of the women who had declined counseling 12 agreed to retake AKUADS after 4 and 8 weeks of diagnosis. Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measures ANOVA and Kaplan Meier technique were used for the analysis. Results A significant decline in level of anxiety/depression was found in both the counseled and the non-counseled groups at 4 and 8 weeks (p-value Conclusions As our results cannot be generalized; further studies need to be

  8. Effects of demand-side incentives in improving the utilisation of delivery services in Oyam District in northern Uganda: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massavon, William; Wilunda, Calistus; Nannini, Maria; Majwala, Robert Kaos; Agaro, Caroline; De Vivo, Emanuela; Lochoro, Peter; Putoto, Giovanni; Criel, Bart

    2017-12-19

    We evaluated the effects and financial costs of two interventions with respect to utilisation of institutional deliveries and other maternal health services in Oyam District in Uganda. We conducted a quasi-experimental study involving intervention and comparable/control sub-counties in Oyam District for 12 months (January-December 2014). Participants were women receiving antenatal care, delivery and postnatal care services. We evaluated two interventions: the provision of (1) transport vouchers to women receiving antenatal care and delivering at two health centres (level II) in Acaba sub-county, and (2) baby kits to women who delivered at Ngai Health Centre (level III) in Ngai sub-county. The study outcomes included service coverage of institutional deliveries, four antenatal care visits, postnatal care, and the percentage of women 'bypassing' maternal health services inside their resident sub-counties. We calculated the effect of each intervention on study outcomes using the difference in differences analysis. We calculated the cost per institutional delivery and the cost per unit increment in institutional deliveries for each intervention. Overall, transport vouchers had greater effects on all four outcomes, whereas baby kits mainly influenced institutional deliveries. The absolute increase in institutional deliveries attributable to vouchers was 42.9%; the equivalent for baby kits was 30.0%. Additionally, transport vouchers increased the coverage of four antenatal care visits and postnatal care service coverage by 60.0% and 49.2%, respectively. 'Bypassing' was mainly related to transport vouchers and ranged from 7.2% for postnatal care to 11.9% for deliveries. The financial cost of institutional delivery was US$9.4 per transport voucher provided, and US$10.5 per baby kit. The incremental cost per unit increment in institutional deliveries in the transport-voucher system was US$15.9; the equivalent for the baby kit was US$30.6. The transport voucher scheme

  9. Improving health related quality of life among rural hypertensive patients through the integrative strategy of health services delivery: a quasi-experimental trial from Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yudong; Zhang, Liang; Sparring, Vibeke; Sandeep, Sandeep; Tang, Wenxi; Sun, Xiaowei; Feng, Da; Ye, Ting

    2016-08-23

    Integrative strategy of health services delivery has been proven to be effective in economically developed countries, where the healthcare systems have enough qualified primary care providers. However rural China lacks such providers to act as gatekeeper, besides, Chinese rural hypertensive patients are usually of old age, more likely to be exposed to health risk factors and they experience a greater socio-economic burden. All these Chinese rural setting specific features make the effectiveness of integrative strategy of health services in improving health related quality of life among Chinese rural hypertensive patients uncertain. In order to assess the impact of integrative strategy of health services delivery on health related quality of life among Chinese rural hypertensive patients, a two-year quasi-experimental trial was conducted in Chongqing, China. At baseline the sample enrolled 1006 hypertensive patients into intervention group and 420 hypertensive patients into control group. Physicians from village clinics, town hospitals and county hospitals worked collaboratively to deliver multidisciplinary health services for the intervention group, while physicians in the control group provided services without cooperation. The quality of life was studied by SF-36 Scale. Blood pressures were reported by town hospitals. The Difference-in-Differences model was used to estimate the differences in SF-36 score and blood pressure of both groups to assess the impact. The study showed that at baseline there was no statistical difference in SF-36 scores between both groups. While at follow-up the intervention group scored higher in overall SF-36, Role Physical, Body Pain, Social Functioning and Role Emotional than the control group. The Difference-in-Differences result demonstrated that there were statistical differences in SF-36 total score (p = 0.011), Role Physical (p = 0.027), Social Functioning (p = 0.000), Role Emotional (p = 0.002) between both

  10. Multifaceted intervention to curb in-hospital over-prescription of proton pump inhibitors: A longitudinal multicenter quasi-experimental before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giorno, Rosaria; Ceschi, Alessandro; Pironi, Michela; Zasa, Anna; Greco, Angela; Gabutti, Luca

    2017-12-20

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are indicated for a restricted number of clinical conditions, and their misuse can lead to several adverse effects. Despite that, the proportion of overuse is alarmingly high. To test the efficacy of a multifaceted strategy in order to achieve a significant reduction of new PPI prescriptions at discharge in hospitalized patients. Multicenter longitudinal quasi-experimental before-and-after study conducted from July 1st, 2014 to June 30th, 2017. 44,973 admissions in a network of 5 public teaching hospitals of the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland. Multifaceted strategy consisting in a continuous transparent monitoring-benchmarking and in capillary educational interventions applied in the internal medicine departments. To confirm the causality of the results we monitored the trend of new PPI prescriptions in the, not exposed to the intervention, surgery departments of the same hospital network. New PPI prescriptions at hospital discharge. Over the 36month study period 44,973 patient files were analyzed. At admission, comparing internal medicine vs. surgery departments, 44.9% vs. 23.3% of patients were already being treated with a PPI. The annual rate of new PPI prescriptions, for internal medicine showed a decreasing trend: 19, 19, 18, 16% in years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, respectively (p<0.001, 2014 vs. 2017; p-for-trend <0.001), while an increasing rate was found in the surgery departments in the same years: 30, 29, 36, 36%, respectively (p<0.001, 2014 vs. 2017; p-for-trend <0.001). The case mix was significantly associated with the probability of new PPI prescriptions in both departments (OR1.35, 95% CI 1.26-1.44 for internal medicine and 1.24, 95% CI 1.19-1.30 for surgery). The introduction of a multifaceted intervention significantly reduced the time trend of PPI prescriptions at hospital discharge in internal medicine departments. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the strategy proposed could contribute to optimize

  11. Effects of peer education intervention on HIV/AIDS related sexual behaviors of secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-09-07

    Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post

  12. Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother’s levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist’s interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children’s growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. Results A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children’s mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child’s emotional whereas positive impact on child’s cognitive

  13. Impact of multi-professional, scenario-based training on postpartum hemorrhage in Tanzania: a quasi-experimental, pre- vs. post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Masenga, Gileard; Bru, Lars Edvin; Eggebø, Torbjørn Moe; Mushi, Cecilia; Massay, Deodatus; Øian, Pål

    2017-09-05

    Tanzania has a relatively high maternal mortality ratio of 410 per 100,000 live births. Severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal deaths, but in most cases, it is preventable. However, most pregnant women that develop PPH, have no known risk factors. Therefore, preventive measures must be offered to all pregnant women. This study investigated the effects of multi-professional, scenario-based training on the prevention and management of PPH at a Tanzanian zonal consultant hospital. We hypothesized that scenario-based training could contribute to improved competence on PPH-management, which would result in improved team efficiency and patient outcome. This quasi-experimental, pre-vs. post-interventional study involved on-site multi-professional, scenario-based PPH training, conducted in a two-week period in October 2013 and another 2 weeks in November 2014. Training teams included nurses, midwives, doctors, and medical attendants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. After technical skill training on the birthing simulator MamaNatalie®, the teams practiced in realistic scenarios on PPH. Each scenario was followed by debriefing and repeated scenario. Afterwards, the group swapped roles and the observers became the participants. To evaluate the effects of training, we measured patient outcomes by determining blood transfusion rates. Patient data were collected by randomly sampling Medical birth registry files from the pre-training and post-training study periods (n = 1667 and 1641 files, respectively). Data were analyzed with the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and binary logistic regression. The random patient samples (n = 3308) showed that, compared to pre-training, post-training patients had a 47% drop in whole blood transfusion rates and significant increases in cesarean section rates, birth weights, and vacuum deliveries. The logistic regression analysis showed that transfusion rates were significantly associated with

  14. Implementation of integration strategies between primary care units and a regional general hospital in Brazil to update and connect health care professionals: a quasi-experimental study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Mario Maia; Mafra, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes; Abdo, Alexandre Hannud; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Dalla, Marcello Dala Bernardina; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Abrahamsohn, Ises; Rodrigues, Aline Pacífico; Delgado, Ana Violeta Ferreira de Almeida; Dos Prazeres, Glauber Alves; Teixeira, José Carlos; Possa, Silvio

    2016-08-12

    Better communication among field health care teams and points of care, together with investments focused on improving teamwork, individual management, and clinical skills, are strategies for achieving better outcomes in patient-oriented care. This research aims to implement and evaluate interventions focused on improving communication and knowledge among health teams based on points of care in a regional public health outreach network, assessing the following hypotheses: 1) A better-working communication process between hospitals and primary health care providers can improve the sharing of information on patients as well as patients' outcomes. 2) A skill-upgrading education tool offered to health providers at their work sites can improve patients' care and outcomes. A quasi-experimental study protocol with a mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) was developed to evaluate communication tools for health care professionals based in primary care units and in a general hospital in the southern region of São Paulo City, Brazil. The usefulness and implementation processes of the integration strategies will be evaluated, considering: 1) An Internet-based communication platform that facilitates continuity and integrality of care to patients, and 2) A tailored updating distance-learning course on ambulatory care sensitive conditions for clinical skills improvements. The observational study will evaluate a non-randomized cohort of adult patients, with historical controls. Hospitalized patients diagnosed with an ambulatory care sensitive condition will be selected and followed for 1 year after hospital discharge. Data will be collected using validated questionnaires and from patients' medical records. Health care professionals will be evaluated related to their use of education and communication tools and their demographic and psychological profiles. The primary outcome measured will be the patients' 30-day hospital readmission rates. A sample size of 560

  15. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  16. Impact of a population based intervention to increase the adoption of multiple physical activity practices in centre based childcare services: a quasi experimental, effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Meghan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable scope to improve the delivery of practices that increase the physical activity of children in centre based childcare services. Few studies have reported the effectiveness of interventions to address this, particularly at a population level. The primary aim of this study was to describe the impact of an intervention to increase the adoption of multiple policies and practices to promote physical activity in centre based childcare services. Methods A quasi experimental study was conducted in centre based childcare services (n =228 in New South Wales (NSW, Australia and involved a three month intervention to increase the adoption of eight practices within childcare services that have been suggested to promote child physical activity. Intervention strategies to support the adoption of practices included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support and performance monitoring and feedback. Randomly selected childcare services in the remainder of NSW acted as a comparison group (n = 164 and did not receive the intervention but may have been exposed to a concurrent NSW government healthy eating and physical activity initiative. Self reported information on physical activity policies, fundamental movement skills sessions, structured physical activity opportunities, staff involvement in active play and provision of verbal prompts to encourage physical activity, small screen recreation opportunities, sedentary time, and staff trained in physical activity were collected by telephone survey with childcare service managers at baseline and 18 months later. Results Compared with the comparison area, the study found significantly greater increases in the prevalence of intervention services with a written physical activity policy, with policy referring to placing limits on small screen recreation, and with staff trained in physical activity. In addition, non-significant trends towards a greater increase in the

  17. Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child's mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niloufer Sultan; Mahmud, Sadia; Khan, Asia; Ali, Badar Sabir

    2013-10-22

    Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children's mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children's growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother's levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist's interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children's growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children's mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child's emotional whereas positive impact on child's cognitive development. Children's stunting had an adverse

  18. The effect of an online video intervention 'Movie Models' on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children's physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2017-04-27

    In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents ('Movie Models') on children's physical activity (PA), screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES) (83.1%), and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0), at one (T1) and at four (T2) months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children's PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit). Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10-12 years old), whereas intervention effects on parental self-efficacy related to those behaviors were stronger in parents of

  19. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2017-09-01

    Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. The objective of this study was to determine the short- and medium term effects of an intervention to support workers in providing preventive activities for older adults. To do this, the number of activities undertaken by workers and the health-related behavior of their clients were assessed. A quasi-experimental study was performed with a pre-post design and inclusion of one control group. The study took place in a deprived, semi-rural area in The Netherlands (2011-2013). Data in three districts served by one home health care organization were gathered. The participants were home health care workers (registered nurses and nurse aides) and home health care clients aged 55 and over (community-dwelling, dependent older adults receiving home health care). 205 home health care workers participated in the study, 97 of them in the first effect measurement; and 83 of them in the second effect measurement. A total of 304 home health care clients participated, 214 of them in the first effect measurement; and 186 of them in the second effect measurement. Differences in change were determined in health-related behavior between groups of older adults as a result of training home health care workers in preventive activities RESULTS: In the control group of home health care professionals a significant increase was found regarding the provision of preventive activities for the domain 'weight' (partial eta squared: 0.05 and 0.08 at first and second effect measurements, respectively). We found preventive activities performed by home health care professionals to have no significant effects on older adult-reported health-related behavior, but observed in the intervention group a non-significant trend in improvement of physical activity of, respectively, 85 and 207min for

  20. 'I've Changed My Mind', Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) for pregnant women with a high level of fear of childbirth and their partners: study protocol of the quasi-experimental controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veringa, Irena K; de Bruin, Esther I; Bardacke, Nancy; Duncan, Larissa G; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-11-07

    Approximately 25 % of pregnant women suffer from a high level of Fear of Childbirth (FoC), as assessed by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ-A, score ≥66). FoC negatively affects pregnant women's mental health and adaptation to the perinatal period. Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) seems to be potentially effective in decreasing pregnancy-related anxiety and stress. We propose a theoretical model of Avoidance and Participation in Pregnancy, Birth and the Postpartum Period in order to explore FoC and to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of change of MBCP. The 'I've Changed My Mind' study is a quasi-experimental controlled trial among 128 pregnant women (week 16-26) with a high level of FoC, and their partners. Women will be allocated to MBCP (intervention group) or to Fear of Childbirth Consultation (FoCC; comparison group). Primary outcomes are FoC, labour pain, and willingness to accept obstetrical interventions. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, depression, general stress, parental stress, quality of life, sleep quality, fatigue, satisfaction with childbirth, birth outcome, breastfeeding self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The total study duration for women is six months with four assessment waves: pre- and post-intervention, following the birth and closing the maternity leave period. Given the high prevalence and severe negative impact of FoC this study can be of major importance if statistically and clinically meaningful benefits are found. Among the strengths of this study are the clinical-based experimental design, the extensive cognitive-emotional and behavioural measurements in pregnant women and their partners during the entire perinatal period, and the representativeness of study sample as well as generalizability of the study's results. The complex and innovative measurements of FoC in this study are an important strength in clinical research on FoC not only in pregnant women but also in their partners. Dutch Trial

  1. A Quasi-experimental Study to Explore the Effect of Barrier Cream on the Peristomal Skin of Patients With a Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Turkan; Korkmaz, Fatoș

    2018-03-01

    Peristomal skin problems represent one of the most common complications of a tracheostomy. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among patients ages 18 to 65 years hospitalized in a Turkish university hospital ear-nose-throat clinic between August 15, 2013, and December 15, 2013, to compare the effect of using or not using a barrier cream on the peristomal skin with regard to pH, moisture, temperature, color, odor, turgor, infections, and lesions after tracheostomy surgery. Patients were selected using a purposeful sampling method and included if they had not undergone another operation for a complication (eg, pneumothorax, tube misplacement, hemorrhage) within 24 hours following the tracheostomy operation. In phase 1 of the study, 9 registered nurses were observed 3 times each by the researcher, who completed an observation form. From these observations and related nursing textbooks, the researcher developed a protocol entitled "Nursing Care Steps for Patients with a Tracheostomy." This protocol was followed during phase 2 of the study during which participants were alternately assigned to either the intervention (a barrier cream containing dimethicone, acrylate terpolymer, oils, paraffin, water, dicapryladipate, isopropyl palmitate, and PPG-15 stearyl ether followed by gauze) or control (gauze only) group (n = 30 each) and observed for 7 days. Demographic characteristics were gathered for each patient upon admission to the study. Peristomal skin was assessed in terms of pH, temperature, and moisture (relative humidity [RH]) using a surface pH meter, surface thermometer, and digital skin moisture tester, as well as for lesions, infection, and maceration. Findings were documented on a skin condition assessment form. Twenty-four (24) hours post surgery, the barrier cream plus gauze was applied over peristomal area in the study group and gauze dressing only in the control group. Peristomal skin pH, moisture, and temperature were within the normal range for both

  2. The Impact of Regression to the Mean on Economic Evaluation in Quasi-Experimental Pre-Post Studies: The Example of Total Knee Replacement Using Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Chris; Petrie, Dennis; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F; Clarke, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Many treatments are evaluated using quasi-experimental pre-post studies susceptible to regression to the mean (RTM). Ignoring RTM could bias the economic evaluation. We investigated this issue using the contemporary example of total knee replacement (TKR), a common treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Data (n = 4796) were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database, a longitudinal observational study of osteoarthritis. TKR patients (n = 184) were matched to non-TKR patients, using propensity score matching on the predicted hazard of TKR and exact matching on osteoarthritis severity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). The economic evaluation using the matched control group was compared to the standard method of using the pre-surgery score as the control. Matched controls were identified for 56% of the primary TKRs. The matched control HrQoL trajectory showed evidence of RTM accounting for a third of the estimated QALY gains from surgery using the pre-surgery HrQoL as the control. Incorporating RTM into the economic evaluation significantly reduced the estimated cost effectiveness of TKR and increased the uncertainty. A generalized ICER bias correction factor was derived to account for RTM in cost-effectiveness analysis. RTM should be considered in economic evaluations based on quasi-experimental pre-post studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Gluteus medius kinesio-taping: the effect on torso-pelvic separation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin, various benefits were proposed, including alignment of fascia, stimulation according to the position of tape on the skin and the provision of specific sensory stimulation to ... shaft stiffness, shaft length and club face loft.[3] This would not affect this one group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study as each participant's ...

  4. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  5. The Effects of an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach on Improving Critical Thinking and the Conceptual Understanding of Optics among Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the university-level application of an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach, as compared to the traditional laboratory teaching method, on the ability of students to learn about optics and to demonstrate critical thinking. In this quasi-experimental study, pretest-posttest scores and CCDTI were…

  6. The Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Middle School Climate and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarella, Paul; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Gray, Kristy M.; Young, K. Richard; Young, Ellie L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) on middle school climate and student outcomes. Data consisted of more than 300 teacher responses and 10,000 student responses in two middle schools in the western United States. This study used a quasi-experimental (non-equivalent two-group, pretest-posttest)…

  7. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic/Latino Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…

  8. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  9. Effects of EQUIP for Educators on Students' Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest study using a control group was conducted to investigate the effects of EQUIP for Educators--implemented as a universal prevention program--on prevalence of antisocial behavior, attitude towards antisocial behavior, self serving cognitive distortions, and moral judgment of young adolescents. Participants were…

  10. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils’ physical activity, well-being and learning: the TEACHOUT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Nielsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren’s learning, physical activity (PA, social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts. The TEACHOUT study aims to evaluate the impacts of EOTC on Danish schoolchildren’s PA, social relations, motivation, well-being, and learning. Methods TEACHOUT is a quasi-experimental, cross-disciplinary study. Sixteen schools participated, containing 19 EOTC school classes and 19 parallel non-EOTC classes, with a total of 834 children aged 9 to 13 years. Measures of the children’s social relations, motivation for school, well-being, and academic performance were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. Data on PA levels were collected over ten-day periods during the school year using accelerometers. The amount and characteristics of the actual EOTC provided in both EOTC and non-EOTC classes were monitored day-to-day throughout the school year, using an online teacher survey platform. The effects of EOTC are mainly analysed by comparing EOTC pupils to non-EOTC (i.e. control pupils based on their scores on the outcome variables (i.e. school performance, well-being, motivation, and social relations at the end of the school year, adjusting for the baseline values (from the beginning of the year. The impacts of EOTC on PA are evaluated by comparing the total as well as context-specific amounts of PA of children participating in EOTC to those of children in their parallel non-EOTC classes. Furthermore, the interdependencies between PA, social relations, well-being, motivation, and learning are explored

  11. A quasi-experimental cross-disciplinary evaluation of the impacts of education outside the classroom on pupils' physical activity, well-being and learning: the TEACHOUT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Glen; Mygind, Erik; Bølling, Mads; Otte, Camilla Roed; Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Schipperijn, Jasper; Ejbye-Ernst, Niels; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-10-24

    Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren's learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts. The TEACHOUT study aims to evaluate the impacts of EOTC on Danish schoolchildren's PA, social relations, motivation, well-being, and learning. TEACHOUT is a quasi-experimental, cross-disciplinary study. Sixteen schools participated, containing 19 EOTC school classes and 19 parallel non-EOTC classes, with a total of 834 children aged 9 to 13 years. Measures of the children's social relations, motivation for school, well-being, and academic performance were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. Data on PA levels were collected over ten-day periods during the school year using accelerometers. The amount and characteristics of the actual EOTC provided in both EOTC and non-EOTC classes were monitored day-to-day throughout the school year, using an online teacher survey platform. The effects of EOTC are mainly analysed by comparing EOTC pupils to non-EOTC (i.e. control) pupils based on their scores on the outcome variables (i.e. school performance, well-being, motivation, and social relations) at the end of the school year, adjusting for the baseline values (from the beginning of the year). The impacts of EOTC on PA are evaluated by comparing the total as well as context-specific amounts of PA of children participating in EOTC to those of children in their parallel non-EOTC classes. Furthermore, the interdependencies between PA, social relations, well-being, motivation, and learning are explored using path analysis. To help describe and

  12. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  13. Integration of strategy experiential learning in e-module of electronic records management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sutirman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies to improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. This study is a research and development. Model research and development used is Web-Based Instructional Design (WBID developed by Davidson-Shivers and Rasmussen. The steps of research and development carried out by analysis, evaluation planning, concurrent design, implementation, and a summative evaluation. The approach used in this study consisted of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Collecting data used the Delphi technique, observation, documentation studies and tests. Research data analysis used qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Testing the effectiveness of the product used a quasi-experimental research design pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group. The results showed that the e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies can improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.

  14. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  15. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  16. PELATIHAN MANAJEMEN DIRI UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR GULA DARAH PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS TIPE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondang Budiyani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pelatihan manajemen diri dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe II. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah ada perbedaan tingkat kadar gula darah antara pretest dan post test. Kadar gula darah lebih rendah pada saat post test. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 3 orang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi experimental design dan rancangan eksperimen the one group pretest-posttest design. Hasil analisis berdasarkan pemeriksaan visual (visual inspection yaitu dengan penyajian secara grafik menunjukkan tidak terjadi penurunan kadar gula darah sesudah pelatihan manajemen diri. Namun, pada saat pelatihan manajemen diri terlihat penurunan kadar gula darah menjadi kurang dari 200 mg/dl Kata kunci : kadar gula darah, pelatihan manajemen diri, penderita diabetes melitus tipe II

  17. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Depression and Obsessive Rumination among Women under Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S taimory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy in reducing depression and obsessive rumination among women under methadone treatment. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pretest-posttest design and a control group were employed to conduct this study. Considering inclusion criteria, a total of 24 female substance abusers who were under methadone treatment were selected from Omide Farda and Javeneh Sabz clinics in Mashhad via purposive sampling method. The experimental group received eight training sessions of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Two scales, namely obsessive rumination scale and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: Results of analysis of covariance showed that mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy has reduced obsessive rumination and depression scores. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy can be included in intervention programs for substance abusers.

  18. Dedicated Education Units: Partnerships for Building Leadership Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    To enable nurses to lead in health care transformation, nursing education must include opportunities for developing leadership, as well as clinical competencies. Dedicated education units (DEUs) provide supportive environments for competency development in undergraduate students. This study's aim was to explore the effects of a DEU experience on the leadership development of baccalaureate nursing students. A mixed-methods design included a quantitative strand, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, multisite design with control groups and a qualitative strand using focus groups. Students in the DEUs demonstrated significant increases (p leadership behaviors, as measured by the Student Leadership Practice Inventory. Focus group themes illuminate how the experiences of the students contributed to their leadership growth. Findings suggest that the DEU experience may promote enhanced undergraduate leadership competency development. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. PELATIHAN MANAJEMEN DIRI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPATUHAN DIET PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS TIPE II

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    Kondang Budiyani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pelatihan manajemen diri dapat meningkatkan kepatuhan diet pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe II. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah ada perbedaan kepatuhan diet antara pretest dan post test. Kepatuhan diet lebih tinggi pada saat post test. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 3 orang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi experimental design dan rancangan eksperimen the one group pretest-posttest design. Analisis data menggunakan pemeriksaan visual (visual inspection. Hasil menunjukan (1 apabila dibandingkan dengan sebelum pelatihan manajemen diri maka ada peningkatan skor kepatuhan diet pada saat pelatihan manajemen diri dan sesudah pelatihan manajemen diri. Skor kepatuhan diet yang paling tinggi adalah pada saat pelatihan manajemen diri, (2 Apabila dibandingkan dengan sebelum pelatihan manajemen diri maka ada peningkatan skor manajemen diri sesudah pelatihan manajemen diri Kata kunci : kepatuhan diet, pelatihan manajemen diri, penderita diabetes melitus tipe II

  20. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  1. Pengaruh ‘Group Counselling’ terhadap ‘Self-Regulation’ Pecandu Napza pada Jurnalis Televisi X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilmi Hatta

    2013-06-01

    interventions used to improve their self-regulation. Intervention in the form of group counseling. This study is a case study on the measurement of self-regulation in the case of ecstasy users who try to quit but have not been able to pass up the temptation to relapse regulation on Video Journalists in TV Group X. The research method used was a quasi experimental. The study design used was one group pretest-posttest design. Measurements conducted through questionnaires, interviews and observation. The results showed that the counseling group indicated that contributes to increased self-regulation on tv Video Journalists in group X who use ecstasy are trying to quit. Self regulation changes are explained in terms of cognitive theory.

  2. THE USE OF SCIENCE ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY (SETS LEARNING MODEL FOR ENHANCING THE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research purposed to determine the improvement of student’s scientific attitudes and critical thinking skills on the colloidal concept with implementation the learning model science environment technology and society (SETS. The method for this study is quasi-experimental with research design "Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design". Class XI student at one of SMAN in Majalengka District is the sample in this research with 62 students. The written test and the observation sheets used for collecting the data. The results showed that SETS learning for colloidal concept can enhance the student’s scientific attitude was 72,7 % (good category and student’s critical thinking skills with N-Gain of 42% (moderate category. Increasing student’s critical thinking skills class experiment is also significantly differ from the control class. So, the students’ scientific attitudes and critical thinking skills can improved by implementation the learning chemistry with SETS learning model

  3. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

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    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  4. Effect of Technology Enhanced Language Learning on Vocabulary Acquisition of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hassan Taj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the impact of a model, created with the help of computer and mobile phone, on the EFL vocabulary learning of the students at a public university on a Preparatory Year Program. The study used a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The participants were 122 students in their first year at a public university. Half of them (N = 61 were male and half were female (N = 61. Six weeks treatment period involved vocabulary learning activities presented through PCs in the language laboratory and receiving multi-glossed vocabulary cards on the mobile phones through a social networking mobile phone application WhatsApp. Findings suggested that performance of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group on achievement posttest. The impact of treatment was found gender neutral as male and female participants benefitted from it alike.

  5. [The Effects of Violence Coping Program Based on Middle-Range Theory of Resilience on Emergency Room Nurses' Resilience, Violence Coping, Nursing Competency and Burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a violence coping program (VCP) based on Polk's middle-range theory of resilience on nursing competency, resilience, burnout, and the ability to cope with violence in nurses working in emergency rooms. A quasi-experimental study, with a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design, was conducted. Participants were 36 nurses who worked in emergency rooms and had experienced violence; 18 nurses from D hospital and 18 nurses from C hospital were assigned to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received the VCP twice per week for 8 weeks. Levels of resilience, F=59.41, pnursing competency, F=59.41 pburnout, F=52.74, pburnout and improving resilience, active coping behavior, and nursing competency. Therefore, it would be a useful intervention for improving the quality of nursing care provided in emergency rooms. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  6. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  7. Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Kimia Siswa Berpikir Konkret Melalui Latihan Mengorganisasikan Konsep

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    Edy Mintarto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept organizing practice is one of the strategies of innovation in the teaching of chemistry which needs full participation of students in teaching processes. In this way, student's are trained in skills to identify and organize concepts through the chemical matter. This study aims to explore the effect of concept organizing practice on chemical student achievement. This study use pretest-posttest not equivalent design of quasi-experimental. One hundred and twenty students of SMUN 5 and SMUN 8 Kediri participated as sample. Data are analyzed statistically by using analysis of covariant at 0.05 level of significant. The result showed that Concept Organizing strategy is the potential strategy to enhance student's ability in understanding abstract concept, concepts.

  8. TEACHING GRAMMAR-IN-CONTEXT AND ITS IMPACT IN MINIMIZING STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

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    Yadhi Nur Amin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated by teaching grammar-in-context. The results of the study showed that the mean score in the post-test was higher than that in the pretest; and the mean score of experimental group increased 16.20 point after the treatment. This result indicated that teaching grammarin-context is considered to be effective in minimizing students‘ grammatical errors in writing.

  9. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  10. Critical Thinking and the Use of Nontraditional Instructional Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orique, Sabrina B; McCarthy, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical thinking and the use of concept mapping (CM) and problem-based learning (PBL) during care plan development. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design was conducted using a convenience sample (n = 49) of first-semester undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. Critical thinking was measured using the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. Data analysis consisted of a repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc mean comparison tests using the Bonferroni method. Findings indicated that mean critical thinking at phase 4 (CM and PBL) was significantly higher, compared with phase 1 (baseline), phase 2 (PBL), and phase 3 (CM [p < 0.001]). The results support the utilization of nontraditional instructional (CM and PBL) methodologies in undergraduate nursing curricula. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. EFFECT OF HYPNO-PRESSURE ON ANXIETY IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDER

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    Dwi Antara Nugraha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the combination of hypnotherapy and acupressure (hypno-pressure on anxiety levels in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Methods: A quasy-experimental research with pretest-posttest with control group design was used. Fifty-six respondents were selected using purposive sampling in this study, which 28 respondents were randomly assigned in the experiment and control group. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Form Y was used to measure anxiety. Paired t-test and Independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant effect of hypno-pressure on the decrease of anxiety levels in patients with cardiovascular disorder with p-value 0.000 (<0.05, t = 7.217, and effect size of 1.96. Conclusion: Hypno-pressure could reduce anxiety levels in patients with cardiovascular disorder.

  12. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Bereaved University Students' Hope

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    Seyyed Nahid Hosseininezhad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to study the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT on bereaved students' hope. This is an applied research of quasi-experimental type and pretest and posttest design with control group. We selected 30 bereaved university students using stratified sampling method. We used Schneider Hope Questionnaire as the pretest-posttest in the research and analyzed using the statistical method of covariance analysis. The data analysis results indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapy increases bereaved students' hope and there is a significant difference between the two groups. The results of this study show that cognitive-behavioral group therapy influences hope and increases bereaved students' hope by helping them in their emotional discharge and acceptance of death.

  13. Effects of using the developing nurses' thinking model on nursing students' diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, Mary Gay

    2012-08-01

    This quasi-experimental study tested the effectiveness of an educational model, Developing Nurses' Thinking (DNT), on nursing students' clinical reasoning to achieve patient safety. Teaching nursing students to develop effective thinking habits that promote positive patient outcomes and patient safety is a challenging endeavor. Positive patient outcomes and safety are achieved when nurses accurately interpret data and subsequently implement appropriate plans of care. This study's pretest-posttest design determined whether use of the DNT model during 2 weeks of clinical postconferences improved nursing students' (N = 83) diagnostic accuracy. The DNT model helps students to integrate four constructs-patient safety, domain knowledge, critical thinking processes, and repeated practice-to guide their thinking when interpreting patient data and developing effective plans of care. The posttest scores of students from the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in accuracy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Lifestyle Changes in Female Addicts under Way for Recovery

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    hamed ghasemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of motivational interviewing on lifestyle changes in female addicts under way for recovery. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. The number of 32 female addicts referring to rehab centers constituted the study sample. With regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria they were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was treated with eight sessions of group motivational interviewing along with lifestyle change program. Lifestyle questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Intervention led the experimental group to higher lifestyle scores compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the addition of motivational interviewing to lifestyle change programs is an effective way to change addictive behaviors and, thus, improve lifestyle.

  15. Audio-visual relaxation training for anxiety, sleep, and relaxation among Chinese adults with cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Ling

    2004-12-01

    The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations.

  16. Constructivism in cultural competence education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer L; Krantz, Steven

    2010-04-01

    A graduate course on cultural diversity, based in constructivist theory and structured on the Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services model, was developed and taught through classroom and online methods. The following research questions were explored: 1) Can an educational experience, built on constructivist learning theory tenets, change students' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and skills in the area of cultural competence? 2) Does the delivery method, online or traditional classroom, influence the degree of change? The study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among healthcare Professionals Revised. Findings showed significant changes (p<0.001) in cultural competence scores and subscores for all learners with both teaching modalities based on interval scale and in categories of cultural knowledge, skills, desire, and overall competence based on a nominal scale. The untaught construct of cultural desire showed the most significant improvement.

  17. Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Stress and Sleep Disturbance of Middle-Aged Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Nam Hyun; Park, Yi Kyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    This study sought to examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on the stress and sleep status of middle-aged women in South Korea. A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. The study sample consisted of 67 middle-aged women (experimental: 35 samples; control: 32 samples) in Seoul, South Korea. Auricular acupressure therapy including the auricular acupressure needle on the skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 2 weeks, 2 times per week. The acupoints were Gyogam, Sinmun, Bushin, Naebunbi, and Pijilha. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without the auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures were a stress scale, cortisol level in blood, and a sleep status scale. The findings showed that there were significant differences on stress (physical: t = 2.170, P women in South Korea.

  18. Enhancing Clinical Reasoning Through Simulation Debriefing: A Multisite Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Susan G; Neal, Diana O; Tiffany, Jone; Kuehn, Mary Beth; Meyer, Heidi M; Blazovich, Linda M; Holland, Ann E; Smerillo, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to replicate Dreifuerst's 2012 findings of enhanced clinical reasoning scores using a structured debriefing: Debriefing for Meaningful Learning (DML). The direct effect of debriefing on clinical reasoning is not well studied. The nursing education literature supports debriefing as a reflective dialogue necessary to enhance clinical reasoning. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, repeated measure research design was used to evaluate nursing students' clinical reasoning using the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT). The change in HSRT mean scores was determined to be significant for the intervention group at the .05 level and insignificant for the control group. The change in HSRT mean scores between the intervention and control groups was determined to be significant at the .10 level. Nursing students who had the DML debriefing scored significantly higher in their clinical reasoning than nursing students who had usual and customary debriefing.

  19. Social Information-Processing Skills and Aggression: A Quasi-Experimental Trial of the Making Choices and Making Choices Plus Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Mary A.; Li, Jilan; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Rose, Roderick A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings from an efficacy trial of a school-based, universal prevention program designed to reduce aggressive behavior of by strengthening emotion regulation and social information-processing (SIP) skills. Three cohorts of third graders (N = 479) participated in this study. The first cohort participated in the Making…

  20. A Quasi-Experimental Investigation of How the Gates Millennium Scholars Program Is Related to College Students' Time Use and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.; Ott, Molly; Kim, Jiyun

    2010-01-01

    A national scholarship program provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is designed to improve access to and success in higher education for low-income high-achieving minority students by providing them with full tuition scholarships and non-monetary support. We use a regression discontinuity approach to investigate whether the receipt of…

  1. Better movers and thinkers (BMT: A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalziell

    2015-01-01

    This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  2. Training hospital staff on spiritual care in palliative care influences patient-reported outcomes : Results of a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Geer, Joep; Groot, Marieke; Andela, Richtsje; Leget, Carlo; Prins, Jelle; Vissers, Kris; Zock, Hetty

    Background: Spiritual care is reported to be important to palliative patients. There is an increasing need for education in spiritual care. Aim: To measure the effects of a specific spiritual care training on patients' reports of their perceived care and treatment. Design: A pragmatic controlled

  3. The effectiveness of a mixed methodology implemented in a Beginner’s Spanish Course to develop the four language skills: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwin Anthony Livingstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This present article seeks to provide a mixed methodological model for the development and implementation of a Teaching Module for Spanish as a Foreign Language in the face-to-face environment. The primary objective is to portray how methodological principles from different language teaching approaches (such as task based language teaching and cooperative learning can be combined effectively in designing activities for face-to-face contexts. In this regard, empirical evidence is analysed in order to determine the effectiveness of the mixed methodology in the teaching-learning of Spanish as a Foreign Language in the said settings, in a study based on a longitudinal experimental design with pre-test and post-test, but without control group. The results show an increase in the acquisition of specific knowledge in Spanish as a Foreign Language. It is therefore proposed that mixed methodological models be integrated and implemented when designing Teaching Modules for Language Learning, since they are the most suited for Second and Foreign Language Acquisition.

  4. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9–11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the ‘Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)’ GMC tests, and the ‘Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).’ Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  5. An academic hospitalist model to improve healthcare worker communication and learner education: Results from a quasi-experimental study at a veterans affairs medical center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Krein, Sarah L; Flanders, Scott A; Bodnar, Timothy W; Young, Eric; Moseley, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although hospitalists may improve efficiency and quality of inpatient care, their effect on healthcare-worker communication and education has been less well-studied. OBJECTIVE To test various approaches to improving healthcare-worker communication and learner education within the context of a newly designed academic hospital medicine program. DESIGN Before-and-after design with concurrent control group. SETTING A Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center. INTERVENTION Multimodal systems redesign of 1 of 4 medical teams (Gold team) that included clinical modifications (change in rounding structure, with inclusion of nurses, a Clinical Care Coordinator, and a pharmacist) and educational interventions (providing explicit expectations of learners and providing a reading list for both learners and attending physicians). MEASUREMENTS Number of admissions, length of stay, readmissions, house officer and medical student ratings of attendings' teaching, medical student internal medicine National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination (“shelf” exam) scores, and clinical staff surveys. RESULTS Length of stay was reduced by about 0.3 days on all teams after the initiative began (P = 0.004), with no significant differences between Gold and non-Gold teams. The majority of physicians (83%) and nurses (68%) felt that including nurses during rounds improved healthcare-worker communication; significantly more nurses were satisfied with communication with the Gold team than with the other teams (71% vs 53%; P = 0.02). Gold attendings generally received higher teaching scores compared with non-Gold attendings, and third-year medical students on the Gold team scored significantly higher on the shelf exam compared with non–Gold team students (84 vs 82; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Academic hospitalists working within a systems redesign intervention were able to improve healthcare-worker communication and enhance learner education without increasing

  6. Quality of life of residents with dementia in traditional versus small-scale long-term care settings: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Alida H P M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Schaafsma, Juliette; Declercq, Anja G; Emmerink, Peggy M J; Schols, Jos M G A

    2012-08-01

    The number of people living with dementia worldwide is increasing, resulting in a need for more residential care. In response to criticism of the traditional medical approach to residential dementia care, many large nursing homes are transforming their traditional care facilities into more home-like small-scale living facilities. This study examined the assumed benefits of small-scale living for residents with dementia, compared to traditional long-term care in the Netherlands and Belgium. The primary outcome was quality of life, divided into nine different domains. The study had a longitudinal design within a one-year time interval. Five long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium containing four traditional and twelve small-scale living units participated in the study. Data were obtained from 179 residents with dementia (age>65 years) (Dutch small-scale N=51, traditional N=51, Belgian small-scale N=47, traditional N=30). Nurses and nursing assistants were trained to fill in the questionnaires. In the Dutch sample, residents in small-scale settings had higher mean scores on 'social relations', 'positive affect', and 'having something to do' than residents in traditional settings. Moreover, mean scores on 'caregiver relation' and 'negative affect' remained stable over time among residents in small-scale settings, but decreased in traditional settings. These differences could not be explained by differences in behavioural characteristics, behavioural interventions, or social interaction. In the Belgian sample, fewer differences were found between traditional and small-scale settings. Nevertheless, residents in small-scale settings were reported to experience less 'negative affect' than those in traditional settings, which could be explained by differences in depression. Over time, however, residents 'felt more at home' in traditional settings, whereas no such increase was found for small-scale settings. Moreover, the mean quality of life scores on

  7. In-Home Synchronous Telespeech Therapy to Improve Functional Communication in Chronic Poststroke Aphasia: Results from a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joël; Sauvageau, Vincent Martel; Boissy, Patrick; Tousignant, Marilyn; Tousignant, Michel

    2017-08-01

    Although the use of telepractice in speech-language therapy for assessment purposes is well documented, its effectiveness and potential for rehabilitation in poststroke aphasia remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a remotely delivered synchronous pragmatic telespeech language therapy for improving functional communication in aphasia. A pre-/post-test design was chosen in which each participant was his or her own control. Using a telerehabilitation platform and software (Oralys TeleTherapy) based on the Promoting Aphasics' Communicative Effectiveness (PACE) approach, 20 participants with chronic poststroke aphasia received 9 speech therapy sessions over a 3-week period. Teletreatment with the PACE pragmatic rehabilitation approach led to improvements in functional communication, marked by (a) an increase in communication effectiveness, reflecting significantly improved autonomy in functional communication; (b) a decrease in communication exchange duration, meaning that the treatment made communication faster and more efficient; (c) a decrease in the number of communication acts, meaning that, after treatment, less information was needed to be efficiently understood by the communication partner; and (d) an increase in the number of different communication strategies used, meaning that the treatment fostered the use of a variety of alternative communication modes. This study provides additional arguments about the benefits of telerehabilitation for poststroke patients with aphasia. It showed that multimodal language therapy delivered through synchronous telerehabilitation had positive effects on functional communication in chronic aphasia.

  8. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  9. Effects of Acupressure on Fatigue and Depression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chen Lan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine the effects of acupressure on fatigue and depression in HCC patients undergoing TACE. A quasiexperimental study design was used. Patients were evaluated at five time points: before treatment (T1 and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after treating TACE (T2, T3, T4, and T5. Fatigue and depression were assessed by a VAS fatigue scale and a VAS depression scale at each time point. TFRS and BDI were administered at T1 and T5. Patients’ fatigue and depression were significantly higher at T5 than at T1 in two groups. Fatigue and depression increased in both the experimental and control groups’ patients over the five days of hospitalization during which TACE and chemotherapy were administered. The experimental group had significantly less fatigue than the control group, with lower subscale scores on physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue. There were no differences between the groups on depression. At posttest, the experimental group experienced lower physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue than the control group. Acupressure can improve fatigue in HCC patients during treatment with TACE but did not alleviate depression. Discharge planning should include home care for management of fatigue and depression.

  10. Pragmatic Language Outcomes of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder After Therapist- and Parent-Delivered Play-Based Interventions: Two One-Group Pretest-Posttest Studies With a Longitudinal Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Munro, Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Cantrill, Alycia; Pearce, Wendy

    The pragmatic language outcomes of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored across two feasibility studies. Five children with ADHD (ages 6-11 yr), their parents, and 5 typically developing peers completed an assessment 18 mo after a therapist-delivered intervention (Study 1). Participants then completed a parent-delivered intervention (Study 2). Blinded ratings of peer-to-peer play interactions documented changes in children's pragmatic language 18 mo after the Study 1 intervention and before, immediately after, and 1 mo after the Study 2 intervention. Nonparametric statistics and Cohen's d were used to measure change. Children's pragmatic language outcomes were maintained 18 mo after the therapist-delivered intervention and significantly improved from before to 1 mo after the parent-delivered intervention. Interventions involving occupational therapist and speech-language pathologist collaboration, play, and parent and peer involvement may facilitate children's pragmatic language skills.

  11. Effectiveness of demand and supply side interventions in promoting institutional deliveries--a quasi-experimental trial from rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudhan, Senthil; Mani, Kalaivani; Rai, Sanjay K; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Krishnan, Anand

    2013-06-01

    We assessed the differential and sequential effects of a Government of India conditional cash transfer scheme for the socio-economically disadvantaged (Janani Suraksha Yojana; JSY) and the strengthening of the primary health centre (PHC) network to provide 24/7 obstetric care in promoting institutional deliveries. This study used 7796 births from the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance Site between April 2006 and March 2010 when both schemes were implemented in a staggered manner. The multiple baseline design took advantage of interventions separated by time and geographical zone to compute difference in differences in the rate of institutional deliveries. Logistic regression was used to estimate increases in the odds of institutional deliveries after adjustment for caste and maternal education. Compared with villages with poor access, institutional deliveries nearly doubled among villages with access to 24/7 delivery services; odds ratio (OR) 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.6]. Introduction of JSY in villages with poor access resulted in a 1.4-fold (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) increase in institutional deliveries and a 1.1-fold (95% CI: 0.9, 1.4) increase in villages served by PHCs 24/7. However, the introduction of PHC 24/7 care to villages served by JSY doubled the rate of institutional deliveries; OR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.8). Among the disadvantaged, institutional deliveries increased by 34.4%, compared with 24.8% among the non-disadvantaged. Introduction of PHC 24/7 care in this group increased institutional deliveries 4-fold; OR 4.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 9.0) compared with 3-fold for JSY alone; OR 3.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 5.6). Both demand and supply side strategies are effective and promote equity. Improving service delivery in a population previously primed by demand side intervention appears to be the most useful.

  12. Intensified pharmaceutical care is improving immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients during the first post-transplant year: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Robert; Dörje, Frank; Schwitulla, Judith; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Hugo, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Medication adherence is critical for transplant patients because the consequences of non-adherence can result in allograft loss and may be life threatening. A prospective study with 74 renal transplant recipients using a sequential control group design was performed to investigate the impact of a pharmaceutical intensified care programme led by a clinical pharmacist on daily drug adherence during the first year after renal transplantation. Thirty-nine patients of the control group received the already established standardized drug and transplant training, while 35 patients of the intensified care group (ICG) received additional inpatient and outpatient pharmaceutical care and counselling by a dedicated clinical pharmacist. Applied interventions were clustered and classified using the behaviour change technique taxonomy according to Michie. Adherence to immunosuppressive drug therapy was monitored up to 1 year using a medication event monitoring system, pill count (PC), drug holiday (DH) occurrence, Morisky questionnaire and self-report. Sixty-seven patients (35 of the standard care and 32 of the ICG) were analysed. Implementation of DA was significantly (P = 0.014) improved in patients of the ICG (91%) compared with SCG (75%) during the first year after transplantion. Daily adherence measures were already improved within 30-40 days after start of intensified patient care and continued throughout the study period. Intensified care patients also showed significantly better results for taking adherence (P = 0.006), PC (P = 0.008) and DHs (P = 0.001). The additional, intensified pharmaceutical care improved patients' medication adherence remarkably, suggesting that the applied additional care programme has the potential to improve outcomes after organ transplantation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Can reproductive health voucher programs improve quality of postnatal care? A quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's safe motherhood voucher scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watt

    Full Text Available This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya's Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH voucher program's causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02, where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02, with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01 and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01. Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement.

  14. Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior--a quasi-experimental open pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Elizabeth; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2015-12-01

    In recent studies it has been suggested that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is beneficial to people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but that the method needs to be modified in relation to their cognitive profile. The aim of this study is to measure the effect of modified CBT, that is, using visualized language throughout the entire session for clients with ASD and anxiety and avoidance behavior. The modification of CBT in this study consists of focusing on CBT protocols for anxiety disorders and depression, while visualizing and systematizing "the invisible" in the conversation, in order for the clients to understand the social, cognitive and emotional context of self and others and how they should interact to avoid misunderstandings. ASD clients may need help to detect the invisible code of social interaction and communication. The level of anxiety and the frequency of target behavior were measured. Four assessments were made, two at the pre-assessment, and one in mid-therapy and end of therapy respectively. Generally, results suggest no improvement during pre-treatment period but a significant improvement during treatment. The values of the clients' psychological, social and occupational ability to function improved on the Global Function Rating scale. The preliminary conclusion of this pilot study indicates that the use of visualized language throughout the CBT therapy sessions is a promising modification of current CBT protocols for individuals with ASD. After manualization, larger studies with randomized controlled study designs can replicate or challenge these results. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparing four service delivery models for adolescent girls and young women through the ‘Girl Power’ study: protocol for a multisite quasi-experimental cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Pettifor, Audrey E; Myers, Laura; Phanga, Twambilile; Marcus, Rebecca; Madlingozi, Nomtha; Vansia, Dhrutika; Masters, Avril; Maseko, Bertha; Mtwisha, Lulu; Kachigamba, Annie; Tang, Jennifer; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges. Clinical, behavioural and structural interventions have each reduced these risks and improved health outcomes. However, combinations of these interventions have not been compared with each other or with no intervention at all. The ‘Girl Power’ study is designed to systematically make these comparisons. Methods and analysis Four comparable health facilities in Malawi and South Africa (n=8) were selected and assigned to one of the following models of care: (1) Standard of care: AGYW can receive family planning, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management in three separate locations with three separate queues with the general population. No youth-friendly spaces, clinical modifications or trainings are offered, (2) Youth-Friendly Health Services (YFHS): AGYW are meant to receive integrated family planning, HTC and STI services in dedicated youth spaces with youth-friendly modifications and providers trained in YFHS, (3) YFHS+behavioural intervention (BI): In addition to YFHS, AGYW can attend 12 monthly theory-driven, facilitator-led, interactive sessions on health, finance and relationships, (4) YFHS+BI+conditional cash transfer (CCT): in addition to YFHS and BI, AGYW receive up to 12 CCTs conditional on monthly BI session attendance. At each clinic, 250 AGYW 15–24 years old (n=2000 total) will be consented, enrolled and followed for 1 year. Each participant will complete a behavioural survey at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months . All clinical, behavioural and CCT services will be captured. Outcomes of interest include uptake of each package element and reduction in HIV risk behaviours. A qualitative substudy will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This study has received ethical approval from the University of North Carolina Institutional Review Board, the University of

  16. Comparing four service delivery models for adolescent girls and young women through the 'Girl Power' study: protocol for a multisite quasi-experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Pettifor, Audrey E; Myers, Laura; Phanga, Twambilile; Marcus, Rebecca; Bhushan, Nivedita Latha; Madlingozi, Nomtha; Vansia, Dhrutika; Masters, Avril; Maseko, Bertha; Mtwisha, Lulu; Kachigamba, Annie; Tang, Jennifer; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2017-12-14

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges. Clinical, behavioural and structural interventions have each reduced these risks and improved health outcomes. However, combinations of these interventions have not been compared with each other or with no intervention at all. The 'Girl Power' study is designed to systematically make these comparisons. Four comparable health facilities in Malawi and South Africa (n=8) were selected and assigned to one of the following models of care: (1) Standard of care : AGYW can receive family planning, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management in three separate locations with three separate queues with the general population. No youth-friendly spaces, clinical modifications or trainings are offered, (2) Youth-Friendly Health Services (YFHS) : AGYW are meant to receive integrated family planning, HTC and STI services in dedicated youth spaces with youth-friendly modifications and providers trained in YFHS, (3) YFHS+behavioural intervention (BI) : In addition to YFHS, AGYW can attend 12 monthly theory-driven, facilitator-led, interactive sessions on health, finance and relationships, (4) YFHS+BI+conditional cash transfer (CCT) : in addition to YFHS and BI, AGYW receive up to 12 CCTs conditional on monthly BI session attendance.At each clinic, 250 AGYW 15-24 years old (n=2000 total) will be consented, enrolled and followed for 1 year. Each participant will complete a behavioural survey at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months . All clinical, behavioural and CCT services will be captured. Outcomes of interest include uptake of each package element and reduction in HIV risk behaviours. A qualitative substudy will be conducted. This study has received ethical approval from the University of North Carolina Institutional Review Board, the University of Cape Town Human Research Ethics Committee and Malawi

  17. The effectiveness of an integrated collaborative care model vs. a shifted outpatient collaborative care model on community functioning, residential stability, and health service use among homeless adults with mental illness: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Schuler, Andrée; Nisenbaum, Rosane; deRuiter, Wayne; Guimond, Tim; Wasylenki, Donald; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hwang, Stephen W; Rouleau, Katherine; Dewa, Carolyn

    2015-08-28

    Although a growing number of collaborative mental health care models have been developed, targeting specific populations, few studies have utilized such interventions among homeless populations. This quasi-experimental study compared the outcomes of two shelter-based collaborative mental health care models for men experiencing homelessness and mental illness: (1) an integrated multidisciplinary collaborative care (IMCC) model and (2) a less resource intensive shifted outpatient collaborative care (SOCC) model. In total 142 participants, 70 from IMCC and 72 from SOCC were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures included community functioning, residential stability, and health service use. Multivariate regression models were used to compare study arms with respect to change in community functioning, residential stability, and health service use outcomes over time and to identify baseline demographic, clinical or homelessness variables associated with observed changes in these domains. We observed improvements in both programs over time on measures of community functioning, residential stability, hospitalizations, emergency department visits and community physician visits, with no significant differences between groups over time on these outcome measures. Our findings suggest that shelter-based collaborative mental health care models may be effective for individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and examine the cost effectiveness of collaborative care models for this population.

  18. Evaluación del impacto de la reforma del sector de la salud en Costa Rica mediante un estudio cuasiexperimental Assessing the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica through a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rosero Bixby

    2004-02-01

    mortalidad de adultos debida a enfermedades transmisibles o desencadenadas por procesos infecciosos, nulo en la debida a causas sociales y similar al total (2% en la mortalidad debida a enfermedades crónicas. Se estima que la reforma salvó aproximadamente 120 vidas de niños y 350 vidas de adultos en el año 2001 únicamente. La reforma se puso en marcha primero en las zonas menos densamente pobladas y de menor desarrollo socioeconómico. Como resultado, la brecha en la equidad del acceso a los servicios de salud en el primer nivel de atención se redujo significativamente. El porcentaje de personas sin acceso equitativo a los servicios de salud del primer nivel de atención se redujo en 15% entre 1994 y 2000 en las áreas que adoptaron la reforma en 1995-1996, mientras que en las áreas que no habían adoptado la reforma en 2000, la reducción fue solo de 3%. CONCLUSIÓN: La reforma redujo significativamente la mortalidad en Costa Rica y puso fin a una década de estancamiento en algunos indicadores, como la esperanza de vida. El efecto de la reforma se produjo probablemente gracias a su focalización en las regiones menos desarrolladas del país, lo cual dio lugar a un mejoramiento en la equidad de acceso al primer nivel de atención médica.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica on that country's child and adult mortality rates and on the people's access to primary health care. METHODS: Health sector reform was initiated in Costa Rica in 1995 in some districts, but in others reforms were adopted later. This made it possible to perform a time series analysis, using a quasi-experimental study design, in which observations were made annually from 1985 through 2001 for each of the 420 districts that existed in Costa Rica in 1984. The time series were divided into three periods that allowed all districts to be grouped into three categories (pioneer, intermediate, and late according to the year when they first implemented health sector reform

  19. The Effect of STEM Learning through the Project of Designing Boat Model toward Student STEM Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, T.; Firman, H.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    STEM Learning focusses on development of STEM-literate society, the research about implementation of STEM learning to develope students’ STEM literacy is still limited. This study is aimed to examine the effect of implementation STEM learning through the project of designing boat model on students STEM literacy in energy topic. The method of this study was a quasi-experiment with non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. There were two classes involved, the experiment class used Project Based Learning with STEM approach and control class used Project-Based Learning without STEM approach. A STEM Literacy test instrument was developed to measure students STEM literacy which consists of science literacy, mathematics literacy, and technology-engineering literacy. The analysis showed that there were significant differences on improvement science literacy, mathematics technology-engineering between experiment class and control class with effect size more than 0.8 (large effect). The difference of improvement of STEM literacy between experiment class and control class is caused by the existence of design engineering activity which required students to apply the knowledge from every field of STEM. The challenge that was faced in STEM learning through design engineering activity was how to give the students practice to integrate STEM field in solving the problems. In additional, most of the students gave positive response toward implementation of STEM learning through design boat model project.

  20. Scaling-up primary health care-based prevention and management of heavy drinking at the municipal level in middle-income countries in Latin America: Background and protocol for a three-country quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen; Gual, Antoni; Schulte, Bernd; Pérez Gómez, Augusto; de Vries, Hein; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background : While primary health care (PHC)-based prevention and management of heavy drinking is clinically effective and cost-effective, it remains poorly implemented in routine practice. Systematic reviews and multi-country studies have demonstrated the ability of training and support programmes to increase PHC-based screening and brief advice activity to reduce heavy drinking. However, gains have been only modest and short term at best. WHO studies have concluded that a more effective uptake could be achieved by embedding PHC activity within broader community and municipal support. Protocol : A quasi-experimental study will compare PHC-based prevention and management of heavy drinking in three intervention cities from Colombia, Mexico and Peru with three comparator cities from the same countries. In the implementation cities, primary health care units (PHCUs) will receive training embedded within ongoing supportive municipal action over an 18-month implementation period. In the comparator cities, practice as usual will continue at both municipal and PHCU levels. The primary outcome will be the proportion of consulting adult patients intervened with (screened and advice given to screen positives). The study is powered to detect a doubling of the outcome measure from an estimated 2.5/1,000 patients at baseline. Formal evaluation points will be at baseline, mid-point and end-point of the 18-month implementation period. We will present the ratio (plus 95% confidence interval) of the proportion of patients receiving intervention in the implementation cities with the proportions in the comparator cities. Full process evaluation will be undertaken, coupled with an analysis of potential contextual, financial and political-economy influencing factors. Discussion : This multi-country study will test the extent to which embedding PHC-based prevention and management of alcohol use disorder with supportive municipal action leads to improved scale-up of more patients with

  1. 'The clock keeps ticking'--the role of a community-based intervention in reducing delays in seeking emergency obstetric care in rural Bangladesh: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, M; Akter, M; Begum, K; Choudhury, R H; Nasreen, H E

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of a community-based intervention in reducing delays in accessing emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural Bangladesh, and the factors associated with delayed decision making, reaching the health facility and receiving treatment. Quasi-experimental study. Multistage random sampling was used to select 540 villages, from which 1200 women who reported obstetric complications in March-April 2010 were interviewed. The median time taken to make the decision to access health care was significantly lower in the intervention areas compared with the control areas (80 vs 90 min). In addition, the median time taken to reach the health facility was significantly lower in the intervention areas compared with the control areas (110 vs 135 min). However, no difference was found in the median time taken to receive treatment. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated that the community intervention significantly reduced decision making and time taken to reach the health facility when accessing EmOC in rural Bangladesh. However, for women experiencing haemorrhage, the delays were longer in the intervention areas. Protective factors against delayed decision making included access to television, previous medical exposure, knowledge, life-threatening complications during childbirth and use of a primary health facility. Financial constraints and traditional perceptions were associated with delayed decision making. Complications during labour, use of a motorized vehicle and use of a primary health facility were associated with faster access to EmOC, and poverty, distance, transportation difficulties and decision made by male guardian were associated with slower access to EmOC. The intervention appeared to reduce the time taken to make the decision to access health care and the time taken to reach the health facility when accessing EmOC. This study provides support for a focus on emergency preparedness for timely referral from the community. Copyright © 2014 The Royal

  2. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla

    2016-10-26

    Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  3. The Communities First (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. ‘Communities First’ is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents’ mental health and social cohesion. Methods and analysis A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18–74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. Ethics and dissemination This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in

  4. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Kirkhaug

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  5. Comparing Impact Findings from Design-Based and Model-Based Methods: An Empirical Investigation. NCEE 2017-4026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tim; Schochet, Peter Z.; Tilley, Charles

    2017-01-01

    A new design-based theory has recently been developed to estimate impacts for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and basic quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) for a wide range of designs used in social policy research (Imbens & Rubin, 2015; Schochet, 2016). These methods use the potential outcomes framework and known features of study designs…

  6. Outcomes of a systematically designed strategy for the implementation of sex education in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Poelman, J.; Linthorst, M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Wijngaarden, J.C.M. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a systematically designed innovation strategy on teachers' implementation of a sex education curriculum and its related determinants. A quasi-experimental group design was used to assess the effectiveness of the innovation strategy. Teachers filled in

  7. Using Story Structure for Lesson Design in Teaching about Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Ryan G.; Kearns, Katherine D.

    2016-01-01

    The present pilot study examines the use of story structure for lesson design to promote student engagement in a lesson focusing on sexual assault prevention. The effect of the story-based lesson on undergraduates' knowledge and perceptions of sexual assault was studied using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design. Results of the study…

  8. How to Flip the Classroom--"Productive Failure or Traditional Flipped Classroom" Pedagogical Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Kapur, Manu

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a quasi-experimental study comparing the "traditional flipped classroom" pedagogical design with the "productive failure" (Kapur, 2016) pedagogical design in the flipped classroom for a 2-week curricular unit on polynomials in a Hong Kong Secondary school. Different from the flipped classroom where students…

  9. The Effects of Computer-Aided Design Software on Engineering Students' Spatial Visualisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösa, Temel; Karakus, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of computer-aided design (CAD) software-based instruction on the spatial visualisation skills of freshman engineering students in a computer-aided engineering drawing course. A quasi-experimental design was applied, using the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization of Rotations…

  10. The Corruption of a Research Design: A Case Study of a Curriculum Innovation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Hugh F.; Mandinach, Ellen B.

    This chapter describes the corruption of research design and explains why and how a computer-based curriculum innovation project was transformed from a quasi-experimental design to a comparative case study. The first section introduces the Systems Thinking and Curriculum Innovation Network (STACI) that examined the impact of technology on teaching…

  11. Providing guidance in virtual lab experimentation : the case of an experiment design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, Charalampos; Hovardas, Tasos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta A.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Ton A.J.M.; Anjewierden, Anjo; van Riesen, Siswa A.N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study employed a quasi-experimental design to assess a computer-based tool, which was intended to scaffold the task of designing experiments when using a virtual lab for the process of experimentation. In particular, we assessed the impact of this tool on primary school students’

  12. How an Integrative STEM Curriculum Can Benefit Students in Engineering Design Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Szu-Chun; Yu, Kuang-Chao

    2017-01-01

    STEM-oriented engineering design practice has become recognized increasingly by technology education professionals in Taiwan. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of the application of an integrative STEM approach within engineering design practices in high school technology education in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study was conducted…

  13. The Effects of a Custom-Designed Animation Program on Learning Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a custom-designed computer animation program on learning Chinese characters by beginning learners of Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) in a higher education setting. This study used a matched comparison quasi-experimental design to explore the effects of the customized computer program within…

  14. Instructional Design, Active Learning, and Student Performance: Using a Trading Room to Teach Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…

  15. Enhancing pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills through HOT lab design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Adam; Setiawan, Agus; Suhandi, Andi; Permanasari, Anna

    2017-08-01

    A research on the implementation of HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Laboratory has been carried out. This research is aimed to compare increasing of creative thinking skills of pre-service physics teachers who receive physics lesson with HOT Lab and with verification lab for the topic of electric circuit. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with control group pretest-posttest design. The subject of the research is 40 Physics Education pre-service physics teachers of UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Research samples were selected by class random sampling technique. Data on pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills were collected using test of creative thinking skills in the form of essay. The results of the research reveal that average of N-gain of creative thinking skills are for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with HOT Lab design and for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with verification lab, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that application of HOT Lab design is more effective to increase creative thinking skills in the lesson of electric circuit.

  16. The communities first (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-10-14

    Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. 'Communities First' is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents' mental health and social cohesion. A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18-74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in local and national government, and updates on our study website

  17. The role of a decision-support smartphone application in enhancing community health volunteers' effectiveness to improve maternal and newborn outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya: quasi-experimental research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Kamande, Eva; Omuya, Milka; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2017-07-20

    Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya. This is a quasi-experimental study. We are implementing an innovative, mHealth application known as mobile Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (mPAMANECH) which uses dynamic mobile phone and web-portal solutions to enable CHVs make timely decisions on the best course of action in their management of mothers and newborns at community level. The application is based on existing guidelines and protocols in use by CHVs. Currently, CHVs conduct weekly home visits and make decisions from memory or using unwieldy manual tools, and thus prone to making errors. mPAMANECH has an in-built algorithm that makes it easier, faster and more likely for CHVs to make the right management decision. We are working with a network of selected CHVs and maternity centres to pilot test the tool. To measure the impact of the intervention, baseline and end-line surveys will be conducted. Data will be obtained through qualitative and quantitative methods. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the African Medical Research Foundation. Key messages from the results will be packaged and disseminated through meetings, conference presentations, reports, fact sheets and academic publications to facilitate uptake by policy-makers. © Article author(s) (or their

  18. Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy

    2014-08-11

    To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Prospective quasi-experimental before-after study. 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1 year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (pability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings and making use of established human resources for health may improve knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices

  19. Lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED): a study protocol for a quasi-experimental, before-after trial aimed at reducing pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian; Mohr, Nicholas M; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2016-04-11

    In critically ill patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) are associated with increased mortality, survivor morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation. Studies conclusively demonstrate that initial ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, and at risk for it, impact outcome. No studies have been conducted in the emergency department (ED) to determine if lung-protective ventilation in patients at risk for ARDS can reduce its incidence. Since the ED is the entry point to the intensive care unit for hundreds of thousands of mechanically ventilated patients annually in the USA, this represents a knowledge gap in this arena. A lung-protective ventilation strategy was instituted in our ED in 2014. It aims to address the parameters in need of quality improvement, as demonstrated by our previous research: (1) prevention of volutrauma; (2) appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure setting; (3) prevention of hyperoxia; and (4) aspiration precautions. The lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED) trial is a single-centre, quasi-experimental before-after study testing the hypothesis that lung-protective ventilation, initiated in the ED, is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. An intervention cohort of 513 mechanically ventilated adult ED patients will be compared with over 1000 preintervention control patients. The primary outcome is a composite outcome of pulmonary complications after admission (ARDS and VACs). Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment will test the hypothesis that ED lung-protective ventilation decreases the incidence of pulmonary complications. Approval of the study was obtained prior to data collection on the first patient. As the study is a before-after observational study, examining the effect of treatment changes over time, it is being conducted with waiver of informed consent. This work will be disseminated by

  20. Effect of a multifaceted social franchising model on quality and coverage of maternal, newborn, and reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Dutt, Varun; Pereira, Shreya; Haldar, Kaveri; Shukla, Vasudha; Singh, Kultar; Kumar, Paresh; Goodman, Catherine; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    How to harness the private sector to improve population health in low-income and middle-income countries is heavily debated and one prominent strategy is social franchising. We aimed to evaluate whether the Matrika social franchising model-a multifaceted intervention that established a network of private providers and strengthened the skills of both public and private sector clinicians-could improve the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and reproductive health. We did a quasi-experimental study, which combined matching with difference-in-differences methods. We matched 60 intervention clusters (wards or villages) with a social franchisee to 120 comparison clusters in six districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The intervention was implemented by two not-for-profit organisations from September, 2013, to May, 2016. We did two rounds (January, 2015, and May, 2016) of a household survey for women who had given birth up to 2 years previously. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who gave birth in a health-care facility. An additional 56 prespecified outcomes measured maternal health-care use, content of care, patient experience, and other dimensions of care. We organised conceptually similar outcomes into 14 families to create summary indices. We used multivariate difference-in-differences methods for the analyses and accounted for multiple inference. The introduction of Matrika was not significantly associated with the change in facility births (4 percentage points, 95% CI -1 to 9; p=0·100). Effects for any of the other individual outcomes or for any of the 14 summary indices were not significant. Evidence was weak for an increase of 0·13 SD (95% CI 0·00 to 0·27; p=0·053) in recommended delivery care practices. The Matrika social franchise model was not effective in improving the quality and coverage of maternal health services at the population level. Several key reasons identified for the absence of

  1. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    .... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...

  2. Sensitivity to Structure in the Speech Signal by Children with Speech Sound Disorder and Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Research Design;Intervention;Biology;Biotechnology;Teaching Methods;Hands on Science;Professional Development;Comparative Analysis;Genetics;Evaluation;Pretests Posttests;Control Groups;Science Education;Science Instruction;Pedagogical Content Knowledge;

  3. Applying Program Theory-Driven Approach to Design and Evaluate a Teacher Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-ching; Wu, Ming-sui

    2016-01-01

    This study was the first year of a two-year project which applied a program theory-driven approach to evaluating the impact of teachers' professional development interventions on students' learning by using a mix of methods, qualitative inquiry, and quasi-experimental design. The current study was to show the results of using the method of…

  4. The Effects of a Systematically Designed Online Learning Environment on Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Marie; Larmuseau, Charlotte; Dewaele, Katrien; Van Craesbeek, Leen; Elen, Jan; Depaepe, Fien

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of an online learning environment on preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), content knowledge (CK) (related to French in primary teacher education), and pedagogical knowledge (PK) in a quasi-experimental design. More specifically, the following research question is addressed: Is a systematically…

  5. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  6. The Effect of Creative Drama Activities Performed at the “Design Studies-1” Studio on Development of Creative Thinking Skills of Architecture Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent ARIDAĞ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is determining the effectiveness of teaching methods based on creative drama activities performed at the “Design Studies-1” studio on creative thinking and design skills. The research’s work group consisted of 67 students who attended the 15-week Design Studies-1 studio (45 female, 22 male. The research is a one-group pretest-posttest experimental design. The theoretical basis of the research is cognitive creativity. The practices stimulating the imagination and flexible thinking skills with the basis of creative drama were used as the creativity-improving techniques. Based on the assumption that creative thinking is teachable, the hypothesis that the “Design Studies-1” program conducted by the first researcher will improve the students’ creative thinking skills was accepted. The data were collected through Creative Thinking Tests (Form A and B, which was developed by Torrance (1974 and 1984 and whose Turkish version was composed by Aslan (1999, 2006. For the data analysis, SPSS 13 program was used. In data analysis, related group t-test and Mann-Whitney U statistical test were applied. The pretest and posttest scores mean of the students were compared and significant positive results were found in favor of posttest between the means of figural fluency, figural originality, abstractness of the titles, expressiveness of the titles, intrinsic visualization, liveliness of imagery, richness of imagery, fantasy, verbal fluency, verbal flexibility and verbal originality.

  7. Hubungan Antara Keterampilan Berpikir Rasional Siswa SMA dengan Hasil Belajar dalam Pembelajaran Kooperatif Menggunakan Constructive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Zulva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the connection between rational thinking skills of high school students with the results of cognitive learning in cooperative learning process by providing constructive feedback. In this study used a quasi experimental method to the design of the randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Before doing it, the treatment given is initial tests, and after treatment is given a final test. During the learning process observation occurs. The results showed that the relationship between rational thinking skills of students' cognitive learning outcomes of students after learning at the end of the experimental class there is a significant relationship, with a big increase learning outcomes for 0.551 of great value rational thinking skills. While in the control group there were no correlations. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui besarnya hubungan antara keterampilan berpikir rasional siswa SMA dengan hasil belajar ranah kognitif dalam proses pembelajaran kooperatif dengan pemberian constructive feedback. Pada penelitian ini digunakan metode quasi eksperimen dengan desain the randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Sebelum melakukan traetment diberi tes awal dan setelah dilakukan treatment diberi tes akhir. Selama proses pembelajran berlangsung dilakukan observasi proses pembelajaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan antara keterampilan berpikir rasional siswa terhadap hasil belajar ranah kognitif siswa setelah akhir pembelajaran pada kelas eksperimen terdapat hubungan yang signifikan, dengan besarnya peningkatan hasil belajar sebesar 0,551 dari besar nilai keterampilan berpikir rasional . Sedangkan pada kelas kontrol tidak terdapat hubungan. Kata kunci: constructive feedback, hasil belajar ranah kognitif, keterampilan berpikir rasional

  8. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Maglieri, Sabine; Vögele, Claus; Munsch, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge-eating episodes. No trial registration was required for this protocol, which was approved by the Swiss ethics committee (CER-VD, n° 2016-02150) and the Ethics Review Panel of the University of Luxembourg.

  9. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garcia-Burgos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED, and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined.Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology.Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge-eating episodes. No trial registration was required for this protocol, which was approved by the Swiss ethics committee (CER-VD, n° 2016-02150 and the Ethics Review Panel of the University of Luxembourg.

  10. The utility of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in systems-oriented obesity intervention projects: The selection of comparable study sites for a quasi-experimental intervention design--TX CORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project (TX CORD) uses a systems-oriented approach to address obesity that includes individual and family interventions, community-level action, as well as environmental and policy initiatives. Given that randomization is seldom possible in communit...

  11. Efektivitas Program Bimbingan Karier dalam Peningkatan Orientasi Masa Depan Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Nuraeni Nugrahawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate effectiveness of career counseling for students.  The researcher is employing research & development methods to evaluate career counseling program. Meanwhile, a quasi experimental approach by The One-Group Pretest-Posttest is being conducted to examine the effectiveness of career counseling program, combine with Scale of Future Orientation (within education and occupation area. The result showed that students were oriented more toward education area instead of occupation area.

  12. The Effect of Group Therapy With Transactional Analysis Approach on Emotional Intelligence, Executive Functions and Drug Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Forghani, Masoomeh; Ghanbari Hashem Abadi, Bahram Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis (TA) approach on emotional intelligence (EI), executive functions and substance dependency among drug-addicts at rehabilitation centers in Mashhad city, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods In this quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, case- control stages, 30 patients were selected from a rehabilitation center and randomly divided into two groups. The case group rec...

  13. Diminuição das úlceras por pressão em pacientes com ventilação mecânica aguda prolongada: um estudo quasi-experimental

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    Cecilia Inés Loudet

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia de um programa de gestão da qualidade para reduzir a incidência e a gravidade de úlceras por pressão em pacientes de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo com metodologia quasi-experimental, antes-e-depois, conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica. Incluíram-se os pacientes consecutivos que receberam ventilação mecânica por um período igual ou superior a 96 horas. Uma equipe de Melhoria de Processos delineou um processo de intervenção multifacetado, que consistiu de uma sessão educacional, uma lista de verificação de úlcera de pressão, um aplicativo para smartphone para monitoramento de lesões e um conjunto de normas de tomada de decisão, além de prevenção familiar. Resultados: O Grupo Pré-I incluiu 25 pacientes, e o Grupo Pós-I foi constituído por 69 pacientes. A incidência de úlcera de pressão nestes grupos foi de 41 (75% e 37 (54%, respectivamente. O tempo mediano para o desenvolvimento das úlceras por pressão foi de 4,5 (4-5 dias no Grupo Pré-I e 9 (6-20 dias no Grupo Pós-I após a admissão para cada um dos períodos. A incidência de úlceras por pressão de grau avançado foi de 27 (49% no Grupo Pré-I e 7 (10% no Grupo Pós-I. A presença de úlceras por pressão na alta foi de 38 (69% e 18 (26%, respectivamente, para os Grupos Pré-I e Pós-I (p < 0,05 para todas as comparações. A participação da família totalizou 9% no Grupo Pré-I e aumentou para 57% no Grupo Pós-I (p < 0,05. Utilizou-se um modelo de regressão logística para analisar os preditores de úlcera de pressão com grau avançado. A duração da ventilação mecânica e a presença de falência de órgão associaram-se positivamente com o desenvolvimento de úlceras por pressão, enquanto o programa multifacetado de intervenção atuou como fator de proteção. Conclusão: Um programa de qualidade, com base em um aplicativo para smartphone e na participação da fam

  14. Effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia at the referral hospital of Zanzibar: a quasi-experimental pre-post study (The PartoMa study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaløe, N; Housseine, N; Meguid, T; Nielsen, B B; Jensen, Akg; Khamis, R S; Mohamed, A G; Ali, M M; Said, S M; van Roosmalen, J; Bygbjerg, I C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Tanzanian low-resource referral hospital, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital. Facility deliveries during baseline (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015) and the 9th to 12th intervention month (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015). Birth outcome was extracted from all cases of labouring women during baseline (n = 3690) and intervention months (n = 3087). Background characteristics and quality of care were assessed in quasi-randomly selected subgroups (n = 283 and n = 264, respectively). Stillbirths and neonates with 5-minute Apgar score ≤5. Stillbirth rate fell from 59 to 39 per 1000 total births (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.82), and subanalyses suggest that this was primarily due to reduction in intrahospital stillbirths. Apgar scores between 1 and 5 fell from 52 to 28 per 1000 live births (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69). Median time from last fetal heart assessment till delivery (or fetal death diagnosis) fell from 120 minutes (IQR 60-240) to 74 minutes (IQR 30-130) (Mann-Whitney test for difference, P human resources and substandard care remain major challenges, PartoMa guidelines were associated with improvements in care, leading to reductions in stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Findings furthermore emphasise the central role of improved fetal surveillance and restricted intrapartum oxytocin use in safety at birth. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: #PartoMa guidelines aided in reducing stillbirths and birth asphyxia at a Tanzanian low-resource hospital PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: PartoMa guidelines help birth attendants in Tanzania to save lives Every year, 3 million babies die on the day of birth. The vast majority of these deaths occur in the poorest countries. If their mothers had received better care during birth, most babies would have survived. At Mnazi

  15. A meta-analysis of educational interventions designed to enhance cultural competence in professional nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ruth W; Polanin, Joshua R

    2015-02-01

    Increasing professional nurses' and nursing students cultural competence has been identified as one way to decrease the disparity of care for vulnerable and minority groups, but effectiveness of training programs to increase competence remains equivocal. The purpose of this project is to synthesize educational interventions designed to increase cultural competence in professional nurses and nursing students. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize all existing studies on increasing cultural competence. A comprehensive search and screen procedures was conducted to locate all cultural competence interventions implemented with professional nurses and nursing students. Two independent researchers screened and coded the included studies. Effect sizes were calculated for each study and a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 25 studies were included in the review. Two independent syntheses were conducted given the disparate nature of the effect size metrics. For the synthesis of treatment-control designed studies, the results revealed a non-statistically significant increase in cultural competence (g¯=.38, 95% CI: -.05, .79, p=.08). Moderator analyses indicated significant variation as a function of the measurements, participant types, and funding source. The pretest-posttest effect size synthesis revealed a significant increase in overall cultural competence (g¯=.45, 95% CI: .24, .66, pcompetence have shown varied effectiveness. Greater research is required to improve these interventions and promote cultural competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pengaruh Musik Mozart dalam Mengurangi Stres pada Mahasiswa yang Sedang Skripsi

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanty, Rina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims for determining the effect of Mozart classical music to decrease the stress level among sixteen students who are writing their thesis. The present study used a randomized pretest posttest control group design. The process of Mozart classical music was conducted in four sessions for 1 hour. The score of stress level was analyzed to compare between pretest, posttest and follow up using Friedman test. The result of data analysis showed a significant decreasing of stress level sco...

  17. The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Digital Interactive Globe System Integrated into an Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and implement a digital interactive globe system (DIGS), by integrating low-cost equipment to make DIGS cost-effective. DIGS includes a data processing unit, a wireless control unit, an image-capturing unit, a laser emission unit, and a three-dimensional hemispheric body-imaging screen. A quasi-experimental study…

  18. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  19. The effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sodani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and aim: Increase in addiction in the community and the plight of its people demand for improving the problems of addicts, indicate a need for individuals to interventions and training expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life.  .  Methods: This study is an quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow up with the control group. The study population included: all addicted people who referred to ahvaz addiction treatment center in 2015. 50 addicts were selected by using of  available sampling and randomly divided into  two experimental group (number=25 and control group (number=25. The participants were completed the quality of life inventory in three stages (pre-test, post-test and follow-up after 60 days. The experimental group was received group training of the concepts of selection theory of 10 sessions of 90 minutes per week.Statistical data were analyzed  using of covariance(ANCOVA analysis. Results: Group training theory led to a significant difference among pretest, posttest, and follow-up of quality of addicted people life (p <0.001. In this case, the post-test and follow-up, after controlling of pre-test score, the experimental group compared to the control group higher quality of life was reported. Conclusion: Group training of selected theory about the role of choosing a behavior, five senses  the importance of self control, the role of effective behavior, the way of need fulfilment, responsibility, self worth, Quality world, seven destructive behavior, seven caring behavior, faiure identification and success identification can result in increasing the quality of life for addicted people.

  20. Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII type Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT and Academics Ability of Natural Science-Biology in Vocational High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamsiah Hamsiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII tipe Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPTdan Kemampuan Akademik pada Pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK Abstract: Learning science in SMK 1 Bontang still dominated by conventional learning strategy is a method of learning with lecture. This has an impact on learning outcomes of cognitive science that tends biology is still low because the students have not been trained become independent learners, thus learning innovation PMII CWPT types can be used as a breakthrough to develop the cognitive learning. This study was conducted to determine the application CWPT strategies and academic skills in science teaching vocational Biology. Quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest design Nonequivalent Control Group. Results of the study, namely: (1 there CWPT effect on the cognitive learning, (2 no influence academic ability to cognitive learning outcomes, and (3 there is no interaction effect between learning strategy and the academic ability toward the cognitive learning. Key Words: peer-mediated instruction and intervention, classwide peer tutoring, academic skills, cognitive learning outcomes Abstrak: Pembelajaran IPA di SMKN 1 Bontang masih didominasi dengan strategi belajar konvensio-nal yaitu metode belajar dengan ceramah. Hal ini berdampak terhadap hasil belajar kognitif IPA biolo-gi yang cendrung masih rendah karena siswa belum terlatih menjadi pebelajar yang mandiri, sehingga inovasi pembelajaran PMII tipe CWPT dapat digunakan sebagai terobosan untuk mengembangkan  hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui penerapan strategi CWPT dan kemam-puan akademik pada pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMK. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan pretest-posttest Nonequivalent Control Group. Hasil penelitian, yaitu: (1 ada pengaruh CWPT ter-hadap hasil belajar kognitif,  (2 ada  pengaruh  kemampuan akademik terhadap hasil belajar kognitif, dan (3 tidak ada  pengaruh interaksi antara

  1. The impact of leadership hubs on the uptake of evidence-informed nursing practices and workplace policies for HIV care: a quasi-experimental study in Jamaica, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy; Kaseje, Dan; Kahwa, Eulalia; Klopper, Hester C; Mill, Judy; Webber, June; Roelofs, Susan; Harrowing, Jean

    2016-08-03

    The enormous impact of HIV on communities and health services in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean has especially affected nurses, who comprise the largest proportion of the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Strengthening action-based leadership for and by nurses is a means to improve the uptake of evidence-informed practices for HIV care. A prospective quasi-experimental study in Jamaica, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa examined the impact of establishing multi-stakeholder leadership hubs on evidence-informed HIV care practices. Hub members were engaged through a participatory action research (PAR) approach. Three intervention districts were purposefully selected in each country, and three control districts were chosen in Jamaica, Kenya and Uganda. WHO level 3, 4 and 5 health care institutions and their employed nurses were randomly sampled. Self-administered, validated instruments measured clinical practices (reports of self and peers), quality assurance, work place policies and stigma at baseline and follow-up. Standardised average scores ranging from 0 to 1 were computed for clinical practices, quality assurance and work place policies. Stigma scores were summarised as 0 (no reports) versus 1 (one or more reports). Pre-post differences in outcomes between intervention and control groups were compared using the Mantel Haenszel chi-square for dichotomised stigma scores, and independent t tests for other measures. For South Africa, which had no control group, pre-post differences were compared using a Pearson chi-square and independent t test. Multivariate analysis was completed for Jamaica and Kenya. Hub members in all countries self-assessed changes in their capacity at follow-up; these were examined using a paired t test. Response rates among health care institutions were 90.2 and 80.4 % at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Results were mixed. There were small but statistically significant pre-post, intervention versus control

  2. APLICACIÓN DE UNA PROPUESTA TEÓRICA Y METODOLÓGICA PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE DOCUMENTOS EN EL MODELO POR COMPETENCIAS: UN ESTUDIO CUASIEXPERIMENTAL (IMPLEMENTATION OF THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO PRODUCE DOCUMENTS BY THE COMPENTENCY MODEL-QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Muñoz Ma. Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo muestra los resultados de un estudio cuasiexperimental, definido como Diseño de Grupo Control sin Tratamiento. Se elaboró y se implementó una propuesta teórica y metodológica para el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje para la producción de documentos en las oficinas, en el enfoque por competencias, en un curso de las carreras Administración de Oficinas y Educación Comercial de la Escuela de Secretariado Profesional de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, primer ciclo 2009. Tres grupos participaron: uno experimental con tratamiento y dos grupos control con la metodología tradicional. Los resultados del postest mostraron que el experimental superó el promedio de rendimiento en 6,5 puntos al grupo control 2 y en 1,13 puntos al grupo control 1, línea que se marca en la comparación del rendimiento por áreas cognoscitivas. Para complementar los resultados de los tests se exploraron también factores del proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje aplicado en cada grupo. Además, mediante técnicas cualitativas se identificó la incidencia en el rendimiento de las estrategias de aprendizaje, el interés de los estudiantes y las estudiantes, su experiencia laboral, la formación dual y la carrera así como el papel de la persona docente. Se concluye que el modelo de formación por competencias podría mejorar el rendimiento académico en la producción de documentos cuando un espacio pedagógico es abordado desde la integración de saberes a partir de actividades didácticas que fomenten el diálogo, la indagación, la aplicación teórica a la resolución de problemas, el aprendizaje experiencial en el aula y en entornos lo más relacionados con la futura práctica profesional.Abstract: This article shows the results of a quasi-experimental study defined as Control Group Design without Treatment. A theoretical and methodological proposal was carried out and implemented for the teaching and learning processes for

  3. Preventing Sexual Violence in Adolescence: Comparison of a Scientist-Practitioner Program and a Practitioner Program Using a Cluster-Randomized Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Christoph; Sc