Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Soon
A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS was constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400. The simulation capability of the ATLAS for major design basis accidents (DBAs), including a large-break loss-of-coolant (LBLOCA), DVI line break and main steam line break (MSLB) accidents, is evaluated by the best-estimate system code, MARS, with the same control logics, transient scenarios and nodalization scheme. The validity of the applied scaling law and the thermal-hydraulic similarity between the ATLAS and the APR1400 for the major design basis accidents are assessed. It is confirmed that the ATLAS has a capability of maintaining an overall similarity with the reference plant APR1400 for the major design basis accidents considered in the present study. However, depending on the accident scenarios, there are some inconsistencies in certain thermal hydraulic parameters. It is found that the inconsistencies are mainly due to the reduced power effect and the increased stored energy in the structure. The present similarity analysis was successful in obtaining a greater insight into the unique design features of the ATLAS and would be used for developing the optimized experimental procedures and control logics.
Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Soon
A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS was constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400. The simulation capability of the ATLAS for major design basis accidents (DBAs), including a large-break loss-of-coolant (LBLOCA), DVI line break and main steam line break (MSLB) accidents, is evaluated by the best-estimate system code, MARS, with the same control logics, transient scenarios and nodalization scheme. The validity of the applied scaling law and the thermal-hydraulic similarity between the ATLAS and the APR1400 for the major design basis accidents are assessed. It is confirmed that the ATLAS has a capability of maintaining an overall similarity with the reference plant APR1400 for the major design basis accidents considered in the present study. However, depending on the accident scenarios, there are some inconsistencies in certain thermal hydraulic parameters. It is found that the inconsistencies are mainly due to the reduced power effect and the increased stored energy in the structure. The present similarity analysis was successful in obtaining a greater insight into the unique design features of the ATLAS and would be used for developing the optimized experimental procedures and control logics
Blind Pretesting and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Corporate Finance Course Brian C. Paynea U.S. Air Force Academy Thomas C...testing effect can be applied to an introductory corporate finance course. Prior research on the testing effect has been used non-quantitative subject...80840. Email: email@example.com. Tel: 719.333.8259. Fax: 713.333.9715. 1 INTRODUCTION Corporate finance courses have long
Howard, Matt C.
Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…
Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Gerardus J.A.
Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated
Wittmann, Michael C.; Black, Katrina E.
Tabular presentations of student data often hide information about the switches in responses by individual students over the course of a semester. We extend unpublished work by Kanim on "escalator diagrams," which show changes in student responses from correct to incorrect (and vice versa) while representing pre- and postinstruction…
Montecinos, Alicia M.
A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…
Werth, Arman Karl
Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.
Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry
State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…
Flasch, Paulina; Taylor, Dalena; Clauber, Rikke Nynne; Robinson, Edward, III
The current study utilized a single-group pretest-posttest design to evaluate students' self-perceived competence and comfort of using a variety of play therapy techniques and interventions with a range of client populations as a result of taking a one-week intensive course in Play Therapy. In an effort to conduct course evaluation and explore…
Low-income students are now a majority in U.S. public schools. Steve Suitts, formerly of the Southern Education Foundation, reviews statistics showing that the percentage of students in K-12 schools coming from low-income families has increased to 52 percent. Meanwhile, state funding for K-12 schools has increased much more modestly, so that…
Zimmerman, M; Steckel, L
Thorough and extensive pretesting is the formative research technique that the Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) and its sister organization, the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), rely on to develop well-understood and culturally appropriate print materials. Formative research is defined as evaluation activities that occur during a project to determine if the objectives are being met and, if not, to modify the project's direction to ensure that they are. Before materials are finalized or printed, an interviewer should pretest them with representatives of the target population to determine if the intended message is being conveyed and if it is clear and acceptable to them. Pretesting should be done while the materials are still in an unfinished state so audience-generated alterations can be made easily. Revised materials also should be tested until they communicate the inforamtion as intended. Due to the fact that PIACT/PATH work with countries where large percentages of the population are illiterate, its motivational and instructional materials rely on pictures to convey the message. Often, pictures are augmented by a line or 2 of simple text in the local language. This text also requires careful pretesting. Examples from the field demonstrate the importance of pretesting to assure that print materials are appropriate to the group for whom they are being developed. The examples deal with sympbols, positive messages, the use of common objects, extraneous detail, messages about time, and text. Through pretesting, PIACT/PATH has learned that there can be a large discrepancy between what materials developers intend to convey and what the audience understands. Pretesting is an essential formative technique that builds upon information gathered during the materials development process, ensuring the message designer that the materials will effectively address the needs of the target audience.
Kennedy, Robert E
Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which
Sigmar, Lucia S.; Hynes, Geraldine E.
This study analyzes the writing performance levels of 352 students to determine the extent to which business students are achieving written communication competency and whether differences exist among the business majors. Although most students met or exceeded expectations in format and content on a common writing task, students were weakest in…
Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.
The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…
Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie
In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…
Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.
Dobbin, Donya Rae
Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an
Hill, Gary D.
Two of the most important and difficult concepts in biology are photosynthesis and respiration. A pilot study was performed using student volunteers from introductory biology classes to assess student alternative frameworks regarding photosynthesis and respiration. The results of the pilot study were used to construct the Instrument for the Assessment of Respiration and Photosynthesis (IFARP). This was an 11-item, three-tier multiple choice instrument designed to conveniently assess the common misconceptions students have about these concepts upon entering a biology course. The first tier of each item of the IFARP contained a multiple choice question about photosynthesis or respiration. The second tier had a multiple choice question regarding the reason for the choice in the first tier. The third tier asked the students to indicate how confident they were in their responses, on a scale from 1 (not very confident) to 5 (very confident). The IFARP was administered as a pretest and posttest to a group of science non-majors in an introductory biology course. No significant changes were observed in student performance as measured by the IFARP between the pretest and posttest administrations. The students did, however, demonstrate a statistical increase in mean confidence levels regarding their knowledge of photosynthesis and respiration. Even though their comprehension and understanding regarding photosynthesis and respiration had not increased, the confidence they had in their responses about these two concepts had increased. The IFARP was also administered to a group of nursing student volunteers in an introductory microbiology course. This group of students also participated in the use of student-generated analogies as a learning strategy to alter conceptual frameworks. One test group of students provided analogies to photosynthesis and respiration, while the other test group provided analogies to two other concepts. No significant changes were observed in the
Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan
This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…
Magnello, M. Eileen
An inventory was administered to 161 college students in the late fall of 1977 in an attempt to predict the academic major of either psychology or special education students. The predictors were from the following series of items: demographic characteristics, academic information, occupational interests, and utility of their college program. A…
Xu, Yonghong Jade
In this study, an online survey was constructed based on the extant literature on college student success. The survey was used to collect data from a sample of college students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors in order to examine their learning experiences and to identify the factors that may influence their persistence…
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
Full Text Available Designing the perfect survey questionnaire is impossible. However, researchers can still create an effective research. To make your questionnaire effective, it is necessary to pretest it before actually using it. The following paper reveals some general guidelines on pretesting and what to do for a more effective marketing research giving the fact that the existing literature highlights the importance and indispensability of pretesting and on the other hand, does not provide sufficient information in terms of methodology about it. Also, we have tried to explain the importance of questionnaires pretesting before applying them in order to obtain the best results in marketing research and we’ve kept in mind that high quality in this domain means using new tools and improving the existing ones if one searches for efficient results.
Southern Education Foundation, 2015
For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…
Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo
Filling the pipeline for information systems workers is critical in the information era. Projected growth rates for jobs requiring information systems expertise are significantly higher than the projected growth rates for other jobs. Why then do relatively few students choose to major in information systems? This paper reviews survey results from…
Full Text Available Background: Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Methods: Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students. No incentives were offered for survey completion. Results: Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032, with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846. Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Conclusions: Medical student debt and particularly debt
Rohlfing, James; Navarro, Ryan; Maniya, Omar Z; Hughes, Byron D; Rogalsky, Derek K
Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students). No incentives were offered for survey completion. Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032), with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private) meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846). Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Medical student debt and particularly debt relative to peers at the same institution appears to
Schneider, Ray G.; Ross, Sally R.; Fisher, Morgan
Although journalists and reporters have written about academic clustering among college student-athletes, there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to the subject. This study explored football players' academic major selections to determine if academic clustering actually existed. The seasons 1996, 2001, and 2006 were selected for…
Sauer, Paul L.; O'Donnell, Joseph B.
A strategy used by industry to retain customers and remain competitive is the design and launch of new products. One might then question whether the launch of new courses and new majors by colleges and universities has the potential of reducing student attrition. Combining survey data from matriculating freshmen with administrative data taken from…
Landry, Raymond, Jr.; Moyes, Glen D.; Cortes, Angelica C.
In this study, the authors examined ethical perceptions of Hispanic students by analyzing differences between (a) accounting and nonaccounting business majors and (b) women and men. The authors used the following five constructs: justice, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology. Their study incorporated 12 moral characteristics into…
Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline
To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.
The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.
Fritsch, Eva-Maria; Lechner-Walz, Cornelia; Dreesmann, Daniel C.
In terms of sustainability, renewable resources, nourishment and healthy diet, crops are important to the public. Thus, knowledge of crops is needed in order to enable people to participate in public discussions and take responsibility. This is in contrast to former surveys showing that students' knowledge of and interest in plants in general,…
McCrary, Hilary C; Krate, Jonida; Savilo, Christine E; Tran, Melissa H; Ho, Hang T; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Viscusi, Rebecca K
The aim of our study was to determine if a fresh cadaver model is a viable method for teaching ultrasound (US)-guided breast biopsy of palpable breast lesions. Third-year medical students were assessed both preinstruction and postinstruction on their ability to perform US-guided needle aspiration or biopsy of artificially created masses using a 10-item checklist. Forty-one third-year medical students completed the cadaver laboratory as part of the surgery clerkship. Eight items on the checklist were found to be significantly different between pre-testing and post-testing. The mean preinstruction score was 2.4, whereas the mean postinstruction score was 7.10 (P cadaver models have been widely used in medical education. However, there are few fresh cadaver models that provide instruction on procedures done in the outpatient setting. Our model was found to be an effective method for the instruction of US-guided breast biopsy among medical students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W
African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.
Mauldin, Shawn; Crain, John L.; Mounce, Patricia H.
A survey of 81 accounting majors, 60 business majors, 12 nonbusiness majors, and 13 undecided students in accounting principles courses found that accounting principles instructors play the most significant role in the decision to major in accounting. Many students decide to major during their first principles course. (SK)
Ngo, Huong; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda
Despite the plethora of literature examining higher education students' motivation to learn a second language, it is not known if students who choose to study English as their major differ from those who are required to study English as the minor component of their wider degree. Drawing on self-determination theory, this paper reports on the…
Crislaine Aparecida Spinazola
Full Text Available During teachers formation, it is important their undergraduate course majors have disciplines that address the diversity population they will have in the regular classroom, since they as teachers need a good education, so that their practice will be carried out with quality, with the look of educator directed to the potential of their student. This study sought to understand how does their undergraduate major is carried out at the Federal University of São Carlos, in São Carlos campus, to work with the special education target students. The participants were 67 from different majors offered by UFSCar. Data collection was performed using a semi-structured questionnaire with the participants. The results, demonstrated that there are some gaps in teacher education in Bachelor at UFSCar courses, São Carlos campus and there is a need that must be met in their process of formation concerning to the diversity population. It was conclude that it is necessary to rethink ways to prepare these teachers since the courses they are enrolled do not give any kind of support for a specific formation in a way these teachers be able to prepare activities covering the entire classroom and the special education target students. Keywords: Teacher Training. Educational Inclusion. Special Education. Higher Education. Accessibility.
Pritchard, Robert E.; Potter, Gregory C.; Saccucci, Michael S.
In this article, the authors examine the key factors that influence student choice of a business major and how business schools can help students make that choice more realistically. Investigating students at a regional university, the authors found that whereas those with better quantitative skills tended to major in accounting or finance, those…
This study addresses the interrelation among coherence, substitution, and reference by non-English major Chinese students. The author collected data through student questionnaires. Participants included 30 non-English major Chinese undergraduate students. The findings of this study suggested that the similarities and differences were confirmed…
This study examined computer anxiety among university and college of education Physical and Health Education (PHE) majors. The influence of personal characteristics of gender, age and experience of PHE majors on computer anxiety level were analysed. The Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) developed by Marcoulides ...
Sallie Mae Bank, 2016
Sallie Mae, the nation's saving, planning, and paying for college company, along with Ipsos, one of the world's largest, independent market research companies, surveyed 800 college students to learn more about how they are managing their finances and using credit. The online survey, completed in December 2015, comprised a cross-section of key…
Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a
This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…
Gaze, Catherine M.
The present study investigates the frequency and confidence with which college students endorse popular psychological myths, contrasting introductory psychology students (at the beginning and end of the course) with upper-level psychology majors and students who have never taken Introduction to Psychology. This study builds on the existing…
Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.
This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…
Kaynama, Shohreh A.; Smith, Louise W.
A study found that using consumer behavior and decision models to guide students to a major can be useful and enjoyable for students. Students consider many of the basic parameters through multi-attribute and decision-analysis models, so time with professors, who were found to be the most influential group, can be used for more individual and…
As the credential for nutrition counselor with professional skills and knowledge for invalids, who also provides the nutrition education for local residence at the administrative organization, the qualification system of registered dietitian has been established in Japan. Additionally, in accordance with the legislation of Basic Act on Food Education and the revision of School Education Law, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System has established in 2005. Therefore, registered dietitian has been approved to teach at the elementary school or junior high school as a teacher. Since registered dietitian is the educator of the “diet and nutrition,” it is important to provide proper knowledge of food irradiation at the training facility for registered dietitian. This report describes the instruction of food irradiation at the education curriculum of the registered dietitian training course. In addition, questionnaire survey result on the knowledge of food irradiation gathered from newly-enrolled students in the registered dietitian training course will also be reported. (author)
... corrective action does not resolve the deficiency, you may request to use the contaminated system as an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test verification procedures and pre-test data collection. 1065.520 Section 1065.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...
Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting people in the world. It is also a growing concern in younger population particularly medical students. There are many pharmaceutical interventions for treatment of depression but there is paucity of data to determine the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge, attitude and help seeking behaviour regarding depression among medical students. Methods: An interventional study was carried out among randomly selected 100 medical students except interns over a period of 6 months from March August 2011 in a medical college in Delhi to assess the effect of educational booklet on knowledge and attitude about depression. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Statistical significance in pre and post intervention proportions was determined using Mc Nemar test (MN and for other proportions Chi-square test. Results: The study shown that only 71% of subjects knew that depression is a disease in pre intervention phase, which rose to 88% in post intervention phase (p=0.01. Knowledge of symptoms and treatment significantly improved such as trouble falling asleep or too much sleep (p=0.03, feeling tired or decreased energy (MN=17.6, p=0.01, feeling bad about self (MN=21.8, p=0.01, speaking slowly other can notice (MN=19.1, p=0.01 and can be treated by improving awareness (MN=8.6, p=0.03, and anti-depressants do not cause much of side effects (MN=17.3, p=0.01. Most common reasons for not seeking help were thinking that there is lack of understanding by other people about the depression (63%, lack of confidentiality (49%, social stigma (30%, fear of rejection (26% and time constraints (6%. Majority of students accepted the booklet for their understanding about depression where 63% considered that it improved their knowledge to great extent. Conclusion:Educational interventional booklet should be promoted at bigger
Albers, Willem/Wim; Boon, P.C.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.
A pre-test procedure consists of a preliminary test on a nuisance parameter, investigating whether it equals a given value or not, followed by the main testing problem on the parameter of interest. In case of acceptance of the preliminary test, the main test is applied in the restricted family with
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to identifying and diagnosing qualitative indicators of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences, namely: indicators of objective and subjective assessment of students’ ESP competence, students’ motivation regarding professional choice, organizational features of professional training, its contents, the most popular learning activities, use of active methods of study in educational process. The paradigm of experimental research of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been defined. Based on the interpretation of the qualitative indicators the hypothesis of efficiency of technologies developing ESP competence in students majoring in Sciences has been proven.
Kim, Jung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
This study was conducted with a goal to identify the factors that determine radiology students' satisfaction with their major and to provide the basic data for efficient education and career guidance. The result indicated that the students' satisfaction with the professors' roles was high. However, overall, the level of satisfaction with the curriculum was found to be low. In addition, it was analyzed that there was a large gap between recognition and practice of self-directed learning. In the correlation analysis, the professors' roles were also found to be a very important factor. Based on the result, the professors' roles of center(teaching or state examination, students with questions etc.,), it was concluded that improvement of the radiology students' satisfaction with their major would help the students adapt themselves to the major and school successfully and develop a positive character to perform as professionals in the future.
Kim, Jung Hoon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo
This study was conducted with a goal to identify the factors that determine radiology students' satisfaction with their major and to provide the basic data for efficient education and career guidance. The result indicated that the students' satisfaction with the professors' roles was high. However, overall, the level of satisfaction with the curriculum was found to be low. In addition, it was analyzed that there was a large gap between recognition and practice of self-directed learning. In the correlation analysis, the professors' roles were also found to be a very important factor. Based on the result, the professors' roles of center(teaching or state examination, students with questions etc.,), it was concluded that improvement of the radiology students' satisfaction with their major would help the students adapt themselves to the major and school successfully and develop a positive character to perform as professionals in the future
Koch, Robert; Kucsera, John; Angus, Kathryn Bartle; Norman, Kimberly; Bowers, Erica; Nair, Pradeep; Moon, Hye Sun; Karimi, Afshin; Barua, Susamma
Academic programs targeted for first-time students can help their persistence in STEM majors. Our project, ASCEND STEM, included three first-year experiences (FYEs) designed to offer students the skills that would help them successfully traverse potential barriers to academic success. In the FYEs, we sought to strengthen the learning power,…
Workman, Jamie L.
This article explores parental influence on exploratory students' college choice, major, and career decision making. The research began with examination of a first year academic advising model and Living Learning Community. Parental influence emerged as a key theme in student decision making processes. The project was conducted using grounded…
Montag, Tamara; Campo, Jill; Weissman, Julie; Walmsley, Angela; Snell, Alex
Utilizing generational theory, we explored the relationship between Millennial characteristics and students' major selection and academic advising experiences. We conducted focus groups of students with senior standing at a private, midwestern university, and we utilized a closed coding technique to analyze the qualitative data. Consistent with…
Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.
Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…
Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.
Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam
Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…
Holland, Jonathan M.; Major, Debra A.; Orvis, Karin A.
This study investigated the role of peer mentoring and voluntary self-development activities (i.e., capitalization) in anchoring science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students to their college majors. Online data were collected from 214 undergraduate students. As hypothesized, mentoring was positively related to capitalization, and…
The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students'' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.
Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Hemmatizad, Marzieh
The present study investigated de-motivation among Iranian secondary high school and university students with respect to gender, major, and level of education and explored students' experiences in overcoming de-motivation. Data were gathered from 485 participants who comprised 215 male and 270 female. A 35 Likert type item de-motivation…
White, Stephen Wilson
The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).
This study was designed to investigate the occupational aspirations and occupational expectations of college students majoring in jazz studies in the United States. Participants included the population of jazz studies majors (N = 211) at a large mid-southern university known for its prestigious and internationally recognized jazz program. A…
Isik, Ulviye; Wouters, Anouk; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
Medical students from ethnic minorities underperform in knowledge and skills assessments both in pre-clinical and clinical education compared to the ethnic majority group. Motivation, which influences learning and academic performance of medical students, might play an important role in explaining these differences, but is under-investigated. This study aimed to compare two types of motivation (autonomous and controlled) of ethnic minority (Western and non-Western) and majority (Dutch) students, and their association with academic performance. In a cross-sectional study, all students of a Dutch medical school were invited to complete a survey including the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, measuring autonomous and controlled motivation, in the academic year 2015-2016. Motivation was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and performance was compared using One-Way ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between motivation and performance (grade point average; GPA). The response rate was 38.6% (n = 947). Autonomous motivation (AM) of non-Western students was higher than that of Dutch students in pre-clinical and clinical education (p motivation was higher in Western students than in Dutch students (pre-clinical education; p motivation between the ethnic majority and minority groups. The association of motivation with performance also differs between ethnic groups. We found that AM has a positive influence on GPA. Further research is needed to uncover the underlying mechanisms.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. PMID:27792162
Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated. PMID:28771564
This study aims at increasing our understanding of first-year medical students' learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills. We investigate different features of freshmen's behavior in relation to learning and explore the extent to which freshmen were satisfied with their major and perceived their study skills. A total of 106 freshmen participated in this study. At midyear, first-year medical students were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills. The data collected from the survey were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The study reported that most of freshmen had a lot of difficulties in studying at medical school by lack of prior learning. Despite first-year students, they were studying hard their major. Freshmen spent studying an average of 1 hour or less than 2 hours every day. The study also indicated that of major satisfaction, the overall satisfaction of the department was the highest and the satisfaction in learning environment was the lowest. There were significant differences among the freshmen on the major satisfaction due to admission process, academic performance, and housing type. Of 11 study skills, while freshman highly perceived their teamwork, stress management, and reading skills, their weak study skills identified in this study were writing, note taking, time management, and test taking skills. There were significant differences among the freshmen on the study skills due to gender and academic performance. Finally, freshmen's learning behaviors and major satisfaction were significantly associated with some of study skills. This study may have implications for the academic adjustment and learning processes in the first year. We need to consider variables such as learning behaviors, major satisfaction, and study skills, when discussing about how to maximize the learning potential of medical students
For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area of teaching is not physics can use the course as part of their study of science. The course has evolved from a lecture format to one which is highly interactive and uses a combination of hands-on activities, tutorials and visualizations, particularly the Visual Quantum Mechanics materials. Another course encourages biology students to continue their physics learning beyond the introductory course. Modern Miracle Medical Machines introduces the basic physics which underlie diagnosis techniques such as MRI and PET and laser surgical techniques. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ksu.edu/perg/
Geerlings, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Children's ethnic outgroup attitudes are influenced by their teachers' beliefs and multicultural education. However, research has ignored the possible impact of interpersonal relationships with teachers on students' ethnic attitudes. Three studies, using comparable datasets gathered among native
Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.
Full Text Available The features of the methodology of the implementation of an individual approach to high school students majoring in technology are analysed. The main stages of the implementation have been defined as the analysis of the individual student characteristics; grouping 10–11 grade students; usage of the modern informational and communicational techniques and a set of facilities of differentiated studying. The examples of the differentiated tasks for different phases of the high school training such as providing training material by teachers; academic progress monitoring; self-studying materials; fulfilling tasks of practical (laboratory and practical works; goods manufacturing; carrying out creative projects have been provided.
Johnson, J.; Davis, H.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the storage and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country. The Performance Assessment (PA) studies for WIPP address compliance of the repository with applicable regulations, and include full-scale experiments to be performed at the WIPP site. These experiments are the bin-scale and alcove tests to be conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Prior to conducting these experiments, the waste to be used in these tests needs to be characterized to provide data on the initial conditions for these experiments. This characterization is referred to as the Pretest Characterization of WIPP Experimental Waste, and is also expected to provide input to other programmatic efforts related to waste characterization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pretest waste characterization activities currently in progress for the WIPP bin-scale waste, and to discuss the program plan and specific analytical protocols being developed for this characterization. The relationship between different programs and documents related to waste characterization efforts is also highlighted in this paper
Wachsmuth, Lucas P; Runyon, Christopher R; Drake, John M; Dolan, Erin L
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). We collected data from 359 science and math majors at two research universities and conducted a series of statistical tests that indicated that four AMSI items comprised a reasonable measure of students' emotional satisfaction with math. We then compared life science and non-life science majors and found that major had a small to moderate relationship with students' responses. Gender also had a small relationship with students' responses, while students' race, ethnicity, and year in school had no observable relationship. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three groups-students who were emotionally satisfied with math, emotionally dissatisfied with math, and neutral. These results and the emotional satisfaction with math scale should be useful for identifying differences in other undergraduate populations, determining the malleability of undergraduates' emotional satisfaction with math, and testing effects of interventions aimed at improving life science majors' attitudes toward math. © 2017 L.P. Wachsmuth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…
Thomas, Gail E.
This study examines factors that determine the enrollment of black students in the high school math courses (i.e., advanced algebra, trigonometry, calculus) that are necessary for competitive college and major field access. The data are from a local college survey of juniors and seniors who were enrolled in eight (8) local public and private…
Bergbower, Matthew L.
For many political science programs, research methods courses are a fundamental component of the recommended undergraduate curriculum. However, instructors and students often see these courses as the most challenging. This study explores when it is most appropriate for political science majors to enroll and pass a research methods course. The…
Céspedes, Jensy Campos; Gutiérrez, Walter Solano
The article offers the results obtained in a study where, through the application of a survey and the development of a discussion forum with students from education majors, information about their perceptions with regard to four axes related to the future of the teaching profession was obtained, as follows: the teacher profile, the student…
Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
Although the testing effect has received a substantial amount of empirical attention, such research has largely focused on the effects of tests given after study. The present research examines the effect of using tests prior to study (i.e., as pretests), focusing particularly on how pretesting influences the subsequent learning of information that is not itself pretested but that is related to the pretested information. In Experiment 1, we found that multiple-choice pretesting was better for the learning of such related information than was cued-recall pretesting or a pre-fact-study control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that the increased learning of non-pretested related information following multiple-choice testing could not be attributed to increased time allocated to that information during subsequent study. Last, in Experiment 3, we showed that the benefits of multiple-choice pretesting over cued-recall pretesting for the learning of related information persist over 48 hours, thus demonstrating the promise of multiple-choice pretesting to potentiate learning in educational contexts. A possible explanation for the observed benefits of multiple-choice pretesting for enhancing the effectiveness with which related nontested information is learned during subsequent study is discussed.
Mohamed, Moataz Ehab; Mohy, Nagla; Salah, Sarah
The survey aimed to capture the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards plagiarism in three major public universities in Cairo, Egypt: Helwan, Ain-Shams, and Cairo Universities. This was a paper-based self-administrated survey study. The questionnaire was validated by both content and face validation. The final survey form captured the knowledge of the students on plagiarism in terms of definitions, attitudes, and practices. Four hundred and fourteen students, 320 females and 94 males, participated in the study. There was a significant difference between the students who knew the definition of plagiarism among the three universities with p-value = .01. More than half of the participants (67%) claimed that they had no previous education or training on plagiarism. However, after being informed about plagiarism, most of them agreed that plagiarism should be regarded as stealing and a punishment. Additionally, poor study skills and the ease of copying and pasting from the Internet were identified by the majority of the students to be the leading causes of plagiarism. Pharmacy students need to be more educated on plagiarism and its consequences on research and educational ethics. Finally, more strict policies should be incorporated to monitor and control plagiarism in undergraduate sections.
Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon
With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing
Kortz, K. M.; Cardace, D.; Savage, B.; Rieger, D.
Although internships have been shown to retain geoscience students, little research has been done on what components of research or field experiences during an internship impact students' decisions to major in the geosciences. We created and led a short, two-week field-based internship for 5 introductory-level students to conduct research and create a poster to present their results. In addition to the two professors leading the internship and the 5 interns, there were 2 masters students and 1 community college student who were returning to the field area to collect data for their own projects. These students also helped to guide and mentor the interns. The interns were diverse in many aspects: 3 were female, 2 were non-white, 3 were community college students (1 4YC student was a transfer), 2 were first-generation college students, and their ages ranged from 18 to 33. Based on our evaluation, we found that the research experience increased students' self-efficacy in the geosciences through various means, increased their connection with mentors and other individuals who could serve as resources, gave them a sense of belonging to the geoscience culture, increased their knowledge of geoscience career paths and expectations, helped them make connections with Earth, and maintained their interest. These factors have been described in the literature as leading to retention, and we propose that field-based internships are successful for recruitment or retention in the geosciences because they influence so many of these affective and cognitive components at once. In particular, the social aspect of internships plays a fundamental role in their success because many of these factors require close and sustained interactions with other people. An implication of this research is that these affective components, including social ones, should be explicitly considered in the design and implementation of internships to best serve as a recruitment and retention strategy.
There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the
Full Text Available The study described the production of intonation pattern of the Non-English major student teachers during their on-campus teaching. The qualitative research method was used to analyze the data and describe their intonation patterns. The utterances were investigated in distinction between falling and rising intonation of wh-questions and yes/no questions. In the conduct of analysis, an interview guide was used to gather data on the language profile of the student teachers. Data confirm that the student teachers’ mother tongue (Filipino was commonly used in most of their verbal exchanges activities. It is worthy to note that the utterances of the student teachers displayed evidence of intonation patterns variation on wh-questions and yes/no questions. The erratic production of intonation patterns of the student teachers was resulted from the common linguistic phenomenon in which they tended to carry the intonation and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue (Filipino into their English spoken discourse. This qualitative research study implies that there is an interference of Filipino language in the production of the student teachers’ intonation patterns which describes the Philippine English intonation pattern for wh- questions and yes/no questions. Forthcoming studies may obtain more valued insights by gathering geographically varied samples that would include student teachers across disciplines.
Brown, Susan Wightman
National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring
Nick John B. Solar
Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students in the College of Education, West Visayas State University, School Year 2013-2014. The academic performance were categorized or measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance. The Attributions in academic performance were evaluated using the closed-form questionnairechecklist,categorized intoin termsof ability, effort, luck, or task difficulty. Mean frequency, mean percentage, Mann-Whitney U-test, two-sampled test set at 0.05 level of significance were used to determine if there were significant difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level. The result of the study revealed that the Third Year biology majors attributed their academic performance to effort which is shown to have the highest percentage attribution in overall rank. There was no significant difference in the attributions of academic performance for third year and fourth year biology major students in termsof test, whilethe result forprojects, workbooks, and laboratory experiment and class participation and attendance categories,was found out to havea significant difference in the attributionfor the third and fourth years biology Major students’ academic performances.
Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama
The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.
In fall 1979, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the characteristics, attitudes, and activities of former and present students in the Legal Technology Program. All students enrolled in a selected Legal Technology course between fall 1974 and fall 1979 were included in the survey. The questionnaire solicited…
Wang, Qin-Mei; Cui, Jian-Guo; Yu, Chang-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Mei
Undergraduate students majoring in forestry generally reflect that genetics is one of the most difficult compul-sory courses, because the traditional teaching method is difficult to satisfy their needs. According to the theoretical charac-teristics of forestry and actual demands of the students, in the light of teaching and research experience in recent years, we adopted a series of typical genetic cases such as 'opening coffin to identify relatives', stem-throne of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, and magic powers in Harry Potter. Our practices revealed that the case teaching in genetics could train good personality traits, learning abilities and creativity of the students, stimulate their interests and initiatives in learning, and increase systematic learning.
The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M and O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M and O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M and O 2000a)
Today, one third of all college students are considered educationally "mobile," which means they will change institutions during their undergraduate careers. The concept of educational mobility challenges the traditional idea of students moving through an educational pipeline in a linear fashion, and recognizes that many of today's students, including those in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics), will have multiple transition points. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the transitional experiences of educationally mobile students moving into and through the STEM disciplines at a public university. Students who move from one educational environment to another undergo a significant transition process, and understanding this process for individual students and the institution's role in supporting transition has implications for educational policy. Grounded in the conceptual framework guided by Schlossberg's Transition Theory, and Swail, Redd, and Perna's Geometric Model for Student Persistence and Achievement, this study explores the following research question: How do students who are educationally mobile experience academic, social, and institutional support while transitioning into and through STEM disciplines at a four-year public university? Eighteen science and mathematics majors participated in this study, all of whom attended at least one institution of higher education prior to their current attendance at Mountain View University, a four-year comprehensive Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) in Southern California. Participants were interviewed utilizing a semi-structured interview protocol and completed a demographic questionnaire as well. Trustworthiness measures included member checking and peer debriefing. The findings of this study show that educationally mobile students are savvy agents of their education, and make personal and professional sacrifices in their pursuit of a STEM degree. They want to connect to like
Weinland, Kathryn Ann
Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.
Aloush, Sami; Tubaishat, Ahmad; ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Suliman, Mohammad; Alrimawi, Intima; Al Sabah, Ashraf; Banikhaled, Yousef
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a basic life support (BLS) educational course given to 110 middle school children, using a pretest posttest design. In the pretest, students were asked to demonstrate BLS on a manikin to simulate a real-life scenario. After the pretest, a BLS training course of two sessions was provided, followed by posttest on the same manikin. Students were assessed using an observational sheet based on the American Heart Association's BLS guidelines. In the pretest, students showed significant weakness in the majority of guidelines. In the posttest, they demonstrated significant improvement in their BLS skills. BLS training in the middle school was effective, considering the lack of previous skills. It is recommended that BLS education be compulsory in the school setting.
M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)
textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the
LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.
Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.
Full Text Available Many Thai English major students have problems when they translate Thai texts into English, as numerous errors can be found. Therefore, a study of translation errors is needed to find solutions to these problems. The objectives of this research were: 1 to examine types of translation errors in translation from Thai into English, 2 to determine the types of translation errors that are most common, and 3 to find possible explanations for the causes of errors. The results of this study will be used to improve translation teaching and the course “Translation from Thai into English”. The participants were 26 third-year, English major students at Kasetsart University. The data were collected from the students' exercises and examinations. Interviews and stimulated recall were also used to determine translation problems and causes of errors. The data were analyzed by considering the frequency and percentage, and by content analysis. The results shows that the most frequent translation errors were syntactic errors (65%, followed by semantic errors (26.5% and miscellaneous errors (8.5%, respectively. The causes of errors found in this study included translation procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. It is recommended that more class time be spent to address the problematic points. In addition, more authentic translation and group work should be implemented to increase self-confidence and decrease anxiety.
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 89.406 Section 89.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures § 89.406 Pre-test procedures. (a) Allow a minimum of 30 minutes warmup in the standby or operating...
Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students' attitudes toward science and achievement in BSC 1005L, a non-science majors' general biology laboratory course at an urban community college. Data were gathered on the participants' attitudes toward science and cognitive biology level pre and post treatment in BSC 1005L. Elements of the Learning Together model developed by Johnson and Johnson and the Student Team-Achievement Divisions model created by Slavin were incorporated into the experimental sections of BSC 1005L. Four sections of BSC 1005L participated in this study. Participants were enrolled in the 1998 spring (January) term. Students met weekly in a two hour laboratory session. The treatment was administered to the experimental group over a ten week period. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. Students in the cooperative learning group (nsb1 = 27) were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) and the cognitive biology test at the same time as the control group (nsb2 = 19) (at the beginning and end of the term). Statistical analyses confirmed that both groups were equivalent regarding ethnicity, gender, college grade point average and number of absences. Independent sample t-tests performed on pretest mean scores indicated no significant differences in the TOSRA scale two or biology knowledge between the cooperative learning group and the control group. The scores of TOSRA scales: one, three, four, five, six, and seven were significantly lower in the cooperative learning group. Independent sample t-tests of the mean score differences did not show any significant differences in posttest attitudes toward science or biology knowledge between the two groups. Paired t-tests did not indicate any significant differences on the TOSRA or biology knowledge within the cooperative learning group. Paired t-tests did show significant differences within the control group
Objective: To determine the attitude of high school students majoring in Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB) towards Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine and Nursing as professions at university. Design: A cross sectional study of a representative sample of high school students using a pretested attitudinal ...
Brevik, Eric C.; Vaughan, Karen L.; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Dolliver, Holly; Lindbo, David; Steffan, Joshua J.; Weindorf, David; McDaniel, Paul; Mbila, Monday; Edinger-Marshall, Susan
Many papers have been written in recent years discussing the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of soil science. Therefore, it would make sense that soil science courses would be taken by students in a wide array of academic majors. To investigate this, we collected data from eight different American universities on the declared academic majors of students enrolled in soil science courses over a 10 year time period (2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years). Data was collected for seven different classes taught at the undergraduate level: introduction to soil science, soil fertility, soil management, pedology, soil biology/microbiology, soil chemistry, and soil physics. Overall trends and trends for each class were evaluated. Generally, environmental science and crop science/horticulture/agronomy students were enrolled in soil science courses in the greatest numbers. Environmental science and engineering students showed rapid increases in enrollment over the 10 years of the study, while the number of crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students declined. In the introduction to soil science classes, environmental science and crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students were enrolled in the greatest numbers, while declared soil science majors only made up 6.6% of the average enrollment. The highest enrollments in soil fertility were crop science/ horticulture/ agronomy students and other agricultural students (all agricultural majors except crop science, horticulture, agronomy, or soil science). In both the soil management and pedology classes, environmental science and other agricultural students were the largest groups enrolled. Other agricultural students and students from other majors (all majors not otherwise expressly investigated) were the largest enrolled groups in soil biology/microbiology courses, and environmental science and soil science students were the largest enrolled groups in soil chemistry classes. Soil physics was the only class
Hammersley, L. C.
The lack of diversity in the geosciences has long been recognized as a problem. While improvements have been made, the proportion of Bachelor's degrees in the earth sciences awarded to Hispanic students in 2012 was only 5.6%, a huge disparity with the 17% of the U.S. population that is Hispanic. At California State University, Sacramento, 19% of the student population is Hispanic but, of the 61 students that earned an undergraduate degree in geology between 2005 and 2010, only four were Hispanic. In response to the lack of diversity in the geology major, we developed a new Geology of Mexico course with the goal of recruiting Hispanic students to the major. We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of this course in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. Data was collected in the Geology of Mexico course and in the equivalent Physical Geology course. During the period evaluated, 93% of enrollment in Geology of Mexico was Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We found that Hispanic students in Physical Geology earned lower grades than did nonminority students, while Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico earned grades comparable with nonminority students in Physical Geology. Overall, Geology of Mexico students also showed more positive attitude changes to the geosciences and were more likely to take another geology course. The recruitment rate into the major for Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico was comparable to the recruitment rate for nonminority students in Physical Geology. Since 2008, the proportion of Hispanic geology majors has risen from 4.5% to 14.1% and, notably, the proportion of underrepresented minorities has increased from 4.5% to 22.2%, reflecting a significant overall increase in diversity of the major. In order to increase retention of minority students, we developed a field course for new majors who were not yet ready for upper division courses
Lisa Florence Seymour
Full Text Available Shortage of computing skills is a global concern as it affects national development and business success. Yet, despite high job availability and high salaries in computing professions, insufficient numbers of students are choosing to study the various computing disciplines. This South African study looks at the Information Systems (IS major which is misunderstood by high school students. This retroductive case study identifies the events which lead students to change their major to IS. The study confirms the importance of interest in a major as well as the perceived high value of a major, which feature as dominant factors in the literature. Yet these are not the initial events that lead to students changing their major to IS. Events that initiate the process include losing passion for a previous major, experiencing difficulty in a previous major as well as enjoying the introductory IS course. The paper has practical advice for IS Departments and argues for a generic first year for students as well as a focus on enjoyment and skills aligned to IS professional practice in introductory IS courses. These findings can be generalised to other majors and, hence, the theoretical contribution adds to the literature on career choice in general.
Mlenga, Francis Howard
The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.
Sandilands, Debra; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye
Minority Francophone students in predominantly English-speaking Canadian provinces tend to perform lower on large-scale assessments of achievement than their Anglophone peers and majority Francophone students in Quebec. This study is the first to apply multilevel modeling methods to examine the extent to which school-level factors may be…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas
Guided by the assumptions of the social ecological model and the social marketing approach, this study provides a simultaneous and comprehensive assessment of 4 major alcohol reduction strategies for college campuses: school education programs, social norms campaigns, alcohol counter-marketing, and alcohol control policies. Analysis of nationally representative secondary survey data among 5,472 underage students reveals that alcohol marketing seems to be the most formidable risk factor for underage drinking, followed by perceived drinking norms (injunctive norm) and lax policy enforcement. This analysis suggests that, to make social norms campaigns and alcohol control policies more effective, alcohol reduction strategies should be developed to counter the powerful influence of alcohol marketing and promotions.
Nishihara, H.; Shiroya, S.; Kanda, K.
With the use of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a joint reactor laboratory course of graduate level is offered every summer since 1975 by nine associated Japanese universities (Hokkaido University, Tohoku University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokai University, Nagoya University, Osaka University, Kobe University of Mercantile Marine and Kyushu University) in addition to a reactor laboratory course of undergraduate level for Kyoto University. These courses are opened for three weeks (two weeks for the joint course and one week for the undergraduate course) to students majoring in nuclear engineering and a total of 1,360 students have taken the course in the last 21 years. The joint course has been institutionalized with the background that it is extremely difficult for a single university in Japan to have her own research or training reactor. By their effort, the united faculty team of the joint course have succeeded in giving an effective, unique one-week course, taking advantage of their collaboration. Last year, an enquete (questionnaire survey) was conducted to survey the needs for the educational experiments of graduate level and precious data have been obtained for promoting reactor laboratory courses. (author)
Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J
The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.
Long, Mark C.; Goldhaber, Dan; Huntington-Klein, Nick
We find statistically significant relationships between changes in wages by occupation and subsequent changes in college majors completed in associated fields. College majors (defined at a detailed level) are most strongly related to wages observed three years earlier, when students were college freshmen. The responses to wages vary depending on…
Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande
This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…
Cornerstone courses bridge introductory content from lower-level survey courses with the more advanced theoretical and methodological content of upper-level, major-only courses. Cornerstones are implemented with the goal of better preparing students for advanced coursework and/or assisting them with understanding their major and its associated…
Full Text Available To strength training of the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and then explore an effective way to train the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college is a very necessary and urgent task. On this basis, this paper aims at investigating the situation of the professional quality of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college according to the requirements of the industry and enterprise, constructs a multi-dimensional space of the professional quality by the use of the AHP analysis method, and proposes the training method of the professional quality, in order to further improve the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and provide reference for the training of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college.
Burnett, Lorie Lasseter
Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive
Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared
In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.
立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二
This report deals with a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman. This teaching method contains guidance and instruction to how to understand basic chemistry. Pre-test and post-test have been put into practice each time. Each test was returned to students at class in the following weeks.
Seo, K. W.; Han, K. W.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Ji, Y. J.; Oh, S. Y
This report was written as following contents, to develop a program for university students majoring in science and technology, which is intended to provide the students with opportunities to obtain hands on experience and knowledge on various nuclear technology, through experiments using HANARO and its facilities. Thus obtain experience and knowledge are expected to be a great help for their current study and for their selection of a specific future study area. The purpose of this research is as follows: - development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO as part of their university study. - continuous operation of research reactor experimental programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. - development and operation of training programs of experiments using research reactor for university students majoring in nuclear engineering and also for university students majoring in diverse fields of science and technology such as physics, advanced metallurgy, mechanical engineering, energy engineering, radiological science, nanoscience, etc. to cultivate future potential users of HANARO as well as broadening the user group. As a whole, 263 students from 15 universities have completed the courses of the programs developed and offered by this project. Also, 5 textbooks have been developed to support the programs.
Seo, K. W.; Han, K. W.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Ji, Y. J.; Oh, S. Y.
This report was written as following contents, to develop a program for university students majoring in science and technology, which is intended to provide the students with opportunities to obtain hands on experience and knowledge on various nuclear technology, through experiments using HANARO and its facilities. Thus obtain experience and knowledge are expected to be a great help for their current study and for their selection of a specific future study area. The purpose of this research is as follows: - development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO as part of their university study. - continuous operation of research reactor experimental programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. - development and operation of training programs of experiments using research reactor for university students majoring in nuclear engineering and also for university students majoring in diverse fields of science and technology such as physics, advanced metallurgy, mechanical engineering, energy engineering, radiological science, nanoscience, etc. to cultivate future potential users of HANARO as well as broadening the user group. As a whole, 263 students from 15 universities have completed the courses of the programs developed and offered by this project. Also, 5 textbooks have been developed to support the programs
Mareng, Chuei D.
This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…
TG (Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation), 2012
As the importance of a college degree climbs and federal and state grant funding remains inadequate, millions of students in the U.S. continue to take out student loans each year to help pay for their rising education costs. In October 2011, the total amount of outstanding student loan debt in the U.S. exceeded $1 trillion (Chopra, 2012),…
Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping
With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and large, it was found that the students reflected "mixed" motives in biology learning, while those who had more sophisticated epistemic beliefs tended to employ deep strategies. In addition, the results of paired t tests revealed that the female students were more likely to possess beliefs about biological knowledge residing in external authorities, to believe in a right answer, and to utilize rote learning as a learning strategy. Moreover, compared to juniors and seniors, freshmen and sophomores tended to hold less mature views on all factors of epistemic beliefs regarding biology. Another comparison indicated that theoretical biology students (e.g. students majoring in the Department of Biology) tended to have more mature beliefs in learning biology and more advanced strategies for biology learning than those students studying applied biology (e.g. in the Department of Biotechnology). Stepwise regression analysis, in general, indicated that students who valued the role of experiments and justify epistemic assumptions and knowledge claims based on evidence were more oriented towards having mixed motives and utilizing deep strategies to learn biology. In contrast, students who believed in the certainty of biological knowledge were more likely to adopt rote learning strategies and to aim to qualify in biology.
Walters, Kristi L.
The importance of student motivation and its connection to other learning variables (i.e., attitudes, knowledge, persistence, attendance) is well established. Collaborative work at the undergraduate level has been recognized as a valuable tool in large courses. However, motivation and collaborative group work have rarely been combined. This project utilized student motivation to learn biology to place non-major biology undergraduates in collaborative learning groups at East Carolina University, a mid-sized southeastern American university, to determine the effects of this construct on student learning. A pre-test measuring motivation to learn biology, attitudes toward biology, perceptions of biology and biologists, views of science, and content knowledge was administered. A similar post-test followed as part of the final exam. Two sections of the same introductory biology course (n = 312) were used and students were divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous groups (based on their motivation score). The heterogeneous groups (n = 32) consisted of a mixture of different motivation levels, while the homogeneous groups (n = 32) were organized into teams with similar motivation scores using tiers of high-, middle-, and low-level participants. Data analysis determined mixed perceptions of biology and biologists. These include the perceptions biology was less intriguing, less relevant, less practical, less ethical, and less understandable. Biologists were perceived as being neat and slightly intelligent, but not very altruistic, humane, ethical, logical, honest, or moral. Content knowledge scores more than doubled from pre- to post-test. Half of the items measuring views of science were not statistically significantly different from pre- to post-test. Many of the factors for attitudes toward biology became more agreeable from pre- to post-test. Correlations between motivation scores, participation levels, attendance rates, and final course grades were examined at both the
Wozniak, Breann M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This study shows that POGIL is an effective technique at eliciting students' misconceptions, and addressing these misconceptions, leading to an increase in student understanding of biological classification.
....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... during service accumulation is allowed only in accordance with § 90.118. (b) Engine pre-test preparation... by § 90.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line, filters, and pumps to reach operating...
....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the..., including the sample probe, using mode 1 from Table 2 in appendix A of this subpart. The emission sampling...
In the literature on questionnaire design and survey methodology, pre-testing is mentioned as a way to evaluate questionnaires (i.e. investigate whether they work as intended) and control for measurement errors (i.e. assess data quality). As the American Statistical Association puts it (ASA, 1999,
A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Online education has exploded in popularity. While there is ample research on predictors of traditional college student success, little research has been done on effective methods of predicting student success in online education. In this study, a number of demographic variables including GPA, ACT, gender, age and others were examined to determine what, if any, role they play in successfully predicting student success in an online, lab-based biology for non-majors course. Within course variables such as participation in specific categories of assignment and frequency of online visits were also examined. Groups of students including Native American/Non-Native American and Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives and others were also examined to determine if overall course success differed significantly. Good predictors of online success were found to be GPA, ACT, previous course experience and frequency of online visits with the course materials. Additionally, students who completed more of the online assignments within the course were more successful. Native American and Non-Native American students were found to differ in overall course success significantly as well. Findings indicate student academic background, previous college experience and time spent with course materials are the most important factors in course success. Recommendations include encouraging enrollment advisors to advise students about the importance of maintaining high academic levels, previous course experience and spending time with course materials may impact students' choices for online courses. A need for additional research in several areas is indicated, including Native American and Non-Native American differences. A more detailed examination of students' previous coursework would also be valuable. A study involving more courses, a larger number of students and surveys from faculty who teach online courses would help improve the generalizability of the conclusions.
Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.
This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…
Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.
This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…
Barry, Nancy H.; Orlofsky, Diane DeNicola
Examines the song leading effectiveness of undergraduate education majors under three conditions: unaccompanied, accompanied with autoharp, and accompanied by recording. Finds that students rate themselves higher than experts do; there is greater eye contact using rote or recording; and there is greater tempo accuracy using rote and autoharp. (DSK)
Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp; Fudge, Julie; Hubbard, Glenn T.; Filak, Vincent F.
A study of news media and strategic communication majors (n = 273) revealed differences in regard to personality indices and impetuses for selecting to pursue degrees. Showing overall agreement in the importance of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, strategic communication students were significantly higher in their ratings of…
Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping
With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…
The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…
Barber, Clifton E.
Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…
Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…
Cook, Samuel A.; Borkovitz, Debra K.
In this paper we present data from one-on-one interviews conducted with students who have taken intermediate and advanced inquiry-based mathematics courses in a program that prepares future preK-8 teachers. Many of these students entered college with a fear of math, but then gained confidence from a required introductory math course and chose to…
Rodgers, Vikki L.
This article describes an active learning strategy for engaging undergraduate business students, a group often ignored in scientific pedagogy, in learning about renewable energy technology and associated trade-offs. I designed a small-group activity to appeal to and engage business students, but the exercise could easily be used for a variety of…
Lang, Kenneth Brandon
Several studies have found a relationship between college students' academic majors and their environmental attitudes and behaviors. Results from this study of incoming first-year students at a medium-sized public university suggest that students majoring in different programs of study were likely to have different environmental attitudes and…
Logue, Christen T.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick T. L.
Based on 164 undergraduate business majors, we examined the relationship between satisfaction with major and Holland's vocational interests and with the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Contrary to our hypothesis, enterprising scores were unrelated to major satisfaction. As hypothesized, using ipsative and normative scores, investigative,…
Mukhopadhyay Prianka, Sain Sonali, Mandal Nirmal Kumar, Saha Tushar Kanti , Dey Indira, Chattopadhyay Amitava
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medical students experience depression, burnout, and mental illness at a higher rate than general population. A better understanding of related risk factors can help target appropriate support services for them. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of depression and identify its risk factors among undergraduate students in a medical College in Kolkata, India. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study using a two stage, stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 289 students. Data were collected using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire based on Becks Depression Inventory II. Results: The mean score of students on depression scale was 10.47±10.39. 22.5 % of students tested positive for some form of depression while 6.2% had severe to extreme depression. The risk factors of depressive symptoms identified were older age, lower family income, students who did not choose admission in MBBS course on their own, had addictions, felt negatively about results, faced difficulty with study course and had relationship issues. Students with relationship issues in their personal lives were 3.7 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Students who faced difficulty coping with study course were 2.18 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Conclusion: Academic performance alone doesn’t influence the mental health of students, rather factors like older age, socioeconomic status, role in choice of medical career, negative perception of academic performance, difficulty with study course and relationship issues are also important.
Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Yutaka; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kako, Yuki; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro
The suicide risk among young adults is related to multiple factors; therefore, it is difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behavior. We conducted the present study to reveal the most important factors relating to suicidal ideation in Japanese university students with major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive disorder (MDD). The subjects were 30 Japanese university students who had MDEs of MDD, and were aged between 18 and 26 years old. They were divided into two groups - without suicide risk group (n=15), and with suicide risk group (n=15) - based on the results of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Additionally, healthy controls were recruited from the same population (n=15). All subjects completed the self-assessment scales including the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd edition (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and SF-36v2™ (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey version 2), and they were all administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. The RSES score of the suicide risk group was significantly lower than the RSES score of the without suicide risk group, whereas the BDI-II score and the BHS score were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean social functioning score on the SF-36v2 of the with suicide risk group was significantly lower than that of the without suicide risk group. The individual's self-esteem and social functioning may play an important role in suicide risk among young adults with MDEs of MDD.
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.
Full Text Available Cognitive interviewing is a common method used to evaluate survey questions. This study compares traditional cognitive interviewing methods with crowdsourcing, or “tapping into the collective intelligence of the public to complete a task.” Crowdsourcing may provide researchers with access to a diverse pool of potential participants in a very timely and cost-efficient way. Exploratory work found that crowdsourcing participants, with self-administered data collection, may be a viable alternative, or addition, to traditional pretesting methods. Using three crowdsourcing designs (TryMyUI, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and Facebook, we compared the participant characteristics, costs, and quantity and quality of data with traditional laboratory-based cognitive interviews. Results suggest that crowdsourcing and self-administered protocols may be a viable way to collect survey pretesting information, as participants were able to complete the tasks and provide useful information; however, complex tasks may require the skills of an interviewer to administer unscripted probes.
Zheng, Jihong; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Xu, Boqing; Schreiner, Rupert; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Seebauer, Gudrun; Zhu, Jiyan
Different higher education backgrounds in China and Germany led to challenges in the curriculum design at the beginning of our cooperative bachelor program in Optoelectronics Engineering. We see challenges in different subject requirements from both sides and in the German language requirements for Chinese students. The curriculum was optimized according to the ASIIN criteria, which makes it acceptable and understandable by both countries. German students are integrated into the Chinese class and get the same lectures like their Chinese colleagues. Intercultural and curriculum challenges are successfully solved. The results are summarized to provide an example for other similar international programs.
Gonzalez, Eliseo A.
Fostering resiliency and educational success in students that are faced with adversity is not a simple task. The gap in educational success and achievement among low-income, first generation, traditionally marginalized students continues to be significant. California's educational system needs to stop the hemorrhaging from its educational pipeline, also known as the P-20 pipeline, of all students, especially those groups of students with larger gaps in educational attainment. One potential path towards fixing California's educational pipeline for all students is to form and keep partnerships with programs such as Upward Bound, AVID, and Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). In 2010-11, the California Department of Education (CDE) reported that over 51% of students enrolled in California's school system and 51% of all California high school seniors were Latino were Latino. Of the 231,231 Latino high school seniors, 79%, graduated. However, of those that graduated, only 26%, met University of California/California State University (UC/CSU) college entrance requirements. Even though 79% of Latinos graduated, 74% did not qualify to apply to a UC or CSU. If the majority of Latino students continue to fall through holes in the educational pipeline, companies will continue to look abroad to fill STEM jobs that remain unfilled by American workers (California Department of Education [CDE], 2012). Alongside the U.S.'s current economic woes, the lack of college preparedness and knowledge by parents and students has led to a decrease in first generation, low-income Latino students' higher education enrollment (Camacho & Lord, 2011). With strong and positive leadership from family, supplemented by the MESA program, these youths can exert their resiliency, face adversity, and overcome extraordinary barriers. Leaders in education such as teachers, coordinators, advisers, administrators, and parents are in the best position to teach students about resilience (Ginsburg, 2007
Ahmad Mosa Batianeh
Full Text Available Abstractــ-This study explored the effects of using online chat and word processors on students' writing skills that include; organizing a text, spelling, punctuation, grammar, phrasal verbs, idioms, idiomatic expressions, pragmatics, creativity, vocabulary growth, content, relational words, conjunctions, authenticity, figures of speech, imagination, coherence, style, socio-cultural aspects, language use, and the production of authentic text. The study group consisted of students in the Department of Languages and Translation at Taibah University who registered for the Writing Two course in the first semester of the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Fourty subjects were divided into two sections: section one was assigned as an experimental group (supported by Facebook and Skype and section two was assigned as a control group and was asked to write their essays with paper and pencil. Facebook and Skype accounts were created for every student in the experimental group. Data was analyzed from pre-test and post-test results to evaluate the question posed by the study: Does the use of online text chat assisted with word processors help undergraduate students develop their writing skills more than traditional methods of teaching? The results revealed that students who worked with Facebook and Skype showed a significant improvement in their writing skills when compared to the control group. In light of these findings, it is recommended that online discussions via Facebook, Skype, and other social media sites should be utilized when teaching writing and the other language skills.
Full Text Available Background: Assessment of educational courses has a critical impact on quality improvement in all curricula. Surveys aimed at alumni and graduating students may be useful for the evaluation of the program outcomes and revision. The aims of this study were to describe levels of competency of last year students of an Iranian dental school in the major skills needed for a new dentist and to investigate its relationship with background factors such as gender, marriage status, entrance exam score , entrance quotas and their economic status.Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, 55 last year dental students filled out a valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 132 competencies that could be rated on a four point Likert’s Scale. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, independent-samples ttest and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Students' total competencies mean score was 47.48±2.03 out of 100. The lowest and highest score belonged to oral diseases diagnosis (%18.48 and Preventive dentistry (%66.06 respectively. The past dental hygiene students continued their education as a doctoral degree were more competent than the others but there were no significant differences between competency levels of other quotas. The competency score had no significant relationship with marriage and economic statuses of students aswell as their entrance exam score.Conclusion: responses to the students’ self-reported preparedness described the general state of competency of the last year dental students as fairly satisfactory. However, the theoretical backgrounds related to some subjects need to be more emphasized.Key words: COMPETENCY, DENTISTRY STUDENTS EDUCATION
Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos
Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.
Despite all the national efforts to increase STEM enrollment in the United States, the gap between the U.S. and other developed countries in terms of STEM graduates has widened over the last 20 years. Researchers have studied factors such as gender, race, high school GPA, and the student's socioeconomic status for their impact on STEM enrollment.…
Al Asmari, AbdulRahman
The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…
School districts throughout the United States provide in-home schooling for students whose health problems, both physical and mental, prevent them from attending regular classes. This service is an outgrowth of the federal legislation which addressed the provision of education to all children with special needs. Home/Hospital teachers who serve…
Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Zhou, Sasha; Wagner, Blake, III; Beck, Katie; Eisenberg, Daniel
This article explores variations in mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines using a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 64,519) at 81 colleges and universities. We report prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, and self-injury, and rates of help-seeking across disciplines, including results…
Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong
The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…
This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…
Li, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Guangzhi
Weak enrollment growth has been a concern for many Information Systems (IS) programs in recent years although the IT/IS job market remains strong. Stimulating undergraduate students' interest to IS programs have been a challenge. In this paper, the researchers took a comprehensive approach to study how to effectively promote a Management…
Full Text Available Nobuyuki Mitsui,1 Satoshi Asakura,1,2 Yusuke Shimizu,1 Yutaka Fujii,1 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Yuki Kako,1 Teruaki Tanaka,1 Nobuki Kitagawa,3 Takeshi Inoue,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Health care center of Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 3Department of Clinical Social Work, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido School of Nursing and Social Services, Tobetsu, Ishikari, Japan Background: The suicide risk among young adults is related to multiple factors; therefore, it is difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behavior. Aim: We conducted the present study to reveal the most important factors relating to suicidal ideation in Japanese university students with major depressive episodes (MDEs of major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: The subjects were 30 Japanese university students who had MDEs of MDD, and were aged between 18 and 26 years old. They were divided into two groups – without suicide risk group (n=15, and with suicide risk group (n=15 – based on the results of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Additionally, healthy controls were recruited from the same population (n=15. All subjects completed the self-assessment scales including the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd edition (BDI-II, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and SF-36v2TM (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey version 2, and they were all administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results: The RSES score of the suicide risk group was significantly lower than the RSES score of the without suicide risk group, whereas the BDI-II score and the BHS score were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean social functioning score on the SF-36v2 of the with suicide risk group was significantly lower than that of the without suicide risk group. Conclusion: The individual's self-esteem and social functioning may play an
This study investigated the effects of learning-style based activities on students' reading comprehension skills and self-efficacy perceptions in English foreign language classes. A quasi-experimental, matching-only pretest-posttest control group design was utilized. The study was conducted with freshmen university students majoring in Elementary…
Carter, Frances A; Bell, Caroline J; Ali, Anthony N; McKenzie, Janice; Wilkinson, Timothy J
No previous studies have systematically assessed the psychological functioning of medical students following a major disaster. To describe the psychological functioning of medical students following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, and identify predictors of adverse psychological functioning. 7 months following the most severe earthquake, medical students completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and Likert scales assessing psychological functioning at worst and currently. A substantial minority of medical students reported moderate-extreme difficulties on the DASS subscales 7 months following the most severe earthquake (Depression =12%; Anxiety =9%; Stress =10%). Multiple linear modelling produced a model that predicted 27% of the variance in total scores on the DASS. Variables contributing significantly to the model were: year of medical course, presence of mental health problems prior to the earthquakes, not being New Zealand European, and being higher on retrospectively rated neuroticism prior to the earthquakes. Around 10% of medical students experienced moderate-extreme psychological difficulties 7 months following the most severe earthquake on 22 February 2011. Specific groups at high risk for ongoing psychological symptomatology were able to be identified.
Hill, Gloria Pinckney
To understand the causes for the disproportionately high rate of attrition among ethnic minority students, it is important to consider not only how they differ from the majority population, but what differences exist in personal qualities and academic preparation within groups at particular types of institutions, and within particular majors. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of African-American students enrolled in engineering at a predominately white, selective research university to determine which cognitive, non-cognitive and situational variables impact their progress towards graduation. The goal was to see how African-American students who meet or exceed the minimum criteria for admission perceive their experience on campus, and what strategies they use to manage their day-to-day existence. The study was conducted using personal interviews guided by an open-ended questionnaire. The qualitative methodology allowed students to assess the college experience through their own cultural lens, and to identify the cognitive, non-cognitive, and situational variables important to them. Responses were sorted by class and gender, tabulated and grouped into categories. Interpretation was primarily descriptive. Consistencies, inconsistencies, patterns and relationships to concepts in the literature and to the research questions were discussed. Findings indicate that well prepared students become less confident about their commitment to engineering and their ability to succeed academically after they begin matriculating rather than before, and that redefinition of what it means to be academically successful is an effective coping mechanism to sustain the effort required to master courses. The study suggests that the current focus on the impact of the freshman year transition on student retention should be expanded to include the sophomore year. This is particularly true for institutions where engineering students spend the first year in a core
Zhao, Chun-Mei; Carini, Robert M.; Kuh, George D.
This study examined the extent to which women and men majoring in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) fields engaged in a broad array of effective educational practices. Women in SMET fields were generally as, or more, engaged in educationally fruitful activities as their male counterparts. The results of this study, when combined…
Results from various pretest calculations which were performed for Test S-LH-1 are included in this report. Test S-LH-1 has been designed to produce primary liquid holdup in the steam generator U-tubes similar to Tests S-UT-8. The analyses included in this report indicate liquid will be held in the tubes, the core liquid level will be appropriately depressed, and a core heater rod temperature excursion should occur. Several sensitivity studies are also included which identify parameters which could affect the response
Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min; Han, Eun Ok; Jang, Hyon Chul; Ko, Jong Kyung
This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job
Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyon Chul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Suseong College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Kyung [Radiation Safety Management Commission, Daegu Health College, (Korea, Republic of)
This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job.
Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…
Maldini, Agnesya; Usodo, Budi; Subanti, Sri
In the process of learning, especially math learning, process of interaction between teachers and students is certainly a noteworthy thing. In these interactions appear gestures or other body spontaneously. Gesture is an important source of information, because it supports oral communication and reduce the ambiguity of understanding the concept/meaning of the material and improve posture. This research which is particularly suitable for an exploratory research design to provide an initial illustration of the phenomenon. The goal of the research in this article is to describe the gesture of S1 and S2 students of mathematics education at the micro teaching process. To analyze gesture subjects, researchers used McNeil clarification. The result is two subjects using 238 gesture in the process of micro teaching as a means of conveying ideas and concepts in mathematics learning. During the process of micro teaching, subjects using the four types of gesture that is iconic gestures, deictic gesture, regulator gesturesand adapter gesture as a means to facilitate the delivery of the intent of the material being taught and communication to the listener. Variance gesture that appear on the subject due to the subject using a different gesture patterns to communicate mathematical ideas of their own so that the intensity of gesture that appeared too different.
Full Text Available The article tackles the question of the interconnection between the components of social intelligence (the N. Hall test and the D. V. Lyusin questionnaire test Emln and self-presentation tactics (the S. Lee, B. Quigley scale. To win on the market of vacancies the graduates have to know how to present themselves and their own projects, and have high social intelligence. The survey of 147 Russian students of Tyumen Industrial university has shown that the subjects with high and low levels of emotional awareness tend to resort to intimidation and managing behavior and emotions as well as such assertive self-presentation tactics as entitlement and blasting. Students with a developed ability to manage their emotions more often than the others declare their virtues and past achievements. Examinees with low and with high ability to control their emotional states can be characterized by negative and critical evaluation of others. The authors emphasize the research prospects of individual human resources where social intelligence as one of the components of the behavioral control is seen as a predictor of various self-presentation tactics, protective and assertive in particular.
Chambers, Sara Lang Ketchum
This social action study followed an introductory biology course for a three-year period to determine whether changes in teaching personnel, instructional techniques and reorientation to student-centered learning would impact student performance. The course was redirected from a traditional lecture-laboratory format to one emphasizing active learning inquiry methods. Student retention, achievement, and failure were observed for three years in addition to one year prior, and one year following, the study. The study examined the two semester introductory biology course required of all biology majors and those intending a career in science, medicine or dentistry. During the first semester of the study, the dropout rate decreased from 46% to 21%. Prior to the study, 39% of the students completing the course received a grade of D or F while only 4% received a grade of B or above. During the first semester of the study 14% of the students received a grade of D or F while 46% received a B, B+ or A grade. Similar results were seen in other semesters of the study. A statistical comparison of student retention and performance was carried out using grade data for classes taught by the original faculty, the action study faculty and the post-study faculty. The differences between the original faculty and the action study faculty were statistically significant. Effect size calculations indicated large differences between the action study faculty and the two other faculty groups in terms of student retention, achievement and failure. The results are attributed to both the personnel change and, more significantly, the change in teaching methods and emphasis on student-active learning. Comparison between the pre- and post-study teams showed less dramatic effect sizes than when the action study data were compared with the data from either other team. Nevertheless, the post-study results showed that although the retention rate dropped during the year after the study, the improvement
Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.
Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.
Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chou, Pao-Nan; Liang, Chaoyan
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the ePortfolio-based learning approach (ePBLA) on knowledge sharing and creation with 92 college students majoring in electrical engineering as the participants. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with a covariance of pretest on knowledge sharing and creation was conducted…
Boness, D. A.
The general public is heavily exposed to "news" and commentary---and arts and entertainment---that either inadvertently misrepresents science or even acts to undermine it. Climate change denial and evolution denial is well funded and pervasive. Even university-educated people get little exposure to the aims, methods, debates, and results of scientific inquiry because unless they earn degrees in science they typically only take one or two introductory science courses at the university level. This presentation reports the development of a new, non-science major Seattle University course on mass extinctions throughout earth history. Seattle University is an urban, Jesuit Catholic university. The topic of mass extinctions was chosen for several reasons: (1) To expose the students to a part of current science that has rich historical roots yet by necessity uses methods and reasoning from geology, geophysics, oceanography, physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy. This multidisciplinary course provides some coverage of sciences that the student would not typically ever see beyond secondary school. (2) To enable the students to learn enough to follow some of the recent and current debates within science (e.g., mass extinctions by asteroid impact versus massive volcanism, ocean anoxia, and ocean acidification), with the students reading some of the actual literature, such as articles in Science, Nature, or Nature Geoscience. (3) To emphasize the importance of "deep time" as evolutionary biological processes interact with massive environmental change over time scales from hundreds of millions of years down to the seconds and hours of an asteroid or comet strike. (4) To show the effects of climate change in the past, present, and future, due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. (5) To help the student critically evaluate the extent to which their future involves a human-caused mass extinction.
Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane
Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.
This report documents the pretest calculations completed for Semiscale Test S-FS-7. This test will simulate a transient initiated by a 14.3% break in a steam generator bottom feedwater line downstream of the check valve. The initial conditions represent normal operating conditions for a C-E System 80 nuclear power plant. Predictions of transients resulting from feedwater line breaks in these plants have indicated that significant primary system overpressurization may occur. The results of a RELAP5/MOD2/CY21 code calculation indicate that the test objectives for Test S-FS-7 can be achieved. The primary system overpressurization will occur but pose no threat to personnel or to plant integrity. 3 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs
This report documents the pretest analysis calculation completed with the RELAP5/MOD2/CY21 code for Semiscale Test S-FS-1. The test will simulate the double-ended offset shear of the main steam line at the exit of the broken loop steam generator (downstream of the flow restrictor) and the subsequent plant recovery. The recovery portion of the test consists of a plant stabilization phase and a plant cooldown phase. The recovery procedures involve normal charging/letdown operation, pressurizer heater operation, secondary steam and feed of the unaffected steam generator, and pressurizer auxiliary spray. The test will be terminated after the unaffected steam generator and pressurizer pressures and liquid levels are stable, and the average priamry fluid temperature is stable at about 480 K (405 0 F) for at least 10 minutes
Shaw, R.A.; Hall, D.G.
This report documents the pretest analyses completed for Semiscale Test S-FS-6. This test will simulate a transient initiated by a 100% break in a steam generator bottom feedwater line downstream of the check valve. The initial conditions represent normal operating conditions for a C-E System 80 nuclear power plant. Predictions of transients resulting from feedwater line breaks in these plants have indicated that significant primary system overpressurization may occur. The enclosed analyses include a RELAP5/MOD2/CY21 code calculation and preliminary results from a facility hot, integrated test which was conducted to near S-FS-6 specifications. The results of these analyses indicate that the test objectives for Test S-FS-6 can be achieved. The primary system overpressurization will pose no threat to personnel or plant integrity
Hall, D.G.; Shaw, R.A.
This report documents the pretest calculations completed for Semiscale Test S-FS-11. This test will simulate a transient initiated by a 50% break in a steam generator bottom feedwater line downstream of the check valve. The initial conditions represents normal operating conditions for a C-E System 80 nuclear plant. Prediction of transients resulting from feedwater line breaks in these plants have indicated that significant primary system overpressurization may occur. The results of a RELAP5/MOD2/CY21 code calculation indicate that the test objectives for Test S-FS-11 can be achieved. The primary system overpressurization will occur but pose no threat to personnel or plant integrity. 3 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs
Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji
The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.
Natural Resources Canada launched a print advertising campaign and one 30-second television commercial to promote the Energy Star symbol and to acquaint the public with the program that identifies energy efficient products that reduce energy use, save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. The Communications Branch of Natural Resources Canada wanted to pre-test the television and print ads. Each print ad focused on a particular product category, including home comfort, appliances, electronics and office equipment. The qualitative research methodology was used in the pre-testing because it is the best learning tool for understanding the range and depth of reactions toward a subject at any given time. The findings were not quantifiable because they are not representative of the population at large. Ten focus groups were surveyed in January 2003 in 5 Canadian centres with a total of 83 participants aged 18 to 54. The target groups included people who were informed about climate change issues as well as those who were note. Participants were questioned about the Energy Star Product. Findings were consistent across all 5 locations. There was some general awareness of EnerGuide on appliances in all groups, but generally a low awareness of the Energy Star symbol. Most people did not place energy efficiency as a high priority when purchasing appliances. This report presented the main findings of attitudes towards climate change, Kyoto and energy efficiency. The reaction to the television and print ads was also included along with opinions regarding their main weaknesses and strengths. Some recommendations for improvement were also included. Samples of the print advertisements were included in both English and French. tabs., figs.
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.
Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013)]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI) and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.
Weatherford, V. L.; Redemann, J.
Titled "Observing Climate Change From Space-what tools do we have?", this non-science major freshman seminar at UCLA is the culmination of a year-long interdisciplinary program sponsored by the Institute of the Environment and the College Honors programs at the University. Focusing on the anthropogenic and natural causes of climate change, students study climate forcings and learn about satellite and other technological means of monitoring climate and weather. NASA's Terra satellite is highlighted as one of the most recent and comprehensive monitoring systems put into space and the role of future NASA platforms in the "A-train"-constellation of satellites is discussed. Course material is typically presented in a Power-Point presentation by the instructor, with assigned supplementary reading to stimulate class discussion. In addition to preparing lectures for class presentation, students work on a final term paper and oral presentation which constitutes the majority of their grade. Field trips to the San Gabriel mountains to take atmospheric measurements with handheld sunphotometers and to JPL, Pasadena (CA) to listen to a NASA scientist discuss the MISR instrument aboard the Terra satellite help bring a real-world perspective to the science learned in the classroom. In this paper, we will describe the objectives and structure of this class and present measurement results taken during the field trip to the San Gabriel Mountains. In this context we will discuss the potential relevance of hands-on experience to meeting class objectives and give a student perspective of the overall class experience.
Fredrick, L. Denise
The focus of this study was to investigate college students' perception of high school and college introductory science learning experiences related to persistence in science as a major area of study in college. The study included students' perceptions of the following areas of science education: (1) teacher interpersonal relationship with students, (2) teacher personality styles, (3) teacher knowledge of the content, (4) instructional methods, and (5) science course content. A survey research design was employed in the investigative study to collect and analyze data. One hundred ninety two students participated in the research study. A survey instrument entitled Science Education Perception Survey was used to collect data. The researcher sought to reject or support three null hypotheses as related to participants' perceptions of high school and college introductory science education experiences. Using binomial regression analysis, this study analyzed differences between students persisting in science and students not persisting in science as a major. The quantitative research indicated that significant differences exist between persistence in science as a major and high school science teacher traits and college introductory science instructional methods. Although these variables were found to be significant predictors, the percent variance was low and should be considered closely before concluded these as strong predictors of persistence. Major findings of the qualitative component indicated that students perceived that: (a) interest in high school science course content and high school science teacher personality and interpersonal relationships had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (b) interest in college introductory science course content had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (c) students recalled laboratory activities and overall good teaching as most meaningful to their high school science
Sutherland, W.A.; Alamgir, M.
The Full Integral Simulation Test program is a three pronged approach to the development of best-estimate analysis capability for BWR systems. An analytical method development program is underway to extend the BWR-TRAC computer code to model reactor kinetics and major interfacing systems, including balance-of-plant, to improve application modeling flexibility, and to reduce computer running time. An experimental program is underway in a new single bundle system test facility to extend the large break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA data base to small breaks and operational transients. And a method qualification program is underway to test TRACBO2 against experiments in the FIST facility. The recently completed Phase 1 period included a series of LOCA and power transient tests, and successful pretest analysis of the large and small break LOCA tests with TRACBO2. These comparisons demonstrate BWR-TRAC capability for small and large break analysis, and provide detailed understanding of the phenomena
Story, Lachel; To, Yen M
Health care and academic systems are increasingly collaborating with community health advisors (CHAs) to provide culturally relevant health interventions that promote sustained community transformation. Little attention has been placed on CHA training evaluation, including core competency attainment. This study identified common CHA core competencies, generated a theoretically based measure of those competencies, and explored psychometric properties of that measure. A concept synthesis revealed five CHA core competencies (leadership, translation, guidance, advocacy, and caring). The CHA Core Competency Retrospective Pretest/Posttest (CCCRP) resulted from that synthesis, which was administered using multiple approaches to individuals who previously received CHA training (N= 142). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure underlying the posttraining data, and Cronbach's alpha indicated high internal consistency. This study suggested some CHA core competencies might be more interrelated than previously thought, and two major competencies exist rather than five and supported the CCCRP's use to evaluate core competency attainment resulting from training. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sowell, Mitzie Leigh
Recent declines in science literacy and inadequate numbers of individuals entering science careers has heightened the importance of determining why students major in science or do not major in science and then choose a science-related career. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental influences and student career choices of both males and females majoring and not majoring in science. This study specifically examined the constructs of parental occupation, parental involvement, and parental education levels. Aspects indicated by the participants as being influencers were also examined. In addition, differences between males and females were examined. A total of 282 students participated in the study; 122 were science majors and 160 were non-science majors. The data was collected through the use of a student information survey and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale. The findings suggest that students indicated the desire to help others, peers, salary, and skills as influencing their career choice. In regard to the various parental influences, mother's occupation was the only construct found as a statistically significant influencer on a student's decision to major in science. The results of this study can help educators, administrators, and policy makers understand what influences students to pursue science-related careers and possibly increase the number of students entering science-related careers. The results of the study specifically provide information that may prove useful to administrators and educators in the health science fields, particularly nursing fields. The findings provide insight into why students may choose to become nurses.
Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir
This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…
Partin, Matthew L.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Worch, Eric A.
To develop a more scientifically literate society, students need to understand the nature of science, which may be affected by controversial topics such as evolution. There are conflicting views among researchers concerning the relationships between understanding evolution, acceptance of evolution, and understanding of the nature of science. Four…
The goal of this study was to explore and understand the factors that influence students' intention to major in and complete an undergraduate program in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) discipline, in a non-STEM field, and how students' gender directly and indirectly affects their success in college. A quantitative study of three thousand four (3004) ACT-tested students who entered a Midwestern, land-grant university as freshmen in fall, 1999 was conducted based on their ACT Assessment information and their enrollment and graduation status after five years. A wide variety of variables were considered and logistic regression, factor analysis, and path analysis were used to analyze the data. The results show that students who intended to major in or completed STEM programs generally have better academic qualifications than their counterparts who intended to major in non-STEM fields. Students who intended to major in or completed STEM programs came from lower income families and smaller communities than those who intended to major in or graduated from non-STEM programs. In this study, gender's direct effect on students' college achievement is eleven times the total of gender's indirect effects through several major factors for students in both STEM fields and non-STEM fields. Perhaps nature has favored females when students' achievement is measured as their college GPA. The results also show that the overall high dropout rate is strongly associated with students' inadequate preparation in high school and family income. Out-of-school accomplishment in community service is a negative influence on their completion of a college degree. ACT scores are not necessary for prediction of college graduation.
A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J · m -3 · K -1 ), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result
Full Text Available This research was aimed to make students majoring in early childhood education learn about the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy by integrating learning process through practicing planting vegetables and herbs, harvesting, processing products and selling the products at the CEECE farm. This case study include 104 students in total, 2 males students and 102 females students majoring in early childhood education in the second semester of academic year 2016, Mahasarakham university. The researcher integrated the learning with subjects in early childhood education field such as Story and literature for young Children, Thai languages and literacy for young children, Independent study in early childhood education and Early childhood education quality assurance. The research instruments were 1 CEECE Farm area for practicing growing vegetables and herbs and 2 Self Reflection from the students. Data collection was conducted through three phases including 1 preparation 2 process and 3 data collection. The researcher analyzed the content by describing and drawing conclusions from students opinions about the learning. This research revealed: 1. Factors affecting success or barriers to learning include students, location, materials, budget, academic advisors and other factors such as climate and workloads of students. 2. Students majoring in early childhood education learn the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy through practicing at the CEECE farm. Students learn Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and knowledge as follows ; 2.1 Moderation: Students learn to use the resources sufficiently. Students realize the value and use resources in order to maximize savings ; location, materials and budget. 2.2 Reasonableness: Students learn to apply the principles of reason and critical thinking to planning decisions and resolving issues arising from the implementation based on information that they have gathered and relies on the concept, “if students are consumers, will they
Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer
Sattari-Far, Iradj [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)
This report presents defect assessment results from a final pre-test analysis of the NESC-1 spinning cylinder based on the NDE defect definitions and the determined loading conditions. The analysis covers fracture assessments of a subclad and a surface breaking crack. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element calculations, considering the crack-tip constraint, are employed in the assessment. Also performed are sensitivity studies to demonstrate how different affecting parameters, especially the cladding residual stresses, impact the crack driving force. It is found for both the surface and the subclad crack that the situations in the cladding and the deepest point of the crack front are far from critical for cleavage future. The results of the analysis indicate that a limited amount of ductile crack growth can occur along the crack front in the HAZ and adjacent base material. Cleavage fracture events can be expected in the HAZ. The results also show substantial loss of crack-tip constraint in the HAZ compared with the SSY solutions. Providing that the constraint and warm prestressing effects do not substantially affect the situations in HAZ, one can expect cleavage fracture to occur in the HAZ at a time around four minutes into the transient. From the sensitivity studies, it is observed that uncertainties due to different assumptions in the analysis, for instance crack depth and cladding residual stresses, influence the assessment results less than uncertainties of the fracture toughness properties of the materials. To perform a precise evaluation, fracture toughness data of the HAZ material corresponding to the actual constraint conditions are needed. 29 refs, 30 figs, 3 tabs.
Cuisinier, Adrien; Schilte, Clotilde; Declety, Philippe; Picard, Julien; Berger, Karine; Bouzat, Pierre; Falcon, Dominique; Bosson, Jean Luc; Payen, Jean-François; Albaladejo, Pierre
Medical competence requires the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and technical skills. Severe trauma management teaching is poorly developed during internship. Nevertheless, the basics of major trauma management should be acquired by every future physician. For this reason, the major trauma course (MTC), an educational course in major traumatology, has been developed for medical students. Our objective was to evaluate, via a high fidelity medical simulator, the impact of the MTC on medical student skills concerning major trauma management. The MTC contains 3 teaching modalities: posters with associated audio-guides, a procedural workshop on airway management and a teaching session using a medical simulator. Skills evaluation was performed 1 month before (step 1) and 1 month after (step 3) the MTC (step 2). Nineteen students were individually evaluated on 2 different major trauma scenarios. The primary endpoint was the difference between steps 1 and 3, in a combined score evaluating: admission, equipment, monitoring and safety (skill set 1) and systematic clinical examinations (skill set 2). After the course, the combined primary outcome score improved by 47% (P<0.01). Scenario choice or the order of use had no significant influence on the skill set evaluations. This study shows improvement in student skills for major trauma management, which we attribute mainly to the major trauma course developed in our institution. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To find the most effective learning strategy for the practicum in the laboratory of materials of the department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU, a study that aims to determine the effect of applying pre-test and work plan on the learning activities and the achievement of students in the laboratory was conducted. This action research used the purposive random sampling technique. Pre-test and work plan were conducted as the treatment. The data of study was collected through a test to analyse the students’ achievement scores, then they were analyzed using t-test with SPSS. The results of this study indicated that the application of pre-test and work plan in addition to the standard module was proven to be more effective than the normative learning using the module with t = 3.055 p = 0.003 <0.05. The implementation of the pre-test and work plan in addition to the use of standard modules is able to improve the students’ motivation, independence and readiness to learn as well as the cooperation among the students, therefore the achievement is also improved. The mastery of competencies increased significantly proved by the increasing values of mode 66 to 85 (the experiment, and mean 73.12 into 79.32 (experiment.
Thames, Tasha Herrington
The advancement in technology integration is laying the groundwork of a paradigm shift in the higher education system (Noonoo, 2011). The National Dropout Prevention Center (n.d.) claims that technology offers some of the best opportunities for presenting instruction to engage students in meaningful education, addressing multiple intelligences, and adjusting to students' various learning styles. The purpose of this study was to investigate if implementing clicker technology would have a statistically significant difference on student retention and student achievement, while controlling for learning styles, for students in non-major biology courses who were and were not subjected to the technology. This study also sought to identify if students perceived the use of clickers as beneficial to their learning. A quantitative quasi-experimental research design was utilized to determine the significance of differences in pre/posttest achievement scores between students who participated during the fall semester in 2014. Overall, 118 students (n = 118) voluntarily enrolled in the researcher's fall non-major Biology course at a southern community college. A total of 71 students were assigned to the experimental group who participated in instruction incorporating the ConcepTest Process with clicker technology along with traditional lecture. The remaining 51 students were assigned to the control group who participated in a traditional lecture format with peer instruction embedded. Statistical analysis revealed the experimental clicker courses did have higher posttest scores than the non-clicker control courses, but this was not significant (p >.05). Results also implied that clickers did not statistically help retain students to complete the course. Lastly, the results indicated that there were no significant statistical difference in student's clicker perception scores between the different learning style preferences.
*The main part of this thesis focuses on designing, optimising, and studying the embedding of two types of interventions: pre-testing and peer assessment, both supported by or combined with ICT-tools. * Pre-test sensitisation is used intentionally to boost the learning gain of the main intervention,
... while they are in developmental form to assess audience comprehension, reactions, and perceptions. The information obtained from audience research and pretesting results in more effective messages, materials, and... pretests are to (1) Assess audience knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and other characteristics for the...
... while they are in developmental form to assess audience comprehension, reactions, and perceptions. The information obtained from audience research and pretesting results in more effective messages, materials, and... pretests are to (1) assess audience knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and other characteristics for the...
Crossgrove, Kirsten; Curran, Kristen L
Student response systems (clickers) are viewed positively by students and instructors in numerous studies. Evidence that clickers enhance student learning is more variable. After becoming comfortable with the technology during fall 2005-spring 2006, we compared student opinion and student achievement in two different courses taught with clickers in fall 2006. One course was an introductory biology class for nonmajors, and the other course was a 200 level genetics class for biology majors. Students in both courses had positive opinions of the clickers, although we observed some interesting differences between the two groups of students. Student performance was significantly higher on exam questions covering material taught with clickers, although the differences were more dramatic for the nonmajors biology course than the genetics course. We also compared retention of information 4 mo after the course ended, and we saw increased retention of material taught with clickers for the nonmajors course, but not for the genetics course. We discuss the implications of our results in light of differences in how the two courses were taught and differences between science majors and nonmajors.
The aim of this study is to investigate the reading strategies used by Chinese English major students in the reading component in standardized national tests of TEM-4 with regard to reading efficiency. The research questions include: 1) what strategies are used by the students in TEM-4 test context; 2) whether there is a significant correlation between strategy use and efficient reading in the test; 3) what kinds of reading problems are revealed in the students’ use of processing strategies; ...
Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Tecknology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.
Han, Eun Ok
As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.
Bahman Akbari; Zohreh Teymori; Shahnam Abolghasemi; Hamidreza Khorshidiyan
Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control...
Park, Soowon; Cho, Seunghee; Lee, Jun-Young
In the process of developing a professional medical expertise, goals can become a psychological impetus and act as a source of retaining an individual's persistency. Therefore, the goals of medical students should be considered when designing a curriculum for health professions. The purpose of this study was to examine relative effects of goal categories on the value of learning and intention to change one's major. Data were obtained from the Korea Education Longitudinal Study, which included 1938 representative Korean college freshmen majoring in medicine, engineering, natural science and humanities. They answered a survey questionnaire about goal categories (i.e., social concern, affiliation, self-growth, leisure, wealth, and fame), the value of learning, and intention to change one's major. For medical students, social concern goals were positively related to the value of learning and negatively related to the intention to change one's major. Social concern goals decreased the intention to change one's major directly, and also indirectly through increased value of learning. Providing context for enhancing medical students' social concern goals is necessary in a medical training curriculum, not only for the students' professional development but also for improving society. GCT: Goal contents theory GPA: Grade point average KELS: Korea education longitudinal study SDLA: Self-directed learning abilities SDT: Self-determination theory.
Carbajal, Sandy C.
Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.
Madison, Ed; Hopp, Toby; Santana, Arthur D.; Stansberry, Kathleen
This study used self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the motivations for selecting a major among mass communication and media majors at 18 colleges and universities across the United States. Specifically, 669 mass communication majors were queried on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for choosing a major, their degree of major…
Bassette, Lorraine Pratt
The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of the initial and exiting attitudes toward mathematics and academic outcomes of students placed in the Developmental Mathematics Basic Arithmetic course at a community college in Maryland. Major research questions included were: (1) What is the difference, if any, between the pretest and posttest attitudes toward mathematics of students placed in Basic Arithmetic as measured by the Aiken Mathematics Attitude Survey? (...
This study reports on the integration of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) multimedia courseware for oral presentations into a self-learning and elective program for non-English major students in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting. A computer-aided instruction approach, combined with a task-based learning approach, was adopted.…
Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…
Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong
Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…
Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Islam, A. B. M. Shafiqul; Shuchi, Israt Jahan
The present study investigates the writing errors of ninety Saudi non-English major undergraduate students of different proficiency levels from three faculties, who studied English as a foundation course at the English Language Center in the College of Languages &Translation at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2016-17.…
Grineski, Sara; Daniels, Heather; Collins, Timothy; Morales, Danielle X.; Frederick, Angela; Garcia, Marilyn
Research on the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) student development pipeline has largely ignored social class and instead examined inequalities based on gender and race. We investigate the role of social class in undergraduate student research publications. Data come from a sample of 213 undergraduate research participants…
Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…
Chan, Evelyn T. Y.
This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…
Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira
All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…
Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…
Wyer, Mary Beth
Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality
The purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A-7 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) in April 1981
Taminiau-Bloem, Elsbeth F.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.; van Zuuren, Florence J.; Koeneman, Margot A.; Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Tishelman, Carol; Koning, Caro C. E.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.
The thentest design aims to detect and control for recalibration response shift. This design assumes (1) more consistency in the content of the cognitive processes underlying patients' quality of life (QoL) between posttest and thentest assessments than between posttest and pretest assessments; and
Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida
Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style's questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts' views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x(2) test. Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners.
EFFICIENCY OF THE TRANSITIONAL PROGRAM AT KING SAUD UNIVERSITY: A Comparative Study of Educational Achievement Among Female Students of the Transitional Program and University Female Students Majoring in Kindergarten, Special Education, and Psychology
ALJAAD, Nawal H.
The aim of this study was to identify the efficiency of the transitional programs at the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Saud University. Data collection relied on the educational achievement rates of the female students enrolled in the College of Applied Studies and also the regular students at the College of Education, King Saud University, majoring in kindergarten, special education, and psychology. The study was conducted on the whole population of the fifth level...
Karpiak, Christie P.; Buchanan, James P.; Hosey, Megan; Smith, Allison
We conducted an archival study at a coeducational Catholic university to test the proposition that single-sex secondary education predicts lasting differences in college majors. Men from single-sex schools were more likely to both declare and graduate in gender-neutral majors than those from coeducational schools. Women from single-sex schools…
Wachsmuth, Lucas P.; Runyon, Christopher R.; Drake, John M.; Dolan, Erin L.
Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of…
Full Text Available The present study investigates the writing errors of ninety Saudi non-English major undergraduate students of different proficiency levels from three faculties, who studied English as a foundation course at the English Language Center in the College of Languages &Translation at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2016-17. The findings reveal that the common errors the Saudi EFL students make in writing English paragraphs fall under four categories namely grammar, lexis, semantics and mechanics. Then it compares the categories, types and frequency of errors committed by these three groups of students. Among these categories, grammar has been observed as the most error-prone area where students commit errors the most. The study also posits that among the three groups, the students of the College of Medicine make the minimum errors in all the types and the highest number of errors is committed by the students of Engineering College. The College of Computer Science is in the second position in making errors. The frequency of error types is also found different among these three groups.
Stella Regina Martins
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.
This study investigates the self-reported experiences of students participating in a Galician language and culture course. Galician, a language historically spoken in northwestern Spain, has been losing ground with respect to Spanish, particularly in urban areas and among the younger generations. The research specifically focuses on informal…
Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.
The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…
Ariga, T.; Watanabe, T.
The explosive growth of the Internet has made the knowledge and skills for creating Web pages into general subjects that all students should learn. It is now common to teach the technical side of the production of Web pages and many teaching materials have been developed. However teaching the aesthetic side of Web page design has been neglected,…
Al-Sehiemy, Zainab Abdul-Rahman; Gheith, Nervana Abdul-Rahman
Recently, public administration graduates are exposed to new set of challenges because of globalization, virtual world and using modern technology as a base of all today's dealings. It imposes PAD at faculty of economic and administration faculty to prepare its students to confront these changes in organizations in the community. Therefore, the…
Alkubaidi, Miriam A.
This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners' learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the…
Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Wigfield, Allan; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study extends previous research on the long-term connections between motivation constructs in expectancy-value theory and achievement outcomes. Using growth mixture modelling, we examined trajectories of change for 421 students from 4th grade through college in their self-concept of ability (SCA) in math, interest in math, and perceived…
Genoways, Sharon K.
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education creates critical thinkers, increases science literacy, and enables the next generation of innovators, which leads to new products and processes that sustain our economy (Hossain & Robinson, 2012). We have been hearing the warnings for several years, that there simply are not enough young scientists entering into the STEM professional pathways to replace all of the retiring professionals (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Harsh, Maltese, & Tai, 2012; Heilbronner, 2011; Scott, 2012). The problem is not necessarily due to a lack of STEM skills and concept proficiency. There also appears to be a lack of interest in these fields. Recent evidence suggests that many of the most proficient students, especially minority students and women, have been gravitating away from science and engineering toward other professions. (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative research study was an attempt to determine how high schools can best prepare and encourage young women for a career in engineering or computer science. This was accomplished by interviewing a pool of 21 women, 5 recent high school graduates planning to major in STEM, 5 college students who had completed at least one full year of coursework in an engineering or computer science major and 11 professional women who had been employed as an engineer or computer scientist for at least one full year. These women were asked to share the high school courses, activities, and experiences that best prepared them to pursue an engineering or computer science major. Five central themes emerged from this study; coursework in physics and calculus, promotion of STEM camps and clubs, teacher encouragement of STEM capabilities and careers, problem solving, critical thinking and confidence building activities in the classroom, and allowing students the opportunity to fail and ask questions in a safe environment. These
Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida
Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style?s questionnaire was do...
Hammoudi, Nadjib; Duprey, Matthieu; Régnier, Philippe; Achkar, Marc; Boubrit, Lila; Preud'homme, Gisèle; Healy-Brucker, Aude; Vignalou, Jean-Baptiste; Pousset, Françoise; Komajda, Michel; Isnard, Richard
Management of increased referrals for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examinations is a challenge. Patients with normal TTE examinations take less time to explore than those with heart abnormalities. A reliable method for assessing pretest probability of a normal TTE may optimize management of requests. To establish and validate, based on requests for examinations, a simple algorithm for defining pretest probability of a normal TTE. In a retrospective phase, factors associated with normality were investigated and an algorithm was designed. In a prospective phase, patients were classified in accordance with the algorithm as being at high or low probability of having a normal TTE. In the retrospective phase, 42% of 618 examinations were normal. In multivariable analysis, age and absence of cardiac history were associated to normality. Low pretest probability of normal TTE was defined by known cardiac history or, in case of doubt about cardiac history, by age>70 years. In the prospective phase, the prevalences of normality were 72% and 25% in high (n=167) and low (n=241) pretest probability of normality groups, respectively. The mean duration of normal examinations was significantly shorter than abnormal examinations (13.8 ± 9.2 min vs 17.6 ± 11.1 min; P=0.0003). A simple algorithm can classify patients referred for TTE as being at high or low pretest probability of having a normal examination. This algorithm might help to optimize management of requests in routine practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sarah M. Boomer
Full Text Available The first course in our year-long introductory series for Biology majors encompasses four learning units: biological molecules and cells, metabolism, genetics, and evolution. Of these, the metabolism unit, which includes respiration and photosynthesis, has shown the lowest student exam scores, least interest, and lowest laboratory ratings. Consequently, we hypothesized that modeling metabolic processes in the laboratory would improve student content learning during this course unit. Specifically, we developed manipulatives-based laboratory exercises that combined paper cutouts, movable blocks, and large diagrams of the cell. In particular, our novel use of connecting LEGO blocks allowed students to move model electrons and phosphates between molecules and within defined spaces of the cell. We assessed student learning using both formal (content indicators and attitude surveys and informal (the identification of misconceptions or discussions with students approaches. On the metabolism unit content exam, student performance improved by 46% over pretest scores and by the end of the course, the majority of students rated metabolism as their most-improved (43% and favorite (33% subject as compared with other unit topics. The majority of students rated manipulatives-based labs as very helpful, as compared to non-manipulatives-based labs. In this report, we will demonstrate that students made learning gains across all content areas, but most notably in the unit that covered respiration and photosynthesis.
Full Text Available In our world of growing complexity, linear thinking and the belief that the whole is only the sum of its parts are evidently obsolete. Systems thinking, which promotes a holistic view of reality, is a situation-adequate handling of complex systems, and is therefore one of the most important skills of future executives in the business world. A new teaching concept was introduced one year ago by the Faculty of Business Administration at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. This concept was designed to help the students to develop abilities in thinking in models, operating complex systems and handling dynamic, non-linear situations. By use of a computer-simulated game the business students should gain knowledge about systemic realities and improve their complex-problem-solving skills. In the semester when the newly designed lecture started, the highly motivated class became aware of the problems in dealing with complexity. Documenting any significant improvements in our students' performance in playing the game was not possible, but we observed a change in their behaviour and ways of thinking in situations of complex problem-solving. Some necessary changes and adjustments in the teaching concept were made and the next class will be investigated in autumn 2003.
Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.
Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables
Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique B H; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Puts, Ghita C W M; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
It is generally assumed that learning in context increases performance. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a paper-patient context (relevance and familiarity), the mechanisms through which the cognitive dimension of context could improve learning (activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and increasing retrieval cues), and test performance. A total of 145 medical students completed a pretest of 40 questions, of which half were with a patient vignette. One week later, they studied musculoskeletal anatomy in the dissection room without a paper-patient context (control group) or with (ir)relevant-(un)familiar context (experimental groups), and completed a cognitive load scale. Following a short delay, the students completed a posttest. Surprisingly, our results show that students who studied in context did not perform better than students who studied without context. This finding may be explained by an interaction of the participants' expertise level, the nature of anatomical knowledge and students' approaches to learning. A relevant-familiar context only reduced the negative effect of learning the content in context. Our results suggest discouraging the introduction of an uncommon disease to illustrate a basic science concept. Higher self-perceived learning scores predict higher performance. Interestingly, students performed significantly better on the questions with context in both tests, possibly due to a 'framing effect'. Since studies focusing on the physical and affective dimensions of context have also failed to find a positive influence of learning in a clinically relevant context, further research seems necessary to refine our theories around the role of context in learning.
Full Text Available Background: To determine the most usual resources that adolescents and teenagers are using to learn about sexual issues. A cross-sectional exploratory study implemented in June 2015 in Zahedan, the capital city of Sistan-va-Baluchestan Province, located in the southeast of Iran. Methods: Using convenient sampling method, from among student of two large universities in Zahedan, 134 students 18 to 22 years old, accepted invitation for filling a self-administered anonymized questionnaire containing, 8 semi-closed questions about sexual issues. Results: 44.9% of women and 41.6% of men mentioned one of their friends as their tutors. While 42.0% of women mentioned their mothers as one of their tutors, only 18.8% of them believed that more than 50% of their sexual knowledge came from their mothers. 23.1% of male participants and 36.2% of female ones alleged to know personally people of their own ages who had been subjected to sexual abuse or harassment earlier in their life. Conclusion: In Iran, educating sexual issues to adolescents is badly in need of organization and management. While the rule of a committed extra-family tutor (e.g. an officially appointed school teacher might not be considered a solution, parents have to be prompted for filling the gap.
Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez
Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines
This study identified decreased distress after art therapy in a proxy pretest study with a convenience sample of 73 patients being treated for cancer. Art therapy outcomes from 4 settings (oncology unit, infusion clinic, individual sessions, and open studio) were measured via the self-report Distress Thermometer, which was collected as part of an…
Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.
The authors empirically examined whether the validity of a residualized dependent variable after covariance adjustment is comparable to that of the original variable of interest. When variance of a dependent variable is removed as a result of one or more covariates, the residual variance may not reflect the same meaning. Using the pretest-posttest…
Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.
This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.
Zientek, Linda; Nimon, Kim; Hammack-Brown, Bryn
Purpose: Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat typical experimental design would involve collecting pretest and posttest data on individuals assigned to a control or experimental group. Data from such a design that…
No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
... assess the likely effectiveness of tobacco communications with specific target audiences. The information... needed about target audiences. FDA must first understand critical influences on people's decisionmaking... intended audiences. Pretesting messages with a sample of the target audience will allow FDA to refine...
... assess the likely effectiveness of tobacco communications with specific target audiences. The information... needed about target audiences. FDA must first understand critical influences on people's decisionmaking... intended audiences. Pretesting messages with a sample of the target audience will allow FDA to refine...
Danilov, D.L.; Magnus, J.R.
In econometrics, as a rule, the same data set is used to select the model and, conditional on the selected model, to forecast. However, one typically reports the properties of the (conditional) forecast, ignoring the fact that its properties are affected by the model selection (pretesting). This is
Kwon, Jennie H; Reske, Kimberly A; Hink, Tiffany; Burnham, C A; Dubberke, Erik R
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients tested for Clostridium difficile and determine the correlation between pretest probability for C. difficile infection (CDI) and assay results. Patients with testing ordered for C. difficile were enrolled and assigned a high, medium, or low pretest probability of CDI based on clinical evaluation, laboratory, and imaging results. Stool was tested for C. difficile by toxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and toxigenic culture (TC). Chi-square analyses and the log rank test were utilized. Among the 111 patients enrolled, stool samples from nine were TC positive and four were EIA positive. Sixty-one (55%) patients had clinically significant diarrhea, 19 (17%) patients did not, and clinically significant diarrhea could not be determined for 31 (28%) patients. Seventy-two (65%) patients were assessed as having a low pretest probability of having CDI, 34 (31%) as having a medium probability, and 5 (5%) as having a high probability. None of the patients with low pretest probabilities had a positive EIA, but four were TC positive. None of the seven patients with a positive TC but a negative index EIA developed CDI within 30 days after the index test or died within 90 days after the index toxin EIA date. Pretest probability for CDI should be considered prior to ordering C. difficile testing and must be taken into account when interpreting test results. CDI is a clinical diagnosis supported by laboratory data, and the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in stool does not necessarily confirm the diagnosis of CDI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Ozkan, Eric Dogan
Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and
The spinning cylinder experiment organised by the Network for the Evaluation of Steel Components (NESC) is designed to investigate the cleavage initiation behaviour of both surface breaking and subclad defects in simulated end of life RPV material, exposed to a pressurised thermal shock transient. Pre-test structural integrity assessments are performed by the NESC Structural Analysis Task Group (TG3). The results of these structural integrity assessments are used to determine the design of the experiment and especially the sizes of the introduced defects. In this report the results of the pre-test analyses performed by the group Applied Mechanics at ECN - Nuclear Energy are described. Elastic as well as elasto-plastic structural analyses are performed for a surface breaking and a subclad defect in a forged cylinder with a 4 mm cladding. The semi elliptical defects have a depth of 40 mm and an aspect ratio of 1:3. (orig.)
Charest, Émilie; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Goulet, Julie
This article discusses the development and pretesting of key visual imagery in a promotional campaign developed in Quebec, Canada. This campaign is the media-based component of a broader prevention strategy involving the use of the Triple P program (Sanders, 1999). The purpose was to pretest with parents the preliminary version of a poster that uses the campaign's key visual imagery prior to final production. In total, 26 parents from the regions of Quebec City and Montreal participated in four focus groups. Two general themes emerged from the focus groups: (i) emotions and reactions arising from the key visual imagery; and (ii) comprehension of the message being conveyed. Based on this information, recommendations were made to the marketing agency, which then modified the campaign's key visual imagery and proposed a final layout.
Traxler, A. L.; Batuski, D. J.; Comins, N. F.; Thompson, J. R.
The astronomy lab at the University of Maine consists of discrete weekly lessons in which students work in small groups. Individual pretests and post-tests accompany each lesson. The lesson studied here covers the topic of time, including sidereal time, Apparent Solar Time, and time zones. The pretest consists of four multiple-choice questions, which are also administered after instruction as a post-test. In the fall 2004 semester, the pretest was rewritten to focus on some major conceptual components of the lab, while the lesson materials were not modified from previous years. Examination of class performance (n = 96) revealed no significant improvements in score from pre- to post-lesson. In the spring 2005 semester, the lesson was altered to incorporate the Starry Night software for simulating the sky instead of the celestial sphere models previously used. The goal of the change was to give students a more interactive environment for completing the laboratory exercise, which was otherwise altered as little as possible. Data from the spring semester show some gains on the pre/post-test questions covering sidereal time and Daylight Savings Time. Results to date have informed planned modifications to the lesson. A. L. T. was supported during this research by the University of Maine through a Provost Fellowship.
Purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A6 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Facility (LLTF) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. A6 is part of a test program being conducted to evaluate the effects of leaks produced by a double-ended guillotine rupture of a single tube. A6 will provide data on the CRBR prototypical double rupture disc performance
Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.
Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo
The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.
Cragun, Deborah L; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Severson, Herbert H; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William D
Case-based learning offers exposure to clinical situations that health professions students may not encounter in their training. The purposes of this study were to apply the Diffusion of Innovations conceptual framework to 1) identify characteristics of case studies that would increase their adoption among dental and dental hygiene faculty members and 2) develop and pretest interactive web-based case studies on sensitive oral-systemic health issues. The formative study spanned two phases using mixed methods (Phase 1: eight focus groups and four interviews; Phase 2: ten interviews and satisfaction surveys). Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data revealed the following positive attributes of the developed case studies: relative advantage of active learning and modeling; compatibility with a variety of courses; observability of case-related knowledge and skills; independent learning; and modifiability for use with other oral-systemic health issues. These positive attributes are expected to increase the likelihood that dental and dental hygiene faculty members will adopt the developed case study once it is available for use. The themes identified in this study could be applied to the development of future case studies and may provide broader insight that might prove useful for exploring differences in case study use across dental and dental hygiene curricula.
Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Levine, R.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Velasco, A. A.
Anecdotally, it is often stated that the majority of students that enter the geosciences usually do so sometime after their initial entrance into college. With the objective of providing concrete and useful information for individuals developing programs for inspiring interest in the Geosciences amongst pre-college students and trying to increase the number of freshman Geoscience majors, we conducted a critical incident study. Twenty-two students, who were undergraduate or graduate Geoscience majors, were asked, "Why did you decide to major in the Geosciences?" in a series of interviews. Their responses were then used to identify over 100 critical incidents, each of which described a specific behavior that was causally responsible for a student's choice to major in Geoscience. Using these critical incidents, we developed a preliminary taxonomy that is comprised of three major categories: Informal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., outdoor experiences, family involvement), Formal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., academic experiences, program participation) and a Combined Informal and Formal Exposure (e.g., media exposure). Within these three main categories we identified thirteen subcategories. These categories and subcategories, describe, classify, and provide concrete examples of strategies that were responsible for geosciences career choices. As a whole, the taxonomy is valuable as a new, data-based guide for designing geosciences recruitment programs for the pre-college student population.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Feng, Danjun; Zhao, Wenjing; Shen, Shiyu; Chen, Jieru; Li, Lu
The gender-based stereotype of nursing as a female profession has been a large obstacle to men entering the nursing profession. However, there is little quantitative research on the influence of prejudice induced by this stereotype on male nursing students' willingness to be nurses. To examine the effect of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse via the mediating effect of satisfaction with major among Chinese male nursing students. A cross-sectional survey was used. Four hundred and sixty male nursing students who were enrolled either in bachelor's programs in universities or advanced diploma programs in colleges in Jinan, China, were surveyed using questionnaires measuring perceived prejudice, satisfaction with major, and willingness to be a nurse. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was employed to determine the influence of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse with major satisfaction as a mediator. Male students who were in an advanced diploma nursing program and those for whom nursing was the first-choice major reported significantly less perceived prejudice, greater satisfaction with major, and greater willingness to be nurses than did those in a bachelor's nursing program and those for whom nursing was not the first-choice major, respectively. Moreover, although perceived prejudice had no significant direct effect on willingness to be a nurse (β=0.07, p>0.05), it did have a strong indirect effect (full mediation) via satisfaction with major (β=-0.59, pnursing students' willingness to be nurses via the full mediating effect of satisfaction with major. Because this obsolete stereotype of nursing as a female occupation gives birth to prejudice against male nursing students, effective measures should be taken to change this stereotype to recruit more men as nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary
Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between
Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.; Klamerus, E.W.; Shibata, S.; Mitsugi, S.; Costello, J.F.
The work reported herein represents, arguably, the state of the art in the numerical simulation of the response of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model to pressure loads up to failure. A significant expenditure of time and money on the part of the sponsors, contractors, and Round Robin participants was required to meet the objectives. While it is difficult to summarize the results of this extraordinary effort in a few paragraphs, the following observations are offered for the reader's consideration: almost half the participants used ABAQUS as the primary computational tool for performing the pretest analyses. The other participants used a variety of codes, most of which were developed ''in house''. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean sections is increasing worldwide, yet medical literature informing women with uncomplicated pregnancies about relative risks and benefits of elective caesarean section (CS compared with vaginal delivery (VD remains scarce. A decision board may address this gap, providing systematic evidence-based information so that patients can more fully understand their treatment options. The objective of our study was to design and pre-test a decision board to guide clinical discussions and enhance informed decision-making related to delivery approach (CS or VD in uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Development of the decision board involved two preliminary studies to determine women's preferred mode of risk presentation and a systematic literature review for the most comprehensive presentation of medical risks at the time (VD and CS. Forty women were recruited to pre-test the tool. Eligible subjects were of childbearing age (18-40 years but were not pregnant in order to avoid raising the expectation among pregnant women that CS was a universally available birth option. Women selected their preferred delivery approach and completed the Decisional Conflict Scale to measure decisional uncertainty before and after reviewing the decision board. They also answered open-ended questions reflecting what they had learned, whether or not the information had helped them to choose between birth methods, and additional information that should be included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and women's choice of delivery approach pre/post decision board. Change in decisional conflict was measured using Wilcoxon's sign rank test for each of the three subscales. Results The majority of women reported that they had learned something new (n = 37, 92% and that the tool had helped them make a hypothetical choice between delivery approaches (n = 34, 85%. Women wanted more information about neonatal risks and
Basha, S.M.; Ghosh, Barnali; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.
Pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment serves as the ultimate barrier against the release of radioactivity to the environment. This ultimate barrier must be checked for its ultimate load carrying capacity. BARC participated in a Round Robin analysis activity which is co-sponsored by Sandia National Laboratory, USA and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Japan for the pre-test prediction of a 1:4 size Pre-stressed Concrete Containment Vessel. In house finite element code ULCA was used to make the test predictions of displacements and strains at the standard output locations. The present report focuses on the important landmarks of the pre-test results, in sequential terms of first crack appearance, loss of pre-stress, first through thickness crack, rebar and liner yielding and finally liner tearing at the ultimate load. Global and local failure modes of the containment have been obtained from the analysis. Finally sensitivity of the numerical results with respect to different types of liners and different constitutive models in terms of bond strength between concrete and steel and tension-stiffening parameters are examined. The report highlights the important features which could be observed during the test and guidelines are given for improving the prediction in the post test computation after the test data is available. (author)
Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.
We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties
Pham, Quang Huy; Lee, Sang Young; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
This study presents a pre-test calculation for the Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS) SBO experiment with RCP seal leakage scenario. Initially, turbine-driven auxfeed water pumps are used. Then, outside cooling water injection method is used for long term cooling. The analysis results would be useful for conducting the experiment to verify the APR 1400 extended SBO optimum mitigation strategy using outside cooling water injection in future. The pre-test calculation for ATLAS extended SBO with RCP seal leakage and outside cooling water injection scenario is performed. After Fukushima nuclear accident, the capability of coping with the extended station blackout (SBO) becomes important. Many NPPs are applying FLEX approach as main coping strategies for extended SBO scenarios. In FLEX strategies, outside cooling water injection to reactor cooling system (RCS) and steam generators (SGs) is considered as an effective method to remove residual heat and maintain the inventory of the systems during the accident. It is worthwhile to examine the soundness of outside cooling water injection method for extended SBO mitigation by both calculation and experimental demonstration. From the calculation results, outside cooling water injection into RCS and SGs is verified as an effective method during extended SBO when RCS and SGs depressurization is sufficiently performed.
Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S
The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process.
Thai, Liong; Yasin, Mohd. Hanafi Mohd
Deaf students face problems in mastering multiplication facts. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of Magic Finger Teaching Method (MFTM) and students' perception towards MFTM. The research employs a quasi experimental with non-equivalent pre-test and post-test control group design. Pre-test, post-test and questionnaires were used. As…
Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...
Decision Support System For Approval New Student And Majoring Selection Based On Student’s Interest And Talent By Fuzzy Multiple Decision Making, Simple Additive Weighting And Buble Sort Method In SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan
Full Text Available Decision Support System for New Student Acceptance aims to simplify the Decision Maker who is the Committee of New Student Acceptance to select prospective new students based on eight criteria. That is registration number, the average value of National Examinations, medical tests, interview, their achievements, salary of parents per month, number of siblings who are still in school and administration department and give recommendations for the major of accepted students based on their interests and talents. There are four major in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, these are Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak (RPL, Teknik Komputer dan Jaringan (TKJ, Multimedia and Teknik Kendaraan Ringan (TKR. And the talents be measured by math test, electro test, daw test and physics test.
Hu, Jun; Zhang, Mu
Currently there is inconformity between quality of graduate education and social demand in our country. Graduate students' ability can't meet the demand of national innovation and changing the cultivation mode of graduate student is imminent. Enlightened by the open and independent "student-centered" postgraduate education in foreign…
Davison, Michelle; Kinnear, Frances B; Fulbrook, Paul
To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems). Participants were debriefed to explore clinical, systems and crisis-resource management issues. Participants also completed a pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire comprising statements about role confidence and orientation adequacy. Pre-test and post-test results were analysed using t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Eighty-nine staff participated in the MEIS simulation, with the majority completing the pre-simulation and post-simulation questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in post-intervention versus pre-intervention Likert scores for role confidence and orientation adequacy (p=0.001 and orientation adequacy. Nearly all scenarios resulted in significant increases in participants' confidence levels. The MEIS simulation was of utility in orientation of staff, at least with respect to self-reported role confidence and orientation adequacy. Its effectiveness in practice or compared with other orientation techniques was not assessed, but it did identify several flaws in planned systems allowing remediation prior to opening.
Baskerville, Jerry Ray; Herrick, John
This study focuses on clinically assigned prospective estimated pretest probability and pretest perception of legal risk as independent variables in the ordering of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) head scans. Our primary aim is to measure the association between pretest probability of a significant finding and pretest perception of legal risk. Secondarily, we measure the percentage of MDCT scans that physicians would not order if there was no legal risk. This study is a prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of patients 18 years and older for whom emergency medicine physicians ordered a head MDCT. We collected a sample of 138 patients subjected to head MDCT scans. The prevalence of a significant finding in our population was 6%, yet the pretest probability expectation of a significant finding was 33%. The legal risk presumed was even more dramatic at 54%. These data support the hypothesis that physicians presume the legal risk to be significantly higher than the risk of a significant finding. A total of 21% or 15% patients (95% confidence interval, ±5.9%) would not have been subjected to MDCT if there was no legal risk. Physicians overestimated the probability that the computed tomographic scan would yield a significant result and indicated an even greater perceived medicolegal risk if the scan was not obtained. Physician test-ordering behavior is complex, and our study queries pertinent aspects of MDCT testing. The magnification of legal risk vs the pretest probability of a significant finding is demonstrated. Physicians significantly overestimated pretest probability of a significant finding on head MDCT scans and presumed legal risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report describes the pretest thermal analysis for the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment to be conducted in welded tuff in G-tunnel, Nevada Test Site. The parametric thermal modeling considers variable boiling temperature, tuff thermal conductivity, tuff emissivity, and heater operating power. For nominal tuff properties, some near field boiling is predicted for realistic operating power. However, the extent of boiling will be strongly determined by the ambient (100% water saturated) rock thermal conductivity. In addition, the thermal response of the heater and of the tuff within the dry-out zone (i.e., bounded by boiling isotherm) is dependent on the temperature variation of rock conductivity as well as the extent of induced boiling
Bradley, S.J.; Ketchell, N.
Falcon is a small scale experimental apparatus, designed to simulate the transport of fission products through the primary circuit and containment of a nuclear power reactor under severe accident conditions. Information gained from the experiments in Falcon will be used to guide and assist in understanding the much larger Phebus-FP experiments. This report presents the results of pre-test calculations performed using ITHACA for the two tests: FAL-19 and FAL-20. Initial calculations were concerned solely with the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment while later ones briefly investigated the effect of the injection of an insoluble aerosol into the containment with the same thermal-hydraulic conditions. (author)
Moinereau, D.; Pitard-Bouet, J.M.
A pre-test structural analysis evaluation has been conducted by Electricite de France (EDF) including several three dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic computations. Two cylinder geometries have been studied. Higher values of the stress intensity factor are obtained in both geometries in the elastic-plastic computations due to the yielding of the cladding during the thermal transient. The comparisons between the stress intensity factors and the expected base metal toughness show that cleavage initiation must occur preferably in base metal near the interface with cladding. The comparison between both geometries show also that the thicker vessel with a deeper semi-elliptical sub-clad flaw (70 mm deep) is more favourable to cleavage initiation near the base metal - cladding interface. (K.A.)
Stefanova, S; Vitkova, M; Passage, G; Manolova, M; Simeonova, V [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Scheglov, A; Proselkov, V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kharalampieva, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)
Two versions (modified pre-test and modified post-test) of PIN-micro code were used to analyse the fuel rod behaviour of three FUMEX experiments. The experience of applying PIN-micro code with its simple structure and old conception of the steady-state operation shows significant difficulties in treating the complex processes like those in FUMEX experiments. These difficulties were partially overcame through different model modifications and corrections based on special engineering estimations and the results obtained as a whole do not seem unreasonable. The calculations have been performed by a group from two Bulgarian institutions in collaboration with specialists from the Kurchatov Research Center. 1 tab., 14 figs., 8 refs.
Wright, A.L.; Wilson, J.H.; Arwood, P.C.
The Light-Water-Reactor (LWR) Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) are being performed in Richland, Washington, at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) under the leadership of an international project board and the Electric Power Research Institute. These tests have two objectives: (1) to investigate, at large scale, the inherent aerosol retention behavior in LWR containments under simulated severe accident conditions, and (2) to provide an experimental data base for validating aerosol behavior and thermal-hydraulic computer codes. Aerosol computer-code comparison activities are being coordinated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For each of the six LACE tests, ''pretest'' calculations (for code-to-code comparisons) and ''posttest'' calculations (for code-to-test data comparisons) are being performed. The overall goals of the comparison effort are (1) to provide code users with experience in applying their codes to LWR accident-sequence conditions and (2) to evaluate and improve the code models
Paquay, Louis; Verstraete, Sabine; Wouters, Renild; Buntinx, Frank; Vanderwee, Katrien; Defloor, Tom; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik
To investigate the effect of the implementation of a patient and family education programme for pressure ulcer prevention in an organisation for home care nursing on guideline adherence and on prevalence and severity of pressure ulcers and to examine the determining factors for the application of measures for pressure ulcer prevention. Quality improvement programmes in pressure ulcer prevention are not always successful. Implementation study using a pretest-post-test design. Data were collected in three probability samples. The first post-test data collection was held after six months, the second after 18 months. Statistical analysis was used, comparing the pretest sample and the second post-test sample. After 18 months, the proportion of subjects with adherent measures had increased from 10·4-13·9%, the proportion of subjects with non-adherent measures decreased from 45·7-36·0%, the proportion of subjects without pressure ulcer prevention increased from 43·9-50·1% (ppressure ulcer prevalence and less severe skin lesions. The nurses' judgement of a patient risk status was the most important factor for applying preventive measures. Furthermore, application of pressure ulcer prevention was determined by higher age (from the age category of 70-79 years), higher dependency for the activities of daily living, higher than baseline mobility score and the presence of a pressure ulcer. Guideline adherence in pressure ulcer prevention changed significantly after implementation of the education programme. There might have been inconsistencies in the nurses' risk judgement. Quality of pressure ulcer prevention improved, but several items for improvement remain. Adaptation of risk assessment procedures is needed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Burns, Timothy; Gao, Yuan; Sherman, Cherie; Vengerov, Alexander; Klein, Stephen
This paper reports the results of a survey administered to 322 undergraduate business students enrolled in an introductory Information Systems course at a public liberal arts college located in the northeast US. The goal of this research was to learn, given the increased demand for technology oriented jobs, why fewer students are choosing the…
Neal, Micki; Fletcher, Carla; Shook, Melissa; Webster, Jeff
As the cost and importance of education continue to rise, more college students across the U.S. begin their postsecondary education by signing a contract to repay an ever-increasing amount of student loan debt. Conventional wisdom maintains that borrowing for college is an investment in the future that should be deemed "good debt". Data…
Kline, Jeffrey A; Neumann, Dawn; Hall, Cassandra L; Capito, Jacob
Many clinicians use a global visual interpretation of patient appearance to decide if a patient looks sick or not. For patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), we tested the relationship between visual appearance of a happy patient facial affect and probability of PE+ on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Eligible patients were selected by usual care to undergo CTPA, the criterion standard for PE+ or PE-. Prior to CTPA result, trained study personnel obtained physician pretest probability using the gestalt method (visual analogue scale, 0%-100%), the Wells score (0-12) and physicians' impression of whether the patient smiled during the initial examination (smile+). Patients' faces were also video recorded and analysed with an automated neural network-based algorithm (Noldus FaceReader) for happy affect. Of the 208 patients enrolled, 27 were PE+ and smile+ was more frequent in patients with PE+ than PE-, a finding confirmed by the Noldus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of smile was low, and physicians overestimated presence of an alternative diagnosis more likely to PE with smile+ than smile- patients in patients with true PE. As a result, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was lower for the Wells score in smile+ patients. However, the physicians' mean gestalt estimate of PE did not differ with smile status, nor did smile status affect the AUROC for gestalt. In patients with suspected PE, physician recollection of patients' smile+ was more common in PE+ patients, and was associated with a less accurate Wells score, primarily because physicians overestimated probability of alternative diagnosis. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of physicians' gestalt did not differ with perceived smile status. These data suggest that the patients' smile had less effect on the numeric gestalt pretest probability assessment than on the binary decision about an alternative diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of perception and motivation to Students Career Interests in Taxation of Departement of Accounting Faculty of Economics at the State University of Jakarta. This study used 75 students S1 Departement of Accounting, State University of Jakarta which is still active academic year 2010. Data used in this study is primary data and selection of samples using a convenience sampling method. The analytical tool used is multiple linear regression analysis at a significance level of 5%. The first phase of testing the validity and reliability of the statement of each variable. The second stage, performing variable regression perception and motivation towards a career in the field of taxation the interest of students. The results of testing the feasibility of the model shows that the two independent variables, namely perception and motivation affect the career interests of students in the field of taxation Accounting Department of Economics at the State University of Jakarta simultaneously.
Edward G Clark
Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs. Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives: Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Design: Pre-test – post-test study. Setting: 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Participants: Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Measurements: Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Methods: Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Results: Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21. Seventeen of 22 participants (77% completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001. All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics
Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H
Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and
Rose, Tyler M
To develop and evaluate a board game designed to increase students' enjoyment of learning metabolic pathways; their familiarity with pathway reactions, intermediates, and regulation; and, their understanding of how pathways relate to one another and to selected biological conditions. The board game, entitled Race to Glucose, was created as a team activity for first-year pharmacy students in the biochemistry curriculum. A majority of respondents agreed that the game was helpful for learning regulation, intermediates, and interpathway relationships but not for learning reactions, formation of energetic molecules, or relationships, to biological conditions. There was a significant increase in students' scores on game-related examination questions (68.8% pretest vs. 81.3% posttest), but the improvement was no greater than that for examination questions not related to the game (12.5% vs. 10.9%). First-year pharmacy students considered Race to Glucose to be an enjoyable and helpful tool for learning intermediates, regulation, and interpathway relationships.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiological correlates of physical disability among students in an educational institute of Kanpur. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Dr. Ambedkar Institute of technology for Handicapped, UP., Kanpur. Study Subjects : Physically disabled diploma students in the age group 15 years and above of Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology for Handicapped UP, Kanpur were taken as study subjects. Data was collected on pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. StatisticalAnalysis : Analysis was done using percentages. Results: Physically disabled students predominantly belonged to age-group of 18-20 years (47.62%, birth order third (28.10%, Hindu religion (95.24%, OBC Caste (47.14% and social class V (51.90%. Poliomyelitis was the most common probable cause of disability in majority of students (77. 14% and right lower limb was the most common site (36.67% affected.
Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students' ... The study adopted a quasi-experimental non equivalent pretest-posttest research design. ... Key words: process approach, product approach, essay, writing, achievement.
Participation in a Year-Long CURE Embedded into Major Core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory Courses Results in Gains in Foundational Biological Concepts and Experimental Design Skills by Novice Undergraduate Researchers†
Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A.; Marcello, Matthew R.; Crispo, Erika; Buraei, Zafir; Strahs, Daniel; Isaacson, Marisa; Jaworski, Leslie; Lopatto, David; Zuzga, David
This two-year study describes the assessment of student learning gains arising from participation in a year-long curriculum consisting of a classroom undergraduate research experience (CURE) embedded into second-year, major core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology (CMB) laboratory courses. For the first course in our CURE, students used micro-array or RNAseq analyses to identify genes important for environmental stress responses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The students were tasked with creating overexpressing mutants of their genes and designing their own original experiments to investigate the functions of those genes using the overexpression and null mutants in the second CURE course. In order to evaluate student learning gains, we employed three validated concept inventories in a pretest/posttest format and compared gains on the posttest versus the pretest with student laboratory final grades. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory for both years of this study and gains on the Genetics Concept Assessment (GCA). We also demonstrated a correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory and gains on the Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) for year 1 of the study. Students furthermore demonstrated significant gains in identifying the variable properties of experimental subjects when assessed using the Rubric for Experimental (RED) design tool. Results from the administration of the CURE survey support these findings. Our results suggest that a year-long CURE enables lower performing students to experience greater gains in their foundational skills for success in the STEM disciplines. PMID:28904646
Piwowar, Valentina; Thiel, Felicitas
Response shift (RS) can threaten the internal validity of pre-post designs. As RS may indicate a redefinition of the target construct, its occurrence in training evaluation is rather likely. The most common approach to deal with RS is to implement a retrospective pretest (then-test) instead of the traditional pre-test. In health psychology, an adapted measurement invariance approach (MIad) was developed as an alternative technique to study RS. Results produced by identifying RS with the two approaches were rarely studied simultaneously or within an experimental framework. To study RS in two different treatment conditions and compare results produced by both techniques in identifying various types of RS. We further studied validity aspects of the then-test. We evaluated RS by applying the then-test procedure (TP) and the measurement invariance apporach MIad within an experimental design: Participants either attended a short-term or a long-term classroom management training program. Participants were 146 student teachers in their first year of master's study. Pre (before training), post, and then self-ratings (after training) on classroom management knowledge were administered. Results indicated that the two approaches do not yield the same results. The MIad identified more and also group-specific RS as opposed to the findings of the TP, which found less and only little evidence for group-specific RS. Further research is needed to study the usability and validity of the respective approaches. In particular, the usability of the then-test seems to be challenged. © The Author(s) 2014.
Results are presented for a pretest parametric study of several configurations and heat loads for the heated pillar experiment (Room H) in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) In Situ Experimental Area. The purpose of this study is to serve as a basis for selection of a final experiment geometry and heat load. The experiment consists of a pillar of undisturbed rock salt surrounded by an excavated annular room. The pillar surface is covered by a blanket heat source which is externally insulated. A total of five thermal and ten structural calculations are described in a four to five year experimental time frame. Results are presented which include relevant temperature-time histories, deformations, rock salt stress component and effective stress profiles, and maximum stresses in anhydrite layers which are in close proximity to the room. Also included are predicted contours of a conservative post-processed measure of potential salt failure. Observed displacement histories are seen to be highly dependent on pillar and room height, but insensitive to other geometrical variations. The use of a tensile cutoff across slidelines is seen to produce more accurate predictions of anhydrite maximum stress, but to have little effect on rock salt stresses. The potential for salt failure is seen to be small in each case for the time frame of interest, and is only seen at longer times in the center of the room floor
Jensen, R. P.; Preston, L. A.
A more realistic representation of many geologic media can be characterized as a dense system of vertically-aligned microfractures superimposed on a finely-layered horizontal geology found in shallow crustal rocks. This seismic anisotropy representation lends itself to being modeled as an orthorhombic elastic medium comprising three mutually orthogonal symmetry planes containing nine independent moduli. These moduli can be determined by observing (or prescribing) nine independent P-wave and S-wave phase speeds along different propagation directions. We have developed an explicit time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm for simulating 3D elastic wave propagation in a heterogeneous orthorhombic medium. The components of the particle velocity vector and the stress tensor are governed by a set of nine, coupled, first-order, linear, partial differential equations (PDEs) called the velocity-stress system. All time and space derivatives are discretized with centered and staggered FD operators possessing second- and fourth-order numerical accuracy, respectively. Additionally, we have implemented novel perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions, specifically designed for orthorhombic media, to effectively suppress grid boundary reflections. In support of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase II, a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site, the code has been used to perform pre-test estimates of the Dry Alluvium Geology - Experiment 1 (DAG-1). Based on literature searches, realistic geologic structure and values for orthorhombic P-wave and S-wave speeds have been estimated. Results and predictions from the simulations are presented.
Halkett, Georgia; Aoun, Samar; Hayne, Dickon; Lund, Jo-Asmund; Gruen, Arne; Villa, Julie; Livi, Lorenzo; Arcangeli, Stefano; Velikova, Galina; Spry, Nigel
Background and purpose: Radiation proctitis is a side effect which can occur after pelvic radiation therapy. Currently available questionnaires do not comprehensively assess the range of problems, nor impact on quality of life associated with proctitis. This article reports on the cultural testing phase of an EORTC module (QLQ-PRT21) developed to assess radiation proctitis specific issues and designed to be used in conjunction with the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Methods: The previously developed 21-item module, pre-tested in Australia, was translated into Norwegian, German, French and Italian. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and module questionnaires towards the end of their radical pelvic radiation treatment to target acute side effects. Patients experiencing chronic proctitis were also surveyed. Patients also participated in structured interviews to determine issues of comprehensibility, coverage and relevance. Results were compared with Australian data. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 64 European patients. The module was found to be relevant and culturally acceptable to participants. Feedback has led to minor translation modifications and the inclusion of two additional questions. Conclusion: This module is ready for Phase IV testing which will consist of large scale field testing with the aim to perform psychometric analysis and finalise a module that will be suitable in the assessment of radiation induced proctitis.
Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: email@example.com; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: email@example.com
Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.
A three dimensional pretest finite element analysis of the Intermediate Scale Borehole Test has been performed. In the analysis, the 7.7 years simulation period includes the mining of Rooms C1 and C2, and the N1420 cross drift, at time zero; drilling of the borehole between the two rooms at 5.7 years; and 2 years of post-drilling response. An all salt configuration was used in the calculation. The 1984 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) reference elastic-secondary creep law, with reduced elastic moduli, was used to model the creeping response of the salt. Results show that after mining of the rooms and cross drift a relatively high von Mises stress state exists around the perimeter of the pillar. However, by 5.7 years, or immediately prior to drilling of the borehole, the pillar has relaxed to an almost uniform von Mises stress of about 7--8 MPa. After the borehole is drilled, a relatively high von Mises stress field is once again set up in the immediate vicinity of the hole. This drives the creep closure of the borehole. The hole closes more in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, resulting in ovalling of the hole. At the end of the simulation, the von Mises stress around the borehole is still higher than that in the remained of the pillar. Thus, the closure rates are relatively high at the end of the simulation time
Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael
In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…
Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth
Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…
立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二
This report deals with review of a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman in this first semester. We tried to review this teaching method with pre-test and post-test by means of the official and private questionnaires. Several hints and thoughts on teaching skills are obtained from this analysis.
Clark Melissa A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients
Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd R. Stinebrickner
Taking advantage of unique longitudinal data, we provide the first characterization of what college students believe at the time of entrance about their final major, relate these beliefs to actual major outcomes, and provide an understanding of why students hold the initial beliefs about majors that they do. The data collection and analysis are based directly on a conceptual model in which a student's final major is best viewed as the end result of a learning process. We find that students en...
Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).
Nelms, Keith R.
According to education pundits, traditional-age college students are "digital natives" inherently savvy in digital technology due to their constant exposure to technology from an early age. This widely held meme is at odds with observation in the college classroom. In this research, college students in an introductory information…
Hawkins, Dianne Kendrick
African American students receive placements in special education in numbers disproportionate to their representation in the population at large. They are also placed in most restrictive settings in large numbers. The current quantitative study was designed to examine the influence of participation in ARD/IEP meetings by African American parents…
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in…
Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph S.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Weaver, Hayley; da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong
Purpose: To examine the mediational effect of core self-evaluations (CSE) on the relationship between functional disability and life satisfaction. Methods: A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression analysis. The participants were 97 college students with disabilities receiving services through Hunter College's Minority-Disability…
Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty
This study identified secondary school students' alternative conceptions (ACs) of climate change and their resistance to instruction. Using a case-based approach, a diagnostic test was administered to Secondary 3 male students in a pre-test and post-test. The ACs identified in the pre-test were on the causes of climate change, the natural…
Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.
Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…
Kasalicky, J.; Kovac, I.; Lanska, V.
To assess the probability of perfusion defects at exercise stress myocardial perfusion SPECT scintigraphy from pretest clinical diagnosis (medical personal history, previous ergometric investigation). To determine the value of clinical factors for probability of scintigraphic defects with respect to avoiding unnecessary investigation in subjects with low probability of abnormal scintigrams. 2143 subjects (1235 men, 908 women) were investigated by SPECT perfusion scintigraphy at stepwise increasing exercise stress. They were divided into three groups with regard to their medical history and exercise test at scintigraphy: subjects without any signs of coronary artery disease (CAD), patients with high likelihood of CAD (i.e., typical anginal pain, in particular at stress, positive stress ECG changes, angiographically documented important CAD) and patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, age and sex), as well as the role of revascularisation procedures, were taken into account for multiple logistic regression in order to express their importance for the odds of scintigraphic defect visualisation. Perfusion scintigraphic defects (PSD) were found in 5.2% of subjects without signs of CAD, in contrast to patients with manifest CAD (68.8% with PSD) and in those after MI (90.2% with PSD). There were other important factors corroborating the likelihood of PSD (in decreasing order of importance): diabetes, male, ECG changes at stress, increasing age. Successful revascularisation improved scintigraphic images. The examination of CAD symptom-free subjects, in particular with atypical chest discomfort, is useless. SMPS in patients after documented MI is to be carried out for other intended purposes, not for CAD diagnosis only. SMPS is highly recommended in patients with CAD symptoms and high CAD probability in order to decide further treatment and prognosis. (author)
Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.
We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi
Mandaci Sahin, Seher; Kendir, Fatma
The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of using metacognitive strategies for problem solving in "geometry" on fifth grade students' achievement, metacognitive skills and attitude. Experimental method was used with a pretest/posttest control group design. Firstly, both groups were subject to a pretest that was comprised of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the
Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Fisher, Ginger R; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen
Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices' development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to "think like a scientist." Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students' development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. © 2016 J. T. Olimpo et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.
A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.
Despite decades of efforts to increase the participation of women and people from underrepresented minority groups (URM) in science and math majors and careers, and despite the increasing diversification of the US population as a whole (Planty et al. in National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of…
Andreasen, Jane; Sørensen, Erik E; Gobbens, Robbert J J
The Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) is a self-administered questionnaire with a bio-psycho-social integrated approach that measures the degree of frailty in elderly persons. The TFI was developed in the Netherlands and tested in a population of elderly Dutch men and women. The aim of this study...... was to translate and culturally adapt the TFI to a Danish context, and to test face validity of the Danish version by cognitive interviewing. An internationally recognized procedure was applied as a basis for the translation process. The primary tasks were forward translation, reconciliation, back translation......, harmonization and pretest. Pretest and review of the preliminary version by cognitive interviewing, were performed at a local community center and in an acute medical ward at the University Hospital in Aalborg, Denmark respectively. A large agreement regarding meaning of the items in the forward translation...
Full Text Available When lay jurors are unfamiliar with key evidentiary issues, expert evidence, judicial instructions and group deliberation may enhance their understanding of this evidence. Systematic steps to assess the relationship between juror biases in cases of child sexual abuse are offered as an example to illustrate a programmatic research approach. Using pretest-posttest research designs, the effectiveness of three traditional legal procedural safeguards to reduce common jury misconceptions in the context of simulated trials were tested and compared. By measuring mock-juror knowledge before and after each intervention, knowledge gains attributable to these interventions were distinguished from practice effects. Unexpected increases in acquittals following deliberation underscored the importance of adding adequate control groups and of testing deliberation effects in jury simulation studies. Benefits of this research paradigm to assist courts, legal counsel and policy makers in devising effective methods to enhance jury decisions in complex criminal cases are discussed. Cuando los miembros del jurado popular no están familiarizados con los temas probatorios clave, las pruebas periciales, las instrucciones judiciales y la deliberación de grupo pueden mejorar su comprensión de las evidencias. Se ofrecen pasos sistemáticos para evaluar la relación entre sesgos del jurado en casos de abusos a menores como un ejemplo para ilustrar un enfoque de investigación programática. Se probó y comparó la efectividad de tres garantías procesales jurídicas tradicionales para reducir los malentendidos comunes de los jurados en el contexto de juicios simulados, usando patrones de investigación pre y post análisis. Al medir el conocimiento de jurados en juicios simulados antes y después de cada intervención, se distinguían los conocimientos adquiridos atribuibles a estas intervenciones. Un aumento inesperado de absoluciones después de la deliberación pon
Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark W
It is unclear whether propensity score analysis (PSA) based on pretest and demographic covariates will meet the ignorability assumption for replicating the results of randomized experiments. This study applies within-study comparisons to assess whether pre-Kindergarten (pre-K) treatment effects on achievement outcomes estimated using PSA based on a pretest and demographic covariates can approximate those found in a randomized experiment. Data-Four studies with samples of pre-K children each provided data on two math achievement outcome measures with baseline pretests and child demographic variables that included race, gender, age, language spoken at home, and mother's highest education. Research Design and Data Analysis-A randomized study of a pre-K math curriculum provided benchmark estimates of effects on achievement measures. Comparison samples from other pre-K studies were then substituted for the original randomized control and the effects were reestimated using PSA. The correspondence was evaluated using multiple criteria. The effect estimates using PSA were in the same direction as the benchmark estimates, had similar but not identical statistical significance, and did not differ from the benchmarks at statistically significant levels. However, the magnitude of the effect sizes differed and displayed both absolute and relative bias larger than required to show statistical equivalence with formal tests, but those results were not definitive because of the limited statistical power. We conclude that treatment effect estimates based on a single pretest and demographic covariates in PSA correspond to those from a randomized experiment on the most general criteria for equivalence.
Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Imamura, Kotaro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito
Abstract Background Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees’ well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Methods Participants were managers of a private company and a private psyc...
Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.; Wackers, F.
A previous study reported an excellent prognosis and low cardiac event rate in patients(pts) with chest pain and normal quantitative T1-201 scintigraphy(SC). Such result would not be unexpected if the population under study had a predominance of pts with low pre-T1-201 likelihood(L) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the authors undertook telephone follow-up in pts with chest pain syndrome and normal quantitative T1-201 exercise SC, and related outcome to pretest L of CAD. Pretest L was determined by serial L analysis on the basis of: symptoms, age, sex, and exercise ECG. All pts had T1-201 SC immediately post exercise and 2 hrs later. After interpolative background correction, circumferential count and washout profiles were generated. All pts had unequivocally normal studies. Of a total of 96 pts studied in 1981-82, 20 pts were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 76 pts, 45 were males and 31 females. The pretest L of CAD had an inverted Gaussian distribution: thirty-four pts(47%) had 66% L of CAD. Mean follow-up was 22+- 3 months. No deaths occurred. Two pts(3%) (with pretest L of 54% and 94%) had myocardial infarctions, 8 and 22 months respectively after T1-201 stress SC. One pt underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) 16 months after T1-201 stress SC. These findings confirm excellent prognostic significance of normal quantitative T1-201 stress scintigraphy
Miniati, Massimo; Monti, Simonetta; Bauleo, Carolina; Scoscia, Elvio; Tonelli, Lucia; Dainelli, Alba; Catapano, Giosue; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Prediletto, Renato; Carrozzi, Laura; Marini, Carlo
Pulmonary embolism remains a challenging diagnostic problem. We developed a simple diagnostic strategy based on combination of assessment of the pretest probability with perfusion lung scan results to reduce the need for pulmonary angiography. We studied 390 consecutive patients (78% in-patients) with suspected pulmonary embolism. The pretest probability was rated low ( 10%, ≤50%), moderately high (>50%, ≤90%) or high (>90%) according to a structured clinical model. Perfusion lung scans were independently assigned to one of four categories: normal; near-normal; abnormal, suggestive of pulmonary embolism (wedge-shaped perfusion defects); abnormal, not suggestive of pulmonary embolism (perfusion defects other than wedge shaped). Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in patients with abnormal scans suggestive of pulmonary embolism and moderately high or high pretest probability. Patients with normal or near-normal scans and those with abnormal scans not suggestive of pulmonary embolism and low pretest probability were deemed not to have pulmonary embolism. All other patients were allocated to pulmonary angiography. Patients in whom pulmonary embolism was excluded were left untreated. All patients were followed up for 1 year. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed non-invasively in 132 patients (34%), and excluded in 191 (49%). Pulmonary angiography was required in 67 patients (17%). The prevalence of pulmonary embolism was 41% (n=160). Patients in whom pulmonary embolism was excluded had a thrombo-embolic risk of 0.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.0%-2.8%). Our strategy permitted a non-invasive diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism in 83% of the cases (95% confidence interval: 79%-86%), and appeared to be safe. (orig.)
Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John
In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There is consensus that verbal informed consent must be gained prior to testing, individually, in private, confidentially, in the presence of a health care provider. All guidelines recommend pre-test information/discussion delivered verbally or via other methods (information sheet). There is agreement about a minimum standard of information to be provided before a test, but guidelines differ regarding discussion about issues encouraging patients to think about implications of the result. There is heavy reliance on expert consultation in guideline development. Referenced scientific evidence is often more than ten years old and based on US/UK research. Eight new papers are reviewed. Current HIV testing and counselling guidelines have inconsistencies regarding the extent and type of information that is recommended during pre-test discussions. The lack of new research underscores a need for new evidence from a range of European settings to support the process of expert consultation in guideline development. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available On the gradual implementation of the new medical education reform and thoroughly applying the Educational Development Plan and the Health Care System Reform, the teaching mode of medical discipline will be changed gradually by following the law of medical education and meeting the need to boost the medical education reform. Meanwhile, the changing life-style prompts the traditional dispensing mode for Chinese traditional medicine to various modes. This changing put forward higher requirement for medicine- related professionals During the process of Chinese medicine teaching, the only method which can fulfill the new need for graduates of Chinese medicine and qualified medicine personals is to change the traditional teaching mode to the new ones which can arose the enthusiasm of working and learning by the traditional medicine students.
Sheran, Michelle; Sarbaum, Jeffrey
Colleges and universities are increasingly being held accountable for assessing and reporting student learning. Recently there has been increased focus on using assessment to improve learning over time. In this paper we present a simple, step-by-step assessment process that will deliver meaningful results to achieve these ends. We emphasize the…
Musey, Paul I; Kline, Jeffrey A
The objective was to test for significant differences in subjective and objective pretest probabilities for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a large cohort of chest pain patients stratified by race or gender. Secondarily we wanted to test for any differences in rates of ACS, rates of 90-day returns, cost, and chest radiation exposure after these stratifications. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective outcomes study of ED patients with chest pain and shortness of breath. We performed two separate analyses. The data set was divided by gender for analysis 1 while the analysis 2 stratification was made by race (nonwhite vs. white). For each analysis, groups were compared on several variables: provider visual analog scales (VAS) for likelihood of ACS, PREtest Consult ACS probabilities, rates of ACS, total radiation exposure to the chest, total costs at 30 days, and 90-day recidivism (ED, overnight observations, and inpatient admissions). A total of 844 patients were studied. Gender information was present on all 844 subjects, while complete race/ethnicity information was available on 783 (93%) subjects. For the first analysis, female patients made up 57% (478/844) of the population and their mean provider VAS scores for ACS were significantly lower (p = 0.000) at 14% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 13% to 16%) than that of males at 22% (95% CI = 19% to 24%). This was consistent with the objective pretest ACS probabilities subsequently calculated via the validated online tool, PREtest Consult, which were also significantly lower (p = 0.000) at 2.7% (95% CI = 2.4% to 3.1%) for females versus 6.6% (95% CI = 5.9% to 7.3%) for males. However, comparing females to males, there was no significant difference in diagnosis of ACS (3.6% vs. 1.6%), mean chest radiation doses (5.0 mSv vs. 4.9 mSv), total costs at 30 days ($3,451.24 vs. $3,847.68), or return to the ED within 90 days (26% each). For analysis 2 by race, nonwhite patients also comprised 57% (444/783) of
Stewart, Jamie C.
This study involved a one group pretest-posttest study to analyze the effectiveness of the Alpha Phi Omega leadership development course titled SERVE. This study focused on the collegiate members of this coeducational service fraternity. The Student Leadership Practices Inventory was administered as both a pretest and posttest; the posttest was…
Full Text Available This research aims to test the effectiveness of entrepreneurship teaching materials for students majoring on Family Wealth Education Department at Faculty of Engineering, Universtas Negeri Semarang. Entrepreneurship teaching materials were developed by researchers by using ADDIE model, and the research only focused on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship teaching materials. It was a quasi-experimental study with a before-after or one group pretest-posttest technique. The research was conducted for 4th semester students of Family Wealth Education Department who studied entrepreneurship subject. In the experimental group, students were taught by teaching materials which were developed by the references of entrepreneurship subject on Higher Education and also was adapted by the conditions of students. Data were collected by using test, questionnaires and learning observation sheets. To test the hypothesis, it used paired t-test analysis and gain-score testing to measure the effectiveness of teaching materials in supporting the Entrepreneurship subject at Family Wealth Education Department of Faculty of Engineering. Findings show that the entrepreneurship teaching materials are effective and the results of other analysis show that students’ scores are increased from pre-test to post-test who were taught with Entrepreneurship teaching materials.
Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie
All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…
Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars
Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...
Babatunde, Oluwole Adeyemi; Ibirongbe, Demilade Olusola; Omede, Owen; Babatunde, Olubukola Oluwakemi; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Salaudeen, Adekunle Ganiyu; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola
Unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion pose a major reproductive health challenge to adolescents. Emergency contraception is safe and effective in preventing unplanned pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the student's knowledge and use of emergency contraception. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Ilorin, Nigeria, using multi-stage sampling method. Data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge was scored and analysed. SPSS version 21.0 was used for data analysis. A p-value emergency contraception. Majority of respondents (87.2%) had never used emergency contraception. Majority of those who had ever used emergency contraception (85.7%) used it incorrectly, using it more than 72 hours after sexual intercourse (p=0.928). Knowledge about Emergency contraception and prevalence of use were low. Contraceptive education should be introduced early in the school curriculum for adolescents.
Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.
Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…
75-05. 9 0 wU C-7) z C) S.- C)C 40 10 GA’THEFRING CO~l BARGE LIFTING POINT I , I I II I I . . .. .. KI- V~~ PS4 and 5. LCM8 LIFT BEAM IS ENGAGED...design but which could not be delivered in time by the vendor. The attachment of the struts proved to be a time- consuming effort because of too close...actually used in the pretest, the general behavior and characteristics are similar.) C-4 APPENDIX D BREAKBULK CARGO THROUGHPUT OPERATIONS As an adjunct to
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is highly infectious, but preventable diseases and dentists are at increased risk of exposure to saliva and blood of patients during their clinical practice, and so it is of utmost importance that they follow standard guidelines for infection control. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding infection control measures among dental students of Government Dental College in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered pretested questionnaire to dental students and responses were statistically analyzed. The analysis of variance was used to compare means of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores between four groups of study subjects and P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Although the students have sufficient knowledge regarding hepatitis B, still there are gaps in putting their knowledge into practice. Third and final year students have significantly less mean knowledge and practice scores compared to interns and postgraduate students. The majority of students have a positive attitude and were willing to perform any procedure on hepatitis B-infected patients. Conclusions: Dental students have adequate knowledge and good attitude but still there are some misconceptions. There is poor implementation of standard infection control measures in their practice. Rigorous training programs on preventive practices and regular workshops must be organized on an annual basis in dental colleges. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccination must be made mandatory for students before they start their clinical practice.
Sanner, Susan; Baldwin, Dee; Cannella, Kathleen A S; Charles, Jennell; Parker, Lillian
As the population demographics for the United States (U.S.) shift towards increasing diversity, it is essential that nurses provide culturally competent care. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as a major curricular element in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN) The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Thus it is imperative that nursing faculty use effective strategies to help nursing students develop cultural sensitivity and competence. Educational workshops focusing on cultural diversity are usually designed to increase people's cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cultural diversity forum on nursing students' cultural sensitivity as measured by their openness to diversity. A convenience sample of students was recruited from a public university in the southeastern United States. The workshop was designed as a forum that combined a keynote presentation, shared meal, and a small group interactional activity. Cultural sensitivity was measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (ODCS), and was administered to students before and after the forum. A convenience sample of 47 students agreed to participate and completed both the pretest and posttest. Following the workshop, the students had more cultural sensitivity as measured by their scores on the ODCS (Wilcoxin Signed-Rank test z= -3.286, p = 0.001). The findings suggested that an educational format like the cultural diversity forum can promote students' cultural sensitivity. Further research needs to continue to focus on the effectiveness of strategies to increase the cultural sensitivity of baccalaureate nursing students.
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210
Full Text Available BackgroundSelf-medication results in wastage of resources, increases resistance of pathogens and generally causes serious health hazards such as adverse drug reactions, prolonged suffering and drug dependence. This study was undertaken to determine the reasons for self-medication and the pattern of self-medication among medical students.MethodThis cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore. The participants were medical students from first to final year. Medical students were selected through convenience sampling. The data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions.ResultsA total of 200 students, 121 (60.5% female and 79 (39.5% male, were included in the study. Of the medical students surveyed, self-medication was reported among 92%. The respondents who used self-medication found it to be time-saving in providing relief from minor ailments. The most common ailments for which self-medication were used were: the common cold (69%, fever (63% and headache (60%. The students consulted their textbooks (39% and seniors or classmates (38% for the medications. Antipyretics (71%, analgesics (65%, antihistamines (37% and antibiotics (34% were the most common self-medicated drugs. Of the respondents, 33% were unaware of the adverse effects of the medication and 5% had experienced adverse reactions. The majority (64% of students advised medications to others, more often to family and friends.ConclusionThe prevalence of self-medication among medical students is high, facilitated by the easy availability of drugs and information from textbooks or seniors. A significant number of students are unaware of the adverse effects of the medication that they themselves take and suggest to others. Therefore, potential problems of self-medication should be emphasised to the students.
Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.
This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.
Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B
Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients' quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. To investigate pharmacy students' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists' physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Pharmacy students' attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also
Torabizadeh, Camellia; Homayuni, Leyla; Moattari, Marzieh
Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students. In a quasi-experimental study, Crisham's Nursing Dilemma Test was used to evaluate the results of three groups before, immediately after, and 2 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v 15). Participants and research context: Through random allocation, 103 nursing students were divided into three groups. In experiment group 1 (37 students), intervention consisted of Socratic questioning-based sessions on ethics and how to deal with moral dilemmas; experiment group 2 (33 students) attended a 4-h workshop; and the control group (33 students) was not subject to any interventions. Signed informed consent forms: This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. All the participants signed written informed consents. There were significant differences between experiment group 1 and experiment group 2's pre-test and post-test scores on moral reasoning (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), nursing principled thinking (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), and practical considerations (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.031). Both the teaching approaches improved the subjects' moral reasoning; however, Socratic questioning proved more effective than lecturing. Compared to other similar studies in Iran and other countries, the students had inadequate moral reasoning competence. This study confirms the need for the development of an efficient course on ethics in the nursing curriculum. Also, it appears that Socratic questioning is an effective method to teach nursing ethics
Lampiris, Lewis N; White, Alex; Sams, Lattice D; White, Tiffany; Weintraub, Jane A
Dental students should develop an understanding of the barriers to and frustrations with accessing dental care and maintaining optimal oral health experienced by persons with limited resources rather than blaming the patient or caregiver. Developing this understanding may be aided by helping students learn about the lives of underserved and vulnerable patients they will encounter not only in extramural rotations, but throughout their careers. The aim of this study was to determine if dental students' understanding of daily challenges faced by families with low income changed as a result of a poverty simulation. In 2015 and 2016, an experiential poverty simulation was used to prepare third-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for their upcoming required community-based rotations. In 2015, United Way staff conducted the simulation using the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS); in 2016, faculty members trained in CAPS conducted the simulation using a modified version of the tool. In the simulation, students were assigned to family units experiencing various types of hardship and were given specific identities for role-playing. A retrospective pretest and a posttest were used to assess change in levels of student understanding after the simulation. Students assessed their level of understanding in five domains: financial pressures, difficult choices, difficulties in improving one's situation, emotional stressors, and impact of community resources for those living in poverty. The survey response rates in 2015 and 2016 were 86% and 74%, respectively. For each of the five domains, students' understanding increased from 58% to 74% per domain. The majority reported that the exercise was very valuable or somewhat valuable (74% in 2015, 88% in 2016). This study found that a poverty simulation was effective in raising dental students' understanding of the challenges faced by low-income families. It also discovered that framing the issues in the
Development of mobile phones provides the students a different learning choice compared to studying in a traditional classroom. This study investigated undergraduate students' experiences with using their smartphones to receive learning contents for the improvement of their computer literacy. Through a survey and a pretest and posttest, the…
Statistical analyses of the pre-test and post-test data showed a statistically significant improvement in test results. Data generated by a questionnaire designed to ascertain the students' attitudes and feelings in terms of the cooperative learning strategy indicate that students in the pre-technician group also experienced ...
Yang, Ju Yin; Che, Pei-Chun
This paper investigates college students' English language learning through use of Dr. Eye Android handheld mobile Internet device (MID). Compared to related studies, students' English learning using MIDs has not been evaluated and fully understood in the field of higher education. Quantitatively, the researchers used TOEIC pretest and posttest to…
Objectives: This study aims to assess the susceptibility of depression among clinical students from two medical schools from South East Nigeria, using a screening test questionnaire. Methods: A total of 352 clinical medical students from two universities were enrolled by simple random sampling. A pretested ...
Özüdogru, Melike; Özüdogru, Fatma
The current study aimed to find out the effect of situated learning on students' Vocational English learning. This research employed a mixed method research design. In the quantitative part of the study, pre-tests and post-tests were implemented to investigate the differences in students' vocational English learning between the experimental and…
In response to low reading scores among first grade students of English as a Second Language (ESL) in one inner-city school, the teaching techniques of semantic webbing and brainstorming were used to improve student reading skills. Subjects were eight first grade ESL students. Pretests were administered to assess student levels of reading…
Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.
This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.
Raundal, P. M.; Andersen, P. H.; Toft, Nils
Mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) testing has been used to investigate aspects of painful states in bovine claws. We investigated a handheld tool, where the applied stimulation force was monitored continuously relative to a pre-encoded based target force. The effect on MNT of two pre-testing...... habituation procedures was performed in two different experiments comprising a total of 88 sound Holsteins dairy cows kept either inside or outside their home environment. MNT testing was performed using five consecutive mechanical nociceptive stimulations per cow per test at a fixed pre-encoded target rate...... of 2.1 N/s. The habituation procedure performed in dairy cows kept in their home environment led to lowered intra-individual coefficient of variation of MNT (P test...
contrast. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual characteristics and contrast use. An 11-point score was derived from the significant characteristics. Results. Variables associated with microbubble use were age, sex, smoking, presence of multiple risk factors, bodymass index (BMI, referral for dobutamine stress echocardiography, history of coronary artery disease, and abnormal baseline electrocardiogram. All variables except BMI were given a score of 1 if present and 0 if absent; BMI was given a score of 0 to 4 according to its value. An increased score was directly proportional to increased likelihood of contrast use. The score cutoff value to optimize sensitivity and specificity was 5. Conclusions. A pretest score can be computed from information available before imaging. It may facilitate contrast agent use through early identification of patients who are likely to benefit from improved endocardial border definition.
The objectives of this study are to assess undergraduate awareness of cancer risk factors, prevention strategies, and warning signs and to evaluate whether an educational intervention increases cancer awareness. This study adopts a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Of the 386 students who completed the pretest, only 35-39 % identified low fruit and vegetable intake, being overweight, and physical inactivity as cancer risk factors, and cancer warning signs. After the educational intervention, the analysis of variance of changes from baseline (the pretest score) for all four experimental groups were all significantly higher than those of the two control groups (p ≤.001), except for the change of the retention test score from the pretest score for experimental group 3. This study highlights the need to improve undergraduates' cancer awareness and the effectiveness of educational intervention.
Martínez-Martínez, Laura-Aline; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Becerril-Mendoza, Lizbeth-Teresa; Rodríguez-Henriquez, Pedro; Muñoz, Omar-Eloy; Acosta, Gumaro; Silveira, Luis H; Vargas, Angélica; Barrera-Villalpando, María-Isabel; Martínez-Lavín, Manuel
A consistent line of investigation proposes that fibromyalgia is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels may play a major role in fibromyalgia pain transmission. Ambroxol is a secretolytic agent used in the treatment of various airway disorders. Recently, it was discovered that this compound is also an efficient sodium channel blocker with potent anti-neuropathic pain properties. We evaluated the add-on effect of ambroxol to the treatment of fibromyalgia. We studied 25 patients with fibromyalgia. Ambroxol was prescribed at the usual clinical dose of 30 mg PO 3 times a day × 1 month. At the beginning and at the end of the study, all participants filled out the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-R) and the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria including the widespread pain index (WPI). At the end of the study, FIQ-R decreased from a baseline value of 62 ± 15 to 51 ± 19 (p = 0.013). Pain visual analogue scale decreased from 77 ± 14 to 56 ± 30 (p = 0.018). WPI diminished from 14.6 ± 3.1 to 10.4 ± 5.3 (p = 0.001). Side effects were minor. In this pilot study, the use of ambroxol was associated to decreased fibromyalgia pain and improved fibromyalgia symptoms. The open nature of our study does not allow extracting the placebo effect from the positive results. The drug was well tolerated. Ambroxol newly recognized pharmacological properties could theoretically interfere with fibromyalgia pain pathways. Dose escalating-controlled studies seem warranted.
Einbinder, Susan Dana
Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…
The study adopted a quasi-experimental design using a pre-test, post-test control design in order to investigate the entrepreneurial skills and creative abilities of secondary school students in Physics. The study was carried out in Obio/Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State of Nigeria, using purposive sampling ...
Voelzer, W.; Koenig, S.; Klein, K.; Tso, C.F.; Owen, S.; Monk, C.
The CONSTOR registered family of steel-concrete-steel sandwich cask designs have been developed to fulfil both the internationally valid IAEA criteria for transportation and the requirements for long-term intermediate storage in the US and various European countries. A comprehensive drop testing programme using a full-scale prototype test cask (CONSTOR registered V/TC) has been developed as part of the application for a transport license in both Germany and the US. The drop tests using the full-scale cask will be performed by BAM at test facilities in Horstwalde. The tests will include five different 9m drops onto flat unyielding targets and seven different 1m drops onto a punch. The first drop test, a 9m side drop, will be performed during PATRAM 2004. The other drop tests will take place during the following year. The development of the cask design and the formulation of the drop test programme has been supported by an extensive series of finite element analyses. The objectives of the finite element analyses were; to provide an intermediate step in demonstrating the performance of the CONSTOR registered in fulfilling the requirements of 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA transport regulations. To justify the selection of drop tests. To predict the performance of V/TC during the drop tests. To estimate the strain and acceleration time histories at measuring points on the test cask and to aid in the setting up of the test instrumentation. To develop an analysis model that can be used in future safety analyses for transport and storage license applications and which can confidently be used to demonstrate the performance of the package. This paper presents an overview of the analyses performed, including a summary of all the different drop orientations that were considered. The major assumptions employed during the analyses are also discussed, as are the specifics of the modelling techniques that were employed. At the end of the paper, the key results obtained from the analyses
Vyas, Shaili; Sharma, Parul; Srivastava, Kajal; Nautiyal, Vipul; Shrotriya, Ved Prakash
UTI is a well known entity amongst young girls, and the majority of girls have recurrent infections within one year. Anything that disturbs the usual vaginal environment would result in conditions favouring the production of unwanted microorganisms leading to infections of this very sensitive area. Studies have shown that, there is an evident relation of UTI's among students and practices of personal hygiene. To determine association between the behavioural risk factors and UTI among nursing girls. The present study was undertaken amongst unmarried nursing students of a Medical College Hospital. A predesigned pretested questionnaire was used to know the personal hygiene of students and to find out its association with UTI in the last three months. Chi-square test was used to analyse the data. A significant association was observed between perineal hygiene and UTI. The major risk factors of UTI identified were incorrect perineal washing technique, use of synthetic/silk innerwears, not sundrying the innerwears, improper menstrual hygiene. There are still major gaps in the knowledge regarding causation of UTI among the nursing students. This calls for an urgent need for educational talks periodically addressing these gaps.
Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Srikanth, Akshaya B.; Abdurhaman, Norny Syafinase; Jamshed, Shazia Q.; Awad, Ammar Ihsan; Binti Ab Hadi, Hazrina
Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students’ demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception. Conclusion: Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results. PMID:25984548
Johnson, Malissa Lee
This study addressed the benefits of departmentalization in upper elementary grades for students and teachers. The variables of gender and classroom structure (departmentalized versus self-contained) were considered for student participants (n = 125). Results for students were evaluated on pre-test and post-test data using the following measures:…
Sari, Irfan; Çeliköz, Nadir; Ünal, Süleyman
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of peer support on university level students' English language achievements. An experimental model with pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 800 students who were studying at a university in Istanbul vicinity. As experiment group, 400 students (200 of whom…
Konicki, Tara; Miller, Elaine
Although hand hygiene remains an essential aspect of quality care, adherence to best patient safety practices continues to pose major challenges. The objectives of this study are to examine hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, practices, perceived importance and behaviors using Social Cognitive Theory and simulation-based intervention. Participants were taken from a convenience sample of 131 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing fundamentals course at an urban university in the midwestern United States, and then randomly assigned to their respective groups. Using an experimental pretest-posttest design, control and intervention groups received the same lecture pertaining to hand hygiene and 3 data collection points where van de Mortel's Hand Hygiene Questionnaire (HHQ) was administered. In addition, the intervention group viewed a 6.5min video related to healthcare acquired infection and participated in 4 simulated situations requiring hand hygiene, based on World Health Organization guidelines. For all students, the hand hygiene technique was assessed through the use of Glo Germ, followed by handwashing and photography under ultraviolet light (posttest only). Image illumination was analyzed using image processing software. Microbiological sampling plates (pretest-posttest) were assessed quantitatively by colony counting. Study findings did not support differences in the intervention group for the 5 hypothesized relationships. Social desirability responding and negative item confusion were found to occur with the HHQ in the student population. There was a significant difference in the UV hand photographs, with students in the afternoon having lower values than students in the morning. Given the study results, there were no definitive educational recommendations to teach hand hygiene to nursing students. Future research should continue to further examine multi-focal modalities to enhance adherence to hand hygiene practices, as well as control for
Khawaja, Saleem; Khoja, Adeel Akbar; Motwani, Komal
To assess the proportion of various types of abuses and their association with school performances and psychological stress among adolescents from three major cities of Pakistan. The cross-sectional school survey was conducted from March to September 2009, comprising adolescent students at six schools in Karachi, Lahore and Quetta. Data was collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire by trained medical students. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 414 subjects in the study, there were 223 (54%) boys and 191 (46%) girls with an overall mean age of 14.36 ± 1.08 years. In all, 140 (33.7%) participants were physically abused and 236 (57%) participants were verbally abused in the preceding 12 months. Besides, 245 (59.2%) were involved in physical fight and 195 (47.1%) had suffered injury during the preceding year. There were 171 (41.4%) subjects having suffered bullying during the same period. Verbal abuse (p = 0.05), physical fight (p = 0.05) and bullying (p poor school performances among adolescents. Physical abuse (p = 0.05), verbal abuse (p = 0.003), injury (p = 0.02) and bullying (p poor school performance and poor mental health.
Imamura, Yosihiro; Fukuyama, Takaya; Nishimura, Sigeyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko
We assessed the usefulness of gated stress/rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to predict ischemic cardiac events in Japanese patients with various estimated pretest probabilities of coronary artery disease (CAD). Of the 4031 consecutively registered patients for a J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) study, 1904 patients without prior cardiac events were selected. Gated stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed and segmental perfusion scores and quantitative gated SPECT results were derived. The pretest probability for having CAD was estimated using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians- American Society of Internal Medicine guideline data for the management of patients with chronic stable angina, which includes age, gender, and type of chest discomfort. The patients were followed up for three years. During the three-year follow-up period, 96 developed ischemic cardiac events: 17 cardiac deaths, 8 nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 71 clinically driven revascularization. The summed stress score (SSS) was the most powerful independent predictor of all ischemic cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.077, confidence interval (CI) 1.045-1.110). Abnormal SSS (>3) was associated with a significantly higher cardiac event rate in patients with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. Normal SSS (≤3) was associated with a low event rate in patients with any pretest probability of CAD. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is useful for further risk-stratification of patients with suspected CAD. The abnormal scan result (SSS>3) is discriminative for subsequent cardiac events only in the groups with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. The salient result is that normal scan results portend a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of CAD. (author)
The Impact of Prolonged Participation in a Pro-Social Cognitive Behavioral Skills Program on Elementary Age Students, with Behavior Related Disorders, Behavior Accelerative, Behavior Reductive, and Return to Regular Classroom Outcomes
Esser, Ted H.
Overall, pretest-posttest results indicated statistically significant pretest beginning program compared to posttest ending program percentage of behavioral improvement for on task, following directions, and positive interactions outcomes improvement for individual students who completed the elementary grades pro-social cognitive behavioral skills…
Chin Min Lin
Full Text Available This study intends to find out the effect of teaching word meaning deriving strategies to EFL Students in Taiwan. The subjects were one class of the first year students attending a junior college in Taiwan. They were given a pre-test, which contained a passage, 10 vocabulary test items and 10 strategy questions. The researchers then began a two-month experiment. During the experimental period, the researcher, who was the instructor of the subjects, taught word meaning deriving strategies to students. The post-test, which was exactly the same as the pre-test, was given at the end of the experimental period. The results show significant differences of students' correct guessing rates and the strategy choice between the pre-test and the post-test. This suggests that it is worthwhile teaching EFL students word meaning deriving strategies.
Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a crosssectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students
Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a cross- sectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students
Perrin, Christopher J; Miller, Neal; Haberlin, Alayna T; Ivy, Jonathan W; Meindl, James N; Neef, Nancy A
We examined college students' procrastination when studying for weekly in-class quizzes. Two schedules of online practice quiz delivery were compared using a multiple baseline design. When online study material was made available noncontingently, students usually procrastinated. When access to additional study material was contingent on completing previous study material, studying was more evenly distributed. Overall, the mean gain in percentage correct scores on weekly in-class quizzes relative to pretests was greater during contingent access than during noncontingent access conditions.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The sample consisted of 40 hearing-impaired male students of guidance and high schools of the city of Sari, Iran, in the years 2010 and 2011. They were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=20. The data collection tool was the General Health Questionnaire-28. The experimental group was administered eight sessions of stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques two hours weekly. Data were analyzed using statistical indices including mean, standard deviation, and two-way analysis of variance.Results: There was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the subscales of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, depression, and social function (p<0.05. Moreover, after the eight sessions the rate of general health of the experimental group was higher than the control group.Conclusion: Stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques increased the general health of hearing-impaired people. Therefore, stress management training should be developed and expanded as an appropriate intervention.
Marin, Nilo Eric
This study was conducted to determine if the use of the technology known as Classroom Performance System (CPS), specifically referred to as "Clickers", improves the learning gains of students enrolled in a biology course for science majors. CPS is one of a group of developing technologies adapted for providing feedback in the classroom using a learner-centered approach. It supports and facilitates discussion among students and between them and teachers, and provides for participation by passive students. Advocates, influenced by constructivist theories, claim increased academic achievement. In science teaching, the results have been mixed, but there is some evidence of improvements in conceptual understanding. The study employed a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent groups experimental design. The sample consisted of 226 participants in six sections of a college biology course at a large community college in South Florida with two instructors trained in the use of clickers. Each instructor randomly selected their sections into CPS (treatment) and non-CPS (control) groups. All participants filled out a survey that included demographic data at the beginning of the semester. The treatment group used clicker questions throughout, with discussions as necessary, whereas the control groups answered the same questions as quizzes, similarly engaging in discussion where necessary. The learning gains were assessed on a pre/post-test basis. The average learning gains, defined as the actual gain divided by the possible gain, were slightly better in the treatment group than in the control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistic with pretest scores as the covariate was conducted to test for significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest. A second ANCOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest scores, after
Tièche, Raphaël; da Costa, Bruno R; Streit, Sven
Measuring quality of care is essential to improve primary care. Quality of primary care for patients is usually assessed by patient satisfaction questionnaires. However, patients may not be able to judge quality of care without also reflecting their perception of the environment. We determined the effect that redesigning a primary care office had on patient satisfaction. We hypothesized that renovating the interior would make patients more satisfied with the quality of medical care. We performed a Pretest-Posttest analysis in a recently renovated single-practice primary care office in Grenchen, Switzerland. Before and after renovation, we distributed a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction in four domains. We chose a Likert scale (1 = very poor to 6 = very good), and 12 quality indicators, and included two consecutive samples of patients presenting at the primary care office before (n = 153) and after (n = 153) interior design renovation. Response rate was high (overall 85 %). The sample was similar to the enlisted patient collective, but the sample population was older (60 years) than the collective (52 years). Patient satisfaction was higher for all domains after the office was renovated (p patient satisfaction, including satisfaction in domains otherwise unchanged. Physician skills and patient satisfaction sometimes depend on surrounding factors that may bias the ability of patients to assess the quality of medical care. These biases should be taken into account when quality assessment instruments are designed for patients.
Serafim, Robson; Ferraris, Paolo [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The StethoScope Logging While Drilling (LWD) Pressure Measurement, introduced in Brazil in 2005, has been extensively used in deep water environment to provide reservoir pressure and mobility in real-time. In the last three years the StethoScope service was further enhanced to allow better real time monitoring using a larger transmission rate, higher RT data resolution and remote visualization. In order to guarantee stable formation pressures with a limited test duration under a wide range of conditions, Time Optimized Pretests (TOP) were developed. These tests adjust automatically drawdown and buildup parameters as a function of formation characteristics (pressure/mobility) without requiring any input from the operator. On-demand frame (ODF), an advanced telemetry triggered automatically during the pressure tests, allowed to increase equivalent transmission rate and resolution and to include quality indices computed downhole. This paper is focused on the TOP and ODF Field Test results in Brazil, which proved to be useful and reliable options for better real-time decisions together with remote monitoring visualization implemented by the RTMonitor program. (author)
Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for bentonite buffer pre-test in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The identification numbers of the holes are ONK-PP264..267, and the lengths of the drillholes are approximately 4.30 metres each. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in a niche at access tunnel chainage 1475. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used for the work. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling, the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock type in the drillholes is pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in the drill cores is 4.0 pcs / m and the average RQD value 94.2 %. (orig.)
Rank, Matthew A; Volcheck, Gerald W; Swagger, Timothy; Cook, David A
Web-based modules may facilitate instruction on core topics in allergy and immunology (AI). Pretests (PTs) have been shown to improve learning in Web-based courses, but their effectiveness in comparison with advance organizers (AOs) is unknown. We performed a randomized controlled trial of a Web-based educational intervention for teaching the practical aspects of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AI Fellows-in-Training were randomly assigned to receive the introduction to the modules in an AO outline (AO group) or as PT questions (PT group). The primary outcome was the difference in posttest scores between groups. The secondary outcome was the difference in PT and posttest scores in the PT group. Thirty participants in the AO group and 35 in the PT group completed the modules and the posttest. The mean (SD) posttest score for the AO group was 74% (14%) compared with 73% (9%) for the PT group, a mean difference of -1% (95% CI, -7%, 5%; p = 0.67). A multivariate analysis controlling for year-in-training and total time spent on the modules revealed virtually identical results. The mean (SD) PT score for the PT group increased from 49 (10%) to 73% (9%), a mean difference of 24% (95% CI, 19%, 28%; p < 0.0001). Introducing Web-based allergy education with PT questions or an AO resulted in similar posttest scores. Posttest scores in the PT group improved significantly compared with PT scores.
Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Parks, M.B.
This paper describes pretest analyses of a one-tenth scale model of the Sizewell-B prestressed concrete containment building. The work was performed by ANATECH Research Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Hydraulic testing of the model was conducted in the United Kingdom by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). In order to further their understanding of containment behavior, the USNRC, through an agreement with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), also participated in the test program with SNL serving as their technical agent. The analyses that were conducted included two global axisymmetric models with ''bonded'' and ''unbonded'' analytical treatment of meridional tendons, a 3D quarter model of the structure, an axisymmetric representation of the equipment hatch region, and local plan stress and r-θ models of a buttress. Results of these analyses are described and compared with the results of the test. A global hoop failure at midheight of the cylinder and a shear/bending type failure at the base of the cylinder wall were both found to have roughly equal probability of occurrence; however, the shear failure mode had higher uncertainty associated with it. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to improving the modeling capability for concrete shear behavior. This work is also described briefly. 5 refs., 7 figs
Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Parks, M.B.
This paper describes pretest analyses of a one-tenth scale model of the 'Sizewell-B' prestressed concrete containment building. The work was performed by ANATECH Research Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Hydraulic testing of the model was conducted in the United Kingdom by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). In order to further their understanding of containment behavior, the USNRC, through an agreement with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), also participated in the test program with SNL serving as their technical agent. The analyses that were conducted included two global axisymmetric models with 'bonded' and 'unbonded' analytical treatment of meridional tendons, a 3D quarter model of the structure, an axisymmetric representation of the equipment hatch region, and local plane stress and r-θ models of a buttress. Results of these analyses are described and compared with the results of the test. A global hoop failure at midheight of the cylinder and a shear/bending type failure at the base of the cylinder wall were both found to have roughly equal probability of occurrence; however, the shear failure mode had higher uncertainty associated with it. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to improving the modeling capability for concrete shear behavior. This work is also described briefly. (author)
Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test
Vaughan, D.K.; Sandler, I.; Rubin, D.; Isenberg, J.; Nikooyeh, H.
This report describes a three-dimensional nonlinear TRANAL finite element analysis of a nuclear reactor subjected to ground shaking from a buried 50 kg explosive source. The analysis is a pretest simulation of a test event which was scheduled to be conducted in West Germany on 3 November 1979
Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.
Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…
Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong
The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…
Kristen Lee Williams Walton
Full Text Available The ability to understand and interpret data is a critical aspect of scientific thinking. However, although data analysis is often a focus in biology majors classes, many textbooks for allied health majors classes are primarily content-driven and do not include substantial amounts of experimental data in the form of graphs and figures. In a lower-division allied health majors microbiology class, students were exposed to data from primary journal articles as take-home assignments and their data analysis skills were assessed in a pre-/posttest format. Students were given 3 assignments that included data analysis questions. Assignments ranged from case studies that included a figure from a journal article to reading a short journal article and answering questions about multiple figures or tables. Data were represented as line or bar graphs, gel photographs, and flow charts. The pre- and posttest was designed incorporating the same types of figures to assess whether the assignments resulted in any improvement in data analysis skills. The mean class score showed a small but significant improvement from the pretest to the posttest across three semesters of testing. Scores on individual questions testing accurate conclusions and predictions improved the most. This supports the conclusion that a relatively small number of out-of-class assignments through the semester resulted in a significant improvement in data analysis abilities in this population of students.
Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.
This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…
Shih, Ju-Ling; Ku, David Tawei; Hung, Su-Huan
We investigate how the computerized dynamic assessment system improves the learning achievements of vocational high school students studying accounting. Our experiment was conducted under the one-group pretest-posttest design of 34 junior students. The questionnaire results were analyzed to determine student-learning attitudes and reactions toward…
Hussain, Ishtiaq; Suleman, Qaiser; ud Din, M. Naseer; Shafique, Farhan
The current paper investigated the effects of information and communication technology on the students' academic achievement and retention in chemistry. Fifty students of 9th grade were selected randomly from Kohsar Public School and College Latamber Karak. The students were grouped into equivalent groups based on pretest score. In order to…
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Wenner, Julianne A.
We assessed the performance of students with a self-reported conflict between their religious belief and the theory of evolution in two sections of a large introductory biology course (N = 373 students). Student performance was measured through pretest and posttest evolution essays and multiple- choice (MC) questions (evolution-related and…
Wong, Hwei Ming
Student academic self-assessment engages the students in deliberate reflection about what they are learning and how they are learning it. This intervention study investigated the effects of self-assessment training on students' perceptions towards self-assessment in two Singaporean primary schools. The study, which used a pretest-posttest design,…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Internet has become a platform for recent advances, innovative learning methods and self-assessment. Medical students spend significant time using Internet for academic and non-academic purposes. There is a dearth of clear evidence regarding patterns of internet use among Indian Medical students. An internet usage patterns study in First Year Medical students would help identify the necessity to train students in Internet access in the initial phase of Medical course. AIM To assess the Internet usage patterns in First Year Indian Medical Students. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which 132 students studying in First Year undergraduate medical course at MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, a cosmopolitan city in South India, participated. Data related to internet use was captured using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel version 2007. RESULTS 70% of students used internet for academic and non-academic purposes. Slow internet speed (31% and lack of time (23% were most common amongst impediments to internet use. Majority of students (57% used internet for greater than 7 hours per week. Understanding a topic better (62% seems to be most important motive for academic use of internet. 36% of students did not use any academic website. CONCLUSIONS First Year Indian Medical students spent significant amounts of time using internet for multiple purposes. There is a lack of awareness regarding academic websites and online animations among significant portion of students. Students in our study may be guided appropriately by Internet training sessions at the beginning of the Medical course to enable the best use of internet for academic purpose.
Zaleta, Kristy L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender and type of inquiry curriculum (open or structured) on science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science of sixth grade students. The current study took place in an urban northeastern middle school. The researcher utilized a sample of convenience comprised of 303 sixth grade students taught by four science teachers on separate teams. The study employed mixed methods with a quasi-experimental design, pretest-posttest comparison group with 17 intact classrooms of students. Students' science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science (source, certainty, development, and justification) were measured before and after the intervention, which exposed different groups of students to different types of inquiry (structured or open). Differences between comparison and treatment groups and between male and female students were analyzed after the intervention, on science process skills, using a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and, on epistemological beliefs in science, using a two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Responses from two focus groups of open inquiry students were cycle coded and examined for themes and patterns. Quantitative measurements indicated that girls scored significantly higher on science process skills than boys, regardless of type of inquiry instruction. Neither gender nor type of inquiry instruction predicted students' epistemological beliefs in science after accounting for students' pretest scores. The dimension Development accounted for 10.6% of the variance in students' science process skills. Qualitative results indicated that students with sophisticated epistemological beliefs expressed engagement with the open-inquiry curriculum. Students in both the sophisticated and naive beliefs groups identified challenges with the curriculum and improvement in learning as major themes. The types of challenges identified differed between the groups
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Sweni, Shah; Muthusundari, Arunachalam; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
Vast majority of Indians travel for religious, cultural and socio-economic purposes either alone or with families. The present study attempts to elicit the travel related health issues experienced by college students (youth) and their parents (elderly) during travel, to identify the variations between youth and elderly, and to suggest remedial measures. A total of 400 college students (age range 17-25; mean age 21) and 330 of their parents (age range 39-64; mean age 49) were included in the study. After a brief introduction to the study, a pretested structured anonymous questionnaire was distributed and completed. The data was analyzed statistically. Ailments were significantly (pstudents (youth) and were attributed to co-existing or exacerbation of pre-existing illnesses, stress of travel and waning immunity. None carried medical insurance or took pre-travel advice. Less than 21% of students and more than 70% of parents carried medicines for common ailments during travel. Also, parents carried personal protective materials significantly more than their wards. A joint effort by health care professionals, travel agents, government and media towards community education may decrease the travel related ailments/illnesses.
Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.
Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Imamura, Kotaro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito
Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention (Time 2), and a one-month follow-up (Time 3). The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3) as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t = 2.20, p = 0.03) in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3). The program also significantly improved job crafting (t = 2.36, p = 0.02: Cohen's d = 0.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3) and reduced psychological distress (t = -2.06, p = 0.04: Cohen's d = -0.15 at Time 2 and -0.31 at Time 3). The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000024062 . Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees’ well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome, as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes, using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Methods Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1, post-intervention (Time 2, and a one-month follow-up (Time 3. The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen’s d. Results The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t = 2.20, p = 0.03 in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 0.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3. The program also significantly improved job crafting (t = 2.36, p = 0.02: Cohen’s d = 0.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3 and reduced psychological distress (t = −2.06, p = 0.04: Cohen’s d = −0.15 at Time 2 and −0.31 at Time 3. Conclusions The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000024062 . Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.
Full Text Available Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI is a method for pretesting a self-completion questionnaire by first observing actual instances of interaction between the instrument and respondents (the response process before exploring the reasons for this behavior. The TSTI consists of the following three steps: 1. (Respondent-driven observation of response behavior. 2. (Interviewer-driven follow-up probing aimed at remedying gaps in observational data. 3. (Interviewer-driven debriefing aimed at eliciting experiences and opinions. We describe the aims and the techniques of these three steps, and then discuss pilot studies in which we tested the feasibility and the productivity of the TSTI by applying it in testing three rather different types of questionnaires. In the first study, the quality of a set of questions about alcohol consumption was assessed. The TSTI proved to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from a mismatch between the ‘theory’ underlying the questions on the one hand, and features of a respondent’s actual behavior and biography on the other hand. In the second pilot study, Dutch and Norwegian versions of an attitude scale, the 20-item Illegal Aliens Scale, were tested. The TSTI appeared to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from different ‘response strategies’. In the third pilot, a two-year longitudinal study, the TSTI appeared to be an effective method for documenting processes of ‘response shift’ in repeated measurements of health-related Quality of Life (QoL.
Jones, J Shawn; Tincher, Lindsay; Odeng-Otu, Emmanuel; Herdman, Michelle
Objective. To examine whether playing a board game can assist PharmD students in learning autonomic nervous system (ANS) pharmacology. Design. Of 72 students enrolled in a required second-year pharmacology course, 22 students volunteered to play the board game, which was followed by an in-class examination consisting of 42 ANS questions (ANSQs) and 8 control questions (CTLQs). Participants were given a pretest and a posttest to assess immediate educational improvement. Participants' scores for pretest, posttest, in-class examination, and ANSQs were compared. Also, scores for examination, ANSQs, and CTLQs were compared between board game participants (PART) and nonparticipating classmates (NPART). Assessment. Board game participants scored progressively higher between the pretest, posttest, examination, and ANSQs. Additionally, PART scores were higher than NPART scores for examination and ANSQs. Difference between PART and NPART CTLQ scores was not significant. Conclusion. A board game can assist PharmD students in learning ANS pharmacology.
Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909
Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students
Maccariella, James, Jr.
The study investigated whether community college engineering student success was tied to a learning community. Three separate data collection sources were utilized: surveys, interviews, and existing student records. Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess survey data, independent t-tests were used to examine pre-test data, and independent t-tests, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to examine post-test data. The study found students that participated in the Engineering TLC program experienced a significant improvement in grade point values for one of the three post-test courses studied. In addition, the analysis revealed the odds of fall-to-spring retention were 5.02 times higher for students that participated in the Engineering TLC program, and the odds of graduating or transferring were 4.9 times higher for students that participated in the Engineering TLC program. However, when confounding variables were considered in the study (engineering major, age, Pell Grant participation, gender, ethnicity, and full-time/part-time status), the analyses revealed no significant relationship between participation in the Engineering TLC program and course success, fall-to-spring retention, and graduation/transfer. Thus, the confounding variables provided alternative explanations for results. The Engineering TLC program was also found to be effective in providing mentoring opportunities, engagement and motivation opportunities, improved self confidence, and a sense of community. It is believed the Engineering TLC program can serve as a model for other community college engineering programs, by striving to build a supportive environment, and provide guidance and encouragement throughout an engineering student's program of study.
Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat
The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at a large Midwestern state university. Cluster analysis identified five profiles: (1) a strategic profile of a highly motivated by-any-means good strategy user; (2) a knowledge-building profile of an intrinsically motivated autonomous, mastery-oriented student; (3) a surface learning profile of a utility motivated minimally engaged student; (4) an apathetic profile of an amotivational disengaged student; and (5) a learned helpless profile of a motivated but unable to effectively self-regulate student. Among CS majors and students in courses in their major field, the strategic and knowledge-building profiles were the most prevalent. Among non-CS majors and students in required non-major courses, the learned helpless, surface learning, and apathetic profiles were the most prevalent. Students in the strategic and knowledge-building profiles had significantly higher retention of computational thinking knowledge than students in other profiles. Students in the apathetic and surface learning profiles saw little instrumentality of the course for their future academic and career objectives. Findings show that students in STEM fields taking required computer science courses exhibit the same constellation of motivated strategic self-regulation profiles found in other post-secondary and K-12 settings.
Joker, Habib; Ghaderi, Zahra
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of solution-based counseling to increase students' self-conception. Method of research was semi-experimental with pretest and posttest design with a control group. The study sample consisted of all high school students in Dashtestan city, Bushkan district for which 30 subjects were…
Sutiarso, Sugeng; Coesamin, M.; Nurhanurawati
This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design, which aims to determine (1) the tendency of students in using various media scaffolding based on gender, and (2) effect of media scaffolding on increasing understanding of students' geometry concepts. Media scaffolding used this study is chart, props, and…
Ahmad, Samah Zakareya
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the flipped classroom model on Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. A one-group pre-posttest design was adopted. Thirty-four 3rd-year EFL students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, were pretested on listening comprehension before the experiment and then posttested after…
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…
The aim of this study was to determine the role of semiotics in assisting young Indigenous students to engage with and identify the general structure of growing patterns. The theoretical perspective of semiotics underpinned the study. Data are drawn from two Year 3 students, including analysis of pretest questions and two conjecture-driven…
Zwart, Diana P.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Noroozi, Omid; Goei, Sui Lin
This study investigates the effects of Digital Learning Material (DLM) including instructional clips, online guidance, structuring of content, and a collaboration tool on students' mathematics learning in Dutch vocational education. A pretest-posttest design was used. Apprenticeship students were asked to complete assignments and to discuss them…
Hodge, Deborah C.
This study was conducted to determine whether podcasting, in conjunction with mobile MP3 technology used outside the classroom, affects student achievement. Additionally, data were collected and analyzed with regard to gender, selected family demographics, and learning styles. A pretest and posttest was administered to students. The results of the…
Deatline-Buchman, Andria; Jitendra, Asha K.
A within-subject pretest-posttest comparison design was used to explore the effectiveness of a planning and writing intervention in improving the argumentative writing performance of five fourth-grade students with learning disabilities. Students were taught to collaboratively plan and revise their essays and independently write their essays using…
Chang, Yu-Shan; Chen, Si-Yi; Yu, Kuang-Chao; Chu, Yih-Hsien; Chien, Yu-Hung
This study explored the effects of cloud-based m-learning on students' creative processes and products in engineering design. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was adopted, and 62 university students from Taipei City, Taiwan, were recruited as research participants in the study. The results showed that cloud-based m-learning had a positive…
Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina
This study used Witte's extended parallel process model to examine the relationships between the use of fear appeals and college students' attitudes and behavioral intentions toward global warming. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred forty-one college students from six communication courses at two universities…
Mostafa, Akram Fathy
The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…
Johnson, Catherine E.
A quantitative, randomized, pretest, posttest study was conducted to assess the effect of aromatherapy on cognitive test anxiety among nursing students. Sophomore nursing students (n = 39) from a private, 4-year college, were randomized into either the control group (n = 18) or the experimental group (n = 21). Each participant completed the…
Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike
This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…
This study investigated the identification and subsequent development or modification of students´ ideas about scientific phenomena by teaching by concept cartoons© method. We found out ideas of students of the fourth grade of primary school by conceptual tasks which were parts of quasi-experiment (pretest and posttest design). For triangulation…
Wall, Misty L.; Rainford, Will
Using a quasi-experimental one-group, pretest-posttest design with non-random convenience sampling, the researchers assessed 61 advanced standing MSW students who matriculated at a rural intermountain Northwest school of social work. Changes in students' knowledge and attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people were measured using…
McKinney, Kathleen G.
This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…
Okpube, Nnaemeka Michael; Anugwo, M. N.
This study investigated the Card Games and Algebra tic-Tacmatics on Junior Secondary II Students' Achievement in Algebraic Expressions. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test control group design. A total of two hundred and forty (240) Junior Secondary School II students were…
Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf
This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…
Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng; Smith, Erica; Waight, Noemi
This study reports the effect of computer models as formative assessment on high school students' understanding of the nature of models. Nine high school teachers integrated computer models and associated formative assessments into their yearlong high school chemistry course. A pre-test and post-test of students' understanding of the nature of…
Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç
This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…
Objective: To determine the knowledge of and attitudes to breastfeeding among preclinical medical students of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. Methods: Data collection was aided by a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire from a cross-section of 280 randomly selected students. Results: Two hundred ...
McMillan, James H.
This research analyzes the results of a program to enhance the self concepts of junior high students. Subjects were 80 students identified as having low self concepts. They participated in an eight-week program to develop skills in personal and social awareness. Pretest posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory indicated that…
Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason
Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…
Simmons, Christopher; Fisher, Amy Killen; Barnard, Marie; Allen, Susan C.
This study compared a sample of entry-level and advanced BSW students, who completed pretest and posttest self-efficacy measures, to assess their level of confidence in performing social work tasks after 15 weeks of instruction. By the end of the semester, only advanced students made significant gains in self-efficacy beliefs, and they showed a…
Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,
Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of
The effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention in geometry in senior secondary schools was examined. The study employed experimental research design of pretest, posttest control group. The area of this study is Abuja Municipal Area Council, the Federal Capital Territory. The target population ...
The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…
The quasi-experimental research design was used in carrying out the study adopting the pre-test – post-test control type. The sample consists of 180 Senior Secondary One (SS1) Students comprising of 88 males and 92 females. In each ... The experimental group was taught mathematical concepts using concept mapping ...
A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact ... Students from two schools – (one male and the other female) were randomly assigned to ... Pre-test was administrated to both groups to determine their entry level. At the end of the treatment Post-test was administered to both groups to ...
The paper discusses the concept and usefulness of rapid reading. It also reports a study in which the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria Sandwich students formed the subjects. Their pre-training reading speed and comprehension scores were determined through a pre-test, after which they were subjected to ...
Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Kwan, Chan Li; Khan, Aqeel; Ghafar, Mohamed Najib Abdul; Sihes, Ahmad Johari
Critical thinking and effective problem solving skills have been regarded as an important element and as an educational outcome in professional nursing. The purpose of this study is to examine the implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) among nursing students. More specifically, it compares pretest and post test scores of the implementation…
A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design was used. ... skills [F (1,526) = 16.62; P <0.05]; but there was no significant main effect on attitude. Physics teachers are advised to make genuine effort to encourage students in less ...
Oude Voshaar, Martijn Ah; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Taal, Erik; Krishnan, Eswar; van de Laar, Mart Afj
Patient-reported physical function is an established outcome domain in clinical studies in rheumatology. To overcome the limitations of the current generation of questionnaires, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) project in the USA has developed calibrated item banks for measuring several domains of health status in people with a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PROMIS physical function item bank to the Dutch language and to pretest it in a sample of patients with arthritis. The items of the PROMIS physical function item bank were translated using rigorous forward-backward protocols and the translated version was subsequently cognitively pretested in a sample of Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Few issues were encountered in the forward-backward translation. Only 5 of the 124 items to be translated had to be rewritten because of culturally inappropriate content. Subsequent pretesting showed that overall, questions of the Dutch version were understood as they were intended, while only one item required rewriting. Results suggest that the translated version of the PROMIS physical function item bank is semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Future work will be directed at creating a Dutch-Flemish final version of the item bank to be used in research with Dutch speaking populations.
Williams, Janet L; Faucett, W Andrew; Smith-Packard, Bethanny; Wagner, Monisa; Williams, Marc S
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is being used for evaluation of individuals with undiagnosed disease of suspected genetic origin. Implementing WGS into clinical practice will place an increased burden upon care teams with regard to pre-test patient education and counseling about results. To quantitate the time needed for appropriate pre-test evaluation of participants in WGS testing, we documented the time spent by our clinical research group on various activities related to program preparation, participant screening, and consent prior to WGS. Participants were children or young adults with autism, intellectual or developmental disability, and/or congenital anomalies, who have remained undiagnosed despite previous evaluation, and their biologic parents. Results showed that significant time was spent in securing allocation of clinical research space to counsel participants and families, and in acquisition and review of participant's medical records. Pre-enrollment chart review identified two individuals with existing diagnoses resulting in savings of $30,000 for the genome sequencing alone, as well as saving hours of personnel time for genome interpretation and communication of WGS results. New WGS programs should plan for costs associated with additional pre-test administrative planning and patient evaluation time that will be required to provide high quality care.
Kudryashov, Nikita V; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Shimshirt, Alexander A; Korolev, Anton O; Volkova, Anna V; Voronina, Tatiana A
The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) has been assessed using the forced swimming test (FST) in IRC (CD-1) mice exposed or not to a pretest session of different duration (5 or 20 min). The influence of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) activity on the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) in the FST was also studied. The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine was observed only in mice subjected to a 5-min pretest session 24 h before the FST. The TSPO antagonist PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide; 1 or 3 mg/kg i.p.] inhibited the antidepressant activity of fluoxetine in the FST. In the present study, fluoxetine or PK11195 was administered for a short duration. We suppose that the functional activity of TSPO may depend on a pretest session and that using this procedure is necessary to detect antidepressant activity of fluoxetine-like drugs.
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.
Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866
Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deering, Thomas S.; And Others
Results of the administration of Forsyth's Ethics Position Questionnaire to 20 student teachers, 20 experienced teachers, and 24 business majors were as follows: education majors and teachers were more idealistic and less relativistic than business majors; business majors showed significant disparity among themselves. Implications for the…
Sullivan, Ethan A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a business ethics course on the cognitive moral reasoning of freshmen business students. The sample consisted of 268 college students enrolled in a required business ethics course. The students took Rest's Defining Issues Test--Version 2 (DIT2) as a pre-test and then post-test (upon…
Brown, Jill; Akers, Michael D.; Giacomino, Don E.
Narcissism is a personality trait that varies in individuals much like other characteristics. Accordingly, narcissism can positively or negatively impact the leadership style and career of business leaders. While personality research has examined the level of narcissism in college-aged students over the past 30 years, only recently has limited…
It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.
It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental
Edward K. Lew
Full Text Available Background: Asynchronous learning is gaining popularity. Data are limited regarding this learning method in medical students rotating in emergency medicine (EM. In EM, faculty time is limited to give in-person lectures. The authors sought to create an online curriculum that students could utilize as an additional learning modality. Objective: The goal was to evaluate effectiveness, participation, and preference for this mode of learning. Methods: We developed five online, narrated PowerPoint presentations. After orientation, access to the online curriculum was provided to the students, which they could review at their leisure. Results: One hundred and seven fourth-year medical students participated. They reported the curriculum to be of high quality. Pretest scores were similar for those that viewed all lectures – compliant group (CG (9.5 [CI 4.8–14.1] and those that did not view any – non-compliant group (NCG (9.6 [CI 5.9–13.4]. There was no statistical significant difference in posttest scores between the groups although there was improvement overall: CG 14.6 (CI 6.9–22.1; NCG 11.4 (CI 5.7–17.1. A majority (69.2% favored inclusion of asynchronous learning, but less than a quarter (22.4% reported viewing all five modules and more than a third (36.4% viewed none. Conclusion: Despite student-expressed preference for an online curriculum, they used the online resource less than expected. This should give pause to educators looking to convert core EM topics to an online format. However, when high-quality online lectures are utilized as a learning tool, this study demonstrates that they had neither a positive nor a negative impact on test scores.
Desalegn, Anteneh Assefa; Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru
Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer's teaching style, and availability of lecture material. At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.
A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development
Background The internet is increasingly being used worldwide in imparting medical education and improving its delivery. It has become an important tool for healthcare professionals training but the data on its use by medical students in developing countries is lacking with no study on the subject from Pakistan. This study was, therefore, carried out with an aim to evaluate the pattern of internet access and utilization by medical students in Pakistan. Methods A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to a group of 750 medical students in clinical years studying at various public and private medical colleges in Lahore. The questions were related to patterns of internet access, purpose of use and self reported confidence in performing various internet related tasks, use of health related websites to supplement learning and the problems faced by students in using internet at the institution. Results A total of 532 medical students (70.9%) returned the questionnaire. The mean age of study participants was 21.04 years (SD 1.96 years). Majority of the respondents (84.0%) reported experience with internet use. About half of the students (42.1%) were using internet occasionally with 23.1%, 20.9% and 13.9% doing so frequently, regularly and rarely respectively. About two third of the students (61.0%) stated that they use internet for both academic and professional activities. Most of the participants preferred to use internet at home (70.5%). Self reported ability to search for required article from PubMed and PakMedinet was reported by only 34.0% of the entire sample. Students were moderately confident in performing various internet related tasks including downloading medical books from internet, searching internet for classification of diseases and downloading full text article. Health related websites were being accessed by 55.1% students to supplement their learning process. Lack of time, inadequate number of available computers and lack of support from
Prakashkumar, M D; Ebenezer, M; Richard, J
Leprosy is a disease that causes not only physical problems, but also mental and social problems. In the post integration era, every health care professional needs to understand about leprosy, to be able to diagnose and treat them. Physiotherapy students, in their usual syllabus, have minimal exposure to leprosy, in spite of the fact that they have a major role in preventing impairments and disabilities caused by leprosy, as well as treating such impairments. In order to educate physiotherapy students on leprosy, a one-week intensive training course was organised. This study was done to assess if the intensive training to physiotherapy students resulted in increase in their knowledge on leprosy and change their attitude positively. A batch consisting of 42 physiotherapy students went through the one-week training programme. The improvement in knowledge and attitude were assessed through a pre-test and a post-test design. Results showed that there was significant improvement in knowledge (53.05%) and brought positive change in attitude (75.0%). Such training programmes are recommended for all physiotherapy students.
Koo, Cathy L; Demps, Elaine L; Farris, Charlotte; Bowman, John D; Panahi, Ladan; Boyle, Paul
Objective. To determine whether a flipped classroom design would improve student performance and perceptions of the learning experience compared to traditional lecture course design in a required pharmacotherapy course for second-year pharmacy students. Design. Students viewed short online videos about the foundational concepts and answered self-assessment questions prior to face-to-face sessions involving patient case discussions. Assessment. Pretest/posttest and precourse/postcourse surveys evaluated students' short-term knowledge retention and perceptions before and after the redesigned course. The final grades improved after the redesign. Mean scores on the posttest improved from the pretest. Postcourse survey showed 88% of students were satisfied with the redesign. Students reported that they appreciated the flexibility of video viewing and knowledge application during case discussions but some also struggled with time requirements of the course. Conclusion. The redesigned course improved student test performance and perceptions of the learning experience during the first year of implementation.
Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.
The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
Harris, S. E.; Taylor, S. V.; Schoonmaker, J. E.; Lane, E.; Francois, R. H.; Austin, P.
What do university students know about climate? What do they learn in a climate course? On the second-to-last day of a course about global climate change, only 48% of our upper-level science students correctly answered a multiple-choice question about the greenhouse effect. The good news: improvement. Only 16% had answered correctly on the first day of class. The bad news: the learning opportunities we've provided appear to have missed more than half the class on a fundamental climate concept. To evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on student learning about climate, we have developed a prototype assessment tool, designed to be deployed as a low-stakes pre-post test. The items included were validated through student interviews to ensure that students interpret the wording and answer choices in the way we intend. This type of validated assessment, administered both at the beginning and end of term, with matched individuals, provides insight regarding the baseline knowledge with which our students enter a course, and the impact of that course on their learning. We administered test items to students in (1) an upper-level climate course for science majors and (2) a lower-level climate course open to all students. Some items were given to both groups, others to only one of the groups. Both courses use evidence-based pedagogy with active student engagement (clickers, small group activities, regular pre-class preparation). Our results with upper-level students show strong gains in student thinking (>70% of students who missed a question on the pre-test answered correctly on the post-test) about stock-and-flow (box model) problems, annual cycles in the Keeling curve, ice-albedo feedbacks, and isotopic fractionation. On different questions, lower-level students showed strong gains regarding albedo and blackbody emission spectra. Both groups show similar baseline knowledge and lower-than-expected gains on greenhouse effect fundamentals, and zero gain regarding the
Stodt, Martha McGinty; Thielens, Wagner, Jr.
An exploratory study of students entering four elite fields found that most sought both credentials and competence. Stiff competition within chosen occupations led the majority of students to seek every advantage that graduate education could provide. (Author/MLW)
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…
Baumgarten, Thomas L.; Minix, Quinella
The Texas Education Agency awarded twenty competitive grants to Head Start programs in the state. The focus of the grants was on emergent literacy and pre-reading skills. Teachers, mentors, and administrators underwent intensive training. To investigate whether children emerged from the grant programs ready to enter school reading, an outside…
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Noaim, Khalid Ibrahim; Bu Saad, Mohammed Ahmed; Al Malhm, Turki Ahmed; Al Mulhim, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Al Awas, Marwah Abdulaziz
No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7%) students scored ? 24 (out of 41points) which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect
Khandelwal, Vishal; Khandelwal, Sushma; Gupta, Neetu; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Kulshreshtha, Namrata; Baliga, Sudhindra
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 240 students of 3rd year, 4th year and interns of a professional dental course. A pre-tested questionnaire was given to the students of each year. All the data management and analysis were carried out using SPSS software version 16. Results Eighty-six percent of the students had knowledge about hepatitis B infection. The majority of the students had correct knowledge regarding mode of transmission, however, 21% failed to recognize saliva as the mode of hepatitis B transmission. Forty-five percent of the students were vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion The present study concludes that there is reasonable awareness of hepatitis B infection hazards, its transmission and vaccination, among the dental students who will be entering into the profession. However, half of the students were not vaccinated for hepatitis B in our study group, which keeps them at risk to the disease. The Indian Health Ministry should make hepatitis B vaccination mandatory for all health care professionals. A strategy should be executed for health education and compulsory vaccination of all students joining the health care professional colleges. Antibody titers should be routinely checked among those who are vaccinated.
Elhendy, A.; Sozzi, F.B.; Van Domburg, R.T.; Bax, J.J.; Roelandt, J.R.T.C.
We studied 302 patients (mean age 54±9 years, 152 men and 150 women) with intermediate pretest probability of CAD (range=0.25- 0.80, mean=0.43±0.20) by upright bicycle exercise stress test in conjunction with technetium-99m single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. Exercise-induced VAs (frequent or complex premature ventricular contractions or ventricular tachycardia) occurred in 65 patients (22%). No significant difference was found between patients with and patient without VAs regarding the pretest probability of CAD (0.45±0.21 vs 0.43±0.20). Patients with exercise-induced VAs had a higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities (52% vs 26%, P=0.002) and ischaemic electrocardiographic changes (31% vs 16%, P<0.05) compared to patients without VAs. A higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities in patients with VAs was observed in both men (67% vs 35%, P<0.01) and women (38% vs 16%, P<0.05). However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for the presence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities was higher in men than in women (67% vs 38%, P<0.05). The presence of abnormal myocardial perfusion was the only independent predictor of exercise-induced VAs (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2) by multivariate analysis of clinical and stress test variables. It is concluded that in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD, exercise-induced VAs are predictive of a higher prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in both men and women. However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for perfusion abnormalities is higher in men. Because of the underestimation of ischaemia by electrocardiographic changes, exercise-induced VAs should be interpreted as a marker of a higher probability of CAD. (orig./MG) (orig.)
In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…
Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.
This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…
Jameson, A. Keith
Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on Le Chatelier's principle includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, instructions for executing the computer program, and…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of using geometric functions approach on 9th grade students' motivation levels toward mathematics in functions unit. Participants of this study were 87 students who were ongoing in the first year of high school in Turkey. In this research, pretest and posttest control group quasiexperimental…
Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…
Oncu, Elif Celebi
The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.
The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…
Rachels, Jason R.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.
A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, non-equivalent control group design was used to examine the effect of a mobile gamification application on third and fourth grade students' Spanish language achievement and student academic self-efficacy. In this study, the treatment group's Spanish language instruction was through the use of…
Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka
This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…
Kissi, Philip Siaw; Opoku, Gyabaah; Boateng, Sampson Kwadwo
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Microsoft Math Tool (graphical calculator) on students' achievement in the linear function. The study employed Quasi-experimental research design (Pre-test Post-test two group designs). A total of ninety-eight (98) students were selected for the study from two different Senior High Schools…
Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit
The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…
Modebelu, M. N.; Ogbonna, C. C.
This study aimed at determining the effect of reform-based-instructional method learning styles on students' achievement and retention in mathematics. A sample size of 119 students was randomly selected. The quasiexperimental design comprising pre-test, post-test, and randomized control group were employed. The Collin Rose learning styles…
Cer, Erkan; Sahin, Ertugrul
Using a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups, 93 eighth grade students were randomly assigned either to the experimental or to the control group and responded to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale two weeks before and after the intervention. While the students in the experimental group were instructed in quality books…
Charity, Dimlong; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele; Osasebor, Florence Osaze; Ibn Umar, Suleiman
This study investigated the effects of teaching gardening on science students' attitudes toward entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design. A sample of 75 senior secondary school students from two intact classes, randomly…
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This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).
Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.
We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...
Jiang, Z; Christenson, R
Control devices can be used to dissipate the energy of a civil structure subjected to dynamic loading, such as earthquake, wave and wind excitation, thus reducing structural damage and preventing failure. The magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is a promising device for use in civil structures due to its mechanical simplicity, inherent stability, high dynamic range, large temperature operating range, robust performance, and low power requirements. The MR damper is intrinsically nonlinear and rate dependent. Thus a challenging aspect of applying this technology is the development of accurate models to describe the behavior of such dampers for control design and evaluation purposes. In particular, a new type of experimental testing called real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) combines numerical simulation with laboratory testing of physical components. As with any laboratory testing, safety is of critical importance. For RTHS in particular the feedback and dynamic interaction of physical and numerical components can result in potentially unstable behavior. For safety purposes, it is desired to conduct pretest simulations where the physical specimen is replaced with an appropriate numerical model yet the numerical RTHS component is left unchanged. These pretest simulations require a MR damper model that can exhibit stability and convergence at larger fixed integration time steps, and provide computational efficiency, speed of calculation, and accuracy during pretest verification of the experimental setup. Several models for MR dampers have been proposed, including the hyperbolic tangent, Bouc–Wen, viscous plus Dahl and algebraic models. This paper examines the relative performance of four MR damper models of large-scale 200 kN MR dampers as needed for pretest simulations of RTHS. Experimental tests are conducted on two large-scale MR dampers located at two RTHS test facilities at the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana
Lee, Jason T; Son, Ji H; Chandra, Venita; Lilo, Emily; Dalman, Ronald L
Surging interest in the 0 + 5 integrated vascular surgery (VS) residency and successful recruitment of the top students in medical school requires early exposure to the field. We sought to determine the impact of a high-fidelity simulation-based preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student performance and ultimate career specialty choices. Fifty-two preclinical medical students enrolled in an 8-week VS elective course from 2007 to 2009. Students completed a baseline and postcourse survey and performed a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on an endovascular simulator (pretest). A curriculum consisting of didactic teaching covering peripheral vascular disease and weekly mentored simulator sessions concluded with a final graded procedure (posttest). Long-term follow-up surveys 1 to 3 years after course completion were administered to determine ultimate career paths of participants as well as motivating factors for career choice. Objective and subjective performance measured on the simulator and through structured global assessment scales improved in all students from pre- to posttest, particularly with regard to technical skill and overall procedural competency (P choices including surgical subspecialties (64%), radiology (10%), and cardiology (6%). Most respondents indicated major reasons for continued interest in VS were the ability to practice endovascular procedures on the simulator (92%) and mentorship from VS faculty (70%). Basic endovascular skills can be efficiently introduced through a simulation-based curriculum and lead to improved novice performance. Early exposure of preclinical medical students provides an effective teaching and recruitment tool for procedural-based fields, particularly surgical subspecialties. Mentored exposure to endovascular procedures on the simulator positively impacts long-term medical student attitudes toward vascular surgery and ultimate career choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by
Helsy, I.; Maryamah; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.
This study aimed to describe the application of teaching materials, analyze the increase in the ability of students to connect the three levels of representation and student responses after application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. The method used quasi one-group pretest-posttest design to 71 students. The results showed the application of teaching materials carried 88% with very good category. A significant increase ability to connect the three levels of representation of students after the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry with t-value > t-crit (11.402 > 1.991). Recapitulation N-gain pretest and posttest showed relatively similar for all groups is 0.6 criterion being achievement. Students gave a positive response to the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. Students agree teaching materials used in teaching chemistry (88%), and agrees teaching materials to provide convenience in connecting the three levels of representation (95%).
Daugherty, Heather N; Kearney, Rachel C
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the change in levels of knowledge of providing culturally competent care and self-assessed cultural competence of senior level dental hygiene students after the implementation of an online cultural competence training module. Methods: Twenty-eight members of the senior class of 31 dental hygiene students (N=28) volunteered to participate in this IRB approved study at the Ohio State University School of Dentistry. The students took the online Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence- Student Version (IAPCC-SV), to assess their self-perceived cultural competence. Upon completion of the pre-test, students then completed the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Minority Health (OMH) Cultural Competency Program for Oral Health Professionals; a three-module online training program designed to measure increased knowledge of cultural competence. Three weeks following the initial pre-test and upon completion of the Cultural Competency Program for Oral Health Professionals online learning modules, students re-took the IAPCC-SV. Results: Twenty-eight senior dental hygiene students completed the IAPCC-SV pre-test, the OMH e-learning modules and the IAPCC-SV post-test. The average score on the pre-test was 55.14±7.54 and the average score on the post-test was 61.33±7.86. There was a significant difference in pre-test and post-test scores (pdental hygiene students' levels of knowledge of cultural competence. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Murni, Atma; Sabandar, Jozua; S. Kusumah, Yaya; Kartasamita, Bana Goerbana
The aim of this study is to know the differences of enhancement in mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) between the students who received soft skill- based metacognitive learning (SSML) with the students who got conventional learning (CL). This research is a quasi experimental design with pretest-postest control group. The population in this study is the students of Junior High School in Pekanbaru city. The sample consist of 135 students, 68 of them are from the high-level...
Rebecca L. Warner Henning
Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.
Full Text Available The study aims to test the effectiveness of Islamic counseling model for helping the students to tight their religious commitment. The religious commitment is covered in three major Islamic teachings: Iman (faith, Islam (surrender to Allah, and lhsan (state of being observed by Allah. The model of Islamic counseling aims to tight students' religious commitment must to be applied immediately because the preface study reveals some students' religious commitment were not strong enough, their behavior and thinking symptoms tend to not appropriate yet with Islam norm among their association and conception toward the truth of God. To achieve the aim, the study was carried out with three steps: (1 designing a model of counseling; (2 trying out field study, using pretest-post test control group experimental design with 140 students of Islamic Religion Education, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching, State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung. Of 140 students, 70 students are from the classes: A (32 people, B (38 people, involved in control group and the test; 37 people from class C, and 33 students from class D involved in the experiment group, and; (3 designing a final model by revising the model tried-out. The variable involved three major Islamic dimensions: the iman, Islam, and ihsan of the students. The model was designed based on the theory put forward by Musfir bin Said Az-Zalmmi, that is, an integrated counseling model. The model combines and employs the ideas from other concepts into a tightly united concept, called Islamic concept. Upon completing analysis, it was found that the new concept is significantly effective to enhance students' religious commitment. A Model of Islamic Counseling (MIC is an alternative-counseling model that can be employed for teenagers/ students to enhance their religious commitment. The study recommends that: (1 MIC can be applied to fifth semester students in the Faculty of Tarbiyah State Islamic
Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (β = 13.034), followed by using
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190 were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%, 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3% owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%. Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%, self learning (63.0% or by peer learning (49.2%. The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%, entertainment (95.0%, web browsing (80.1% and preparing presentations (76.8%. Majority of the students (75.7% expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6. There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p Conclusion Sri Lankan medical undergraduates had a low-intermediate level of computer
Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.
Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu/ Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and
Rachel E. Scott
Full Text Available A Review of: Zhang, Q., Goodman, M., & Xie, S. (2015. Integrating library instruction into the Course Management System for a first-year engineering class: An evidence-based study measuring the effectiveness of blended learning on students’ information literacy levels. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 934-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.934 Objective – To assess the efficacy of an online library module and of blended learning methods on students’ information literacy skills. Design – Multi-modal, pre- and posttests, survey questionnaire, and focus groups. Setting – Public research university in London, Ontario, Canada. Subjects – First-year engineering students. Methods – Of 413 students enrolled in Engineering Science (ES 1050, 252 volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to complete the online module, a pretest, a posttest, an online follow-up survey, and to take part in a focus group. Researchers generated a pretest and a posttest, each comprised of 15 questions:; multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions which tested students’ general and engineering-specific information literacy skills. The pretest and posttest had different, but similarly challenging, questions to ensure that students involved in the study would not have an advantage over those who had opted out. While all components of the study were voluntary, the posttest was a graded course assignment. In-person tutorials were offered on 4 occasions, with only 15 students participating. Both tutorial and module content were designed to cover all questions and competencies tested in the pretest and the posttest, including Boolean operators, peer review, identifying plagiarism, engineering standards, engineering handbooks, search strategies, patents, article citations, identifying reliable sources, and how to read journal articles. The posttest survey was delivered in the CMS immediately after the posttest was completed. It
This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…
Prazak, Kristine A
The purpose of this project was to infuse palliative medicine and end-of-life care creatively into physician assistant (PA) education. Nine second-year PA students volunteered to participate in this quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest pilot study. Students initially completed an anonymous survey evaluating seven domains of knowledge in palliative medicine coupled with a self-assessment in competence. Virtual patient software was then used to simulate clinical encounters that addressed major palliative care domains. Upon completion of these cases, the same survey, with the addition of three questions about their own personal feelings, was administered. Overall response was positive in regard to improved knowledge and the virtual patient experience. After completion of the cases, students rated their self-assessed skills higher in all domains than prior to completing the cases. Factual knowledge scores showed a slight but not significant improvement, with an average pre-survey score of 4.56 and post-survey score of 4.67. Using virtual patient software can be a way of infusing palliative medicine and end-of-life care into PA education. These encounters can then be modified to include interprofessional encounters within the health professions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Blood Donation can save million lives. Voluntary blood donations are the cornerstone of a safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products. The safest blood donors are voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low-risk populations. Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to understand the factors like knowledge, attitude and practices associated with voluntary blood donation among the medical students in a medical college. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional study with a sample size of 278. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding blood donation in the study subjects. The data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods. Results: The knowledge about the recommended age and interval of blood donation was 90 % & 48.9% respectively. Nearly 23% of students had ever donated blood and the majority of subjects (56.5% did not have an opportunity to donate blood. 75.54 % of students were willing to donate blood at the time of study. Conclusion: Creating the opportunities regarding the blood donation may lead to the achievement of goal of 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation.