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Sample records for preterm odds ratio

  1. The odds ratio: Principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakshi Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The odds ratio (OR is a simple tool, widely utilized in clinical research. As a simple statistic, it can be hand calculated to determine the odds of a particular event or a disease, and the information provided can be useful for understanding the results of a treatment/intervention. This article discusses the application of OR with examples and shows a simple way of performing the test using an online calculator.

  2. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

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    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  3. Racial odds for amputation ratio in traumatic lower extremity fractures.

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    Weber, Daniel J; Shoham, David A; Luke, Amy; Reed, R Lawrence; Luchette, Fred A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that black patients receive substandard care compared with white patients across healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of race on the management (salvage vs. amputation) of traumatic lower extremity open fractures. Data analysis was conducted using the American College of Surgeon's National Trauma Data Bank. Open tibial and fibular (OTFF) and open femoral (OFF) fractures among adults above the age of 18 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Injuries were identified as amputated based on the presence of one of three types of knee amputations. Statistical analysis included logistic regression stratified for sex, age, race, mechanism of injury, severity, and insurance type. From the National Trauma Data Bank, 10,082 OFF and 22,479 OTFF were identified. Amputation rates were 3.1% for OFF and 4.2% for OTFF. With age stratification, the ratio of amputation odds for blacks to amputation odds for whites (i.e., the Racial Odds for Amputation Ratio [ROAR]) demonstrated a significant interaction between black and age in both the OFF (p = 0.028) and OTFF (p = 0.008) groups. In younger patients, a lower ROAR (p = 0.016) favored salvage in blacks, while the ROAR in older patients favored amputation in blacks (p = 0.013). The higher prevalence of penetrating injuries in blacks only accounted for 12.7% of the lower ROAR among younger adults. There exists a racial disparity in the management of lower extremity open fractures. Older blacks have greater odds of amputation that is not explained by mechanism. In contrast, younger blacks have lower odds for amputation that is only partially explained by mechanism of injury.

  4. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

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    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer.

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    Plagens-Rotman, Katarzyna; Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-03-01

    Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  6. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

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    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study: The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods: The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results: The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions : A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  7. Clinical trials: odds ratios and multiple regression models--why and how to assess them

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    Sobh, Mohamad; Cleophas, Ton J.; Hadj-Chaib, Amel; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2008-01-01

    Odds ratios (ORs), unlike chi2 tests, provide direct insight into the strength of the relationship between treatment modalities and treatment effects. Multiple regression models can reduce the data spread due to certain patient characteristics and thus improve the precision of the treatment

  8. Odds ratio based multifactor-dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interactions.

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    Chung, Yujin; Lee, Seung Yeoun; Elston, Robert C; Park, Taesung

    2007-01-01

    The identification and characterization of genes that increase the susceptibility to common complex multifactorial diseases is a challenging task in genetic association studies. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been proposed and implemented by Ritchie et al. (2001) to identify the combinations of multilocus genotypes and discrete environmental factors that are associated with a particular disease. However, the original MDR method classifies the combination of multilocus genotypes into high-risk and low-risk groups in an ad hoc manner based on a simple comparison of the ratios of the number of cases and controls. Hence, the MDR approach is prone to false positive and negative errors when the ratio of the number of cases and controls in a combination of genotypes is similar to that in the entire data, or when both the number of cases and controls is small. Hence, we propose the odds ratio based multifactor dimensionality reduction (OR MDR) method that uses the odds ratio as a new quantitative measure of disease risk. While the original MDR method provides a simple binary measure of risk, the OR MDR method provides not only the odds ratio as a quantitative measure of risk but also the ordering of the multilocus combinations from the highest risk to lowest risk groups. Furthermore, the OR MDR method provides a confidence interval for the odds ratio for each multilocus combination, which is extremely informative in judging its importance as a risk factor. The proposed OR MDR method is illustrated using the dataset obtained from the CDC Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Group. The program written in R is available.

  9. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

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    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

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    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  11. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state.

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    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Research laboratory. 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). None. Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0-2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.

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    Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-05-01

    It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

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    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  14. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

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    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

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    Bozoklu Akkar, Ozlem; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Imir Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca; Cetin, Ali

    2016-04-13

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. RESULTS The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (pparaoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth.

  16. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

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    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interpretation of serial data in monitoring of patients is usually performed by use of the 'reference change value' (RCV). While this tool for interpretation of measured differences is simple and clear, there are a number of drawbacks attached to the uncritical use...... and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured......-test odds depending on time. Conclusions: The concept presented here expands the earlier concept of RCVs by making it possible to have an estimate of the post-test odds for a certain difference to occur based on likelihood ratios and pre-test odds. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46....

  17. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

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    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  18. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

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    Edén Lena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ≥ 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1 to avoid a disability pension for individuals

  19. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

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    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the lumbar spine and particularly at the hip remain the gold-standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. However, devices for assessing the peripheral skeleton present several advantages in terms of lower price and portability. A major......: Peripheral densitometry can discriminate between hip- and lower forearm fracture patients and age-matched controls. Significantly elevated odds ratios for incurring these fractures can be calculated using device- and site specific t-score cutoff values. The results from this case-control study need...

  20. Role of perceived stress in the occurrence of preterm labor and preterm birth among urban women.

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    Seravalli, Laura; Patterson, Freda; Nelson, Deborah B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether prenatal perceived stress levels during pregnancy were associated with preterm labor or preterm birth. Perceived stress levels were measured at 16 weeks' gestation or less and between 20 and 24 weeks' gestation in a sample of 1069 low-income pregnant women attending Temple University prenatal care clinics. Scores were averaged to create a single measure of prenatal stress. Preterm birth was defined as the occurrence of a spontaneous birth prior to 37 weeks' gestation. Preterm labor was defined as the occurrence of regular contractions between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation that were associated with changes in the cervix. Independent of potential confounding factors, prenatal perceived stress was not associated with preterm labor (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.78; P = .66); however, prenatal stress trended toward an association with preterm birth (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.00-2.23; P = .05). The strongest predictor of preterm labor was a history of preterm labor in a prior pregnancy. Women with a history of preterm labor were 2 times more likely to experience preterm labor in the current pregnancy than women who did not have a preterm labor history (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05-4.41; P = .04). Historical risk factors for preterm birth, such as African American race, a history of abortion, or a history of preterm birth, were not related to preterm labor. The strongest predictor of preterm birth was having a history of preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.54-4.24; P stress levels may be a risk factor for preterm birth independent of preterm labor; however, prenatal stress was not associated with preterm labor. Risk factors for preterm labor may be different from those of preterm birth. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  1. Myelination process in preterm subjects with periventricular leucomalacia assessed by magnetization transfer ratio

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    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Gassias, Dimitrios; Argyropoulou, Maria [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Magnetization transfer imaging assesses the myelination status of the brain. To study the progress of myelination in children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) by measuring the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and to compare the MTR values with normal values. Brain MTR in 28 PVL subjects (16 males, 12 females, gestational age 30.7{+-}2.5 weeks, corrected age 3.1{+-}2.9 years) was measured using a 3D gradient echo sequence (TR/TE 32/8 ms, flip angle 60 , 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) without and with magnetization transfer prepulse and compared with normal values for preterm subjects. MTR of white-matter structures followed a monoexponential function model (y=A-B*exp(-x/C)) while the thalamus and caudate nucleus had a poor goodness of fit. MTR of the splenium of the corpus callosum reached a final value lower than normal (0.67 versus 0.70) at a younger age [t(99%) at 10.32 versus 18.90 months; P<0.05]. MTR of the normal-appearing occipital white matter and of the genu of the corpus callosum reached a normal final MTR but at a younger age than normal preterm infants [t(99%) at 8.51 versus 14.50 months and 12.51 versus 20.85 months, respectively]. In PVL subjects, myelination of the splenium is characterized by early arrest and deficient maturation. Accelerated myelination in unaffected white matter might suggest a compensatory process of reorganization. (orig.)

  2. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

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    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  3. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  4. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.

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    Mirjam J Knol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, the odds ratio (OR can substantially overestimate the risk ratio (RR if the incidence of the outcome is over 10%. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used. METHODS: We included 288 RCTs published in 2008 in five major general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine. If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula . RESULTS: Of 193 RCTs with a dichotomous primary outcome, 24 (12.4% presented a crude and/or adjusted OR for the primary outcome. In five RCTs (2.6%, the OR differed more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Forty-one of all included RCTs (n = 288; 14.2% presented ORs for other outcomes, or for subgroup analyses. Nineteen of these RCTs (6.6% had at least one OR that deviated more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Alternative methods to estimate RRs were only used in four RCTs. CONCLUSION: ORs and logistic regression are often used in RCTs and in many articles the OR did not approximate the RR. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making.

  5. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    pronounced for Black mothers who were born early preterm (adjusted odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-6.02) compared to non-Hispanic White mothers. We found an intergenerational effect of preterm birth among non-Hispanic Black mothers but not non-Hispanic White mothers. Black mothers born preterm. Future studies should elucidate the underlying pathways leading to this racial disparity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  7. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratios in high-risk and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Carissa F; Zerzan, Joan C; Johnson, Donna B; Juul, Sandra E

    2012-07-01

    To refine the reference range for the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio (ZnPP/H) of preterm infants, we assessed the impact of maternal risk factors on ZnPP/H and evaluated the impact of changes in iron supplementation on iron status. The reference range for neonatal ZnPP/H was refined using prospective data from 31 reference infants ≤ 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) plus retrospective data from 51 infants ZnPP/H from 48 high-risk infants. The effect of changing iron supplementation guidelines was evaluated by retrospective chart review of serial ZnPP/H from 194 infants. Cord ZnPP/H was lower at 30-35 weeks' gestation than at 24-26 weeks' gestation (P = .01). Cord ZnPP/H values from insulin-dependent diabetic mothers were elevated compared with reference values. Changing the iron supplementation protocol was not associated with improved ZnPP/H measurements. Cord blood and postnatal reference ranges for ZnPP/H are defined. Iron balance depends on a complex interaction of prenatal and postnatal factors. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  10. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter with peripheral measures of bone mass and with odds ratios for wrist and hip fracture in a case-control study of postmenopausal Danish women. The study included...

  11. A limitation of the diagnostic-odds ratio in determining an optimal cut-off value for a continuous diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhning, Dankmar; Holling, Heinz; Patilea, Valentin

    2011-10-01

    The article considers the diagnostic odds ratio, a special summarising function of specificity and sensitivity for a given diagnostic test, which has been suggested as a measure of diagnostic discriminatory power. In the situation of a continuous diagnostic test a cut-off value has to be chosen and it is a common practice to choose the cut-off value on the basis of the maximised diagnostic odds ratio. We show that this strategy is not to be recommended since it might easily lead to cut-off values on the boundary of the parameter range. This is illustrated by means of some examples. The source of the deficient behaviour of the diagnostic odds ratio lies in the convexity of the log-diagnostic odds ratio as a function of the cut-off value. This can easily be seen in practice by plotting a non-parametric estimate of the log-DOR against the cut-off value. In fact, it is shown for the case of a normal distributed diseased and a normal distributed non-diseased population with equal variances that the log-DOR is a convex function of the cut-off value. It is also shown that these problems are not present for the Youden index, which appears to be a better choice.

  12. Odd Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    When time reversal is broken the viscosity tensor can have a non vanishing odd part. In two dimensions, and only then, such odd viscosity is compatible with isotropy. Elementary and basic features of odd viscosity are examined by considering solutions of the wave and Navier-Stokes equations for hypothetical fluids where the stress is dominated by odd viscosity.

  13. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio: A new inflammatory marker for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Erzat; Bozkurt, Murat; Dinçgez Çakmak, Burcu; Özçimen, Emel Ebru; Silahlı, Musa; Ender Yumru, Ayşe; Çalışkan, Eray

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is closely related with maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, early diagnosis is extremely important to provide maternal and fetal well-being. Many inflammatory markers have been evaluated for their ability to diagnose membrane rupture at early stages. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and preterm premature membrane rupture. Material and Methods: In this study, 121 pregnant women with PPROM and 96 age-matched pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labor who were admitted to our hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were enrolled. Demographic data, complete blood cell count results, and neonatal outcomes were recorded. Results: The neutrophil and platelet counts were higher in the PPROM group (9948.4±3393.2 vs. 7466.1±1698.5/mm3 and 244.5±60 vs. 210.6±64.8/mm3, respectively, ppremature rupture of membranes was evaluated using an ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of the PLR was 57.8% and 73.7%, respectively, at a threshold >117.14 (p<0.001). Conclusion: The PLR might be a cost effective, easy to use, and practical marker for the early diagnosis of PPROM, which can help to determine the appropriate waiting time for delivery and provide maternal and fetal well-being. PMID:28890425

  14. Predicting preeclampsia from a history of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Svein; Ebbing, Cathrine; Irgens, Lorentz M

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether women with a history of preterm birth, independent on the presence of prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) and growth deviation of the newborn, are more likely to develop preeclampsia with preterm or preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a population-based cohort study, based on Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2012, including 742,980 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed up from their 1st to 2nd pregnancy. In the analyses we included 712,511 women after excluding 30,469 women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. After preterm birth without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, the risk of preterm preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was 4-7 fold higher than after term birth (odds ratios 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.0 to 6.5; 95% CI 5.1-8.2). The risk of term preeclampsia in the pregnancy following a preterm birth was 2-3 times higher than after term birth (odds ratios 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8 to 2.6; 95% CI 2.0-3.4). After spontaneous non-PROM preterm birth and preterm PROM, the risk of preterm preeclampsia was 3.3-3.6 fold higher than after spontaneous term birth. Corresponding risks of term preeclampsia was 1.6-1.8 fold higher. No significant time trends were found in the effect of spontaneous preterm birth in the first pregnancy on preterm or term preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. The results suggest that preterm birth, regardless of the presence of PROM, and preeclampsia share pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may cause preterm birth in one pregnancy and preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy in the same woman. The association was particularly evident with preterm preeclampsia.

  15. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2 and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5 and 10- fold CV, and that the matched odds ratio is more powerful than prediction error as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. PMID:19697353

  16. Breed related odds ratio and anatomic distribution of canine mast cell tumours in Austria. Retrospective study of cases in the years 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, E F; Freeman, K; Kirtz, G; Hooijberg, E H; Sick, K

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of mast cell tumours (MCT) in certain breeds has been described repeatedly in the literature. The incidence of MCTs for registered breeds in Austria, an estimate of the risk by means of the odds ratios based on breed as well as the anatomic localisation of MCTs were examined. In the first part of the study, the ranking of breeds in Austria based on 147,802 dogs with known breed (including mixed breed) was determined, based on those dogs included in the laboratory data base from 2000 to 2010. In the second part of the study, 476 dogs were identified with MCTs and analysed by age, sex, Patnaik grade of MCT and breed distribution. The odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated for all breeds with skin tumours. The age distribution showed a peak in the age group from 6.1 to 8.0 years; 70% of MCTs were localised to the head and trunk. No significant difference was found based on gender. The evaluation of the odds ratios showed that only four of the 20 of the most popular in Austria breeds (Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, Golden Retriever, Spaniel) had an increased risk; on the other hand, some breeds which have not been previously identified in the literature were indicated to have a significantly increased risk for MCT (e.g., Dogo Argentino, Tibetan Spaniel, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Beauceron, and Austrian Smooth-haired Hound). Because disease risk may influence the popularity of some currently rare breeds, consultation with breeders and owners regarding the identification of the breeds newly identified in this study as an increased risk for development of mast cell tumours is indicated.

  17. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  18. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Odd, Watson – Very Odd!" S Mahadevan. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 114-117. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/01/0114-0117. Author Affiliations.

  19. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-02-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The multifactor dimensionality reduction-pedigree disequilibrium test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1,000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2- and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5- and 10-fold CV, and that the MOR is more powerful than PE as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Magnetization transfer ratio in the brain of preterm subjects: age-related changes during the first 2 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Zikou, Anastasia; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, Kostandina; Andronikou, Styliani [Medical School University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    To study the progress of myelination in preterm-born subjects by measuring the MT ratio (MTR) from birth, up to 24 months of corrected age.One hundred twenty-five preterm subjects (64 males and 61 females of gestational age 33{+-}2.4 weeks with chronologic and corrected age of 9.3{+-}5.1 and 7.7{+-}5.1 months, respectively) with normal brain MR using classic sequences were further evaluated for MTR by using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR=32/TE=8/flip angle=6 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) with and without magnetization transfer prepulse. The magnetization transfer ratio was calculated as: MTR=(SIo-SIm)/SIo x 100%, where SIm refers to signal intensity from an image acquired with a MT prepulse and SIo the signal intensity from the image acquired without a MT prepulse. MTR increased asymptotically in the genu (R{sup 2}=0.85) and splenium (R{sup 2}=0.85) of the corpus callosum, the white matter of the frontal lobe (R{sup 2}=0.91) and occipital lobe (R{sup 2}=0.82), thalamus (R{sup 2}=0.86), caudate nucleus (R{sup 2}=0.67) and putamen (R{sup 2}=0.71), reaching the 95% of the final value at the corrected age 18.7, 17.7, 15.6, 12.9, 10.4, 9.2 and 6.4 months, respectively. This study shows age-related changes of the brain MTR and provides data that may be useful to assess disturbances in the progress of myelination. (orig.)

  1. Zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio as parameter of iron status in moderately preterm infants: natural course and associations in the first 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, C. G.; Uijterschout, L.; Abbink, M.; Boersma, B.; Vos, P.; Rövekamp, W. W.; Hudig, F.; Akkermans, M. D.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Brus, F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the natural course of zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZnPP/H) and its role in the detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in the first 4 months of life in moderately preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: ZnPP/H was measured at 1 week, 6 weeks and 4 months

  2. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Young

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  4. The interaction between maternal race/ethnicity and chronic hypertension on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Ashish; Henry, Dana E; Moghadassi, Michelle; Nakagawa, Sanae; Norton, Mary E

    2016-12-01

    In both the biomedical and public health literature, the risk for preterm birth has been linked to maternal racial/ethnic background, in particular African-American heritage. Despite this well-documented health disparity, the relationship of comorbid conditions, such as chronic hypertension, to maternal race/ethnicity and preterm birth has received relatively limited attention in the literature. The objective of the study was to evaluate the interaction between chronic hypertension and maternal racial/ethnic background on preterm birth. This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies among women who delivered between 2002 and 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. The associations of chronic hypertension with both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm birth were examined by univariate and multivariate logistical regression, adjusting for confounders including for maternal age, history of preterm birth, maternal body mass index, insurance type (public vs private), smoking, substance abuse, history of pregestational diabetes mellitus, and use of assisted reproductive technologies. The interaction effect of chronic hypertension and racial/ethnicity was also evaluated. All values are reported as odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals and significance set at P = .05. In this cohort of 23,425 singleton pregnancies, 8.8% had preterm deliveries (3% were medically indicated preterm birth, whereas 5.5% were spontaneous preterm births), and 3.8% of women carried the diagnosis of chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension was significantly associated with preterm birth in general (adjusted odds ratio, 2.74, P American women (adjusted odds ratio, 3.91, P Asian-American/Pacific Islander women (adjusted odds ratio, 3.51, P American women (adjusted odds ratio, 6.85, P Asian-American/Pacific Islander women (adjusted odds ratio, 9.87, P American and Asian/Pacific Islander women on medically indicated and total preterm birth rates raises the

  5. Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – An odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents’ socio-economic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenfeldt, Johanna; Pettersson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. - Highlights: • The distributional justice of windmill siting in Sweden is statistically evaluated. • Windmill siting decisions are related to people's socio-economic characteristics. • The results indicate some distributional skewness for wind power development. • The study gives statistical rigour and generalisability to energy justice findings. • The results warrant follow-ups and policy guides for how to handle benefit-sharing.

  6. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  7. Sleep Disorder Diagnosis During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Baer, Rebecca J; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Prather, Aric A

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that sleep disorder diagnosis would be associated with increased risk of preterm birth and to examine risk by gestational age, preterm birth type, and specific sleep disorder (insomnia, sleep apnea, movement disorder, and other). In this observational study, participants were from a cohort of nearly 3 million women in California between 2007 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were women with singleton neonates liveborn between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without chromosomal abnormalities or major structural birth defects linked to a hospital discharge database maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development and without mental illness during pregnancy. Sleep disorder was defined based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code (n=2,265). Propensity score matching was used to select a referent population at a one-to-one ratio. Odds of preterm birth were examined by gestational age (less than 34 weeks, 34-36 weeks, and less than 37 weeks of gestation) and type (spontaneous, indicated). Prevalence of preterm birth (before 37 weeks of gestation) was 10.9% in the referent group compared with 14.6% among women with a recorded sleep disorder diagnosis. Compared with the referent group, odds (95% CI, P value, percentage) of preterm birth were 1.3 (1.0-1.7, P=.023, 14.1%) for insomnia and 1.5 (1.2-1.8, P<.001, 15.5%) for sleep apnea. Risk varied by gestational age and preterm birth type. Odds of preterm birth were not significantly increased for sleep-related movement disorders or other sleep disorders. Insomnia and sleep apnea were associated with significantly increased risk of preterm birth. Considering the high prevalence of sleep disorders during pregnancy and availability of evidence-based nonpharmacologic interventions, current findings suggest that screening for severe presentations would be prudent.

  8. History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: results of the EUROPOP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Lelong, Nathalie; Papiernik, Emile; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Kaminski, Monique

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between history of induced abortion and preterm delivery in various parts of Europe, and according to the main cause of preterm birth. We used data from a case-control survey, the EUROPOP study; 2938 preterm births and 4781 controls at term from ten European countries were included. Based on national statistics, we distinguished three groups of countries with high, intermediate and low rates of induced abortion. Previous induced abortions were significantly associated with preterm delivery and the risk of preterm birth increased with the number of abortions. Odds ratios did not differ significantly between the three groups of countries. The extent of association with previous induced abortion varied according to the cause of preterm delivery. Previous induced abortions significantly increased the risk of preterm delivery after idiopathic preterm labour, preterm premature rupture of membranes and ante-partum haemorrhage, but not preterm delivery after maternal hypertension. The strength of the association increased with decreasing gestational age at birth. Identifying subgroups of preterm births on the basis of the complications involved in delivery increases our understanding of the mechanisms by which previous induced abortion affects subsequent pregnancy outcomes.

  9. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, J.K.; Okkes, I.; Oskam, S.; Boven, K. van; Zivotic, P.; Jevtic, M.; Dobbs, F.; Lamberts, H.; Transition, P.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in

  10. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, Jean K.; Okkes, Inge; Oskam, Sibo; van Boven, Kees; Zivotic, Predrag; Jevtic, Milan; Dobbs, Frank; Lamberts, Henk; van Boven, C.; Dijksterhuis, P. H.; Groen, A.; de Haan, J.; Honselaar-de Groot, A. M.; Janssen, D.; Polman, T. A. L.; Polderman, G. O.; Stolp, K. E. I.; Valken, N.; Veltman, M. T. M.; Woerdeman, M.; Calleja, Francis Paul; Sammut, Carmen; Sammut, Mario R.; Sammut, Daniel; Sammut, David; Bonnici, Jason; Buhagiar, John; Baldacchino, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in international FM and

  11. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer--Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Galas

    Full Text Available There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon.The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer.A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006, stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007 and total aberrations (p = 0.009. There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50-80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations.The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy.

  12. Zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio as parameter of iron status in moderately preterm infants: natural course and associations in the first 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C G; Uijterschout, L; Abbink, M; Boersma, B; Vos, P; Rövekamp, W W; Hudig, F; Akkermans, M D; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2017-06-01

    To determine the natural course of zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZnPP/H) and its role in the detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in the first 4 months of life in moderately preterm infants. ZnPP/H was measured at 1 week, 6 weeks and 4 months postnatal age in a prospective cohort of 161 Dutch infants born at a gestational age of 32+0 to 36+6 weeks who did not receive an erythrocyte transfusion or iron supplementation. ZnPP/H levels decreased in the first 6 weeks and increased thereafter. At 4 months postnatal age, ZnPP/H was higher in the 11 (8.5%) infants with IDA (mean (s.d.): 260.8 (16.1)) but not in the 27 (21.3%) infants with ID (mean (s.d.): 177.0 (15.1)) compared with normal infants (mean (s.d.): 157.3 (12.5)). In moderately preterm infants, ZnPP/H can be of additional value to detect infants at risk for IDA due to iron-deficient erythropoiesis at 4 months of age.

  13. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection.Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth.No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks.Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  14. Bacteriuria with group B streptococcus and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. R.; Uldbjerg, N.; Thorsen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Preterm delivery (PTD) contributes to 70% of all perinatal deaths and nearly 50% of permanent neurological damages in children. Treatment and follow-up to prevent recolonization in pregnant women with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the urine may reduce the frequency of PTD. In a Cochr......Objectives: Preterm delivery (PTD) contributes to 70% of all perinatal deaths and nearly 50% of permanent neurological damages in children. Treatment and follow-up to prevent recolonization in pregnant women with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the urine may reduce the frequency of PTD...... (10.9%), while among the GBS BU negative 1,085 (8.7%) delivered preterm; indicating an association between GBS BU and PTD in crude analyzes (Odds Ratio 1.8; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5-2.2; P30, and 19.0% were smokers in pregnancy. Conclusions: Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria might be a risk factor...

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With a History of Previable, Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Martha A; Gibbins, Karen J; Esplin, M Sean; Varner, Michael W; Manuck, Tracy A

    2016-11-01

    preterm birth preceding previable, preterm PROM delivery (adjusted odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.32-7.93). Patients with a history of previable, preterm PROM are at high risk of recurrent preterm birth.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-Rungsri, Kunyalak; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Totienchai, Surachart; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to preterm delivery (PTD), using the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). This was a large, prospective cohort study among pregnant Thai women. The BQ was employed for symptom-based OSA screening during the second trimester, and PTD was recorded in 1345 pregnant women. Multivariate models were applied in controlling for potential confounders. The overall prevalence of the high risk of OSA was 10.1 %, and it was significantly associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and score on the Perceived Stress Scale. An adjusted odds ratio for PTD in women with a high risk of OSA was 2.00 (95 % confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.20, 3.34). Stratified analyses, after adjusting for confounding factors, indicated that a high risk of OSA was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45, 95 % CI = 1.20, 5.02), but not with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI = 0.61, 4.26), and medically indicated preterm delivery (OR = 1.83, 95 % CI = 0.72, 4.64). Pregnant women with a high risk of OSA are at an increased risk of having PTD, compared with pregnant women with a low risk of OSA.

  17. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  18. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  19. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  20. Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW in an Iranian pregnant population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we identified 4758 consecutive singleton birth records from one large referral hospital (2010-2012 in Isfahan, Iran. We identified cases of preterm birth and LBW, which were combined with meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. We estimated the effect of air pollution exposure during the entire pregnancy, each trimester, and last month, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks and LBW (<2500 g by Pollutant Standard Index (PSI using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, neonate gender, birth order, and mother′s age. Results: The PSI for entire pregnancy was significantly associated with preterm birth [Odds Ratio (95% CI = 1.26 (1.20, 1.33]. There was no association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and each trimester and the last month of pregnancy, and preterm birth or LBW. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during the entire pregnancy was associated with preterm birth in Isfahani women.

  1. Breech preterm infants are at risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Teddy; Kent, Alison L; Carlisle, Hazel

    2013-08-01

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in breech preterm infants and therefore uncertainty about the benefits of using ultrasound screening in this population. The aim of this study was to determine if preterm infants born in the breech position are at risk of DDH. A retrospective audit of preterm and term infants born in the breech position was performed to determine the incidence of DDH. Group 1 included breech preterm infants (positive or negative for DDH. Three out of 129 (2.3%) preterm infants screened had DDH. For term infants, 3 out of 163 (1.8%) infants screened had DDH. The odds ratio for DDH in breech preterm infants compared with breech term infants was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 0.25 to 6.40). Preterm infants born in the breech position appear to have a similar incidence of DDH to term infants and thus require similar screening guidelines. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  3. Executive and Memory Function in Adolescents Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen; Vohr, Betty R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many preterm children display school difficulties, which may be mediated by impairment in executive function and memory. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate executive and memory function among adolescents born preterm compared with term controls at 16 years. METHODS: A total of 337 of 437 (77%) adolescents born in 1989 to 1992 with a birth weight executive function and memory tasks. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare groups and to identify associations between selected factors and outcomes among preterm subjects. RESULTS: Adolescents born preterm, compared with term controls, showed deficits in executive function in the order of 0.4 to 0.6 SD on tasks of verbal fluency, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, planning/organization, and working memory as well as verbal and visuospatial memory. After exclusion of adolescents with neurosensory disabilities and full-scale IQ executive dysfunction, as measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, on the Metacognition Index (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–5.1]) and the Global Executive Composite (OR: 4.2 [95% CI: 1.6–10.9]), but not on the Behavioral Regulation index (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 0.7–3.5]). Among adolescents born preterm, severe brain injury on neonatal ultrasound and lower maternal education were the most consistent factors associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Even after exclusion of preterm subjects with significant disabilities, adolescents born preterm in the early 1990s were at increased risk of deficits in executive function and memory. PMID:21300680

  4. Sonographic cervical length, vaginal bleeding, and the risk of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaeker, Devon M; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2012-03-01

    We sought to evaluate the contributions of vaginal bleeding and cervical length to the risk of preterm birth. This was a secondary analysis of a cohort study designed to study predictors of preterm birth. The study included 2988 women with singleton gestations. Women underwent midtrimester transvaginal ultrasound assessment of cervical length and were queried regarding first- and second-trimester vaginal bleeding. There was a significant second-order relation between cervical length and preterm birth (P birth (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.0). There was a significant interaction between cervical length and vaginal bleeding (P = .015). After accounting for cervical length and interaction, the adjusted odds ratio for vaginal bleeding and preterm birth was 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.89-12.4; P = .001). The magnitude of risk of preterm birth associated with sonographic cervical length depends on a woman's history of first- and second-trimester vaginal bleeding. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating ...

  7. Risk of preterm birth in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Annu; Gissler, Mika; Paavonen, Jorma; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Jakobsson, Maija

    2018-02-01

    In this population-based register study our objective was to explore the association of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and loop electrosurcigal excision procedure with preterm birth. Our population consisted of 4759 women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 during 1997-2009 and their 3021 subsequent deliveries analyzed by loop electrosurcigal excision procedure and parity. Hospital Discharge Register was used to identify women diagnosed for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and these data were linked with the Medical Birth Register data. We calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure had 54 (6.7%) subsequent preterm births and the corresponding figure among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure was 116 (5.2%). This results in odds ratios 1.31 (95% confidence interval 0.94-1.83). We assessed the risk before and after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 both for patients with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure (odds ratios 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.06) and without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure (odds ratios 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.13). An increased risk for preterm birth after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 and loop electrosurcigal excision procedure was observed. We also compared both groups to the background population in the Medical Birth Register. For cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients without loop electrosurcigal excision procedure the risk for preterm birth was not increased (odds ratios 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21) whereas for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 patients treated with loop electrosurcigal excision procedure the risk for preterm birth was increased (odds ratios 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.92). Loop

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in use of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Liu, Lilly Y; Sakowicz, Allie; Bolden, Janelle R; Miller, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth remain a major public health challenge in the United States. While 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is recommended for preterm birth prevention in women with a prior preterm birth, non-Hispanic black women continue to experience higher rates of recurrent preterm birth than white women receiving the same treatment. Further investigation of disparities in 17OHP-C use and adherence is warranted. We sought to evaluate whether racial and ethnic disparities exist in the use of and adherence to 17OHP-C within a population of eligible women. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with a prior spontaneous, singleton preterm birth who were eligible for 17OHP-C for preterm birth prevention and received care at a single institution from 2010 through 2014. Associations between self-identified race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black vs women in all other racial/ethnic groups) and documented counseling about 17OHP-C, receipt of any 17OHP-C, and adherence to 17OHP-C administration were each estimated by bivariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Adherence to 17OHP-C was defined as not >1 missed dose, initiation racial/ethnic groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, non-Hispanic black women were significantly less likely to be adherent to 17OHP-C (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.65). A significant interaction between non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity and public insurance was identified (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.52). In a diverse cohort of women eligible for preterm birth prevention, non-Hispanic black women are at an increased risk of nonadherence to 17OHP-C. Non-Hispanic black women with public insurance are at a particularly increased risk of nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Leading causes of preterm delivery as risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants: results of the EPIPAGE 2 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Pierrat, Veronique; Delorme, Pierre; Kayem, Gilles; Durox, Mélanie; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stephane; Ancel, Pierre Yves

    2017-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, few studies have investigated how pregnancy complications responsible for preterm delivery are related to intraventricular hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the association between the main causes of preterm delivery and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants born in France during 2011 between 22-31 weeks of gestation. The study included 3495 preterm infants from the national EPIPAGE 2 cohort study who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units and had at least 1 cranial ultrasound assessment. The primary outcome was grade I-IV intraventricular hemorrhage according to the Papile classification. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the leading causes of preterm delivery: vascular placental diseases, isolated intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes, with or without associated maternal inflammatory syndrome. The overall frequency of grade IV, III, II, and I intraventricular hemorrhage was 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.5), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9), 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.3), and 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 15.7-18.4), respectively. After adjustment for gestational age, antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy, level of care in the maternity unit, antenatal corticosteroids, and chest compressions, infants born after placental abruption had a higher risk of grade IV and III intraventricular hemorrhage compared to those born under placental vascular disease conditions, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.0) and 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.6), respectively. Similarly, preterm labor with concurrent inflammatory syndrome was associated with an increased risk of grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio

  10. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors.Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks. In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8 in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9. Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4, and there was no significant relationship with deprivation.Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  11. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Agarwal, Umber; Diggle, Peter J; Platt, Mary Jane; Yoxall, Bill; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2011-01-01

    Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors. Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks). In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8) in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9). Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4), and there was no significant relationship with deprivation. Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  12. The relationship of the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Hodges, Jennifer K; Thevarajah, Tamara S; McCourt, Emily A; Cerda, Ashlee M; Mandava, Naresh; Gibbs, Ronald S; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-09-01

    , 28 weeks 1 day ± 2 weeks, 3 days (23 weeks, 3 days - 33 weeks, 4 days); medical indication of preterm birth, 29 weeks, 1 day ± 2 weeks, 2 days (24-36 weeks, 4 days); preterm premature rupture of the membranes, 28 weeks, 4 days ± 2 weeks, 1 day (24-33 weeks, 1 day). Among infants with type 1, type 2, or no retinopathy of prematurity, the incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in births from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes was 37 of 218 (17%), 27 of 272 (10%), and 10 of 164 (6%), respectively. Adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, and multiparity and compared with the preterm premature rupture of the membranes group, the odds ratios of spontaneous preterm labor and medical indication of preterm birth for type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity were 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 20, P = .003) and 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 21, P = .01), respectively. Among neonates born after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, the probability of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity was greatest in infants with rupture of membrane duration of up to 24 hours. After 24 hours, the probability of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity declined. The odds of developing type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity was 9.0 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 34, P = .002) in infants who had preterm premature rupture of the membranes ≤ 24 hours compared with infants who had preterm premature rupture of the membranes > 24 hours. Type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity are adverse ocular outcomes linked with not only lower gestational age and birth weight at delivery but also with events in the intrauterine environment that trigger a preterm birth. The reduced incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in the preterm premature rupture of the membranes group compared with other causes of preterm birth may be

  13. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    , longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... RESULTS: A TTP >1 year was associated with an increased risk of all outcomes studied, including preterm birth [odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) among primiparas and 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) among multiparas]. Odds ratios for preterm remained elevated after adjustment for covariates....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider...

  14. Fetal exposure to lead during pregnancy and the risk of preterm and early-term deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Wenqian; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Wenyu; Liao, Jiaqiang; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the association between lead exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. However, findings are still inconsistent. This prospective birth cohort study evaluated the risks of preterm and early-term births and its association with prenatal lead exposure in Hubei, China. A total of 7299 pregnant women were selected from the Healthy Baby Cohort. Maternal urinary lead levels were measured by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The associations between tertiles of urinary lead levels and the risks of preterm and early-term deliveries were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary lead concentrations among all participating mothers, preterm birth, and early-term birth were 3.19, 3.68, and 3.17μg/g creatinine, respectively. A significant increase in the risk of preterm births was associated with the highest urinary lead tertile after adjusting for confounders with odds ratio (OR) of 1.96. The association was more pronounced among 25-36 years old mothers with OR of 2.03. Though significant p trends were observed between lead exposure (medium and high tertiles) and the risk of early-term births, their ORs were not significant. Our findings indicate that the risk of preterm birth might increase with higher fetal lead exposure, particularly among women between the age of 25 and 36 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal exposure to benzodiazepine and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A case-control study using a claims database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yusuke; Takeshima, Nozomi; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-01-03

    To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences. A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW). Controls were mothers who had neither experienced preterm birth nor given birth to an LBW infant. Overall, 42 058 births were included. The maternal use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.69, P preterm deliveries (adjusted OR, 0.57; 0.08-4.16) and LBW (adjusted OR, 0.56; 0.14-2.29). Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk of preterm birth but not with LBW. Antidepressant use was not associated with both preterm deliveries and LBW. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  17. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsai, S.-S.; Huang, H.-Y.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, T.-N.; Sung, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants as significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% I=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to he Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect he outcome of pregnancy

  18. Intracervical procedures and the risk of subsequent very preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lyndsey F; Rayner, Jo-Anne; King, James; Jolley, Damien; Forster, Della

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the relation of prior intracervical procedures with very preterm birth. A population-based case-control study. The study was conducted in Australia between 2002 and 2004. Three hundred and forty-five women having a medically indicated and 236 having a spontaneous singleton birth between 20 and 31 weeks of gestation and 796 women selected randomly from all those giving birth at ≥37 weeks of gestation. Interview data were analysed using logistic regression. Very preterm birth. Very preterm birth was significantly associated with having any intracervical procedure [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.7], in particular curettage associated with abortion (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Assisted reproductive technology procedures were significantly associated with medically indicated very preterm birth (AOR 3.07; 95% CI 1.8-5.3) and treatments for precancerous cervical changes were significantly associated with spontaneous very preterm birth, as follows: conization/cone biopsy (AOR 3.33; 95% CI 1.8-6.2) and cauterization/ablation (AOR 2.27; 95% CI 1.4-3.8). Suction aspiration for abortion, abnormal Pap smear without treatment and abortion without instrumentation were not associated with very preterm birth. Intracervical procedures are associated with very preterm birth. Notably, curettage rather than any other procedure associated with abortion appears to be implicated in the risk. The introduction of infection during cervical procedures may be the common link with risks found. Changing clinical practice in the management of abortion and human papillomavirus vaccination may lead to lowering the risks of very preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Association of Antenatal Depression Symptoms and Antidepressant Treatment With Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Riley, Laura; Castro, Victor M; Perlis, Roy H; Kaimal, Anjali J

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association of antenatal depression symptoms with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). This was an observational cohort study conducted among women who completed Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale screening and delivered at 20 weeks of gestation or greater. The primary outcomes were preterm birth and an SGA neonate at birth (less than 10th percentile for gestational age); the primary predictor was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale antepartum score of 10 or greater, indicating symptoms of depression. Logistic regression models were used with and without consideration of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy. Among 7,267 women, 831 (11%) screened positive for depression. In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal age, race, income, body mass index, tobacco use, lifetime diagnosis of major depression and anxiety, diabetes, hypertension, and preeclampsia, women who screened positive for depression experienced an increased risk of preterm birth (less than 37 weeks of gestation) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.55) and very preterm birth (less than 32 weeks of gestation) (adjusted OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.09-3.02) as well as of having an SGA neonate (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.58). In secondary analyses, among women who were treated with an antidepressant during pregnancy (19% of those who screened positive and 5% of those who screened negative), depressive symptoms were not associated with a significantly increased risk of preterm and very preterm birth or an SGA neonate. In a large cohort of women screened for depression antepartum, those with depressive symptoms had an increased likelihood of preterm and very preterm delivery as well having an SGA neonate. Such risk was not apparent among women who were treated with an antidepressant medication.

  20. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  1. School-age children enjoyed good respiratory health and fewer allergies despite having lung disease after preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronkainen, Eveliina; Kaukola, Tuula; Marttila, Riitta; Hallman, Mikko; Dunder, Teija

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the under-researched area of whether preterm birth or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) affected hospitalisation rates, allergies or health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We studied 88 schoolchildren born preterm at a mean gestational age of 28.8 weeks (range 24.1-31.9) and matched term-born controls at the mean age of 11 years (range 8-14). Hospitalisations after the first discharge were recorded, skin prick allergy tests were performed and HRQoL was assessed with a parental questionnaire. Preterm children were hospitalised more than controls (64% versus 39%, p = 0.001), mostly before two years of age. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for two-year-old preterm-born children being hospitalised for wheezing was 8.2 (95% CI 2.0-34.1). BPD affected 56% of the preterm children, but did not influence hospitalisations, and the positive skin prick rate was similar between the preterm and term-born children (35% versus 48%, p = 0.126). Preterm BPD children had fewer positive skin prick tests than those without BPD. HRQoL was lower in preterm than term children (81.25 ± 10.84 versus 86.80 ± 9.60, p = 0.001). Most health problems experienced by preterm-born schoolchildren occurred before two years of age and were mainly wheezing disorders. BPD decreased atopy but had no influence on hospitalisation rates. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  3. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Learning problems in kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Anselmo, Marcia G; Minich, Nori; Espy, Kimberly A; Hack, Maureen

    2011-09-01

    To assess learning problems among kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth and to identify risk factors. Cohort study. Children's hospital. A cohort of 148 children born between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003, with extremely preterm birth, defined as less than 28 weeks' gestation or having a birth weight of less than 1000 g, and 111 classmate control individuals born at term with normal birth weight. The children were enrolled in the study during their first year in kindergarten and were assessed on measures of learning progress. Achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Children with extremely preterm birth had lower mean standard scores than controls on achievement tests of spelling (8.52; 95% confidence interval, 4.58-12.46) and applied mathematics (11.02; 6.76-15.28). They had higher rates of substandard learning progress by teacher report in written language (odds ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.32-7.73) and mathematics (7.08; 2.79-17.95). Group differences in mathematics achievement and in teacher ratings of learning progress were statistically significant even in children without neurosensory deficits or low global cognitive ability. Neonatal risk factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status predicted learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth; however, many children with problems were not enrolled in a special education program. Learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth are evident in kindergarten and are associated with neonatal and early childhood risk factors. Our findings support efforts to provide more extensive monitoring and interventions before and during the first year of school.

  5. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  6. Population-based estimate of sibling risk for preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Jevon; Borecki, Ingrid; Morgan, Thomas; Stamilio, David; Muglia, Louis J

    2008-07-08

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and placental abruption, are common, with acute and long-term complications for both the mother and infant. Etiologies underlying such adverse outcomes are not well understood. As maternal and fetal genetic factors may influence these outcomes, we estimated the magnitude of familial aggregation as one index of possible heritable contributions. Using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked birth certificate database, we performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of births (1989-1997), designating an individual born from an affected pregnancy as the proband for each outcome studied. We estimated the increased risk to siblings compared to the population risk, using the sibling risk ratio, lambdas, and sibling-sibling odds ratio (sib-sib OR), for the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia. Risk to siblings of an affected individual was elevated above the population prevalence of a given disorder, as indicated by lambdaS (lambdaS (95% CI): 4.3 (4.0-4.6), 8.2 (6.5-9.9), 4.0 (2.6-5.3), and 4.5 (4.4-4.8), for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively). Risk to siblings of an affected individual was similarly elevated above that of siblings of unaffected individuals, as indicated by the sib-sib OR (sib-sib OR adjusted for known risk factors (95% CI): 4.2 (3.9-4.5), 9.6 (7.6-12.2), 3.8 (2.6-5.5), 8.1 (7.5-8.8) for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively). These results suggest that the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia aggregate in families, which may be explained in part by genetics.

  7. Maternal bipolar disorder increased low birthweight and preterm births: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-02-01

    To investigate pregnancy outcomes, including low birthweight, preterm births, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among women with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia compared with women with no history of mental illness using nationwide population-based data. This study linked the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset with the national birth certificate registry. A total of 528,398 singleton births between 2001 and 2003 were included; 337 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to examine the relationship between maternal bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and the odds of low birthweight, preterm births, and SGA, after adjusting for characteristics of infant, mother and father. It shows that pregnant women with bipolar disorder were more likely to have LBW infants (9.8% vs. 5.7%), preterm births (14.2% vs. 6.9%) and SGA (22.3% vs. 15.7%) than pregnant women with no history of mental illness. The adjusted odds of low birthweight for women with bipolar disorder was 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.38) that of women with no history of mental illness. In terms of preterm births and SGA, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.08 (95% CI, 1.53-2.83) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.14-1.91) respectively, for women with bipolar disorder, compared to their counterparts with no history of mental illness. We conclude that women with bipolar disorder had increased risk of low birthweight, preterm births, and SGA than women without a history of mental illness. More active monitoring and early intervention to counter potential adverse pregnancy outcomes for pregnant women with bipolar disorder should be initiated. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Nami; Kamitomo, Masato; Tabira, Tatsunori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Maeda, Takatsugu

    2018-02-01

    Recent reports have shown lower levels of Clostridium and higher levels of Lactobacillales in the intestinal microbiota in preterm birth patients compared to term birth patients. However, the influence of probiotics on perinatal status has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics on perinatal outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of oral probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth. Probiotics containing Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium butyricum and Bacillus mesentericus were administered for prophylaxis of bacterial vaginosis or treatment of constipation starting at 12.5 ± 4.1 weeks until delivery. Patients not administered probiotics were defined as the non-probiotics group. Between these two groups, perinatal outcomes including gestational age at birth, birth weight, chorioamnionitis or funisitis and preterm birth before 32 weeks were compared. In addition, multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors influencing preterm birth before 32 weeks, chorioamnionitis/funisitis and normal vaginal flora. The probiotics group showed longer gestation, higher birth weight, lower rates of chorioamnionitis and higher rates of normal vaginal flora compared to the non-probiotics group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that probiotics significantly suppressed preterm birth before 32 weeks and tended to suppress chorioamnionitis/funisitis. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for preterm birth before 32 weeks and chorioamnionitis/funisitis were 0.05 (0.01-0.71) and 0.07 (0.01-1.03), respectively. Oral probiotics containing Clostridium had a significant effect on the prevention of preterm birth before 32 weeks of gestation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Late Preterm Infants and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woythaler, Melissa; McCormick, Marie C; Mao, Wen-Yang; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Late preterm infants (LPIs) (gestation 34 weeks and 0 days to 36 weeks and 6 days) compared with full-term infants (FTIs) are at increased risk for mortality and short- and long-term morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the neurodevelopmental outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study of LPIs from infancy to school age and determine predictive values of earlier developmental testing compared with school-age testing. We used general estimating equations to calculate the odds of school readiness in a nationally representative cohort of 4900 full-term and 950 late preterm infants. We generated positive and negative predictive values of the ability of the 24-month Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores of the Bayley Short Form, Research Edition, to predict Total School Readiness Score (TSRS) at kindergarten age. In multivariable analysis, late preterm infants had higher odds of worse TSRSs (adjusted odds ratio 1.52 [95% confidence interval 1.06-2.18], P = .0215). The positive predictive value of a child having an MDI of kindergarten was 10.4%. The negative predictive value of having an MDI of >70 at 24 months and a TSRS >5% was 96.8%. Most infants improved score ranking over the study interval. LPIs continue to be delayed at kindergarten compared with FTIs. The predictive validity of having a TSRS in the bottom 5% given a MDI 85) at 24 months had an excellent chance of testing in the normal range at kindergarten. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Maternal biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is key to the development of atherosclerosis. Preterm delivery foreshadows later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD, but it is not known if endothelial dysfunction also occurs. We prospectively measured circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in pregnant women with preterm or term delivery.We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective epidemiological study of young, generally healthy pregnant women. Women who delivered preterm (<37 completed weeks gestation, n = 240 and controls who delivered at term (n = 439 were included. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia were analyzed separately. Circulating endothelial dysfunction biomarkers included soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin.Elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were positively associated with preterm delivery independent of usual risk factors. At entry (∼16 wks, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.09-2.74 for the highest quartile of sICAM-1 versus the lowest quartile and for sVCAM-1 the AOR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.36-3.46. When analysis was limited to cases with a spontaneous preterm delivery, the results were unchanged. Similar results were obtained for the 3rd trimester (∼30 wks. Elevated sE-selectin was increased only in preterm delivery complicated by preeclampsia; risk was increased at entry (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.22-4.40 and in the 3rd trimester (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 1.78-6.39.Impaired endothelial function as indicated by increased levels of soluble molecules commonly secreted by endothelial cells is a pathogenic precursor to CVD that is also present in women with preterm delivery. Our findings underscore the need for follow-up studies to determine if improving endothelial function prevents later CVD risk in women.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality of 46,470 preterm infants born in Sweden between 1992 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calling, Susanna; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    Studies on possible sociodemographic inequities in the survival of preterm infants are scarce. Individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors are related to preterm birth and to infant mortality in full-term infants. The aim here was to examine whether infant mortality in Swedish preterm infants is related to individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors, and to study whether the hypothesised association between neighbourhood deprivation and infant mortality persists after accounting for individual sociodemographic factors. The study included 46,470 infants with a gestational length of Sweden between 1992 and 2006. Neighbourhood deprivation was assessed by an index (education, income, unemployment, welfare assistance) in small geographical units, and categorised into low, moderate and high deprivation. Adjusted odds ratios for infant mortality were examined in relation to individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors. After adjusting for maternal age, infant mortality was associated with the following sociodemographic variables: maternal non-married/non-cohabiting status, low family income, low maternal education and rural status. After full adjustment, the odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was 2.98 [2.42, 3.67] for low family income compared with high family income. An increase in infant mortality was also associated with high neighbourhood deprivation; however, this increased risk no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, this study showed an increased infant mortality in preterm infants born to women with a less favourable sociodemographic profile. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  13. Risk factors for preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, the birth of an infant prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm infants are at greater risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. Despite significant research in developed countries, little is known about the causes of preterm birth in many developing countries, especially China. This study investigates the association between sciodemographic data, obstetric risk factor, and preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case-control study was conducted on 1391 women with preterm birth (case group and 1391 women with term delivery (control group, who were interviewed within 48 hours of delivery. Sixteen potential factors were investigated and statistical analysis was performed by univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that 14 of the 16 factors were associated with preterm birth. Inter-pregnancy interval and inherited diseases were not risk factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity (odds ratio (OR = 3.030, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.166-7.869, stressful life events (OR = 5.535, 95%CI 2.315-13.231, sexual activity (OR = 1.674, 95%CI 1.279-2.191, placenta previa (OR 13.577, 95%CI 2.563-71.912, gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.441, 95%CI1.694-6.991, hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (OR = 6.034, 95%CI = 3.401-10.704, history of preterm birth (OR = 20.888, 95%CI 2.519-173.218 and reproductive abnormalities (OR = 3.049, 95%CI 1.010-9.206 were independent risk factors. Women who lived in towns and cities (OR = 0.603, 95%CI 0.430-0.846, had a balanced diet (OR = 0.533, 95%CI 0.421-0.675 and had a record of prenatal care (OR = 0.261, 95%CI 0.134-0.510 were less likely to have preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, stressful life events, sexual activity, placenta previa

  14. The Association Between Diabetes Mellitus Among American Indian/Alaska Native Populations with Preterm Birth in Eight US States from 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Haley; Srinath, Meghna; Rockhill, Karilynn; Hogue, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Assess risk of preterm birth associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) among American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN), a population with increased risk of DM and preterm birth, and examine whether this association differed by state of residence. We used surveillance data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 12,400 AI/AN respondents with singleton births in Alaska, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, and Washington from 2004-2011. We conducted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio adjusted for maternal age and prepregnancy BMI with all observations and then stratified by state. DM was reported in 5.92 % of the study population and preterm birth occurred in 8.95 % of births. Women with DM had 1.92 times higher odds of having a preterm birth than women without DM [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78]. After stratifying on state, women with DM in Nebraska had the greatest odds of preterm birth [aOR 6.63, (95 % CI 3.80-11.6)] while women in Alaska saw a protective effect from DM [aOR 0.17, (95 % CI 0.07-0.42)] compared to women without DM. Overall, AI/AN women with DM had significantly greater odds of preterm birth compared to AI/AN women without DM across states. Substantial differences in this association between states calls for increased public health efforts in high-risk areas as well as further research to assess whether differences are attributable to diagnosis, reporting, tribal, healthcare or lifestyle factors.

  15. [Preeclampsia: main maternal risk factor for low weight in preterm newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Contreras, Angélica María; Soria Rodríguez, Carmen Gorety; Prince Vélez, Roberto; Clark Ordoñez, Isadora; Medina Ramírez, María Concepción Rosa

    2008-07-01

    In 3 to 8% of pregnancies there are preeclampsia, and it is considered an irreversible disease that affects several organs, and causes injuries in fetus and mother alike. To identify maternal risk factors related to low birth weight in preterm newborns born at Hospital de Ginecología-Pediatría con Medicina Familiar no. 31 from IMSS, at Mexicali, BC, Mexico. Case-control study (1:2 ratio) made in 114 prematures (38 cases and 76 controls) who were evaluated for socioeconomic and biological maternal risk factors influencing low birth weight in preterm newborns. Odds ratio and confidence intervals of 95% were used to calculate epidemiologic correlation, and logistic regression to specific importance of risks. Preeclampsia persists as a risk factor for low birth weight: OR 3.16 (95% CI 3.15-8.40, p = 0.00). In logistic regression meaningful variables were: preeclampsia 5.27 (95% CI 1.45-19.14, p = 0.01), and in premature newborn: thrombocytopenia 6.0 (95% CI 1.2-11.2, p = 0.00), and neonatal sepsis 4.31 (95% CI 1.73-10.70, p = 0.00). Preeclampsia was the major risk factor related to low birth weight and was associated with thrombocytopenia in preterm newborn. Neonatal sepsis is secondary to low birth weight. We need to observe and obey prenatal care of pregnant women in our hospital to reduce negative impact of low birth weight in preterm newborns.

  16. Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin; Petersen, Sesilje B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2010-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks have been linked to a number of adverse health outcomes such as high weight gain. Therefore, artificially sweetened soft drinks are often promoted as an alternative. However, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been disputed, and consequences of high intakes of artificial sweeteners for pregnant women have been minimally addressed. We examined the association between intakes of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery. We conducted prospective cohort analyses of 59,334 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Soft drink intake was assessed in midpregnancy by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Preterm delivery ( lt 37 wk) was the primary outcome measure. Covariate information was assessed by telephone interviews. There was an association between intake of artificially sweetened carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and an increased risk of preterm delivery (P for trend: le 0.001, both variables). In comparison with women with no intake of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks, the adjusted odds ratio for women who consumed ge 1 serving of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks/d was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.65). The corresponding odds ratio for women who consumed ge 4 servings of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks/d was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.66). The association was observed for normal-weight and overweight women. A stronger increase in risk was observed for early preterm and moderately preterm delivery than with late-preterm delivery. No association was observed for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (P for trend: 0.29) or for sugar-sweetened noncarbonated soft drinks (P for trend: 0.93). Daily intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks may increase the risk of preterm delivery. Further studies are needed to reject or confirm these findings.

  17. Health Services Use by Late Preterm and Term Infants From Infancy to Adulthood: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; O'Reilly, Daria; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D

    2017-07-01

    Late-preterm infants born at 34 to 36 weeks' gestation have increased risks of various health problems. Health service utilization (HSU) of late-preterm infants has not been systematically summarized before. To summarize the published literature on short- and long-term HSU by late-preterm infants versus term infants from infancy to adulthood after initial discharge from the hospital. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO. Cohort and case-control studies that compared HSU (admissions, emergency department visits, etc) between late-preterm infants and term infants were included. Data extracted included study design, setting, population, HSU, covariates, and effect estimates. Fifty-two articles were included (50 cohort and 2 case-control studies). Meta-analyses with random effect models that used the inverse-variance method found that late-preterm infants had higher chances of all-cause admissions than term infants during all the time periods. The magnitude of the differences decreased with age from the neonatal period through adolescence, with adjusted odds ratios from 2.34 (95% confidence intervals 1.19-4.61) to 1.09 (1.05-1.13) and adjusted incidence rate ratios from 2.62 (2.52-2.72) to 1.14 (1.11-1.18). Late-preterm infants had higher rates of various cause-specific HSU than term infants for jaundice, infection, respiratory problems, asthma, and neurologic and/or mental health problems during certain periods, including adulthood. Considerable heterogeneity existed and was partially explained by the variations in the adjustment for multiple births and gestational age ranges of the term infants. Late-preterm infants had higher risks for all-cause admissions as well as for various cause-specific HSU during the neonatal period through adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Is induced abortion with misoprostol a risk factor for late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Norbert; Resche-Rigon, Mathieu; Morin, Christine; Ville, Yves; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    To examine whether a first or second trimester induced abortion with misoprostol influences the risk of late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. Case-control study in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2006. The cases had singleton pregnancies delivered at 16-36 weeks of gestation after spontaneous late abortions, preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membrane, or induction of labor for preterm premature rupture of membrane before 37 weeks. The control group was composed of the two consecutive spontaneous singleton deliveries at >or=37 weeks of gestation after each new case (ratio 2/1). The principal outcome measure was late abortion or preterm delivery. The association between late abortion or preterm delivery and a previous induced abortion with misoprostol was first assessed with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Conditional logistic regression models adapted for clustered data were then further used to quantify the effect size, measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The study included 245 cases and 490 controls. There was no significant difference in mean maternal age, number of pregnancies, parity, smoking, or history of first trimester miscarriage between cases and controls. However, a history of late abortion or previous preterm delivery was significantly more frequent among cases than controls. Forty (16.3%) cases and 56 (11.5%) controls had a history of cervical ripening with misoprostol before vacuum curettage or evacuation, or of medical abortion by misoprostol alone or with mifepristone (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.95-2.39; p=0.08). After adjustment for maternal age and number of pregnancies with a multivariable conditional regression model, the adjusted OR was estimated at 1.33 (95% CI: 0.81-2.17; p=0.25). Despite the need for prudence, these results provide some reassurance that induced abortion with misoprostol during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is

  19. Clinical Significance of Preterm Singleton Pregnancies Complicated by Placental Abruption following Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Compared with Those without p-PROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of preterm singleton pregnancies complicated by placental abruption following preterm premature rupture of membranes (p-PROM) compared with those without p-PROM. We reviewed the obstetric records of 95 singleton deliveries complicated by placental abruption at 22–36 weeks' gestation. The incidence of placental abruption in singleton pregnancies with p-PROM was 4.7%, and the crude odds ratio of placental abruption for women following p-PROM was 6.50 (P < 0.01). Of the 95 cases of placental abruption in preterm singleton deliveries, 64 cases (67.4%) occurred without p-PROM and 31 cases (32.6%) occurred following p-PROM. The incidence of histological chorioamnionitis stage III in the patients following p-PROM was significantly higher than that in the patients without p-PROM (P = 0.02). The rate of emergency Cesarean deliveries associated with nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) in the patients following p-PROM was significantly lower than that in the patients without p-PROM. However, there were no significant differences in the maternal and neonatal outcomes between the patients with and without p-PROM. Although p-PROM may be one of important risk factors for placental abruption associated with chorioamnionitis, it may not influence the perinatal outcomes in preterm placental abruption. PMID:22690341

  20. Use of metabolomics for the identification and validation of clinical biomarkers for preterm birth: Preterm SAMBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, Jose G; Souza, Renato T; Sulek, Karolina; Costa, Maria L; Kenny, Louise C; McCowan, Lesley M; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Mayrink, Jussara; Passini, Renato; Franchini, Kleber G; Baker, Philip N

    2016-08-08

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a complex syndrome with multiple pathways interactions determining its occurrence, including genetic, immunological, physiologic, biochemical and environmental factors. Despite great worldwide efforts in preterm birth prevention, there are no recent effective therapeutic strategies able to decrease spontaneous preterm birth rates or their consequent neonatal morbidity/mortality. The Preterm SAMBA study will associate metabolomics technologies to identify clinical and metabolite predictors for preterm birth. These innovative and unbiased techniques might be a strategic key to advance spontaneous preterm birth prediction. Preterm SAMBA study consists of a discovery phase to identify biophysical and untargeted metabolomics from blood and hair samples associated with preterm birth, plus a validation phase to evaluate the performance of the predictive modelling. The first phase, a case-control study, will randomly select 100 women who had a spontaneous preterm birth (before 37 weeks) and 100 women who had term birth in the Cork Ireland and Auckland New Zealand cohorts within the SCOPE study, an international consortium aimed to identify potential metabolomic predictors using biophysical data and blood samples collected at 20 weeks of gestation. The validation phase will recruit 1150 Brazilian pregnant women from five participant centres and will collect blood and hair samples at 20 weeks of gestation to evaluate the performance of the algorithm model (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios) in predicting spontaneous preterm birth (before 34 weeks, with a secondary analysis of delivery before 37 weeks). The Preterm SAMBA study intends to step forward on preterm birth prediction using metabolomics techniques, and accurate protocols for sample collection among multi-ethnic populations. The use of metabolomics in medical science research is innovative and promises to provide solutions for disorders with multiple

  1. The Effect of Birth Order on Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Very Preterm Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Elad; Shah, Jyotsna; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E

    2017-07-01

    Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design  Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Multivariable analysis was performed adjusting for confounders. Result  There were 6,636 twins (3,318 pairs) included with a mean gestational age (GA) of 28.9 weeks. A higher rate of small for GA occurred in second-born twins (10 vs. 6%). Mortality was significantly lower for second-born twins (4.3 vs. 5.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95). RDS (66 vs. 60%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.52) and severe retinopathy (9 vs. 7%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-2.01) were significantly higher in second-born twins. Conclusion  Thus, while second-born twins had reduced odds of mortality, they also had increased odds of RDS and ROP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Effect of obesity on neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Allison M; Metz, Torri D; DeWitt, Peter E; Gibbs, Ronald S

    2016-02-01

    with increased odds of an adverse neonatal outcome (odds ratio, 0.30, 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.68). However, in our multivariable logistic regression model, gestational age at delivery (odds ratio, 0.93, 95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.94 per day), but not maternal obesity (odds ratio, 1.02, 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.38), was associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Obese African American women experienced preterm premature rupture of membranes (189 vs 196 days; p premature rupture of membranes after adjustment for gestational age at birth. However, obese African American women rupture and deliver earlier than other women, which causes increased neonatal morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and preterm labor(birth) in pregnant women-an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epidemiologic factors and urogenital infections associated with preterm birth in a midwestern U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, William A; Siddiqui, Danish; Lovrich, Steven D; Callister, Steven M; Borgert, Andrew J; Merkitch, Kenneth W; Mason, Tina C; Baumgardner, Dennis J; Burmester, James K; Shukla, Sanjay K; Welter, Joseph D; Stewart, Katharina S; Washburn, M J; Bailey, Howard H

    2014-11-01

    To correlate epidemiologic factors with urogenital infections associated with preterm birth. Pregnant women were sequentially included from four Wisconsin cohorts: large urban, midsize urban, small city, and rural city. Demographic, clinical, and current pregnancy data were collected. Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens. Six hundred seventy-six women were evaluated. Fifty-four (8.0%) had preterm birth: 12.1% (19/157) large urban, 8.8% (15/170) midsize urban, 9.4% (16/171) small city, and 2.3% (4/178) rural city. Associated host factors and infections varied significantly among sites. Urogenital infection rates, especially Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum, were highest at the large urban site. Large urban site, minority ethnicity, multiple infections, and certain historical factors were associated with preterm birth by univariable analysis. By multivariable analysis, preterm birth was associated with prior preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.02) and urinary tract infection (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.32-519), and negatively associated with provider-assessed good health (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.76) and group B streptococcal infection treatment (surrogate for health care use) (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-.99). Risk and protective factors were similar for women with birth at less than 35 weeks, and additionally associated with M hominis (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.7). These measured differences among sites are consistent with observations that link epidemiologic factors, both environmental and genetic, with minimally pathogenic vaginal bacteria, inducing preterm birth, especially at less than 35 weeks of gestation.

  5. Undiagnosed coeliac disease in a father does not influence birthweight and preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents\\' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before pregnancy and untreated if they were diagnosed after the date of conception. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small-for-gestational age (birthweight<10th centile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). We compared the offspring of men without CD (n = 1 472 352) and offspring of those with CD [untreated (n = 138) and treated (n = 473)]. There was no significant association between untreated CD in the father and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -3 g; [95% CI -46, 40]) or preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, [95% CI 0.53, 1.37]) (compared with no CD). There was some evidence for an association between treated paternal CD and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -81 g; [95% CI -161, -3]), but not preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.76, [95% CI 0.95, 3.26]). Untreated paternal CD was not associated with an increased risk of reduced birthweight, or of preterm birth. There was some evidence that diagnosis and presumed treatment of paternal CD with a gluten-free diet is associated with reduced birthweight.

  6. Temporal Variation in Air Pollution Concentrations and Preterm Birth—A Population Based Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of adverse birth outcomes due to exposure to air pollution during gestation. However, recent negative studies are also reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ozone and vehicle exhaust exposure (NO2 on the length of the gestational period and risk of preterm delivery. We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry on all vaginally delivered singleton births in the Greater Stockholm area who were conceived during 1987–1995 (n = 115,588. Daily average levels of NO2 (from three measuring stations and ozone (two stations were used to estimate trimester and last week of gestation average exposures. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the two air pollutants and three exposure windows, while logistic regression models were used when analyzing associations with preterm delivery ( < 37 weeks gestation. Five percent were born preterm. The median gestational period was 40 weeks. Higher levels of ozone during the first trimester were associated with shorter gestation as well as with an elevated risk of preterm delivery, the odds ratio from the most complex model was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00–1.13 per 10 μg/m3 increase in the mean daily 8-h maximum concentration. Higher levels of ozone during the second trimester were associated with shorter gestation but the elevated risk of preterm delivery was not statistically significant. Higher levels of ozone and NO2 during the last week of gestation were associated with a shorter duration of gestation and NO2 also with preterm delivery. There were no significant associations between first and second trimester NO2 exposure estimates and studied outcomes. The effect of first trimester ozone exposure, known to cause oxidative stress, was smallest among women who conceived during autumn when vitamin D status, important for fetal health, in Scandinavian women is the highest.

  7. Preterm Birth and Social Support during Pregnancy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Doktorchik, Chelsea; Premji, Shahirose S; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C; Sauve, Reg S

    2015-11-01

    Additional social support is often recommended for women during the prenatal period to optimise birth outcomes, specifically to avoid preterm birth. Social support is thought to act in one of two ways: by reducing stress and anxiety, or by providing coping mechanisms for women with high stress. However, evidence in this area is mixed. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine if low levels of social support are associated with an increased risk for preterm birth. Six databases were searched for randomised control trials and cohort studies regarding social support and preterm birth with no limits set on date or language. Inclusion criteria included the use of a validated instrument to measure social support, and studies conducted in high-income or high-middle-income countries. There were 3467 records retrieved, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies (n = 14 630 subjects) demonstrated a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.22 (95% CI 0.84, 1.76) for preterm birth in women with low social support compared with high social support. Among women with high stress levels, two studies (n = 6374 subjects) yielded a pooled OR of 1.52 (95% CI 1.18, 1.97). The results of six studies could not be pooled due to incompatibility of outcome measures. There is no evidence for a direct association between social support and preterm birth. Social support, however, may provide a buffering mechanism between stress and preterm birth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  10. Gastritis May Boost Odds of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of dementia and its devastating consequences, identifying risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. The present study aims to assess whether gastritis increases the odds of dementia. The data for this study, consisting of 2926 community-dwelling older adults, were obtained from the National survey entitled "Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians." Dementia was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy. Prevalence of dementia was considerably higher among older adults with gastritis (29.5%) compared to those without gastritis (13.2%). After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, gastritis was significantly associated with more than twice odds of dementia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.42, P gastritis may increase the risk of dementia provide avenue for further inquiries into dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Preterm Birth Associated With Group B Streptococcus Maternal Colonization Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Seale, Anna C; Kohli-Lynch, Maya; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Rubens, Craig E

    2017-11-06

    Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of deaths among children birth in order to inform estimates of the burden of GBS. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups on the association of preterm birth (birth with maternal GBS colonization to be 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], .99-1.48; P = .061) in cohort and cross-sectional studies, and the odds ratio to be 1.85 (95% CI, 1.24-2.77; P = .003) in case-control studies. Preterm birth was associated with GBS bacteriuria in cohort studies (RR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.45-2.69]; P birth is associated with maternal GBS colonization, especially where there is evidence of ascending infection (bacteriuria). Several biases reduce the chance of detecting an effect. Equally, however, results, including evidence for the association, may be due to confounding, which is rarely addressed in studies. Assessment of any effect on preterm delivery should be included in future maternal GBS vaccine trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Effect of bidet toilet use on preterm birth and vaginal flora in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Kaori; Sueoka, Kou; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the association between bidet toilet use and preterm birth, as well as the effect of bidet toilet use on bacterial vaginosis, in pregnant women. Questionnaires about bidet toilet usage were sent to 2,545 women who gave birth between 2006 and 2010 in Tokyo. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) and the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis between users and nonusers of the bidet toilet were calculated using data from the questionnaire and delivery records. Bacterial vaginosis was estimated by the balance of lactobacilli and nonlactobacillus microbes based on routine prenatal microbiologic test results. Of 1,293 women who responded to the questionnaire, 63.3% were users of the bidet toilet. The incidence of preterm birth was 15.8% among bidet users and 16.0% among nonusers (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.48). Additionally, no association was found between bidet toilet use and bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.33). Normal use of the bidet toilet by pregnant women poses no clinical health risk for preterm birth and bacterial vaginosis.

  13. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potential associations between current or previous C. trachomatis infections (general IgG and serovars) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) were examined and associations between C. trachomatis infections and previous fertility problems were explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At week 17......, Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (...) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2...

  15. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (<37 weeks gestation). Of these, 4.7% were early (22-31 weeks), 4.5% were moderate (32-34 weeks) and 7.7% were late (35-36) PTBs. Older maternal age (≥35 years) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41], hypertension (OR = 3.44) and rupture of membranes (OR = 4.03) were significantly associated with increased odds of PTB. Women being treated for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including early (odds ratio (OR) = 20

  16. Infants born very preterm react to variations of the acoustic environment in their incubator from a minimum signal-to-noise ratio threshold of 5 to 10 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pierre; Zores, Claire; Pebayle, Thierry; Hoeft, Alain; Langlet, Claire; Escande, Benoît; Astruc, Dominique; Dufour, André

    2012-04-01

    Very early preterm infants (VPIs) are exposed to unpredictable noise in neonatal intensive care units. Their ability to perceive moderate acoustic environmental changes has not been fully investigated. Physiological values of the 598 isolated sound peaks (SPs) that were 5-10 and 10-15 dB slow-response A (dBA) above background noise levels and that occurred during infants' sleep varied significantly, indicating that VPIs detect them. Exposure to 10-15 dBA SPs during active sleep significantly increased mean heart rate and decreased mean respiratory rate and mean systemic and cerebral oxygen saturations relative to baseline. VPIs are sensitive to changes in their nosocomial acoustic environment, with a minimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold of 5-10 dBA. These acoustic changes can alter their well-being. In this observational study, we evaluated their differential auditory sensitivity to sound-pressure level (SPL) increments below 70-75 dBA equivalent continuous level in their incubators. Environmental (SPL and audio recording), physiological, cerebral, and behavioral data were prospectively collected over 10 h in 26 VPIs (GA 28 (26-31) wk). SPs emerging from background noise levels were identified and newborns' arousal states at the time of SPs were determined. Changes in parameters were compared over 5-s periods between baseline and the 40 s following the SPs depending on their SNR thresholds above background noise.

  17. Deformed shapes in odd-odd nuclei near Z = 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Pai, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S.K.; Kundu, S.; Ghosh, T.K.; Bannerjee, K.; Rana, T.K.; Meena, J.K.; Chanda, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Garg, R.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron deficient nuclei in the vicinity of the Z = 82 region are known for interesting structural phenomena arising due to different shape driving effects of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface. It has been found that the heavier bismuth and thallium nuclei with A > 200 are spherical and the lighter nuclei with A < 194 have rotational bands indicating deformation. We report here our recent experimental investigation of γ-ray spectroscopy of odd-odd Bi and Tl nuclei in mass region A = 190

  18. Preterm dietary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Fenger-Gron, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition.......To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition....

  19. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  20. Maintenance therapy with oxytocin antagonists for inhibiting preterm birth after threatened preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; Flenady, Vicki; Liley, Helen G

    2013-10-13

    In some women, an episode of preterm labour settles and does not result in immediate preterm birth. Subsequent treatment with tocolytic agents such as oxytocin receptor antagonists may then have the potential to prevent the recurrence of preterm labour, prolonging gestation, and preventing the adverse consequences of prematurity for the infant. To assess the effects of maintenance therapy with oxytocin antagonists administered by any route after an episode of preterm labour in order to delay or prevent preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2013), sought ongoing and unpublished trials by contacting experts in the field and searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised controlled trials comparing oxytocin antagonists with any alternative tocolytic agent, placebo or no treatment, used for maintenance therapy after an episode of preterm labour. We used the standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. Two review authors independently undertook evaluation of methodological quality and extracted trial data. This review includes one trial of 513 women. When compared with placebo, atosiban did not reduce preterm birth before 37 weeks (risk ratio (RR) 0.89; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.71 to 1.12), 32 weeks (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.55), or 28 weeks (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.28 to 2.01). No difference was shown in neonatal morbidity, or perinatal mortality. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of oxytocin receptor antagonists to inhibit preterm birth after a period of threatened or actual preterm labour. Any future trials using oxytocin antagonists or other drugs as maintenance therapy for preventing preterm birth should examine a variety of important infant outcome measures, including reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term infant follow-up. Future research should also focus on the pathophysiological pathways that

  1. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in

  2. Maternal serum C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Mohamadi, Bita; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohamad; Aliyan Moghadam, Narges

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and later occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. A prospective cohort study that measured maternal serum CRP levels in 778 pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy was performed in the city of Noor (north Iran), and included follow-up of patients up to time of delivery. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth were defined as the occurrence of membranes rupture and birth, respectively before 37 weeks of gestation. Of the 778 pregnancies studied, 19 (2.41%) preterm premature rupture of membranes and 58 (7.3%) preterm births were seen. Median CRP levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth cases were much higher than in term deliveries (7 and 6.8 respectively vs 2.4 mg/L; 66.67 and 64.76, respectively vs 24.38 nmol/L). CRP levels >4 mg/L had statistically significant relationships with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.07-16.89) and preterm birth (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.60-17.43). With a cut-off level of 4 mg/L of CRP, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-) ) for preterm birth were 81, 70, 2.70, 0.28%, respectively, and for preterm premature rupture of membranes they were 79, 67, 2.41 and 0.31%, respectively. It seems that the inflammatory marker, CRP, can be used in the early stages of pregnancy to identify women at risk of experiencing preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  4. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  6. Maternal and neonatal epidemiological features in clinical subtypes of preterm-birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Lucas G.; Krupitzki, Hugo B.; Momany, Allison M.; Gili, Juan A.; Poletta, Fernando A.; Campaña, Hebe; Cosentino, Viviana R.; Saleme, César; Pawluk, Mariela; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Gadow, Enrique C.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize and compare the maternal and newborn epidemiological characteristics through analysis of environmental factors, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics between the different clinical subtypes of preterm birth (PTB): Idiopathic (PTB-I), premature rupture of the membranes (PTB-PPROM) and medically indicated (PTB-M). The two subtypes PTB-I and PTB-PPROM grouped are called spontaneous preterm births (PTB-S). Methods A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 1.291 preterm non-malformed singleton live-born children to nulliparous and multiparous mother’s in Tucumán-Argentina between 2005 and 2010. Over 50 maternal variables and ten newborn variables were compared between the different clinical subtypes. The comparisons were done to identify heterogeneity between subtypes of preterm birth: (PTB-S) vs. (PTB-M), and within spontaneous subtype: (PTB-I) vs. (PTB-PPROM). In the same way, two conditional logistic multivariate regressions were used to compare the odds ratio (OR) between PTB-S and PTB-M, as well as PTB-I and PTB-PPROM. We matched for maternal age when comparing maternal variables and gestational age when comparing infant variables. Results The PTB-I subtype was characterized by younger mothers of lower socioeconomic status, PTB-PPROM was characterized by environmental factors resulting from inflammatory processes, and PTB-M was characterized by increased maternal or fetal risk pregnancies. Conclusions The main risk factor for PTB-I and PTB-M was having had a prior preterm delivery, however previous spontaneous abortion was not a risk factor, suggesting a reproductive selection mechanism. PMID:26701680

  7. Aspirin versus Placebo in Pregnancies at High Risk for Preterm Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnik, Daniel L; Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; O'Gorman, Neil; Syngelaki, Argyro; de Paco Matallana, Catalina; Akolekar, Ranjit; Cicero, Simona; Janga, Deepa; Singh, Mandeep; Molina, Francisca S; Persico, Nicola; Jani, Jacques C; Plasencia, Walter; Papaioannou, George; Tenenbaum-Gavish, Kinneret; Meiri, Hamutal; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Maclagan, Kate; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-08-17

    Preterm preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal death and complications. It is uncertain whether the intake of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm preeclampsia. In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1776 women with singleton pregnancies who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia to receive aspirin, at a dose of 150 mg per day, or placebo from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation until 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was delivery with preeclampsia before 37 weeks of gestation. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 152 women withdrew consent during the trial, and 4 were lost to follow up, which left 798 participants in the aspirin group and 822 in the placebo group. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 13 participants (1.6%) in the aspirin group, as compared with 35 (4.3%) in the placebo group (odds ratio in the aspirin group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). Results were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis that took into account participants who had withdrawn or were lost to follow-up. Adherence was good, with a reported intake of 85% or more of the required number of tablets in 79.9% of the participants. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of neonatal adverse outcomes or other adverse events. Treatment with low-dose aspirin in women at high risk for preterm preeclampsia resulted in a lower incidence of this diagnosis than placebo. (Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Program and the Fetal Medicine Foundation; EudraCT number, 2013-003778-29 ; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN13633058 .).

  8. Association between Apnea of Prematurity and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, François; Nadeau, Sophie; Caouette, Georges; Piedboeuf, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP). As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP. This retrospective observational study was realized in a tertiary care center between January 2009 and December 2011. Data from late preterm infants who presented an uncomplicated perinatal evolution, excepted for RDS, were reviewed. Information related to AOP and RDS was collected using the medical record. Odds ratios were calculated using a binary logistic regression adjusted for gestational age and sex. Among the 982 included infants, 85 (8.7%) had an RDS diagnosis, 281 (28.6%) had AOP diagnosis, and 107 (10.9%) were treated with caffeine for AOP. There was a significant association between AOP treated with caffeine and RDS for all infants (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.0-5.7). There was no association between AOP and RDS in 34 weeks infants [AOR: 1.6 (95% CI: 0.7-3.8)], but an association remains for 35 [AOR: 5.7 (95% CI: 2.5-13.4)] and 36 [OR = 7.8 (95% CI: 3.2-19.4)] weeks infants. No association was found between apparent RDS severity and AOP, regarding mean oxygen administration duration or complications associated with RDS. The association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants reflects that patients affected by RDS are not only presenting lung immaturity but also respiratory control immaturity. Special consideration should be given before discontinuing monitoring after RDS resolution in those patients.

  9. Association between unintentional injury during pregnancy and excess risk of preterm birth and its neonatal sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Basso, Olga; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The sequelae of preterm births may differ, depending on whether birth follows an acute event or a chronic condition. In a population-based cohort study of 2,711,645 Canadian hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2012, 3,059 women experienced unintentional injury during pregnancy. We assessed the impact of the acute event on pregnancy outcome and on neonatal complications, such as nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, intubation, and death. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, pregnancy conditions, and (for neonates) gestational age in logistic regression analyses. Injury was significantly associated with fetal mortality and early preterm delivery. For preterm infants born to injured women during the hospitalization for injury versus those born to noninjured women, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.17) for neonatal death, 2.44 (95% CI: 1.76, 3.37) for respiratory distress, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.84) for nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.96) for intubation, despite more favorable fetal growth in those born to noninjured women (adjusted birth-weight-for-gestational-age z score: 0.154 vs. 0.024, P = 0.041; small-for-gestational-age rate: 4.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that adaptation to the suboptimal intrauterine environment underlying chronic causes of preterm birth may protect preterm infants from adverse sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Population-based estimate of sibling risk for preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and placental abruption, are common, with acute and long-term complications for both the mother and infant. Etiologies underlying such adverse outcomes are not well understood. As maternal and fetal genetic factors may influence these outcomes, we estimated the magnitude of familial aggregation as one index of possible heritable contributions. Using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked birth certificate database, we performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of births (1989–1997, designating an individual born from an affected pregnancy as the proband for each outcome studied. We estimated the increased risk to siblings compared to the population risk, using the sibling risk ratio, λs, and sibling-sibling odds ratio (sib-sib OR, for the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia. Results Risk to siblings of an affected individual was elevated above the population prevalence of a given disorder, as indicated by λS (λS (95% CI: 4.3 (4.0–4.6, 8.2 (6.5–9.9, 4.0 (2.6–5.3, and 4.5 (4.4–4.8, for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively. Risk to siblings of an affected individual was similarly elevated above that of siblings of unaffected individuals, as indicated by the sib-sib OR (sib-sib OR adjusted for known risk factors (95% CI: 4.2 (3.9–4.5, 9.6 (7.6–12.2, 3.8 (2.6–5.5, 8.1 (7.5–8.8 for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia aggregate in families, which may be explained in part by genetics.

  11. What factors are related to recurrent preterm birth among underweight women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsen, Anna I; Mayo, Jonathan A; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Gould, Jeffrey B; Carmichael, Suzan L; Stevenson, David K; Lyell, Deirdre J; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007 and 2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm. We analyzed 4971 women with underweight BMI in the first pregnancy. Of these, 670 had at least one preterm birth. Among these 670, 86 (21.8%) women experienced a recurrent preterm birth. Odds for first term - second preterm birth were decreased for increases in maternal age (aOR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99) whereas inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth (aOR:1.66, 95%CI: 1.21-2.28) and first preterm birth - second term birth (aOR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.04-1.96). Factors associated with recurrent preterm birth were: negative or no change in pre-pregnancy weight between pregnancies (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.07-2.60), inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth among underweight women was associated with younger age, short inter-pregnancy interval, and negative or no weight change between pregnancies.

  12. Alcohol consumption among first-time mothers and the risk of preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Maria T G; Bakketeig, Leiv S; Magnus, Per

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between alcohol consumption, before and during pregnancy, and the risk of preterm birth among 46,252 primiparous mothers. We obtained information on alcohol consumption from questionnaire responses at pregnancy week 15 from the prospective, observational Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data on preterm birth, categorized as delivery before gestation week 37, were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the participants, 91% consumed alcohol before pregnancy and fewer than 20% reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for preterm birth associated with prepregnancy alcohol consumption was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.95). We did not find a risk reduction for overall drinking during pregnancy, aOR = 1.03 (95% CI, 0.90-1.19). However, dose-response analyses showed tendencies toward adverse effects when drinking 1-3 times per month during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy, aOR = 1.51 (95% CI, 1.14-2.00). We did not find any effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, whereas pre-pregnancy drinking was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. Residual confounding may have influenced the risk estimates, especially before pregnancy, as nondrinkers have lower socioeconomic status and well-being than drinkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii Colonization and Potential Association With Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Newborn Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Pilar; Friaza, Vicente; García, Elisa; de la Horra, Carmen; Vargas, Sergio L; Calderón, Enrique J; Pavón, Antonio

    2017-09-15

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a well-recognized lung disease of premature and malnourished babies. Even though serologic studies have shown that children are exposed to Pneumocystis jirovecii early in life, the epidemiology of human P. jirovecii infection and the host-microorganism relationship in infancy remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in preterm infants and its possible association with medical complications. A prospective observational study of preterm infants (birth weight newborns studied. A significant increase of respiratory distress syndrome in colonized group, even after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.0-7.5]; P = .04), was observed. No differences were observed in other medical conditions between the 2 groups. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization is frequent in preterm births and could be a risk factor to develop respiratory distress syndrome among preterm infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  15. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  16. Response of Preterm Infants to 2 Noninvasive Ventilatory Support Systems: Nasal CPAP and Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Placental histologic patterns and neonatal seizure, in preterm premature rupture of membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Cheon, Ju Young; Choi, Sae Kyung; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Ahwon; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between placenta and perinatal outcomes, in preterm infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of fetal membrane (PPROM). We report detailed histology of placentas and perinatal outcomes of infants from 79 PPROM pregnancies. Placental histologic pattern and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for gestational age at birth, birth weight and interval from rupture of membrane to delivery. Mean gestational age at membrane rupture was 29.5 ± 3.4 weeks. The incidence of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA), fetal inflammatory response (FIR) and vascular thrombotic abnormalities in placental histologic examination were 63.3, 25.3 and 78.5%, respectively. Neonates with FIR showed significantly higher incidence of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (85% versus 59.3%, p = 0.0364) at brain ultrasonography, than neonates without FIR, in univariate analysis, but not in logistic regression analysis. In logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of low Apgar score at 1 min in the neonates with clinical chorioamnionitis was 5.009 (95% CI, 1.242-20.195). The odds ratio of neonatal seizure in the neonates with FIR and vascular thrombotic problem was 7.486 (95% CI, 1.617-34.653). Our findings support the association between FIR with vascular thrombotic problem in placenta and neonatal seizure, in pregnancies with PPROM.

  18. Group B Streptococcus Positive Culture’s Results in Pregnants with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Broomand

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM occurs in 2% of all pregnancies. The aim of this study was to compare positive cultures of GBS in two groups of pregnant women.Materials and methods: This case control research was conducted on 242 pregnant women: first group was consisted of 117 pregnant with PPROM and gestational ages between 26-37 weeks; second group was consisted of 125 term pregnant women with intact membranes and before onset of labor. Rectovaginal and urine samples were studied using specific culture medium of GBS, "Todd Hewitt Broth". The percentage of positive results was calculated using odds ratio and chi-square test.Results: GBS cultures were positive in 20 cases (17% in PPROM group and 5 cases in group of term pregnant (4% (Odds ratio=4.95 CI= 1.79-13.67, p=0.001. Past history of preterm labor and neonate hospitalization were more common in PPROM group but without any significant relationship to positive cultures.Conclusion: Our study showed significant difference of GBS colonization rate between two groups (p=0.001. According to CDC and ACOG guidelines routine screening and treatment of positive cases are indicated.

  19. Identification of preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labour between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Cenk; Ekin, Atalay; Solmaz, Ulas; Sahingoz Yildirim, Alkim Gulsah; Dogan, Askin; Ozeren, Mehmet

    2018-02-09

    The aim of this study was to assess whether serum markers would be useful as a new predictor of preterm birth in patients with spontaneous, late preterm labour. Patients diagnosed with late preterm labour were divided into preterm delivery (229 patients) and term delivery (178 patients) groups. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical characteristics and levels of serum markers (leukocyte subtypes, platelet, C-reactive protein [CRP], neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [NLR] and platelet to lymphocyte ratio [PLR]), which were obtained at admission. The levels of leukocyte (p preterm delivery group, compared to the term delivery group. On multivariate regression analysis, NLR positive was the most powerful predictive variable (OR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.32-1.51; p = .005). NLR had the highest area under curve (0.711; 95%CI 0.662-0.760) in predicting preterm birth and a NLR >6.2 had the highest sensitivity (65.1%) and specificity (62.5%). High NLR at admission is an independent predictor of preterm birth in patients with spontaneous, late preterm labour. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Preterm birth accounts for 5-12% of all births, and is a major factor associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, more than 70% of preterm births occur at late preterm between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. The central role of systemic and subclinical infections in preterm labour is well documented. Intrauterine infection leading to delivery can be measured by using a variety of laboratory parameters. What do the results of this study add: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is an inexpensive, easily interpretable and promising haematologic parameter that is widely available. This study explored the association of high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with the risk of preterm birth in women with preterm labour between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further

  20. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J.; Furuno, K. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  1. Risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes in Chinese women from urban cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Weiyuan; Xu, Huan; Liang, Huan; Ruan, Yan; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in urban areas in China and examine the associated risk factors. A population-based, prospective study was undertaken in 14 cities in China between January 1, 2011, and January 31, 2012. Women were recruited at their first prenatal-care visit, when maternal characteristics were recorded. Risk factors were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Of 112 439 women included in analyses, 3077 (2.7%) had PPROM. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of PPROM before 28weeks of pregnancy in migrant women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-3.30; P<0.001), in those with a history of recurrent induced abortions (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.66-4.56; P<0.001), and in those with a history of preterm birth (OR 3.90; 95% CI 0.77-19.61; P<0.001). The associations were maintained in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). Migration as a result of urbanization, high rates of induced abortion, and preterm birth are potential risk factors for PPROM in Chinese women. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  3. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experimental and theoretical work on the structure of N∼Z, A = 60-80 nuclei revealed many interesting features: large prolate deformations (β = 0.4), strong shape variations as a function of particle number, excitation energy, spin and shape coexistence effects. They are related with drastic changes of properties observed in nuclei with Z≥33 when going from spherical nuclei with N = 50 to neutron deficient nuclei with N = 38 or 40. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. For N∼Z nuclei the same shell gaps appear simultaneously for both protons and neutrons and reinforce each other. The microscopic structure of the nuclei in the mass region A = 60-80 is essentially determined by the 1g 9/2 , 2p 1/2 , 1f 5/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. As part of a systematic experimental study undertaken to investigate the structure of neutron deficient, odd-odd As nuclei, 68,70,72 As, the level scheme of 70 As was investigated using heavy ion induced reactions and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. At energies between 500 and 900 keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. At higher energies a high-spin positive parity sequence of levels starting with a E x = 1676 keV, J π 8 + level is strongly populated. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. The magnetic moments of the 8 + and 9 + levels have been measured using the time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique and the lifetimes of four levels have been determined using the recoil-distance method. From the measured lifetime for the 9

  4. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups of women according to their characteristics and medical and obstetrical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Liona C; Wright, David; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Tsokaki, Theodora; Leipold, Gergo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Shearing, Siobhan; De Stefani, Luciana; Jani, Jacques C; Plasencia, Walter; Evangelinakis, Nikolaos; Gonzalez-Vanegas, Otilia; Persico, Nicola; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-11-01

    The Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial demonstrated that in women who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia with delivery at aspirin administration from 11 to 14 until 36 weeks' gestation was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). We sought to examine whether there are differences in the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial in subgroups defined according to maternal characteristics and medical and obstetrical history. This was a secondary analysis of data from the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess evidence of differences in the effect of aspirin on incidence of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups defined by maternal age (aspirin effect in subgroups defined according to maternal characteristics and obstetrical history. In participants with chronic hypertension preterm preeclampsia occurred in 10.2% (5/49) in the aspirin group and 8.2% (5/61) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-5.12). The respective values in those without chronic hypertension were 1.1% (8/749) in the aspirin group and 3.9% (30/761) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.60). In all participants with adherence of ≥90% the adjusted odds ratio in the aspirin group was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.65); in the subgroup with chronic hypertension it was 2.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-10.71); and in those without chronic hypertension it was 0.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.41). For the complete data set the test of interaction was not significant at the 5% level (P = .055), but in those with adherence ≥90%, after adjustment for multiple comparisons

  5. Risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and fetal growth restriction following exposure in a previous birth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, E; Regan, A; Nassar, N; Raynes-Greenow, C; Leonard, H; Srinivasjois, R; W Shand, A; Lavin, T; Pereira, G

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of non-recurrent adverse birth outcomes. To evaluate the risk of stillbirth, preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA) as a proxy for fetal growth restriction (FGR) following exposure to one or more of these factors in a previous birth. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care, and Global Health from inception to 30 November 2016. Studies were included if they investigated the association between stillbirth, PTB, or SGA (as a proxy for FGR) in two subsequent births. Meta-analysis and pooled association presented as odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs). Of the 3399 studies identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria. A PTB or SGA (as a proxy for FGR) infant increased the risk of subsequent stillbirth ((pooled OR 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.34-2.16) and (pooled OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.70-2.31), respectively). A combination of exposures, such as a preterm SGA (as a proxy for FGR) birth, doubled the risk of subsequent stillbirth (pooled OR 4.47; 95% CI 2.58-7.76). The risk of stillbirth also varied with prematurity, increasing three-fold following PTB preterm SGA (as a proxy for FGR) preterm (preterm or small for gestational age can increase the chance of long-term health problems. The effect of having a stillbirth, preterm birth, or small-for-gestational-age infant in a previous pregnancy on future pregnancy health has not been summarised. We identified 3399 studies of outcomes of previous pregnancies, and 17 were summarised by our study. What were the main findings? The outcome of the previous pregnancy influenced the risk of poor outcomes in the next pregnancy. Babies born to mothers who had a previous preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age birth were more likely to be stillborn. The smaller and the more preterm the previous baby, the higher the risk of stillbirth in the following pregnancy. The risk of stillbirth in the following pregnancy was doubled if the previous baby was born

  6. Neonatal and infant outcomes in twin gestations with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-31 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Dahlke, Joshua D; Viteri, Oscar A; Chauhan, Suneet P; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha M; Blackwell, Sean C

    2014-08-01

    To describe the perinatal and infant and early childhood morbidity associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in a cohort of twin pregnancies evaluated prospectively with neonatal follow-up to 2 years of age. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy. Inclusion criteria were twin gestation with preterm PROM diagnosed between 24 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks of gestation and planned expectant management. Latency (time from membrane rupture to delivery) and perinatal outcomes were evaluated by gestational age at membrane rupture. Long-term neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Among 151 women who met inclusion criteria, the median gestational age at preterm PROM was 28.1 weeks (range 24.1-31.6 weeks). Approximately one-third of women achieved a latency of at least 1 week. Gestational age at preterm PROM (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.90 for each week after 24 weeks of gestation) and cervical dilation at admission (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.90 for each centimeter of dilation) were inversely associated with a latency period of at least 1 week. There were no stillbirths (95% CI 0-1%), but the rate of neonatal mortality was 90 per 1,000 newborns (95% CI 57-112) with a 7.3% cerebral palsy rate among survivors (95% CI 4.4-10.3%). In twin pregnancies, preterm PROM from 24 to 31 weeks of gestation is associated with a neonatal mortality rate of 9.0% and an overall cerebral palsy rate of 7.3%. A longer latency period is associated with less advanced cervical dilation and later gestational age at PROM. LEVEL OF EVIEDENCE: II.

  7. Association of the polymorphism 12109g>A from the REN gene as a risk factor for preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irám P Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is a multifactorial disease with different etiologies, including genetic factors. Genetic variability is represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes of proteins involved in the contractile activity. We determine the association between SNP 12109G> A in REN associated with preterm birth and premature rupture of membrane. Materials and methods: A study of cases (N=112, 22–36 weeks of gestation; mean: 31, 95% confidence interval 30.7–32.2 and controls (N=66; 38–40 weeks of gestation from the last menstrual period; mean: 39.8, 95% confidence interval 38.9–39.4 was performed. Genomic DNA was isolated in all patients from peripheral blood. The SNP 12109G> A (Mbo I in REN was typified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: A significant difference in the case group for the SNP 12109G>A was observed. The A allele was increased in women with preterm birth (81% cases vs. 15% control, p A has odds ratio 6.62 (95% confidence interval 3.14–14.15, which means a high risk of preterm birth/premature rupture of membrane in presence of allele A, both in homozygotes and in heterozygotes. Conclusion: Allelic frequency of A of SNP 12109G>A was higher in women with preterm birth than in women with normal vaginal delivery and could be considered a risk factor.

  8. Type and location of placenta previa affect preterm delivery risk related to antepartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Kawabata, Ikuno; Hayashi, Masako; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta previa, particularly when the placenta is located on the anterior

  9. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: influence of compliance on beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Vojtassakova, Denisa; de Alvarado, Mercedes; Kapeti, Evgenia; Rehal, Anoop; Pazos, Andrea; Carbone, Ilma Floriana; Dutemeyer, Vivien; Plasencia, Walter; Papantoniou, Nikos; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-12-01

    The Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial was a multicenter study in women with singleton pregnancies. Screening was carried out at 11-13 weeks' gestation with an algorithm that combines maternal factors and biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor). Those with an estimated risk for preterm preeclampsia of >1 in 100 were invited to participate in a double-blind trial of aspirin (150 mg/d) vs placebo from 11-14 until 36 weeks' gestation. Preterm preeclampsia with delivery at aspirin group, as compared with 4.3% (35/822) in the placebo group (odds ratio in the aspirin group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74). We sought to examine the influence of compliance on the beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from the trial. The proportion of prescribed tablets taken was used as an overall measure of compliance. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia according to compliance of aspirin group with compliance ≥90%, in 8/243 (3.3%) of participants in the aspirin group with compliance aspirin group for preterm preeclampsia was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.65) for compliance ≥90% and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.53) for compliance aspirin in the prevention of preterm preeclampsia appears to depend on compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of early neonatal deaths among preterm infants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    multivariate logistic regression model to identify obstetric determinants amongst deaths in neonates that were ... multivariate regression analysis, poor Apgar score was associated with six-fold odds of RDS. More preterm ... remains a significant perinatal challenge, with pre- term babies accounting for 5-25% of all deliveries.

  11. Association of early caffeine administration and neonatal outcomes in very preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Abhay; Seshia, Mary; McMillan, Douglas D; Barrington, Keith; Yang, Junmin; Lee, Shoo K; Shah, Prakesh S

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of caffeine for apnea of prematurity have prompted clinicians to use it prophylactically even before apnea. To determine the effect of early initiation of caffeine therapy on neonatal outcomes in very preterm infants born in Canada. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients included preterm neonates born at less than 31 weeks' gestation admitted to 29 participating Canadian Neonatal Network neonatal intensive care units between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Neonates who received caffeine were divided into 2 groups based on the following timing of caffeine initiation: within the first 2 days after birth (early) and on or after the third day following birth (late). A composite of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Of 5517 eligible neonates, 5101 (92.5%) received caffeine (early: 3806 [74.6%]; late: 1295 [25.4%]). There was no difference in weight or gestational age at birth between the groups. Neonates in the early group had decreased odds of a composite outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98) and patent ductus arteriosus (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89). There was no difference between the groups in mortality (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.70-1.37), necrotizing enterocolitis (AOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.65-1.20), severe neurological injury (AOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.01), or severe retinopathy of prematurity (AOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.10). In very preterm neonates, early (prophylactic) caffeine use was associated with a reduction in the rates of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus. No adverse impact on any other outcomes was observed.

  12. Social disadvantage and the black-white disparity in spontaneous preterm delivery among California births.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available We examined the contribution of social disadvantage to the black-white disparity in preterm birth. Analyses included linked vital and hospital discharge records from 127,358 black and 615,721 white singleton California births from 2007-11. Odds ratios (OR were estimated by 4 logistic regression models for 2 outcomes: early (<32 wks and moderate (32-36 wks spontaneous preterm birth (ePTB, mPTB, stratified by 2 race-ethnicity groups (blacks and whites. We then conducted a potential impact analysis. The OR for less than high school education (vs. college degree was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6, 2.1 for ePTB among whites but smaller for the other 3 outcome groups (ORs 1.3-1.4. For all 4 groups, higher census tract poverty was associated with increased odds (ORs 1.03-1.05 per 9% change in poverty. Associations were less noteworthy for the other variables (payer, and tract percent black and Gini index of income inequality. Setting 3 factors (education, poverty, payer to 'favorable' values was associated with lower predicted probability of ePTB (25% lower among blacks, 31% among whites but a 9% higher disparity, compared to probabilities based on observed values; for mPTB, respective percentages were 28% and 13% lower probability, and 17% lower disparity. Results suggest that social determinants contribute to preterm delivery and its disparities, and that future studies should focus on ePTB and more specific factors related to social circumstances.

  13. Tocolysis after preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal outcome: a propensity-score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthe, Elsa; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stéphane; Vayssiere, Christophe; Flamant, Cyril; Quere, Mathilde; Benhammou, Valérie; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kayem, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    There are conflicting results regarding tocolysis in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Delaying delivery may reduce neonatal morbidity because of prematurity and allow for prenatal corticosteroids and, if necessary, in utero transfer. However, that may increase the risks of maternofetal infection and its adverse consequences. The objective of the study was to investigate whether tocolytic therapy in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with improved neonatal or obstetric outcomes. Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels 2 is a French national prospective, population-based cohort study of preterm births that occurred in 546 maternity units in 2011. Inclusion criteria in this analysis were women with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 24-32 weeks' gestation and singleton gestations. Outcomes were survival to discharge without severe morbidity, latency prolonged by ≥48 hours and histological chorioamnionitis. Uterine contractions at admission, individual and obstetric characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared by tocolytic treatment or not. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting for each woman were used to minimize indication bias in estimating the association of tocolytic therapy with outcomes. The study population consisted of 803 women; 596 (73.4%) received tocolysis. Women with and without tocolysis did not differ in neonatal survival without severe morbidity (86.7% vs 83.9%, P = .39), latency prolonged by ≥48 hours (75.1% vs 77.4%, P = .59), or histological chorioamnionitis (50.0% vs 47.6%, P = .73). After applying propensity scores and assigning inverse probability of treatment weighting, tocolysis was not associated with improved survival without severe morbidity as compared with no tocolysis (odds ratio, 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.09], latency prolonged by ≥48 hours (1.03 [95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.11]), or histological chorioamnionitis

  14. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  15. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  16. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  17. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  18. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  19. Sonographic screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm breech infants: do current guidelines address the specific needs of premature infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Spinazzola, R M; Kohn, N; Perrin, M; Milanaik, R L

    2016-07-01

    To assess the association between gestational age versus corrected age at the time of hip ultrasound with findings for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm breech infants. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted to examine hip ultrasounds of 318 premature breech infants for findings associated with DDH. Positive findings for DDH occurred in 3/135 (2%) of infants hip ultrasound were more likely to have DDH findings compared with infants ⩾44 weeks corrected age (odds ratio: 7.83, 95% CI: 2.20 to 29.65, Phip ultrasonography policies that include screening of premature breech infants may need to be revised.

  20. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Healthy Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Andrea V.; Samuel, Miny; Lohr, Kathleen N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have explored the risk for and impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization among healthy preterm infants born at 29–35 weeks of gestational age not given RSV immunoprophylaxis. We performed a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of these studies. Methods: Two experienced reviewers used prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria to screen titles/abstracts and full-text studies using MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and Cochrane Library (January 1, 1985, to November 6, 2014). We abstracted data on risk factors for RSV hospitalization, incidence and short- and long-term outcomes of RSV hospitalization. Using standard procedures, we assessed study risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). Results: We identified 4754 records and reviewed 27. Important risk factors for RSV hospitalization included young age during the RSV season, having school-age siblings and day-care attendance, with odds ratios >2.5 in at least one study (high SOE). Incidence rates for RSV hospitalizations ranged from 2.3% to 10% (low SOE). Length of hospital stays ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 days (low SOE). Recurrent wheezing rates ranged from 20.7% to 42.8% 1 to 2 years after RSV hospitalization (low SOE). Conclusions: Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors. PMID:27093166

  2. Effect of parents occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiologic research on the effects of parental occupational exposures on fetal development has been limited. The National Natality and Fetal Mortality surveys obtained applicable data of probability samples of live births and fetal deaths which occurred in the US in 1980 among married women. Analyses were conducted for case groups of stillbirths (2,096 mothers, 3,170 fathers), preterm deliveries (<37 weeks completed gestation) (363 mothers, 552 fathers), and small-for gestational-age infants (218 mothers, 371 fathers) compared with controls. Occupational exposures were defined by industry of employment and by imputed exposures based on a job-exposure linkage system. For stillbirth, maternal work in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industry and lead exposure and paternal employment in the textile industry had the largest odds ratios. Preterm birth was most strongly associated with maternal lead exposure, corroborating previous findings. Twofold increased risk of preterm delivery was found with paternal employment in the glass, clay, and stone; textile; and mining industries. Paternal exposures to x-rays and polyvinyl alcohol were associated with 1.5-fold increase in risk. The occupation of the mother was not associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant, in contrast to paternal employment in the art and textile industries. Several toxic agents were associated with risk elevation of 1.3 or greater for fathers, most notably benzene

  3. Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Qin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OHD” in combination with “premature birth” or “preterm birth” or “PTB” or “preterm delivery” or “PTD” or “prematurity”. Our meta-analysis of 10 studies included 10,098 participants and found that pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (maternal serum 25 (OH D levels < 20 ng/mL experienced a significantly increased risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals(CI: 1.16, 1.45 with low heterogeneity (I2 = 25%, p = 0.21. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In the subgroup analyses, we found that heterogeneity was obvious in prospective cohort studies (I2 = 60%, p = 0.06. In conclusion, pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have an increasing risk of PTB.

  4. Survival pattern among extreme preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2000-02-01

    To look at the survival pattern of extreme preterm Omani infants (23-26 weeks gestation) and compare it with the western countries. All extreme preterm Omani infants (gestational age of 23 to 26 weeks) admitted from November 1991 to February 1998 at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital were reviewed. The detailed records of the infants, including name of mother, age, gravidity, parity, route of delivery, Apgar score, time of birth, inborn or outborn, birth weight, gestational age, sex, need for resuscitation, course in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, admission and discharge diagnosis, and outcome were collected from the register. The infants were stratified according to the gestational age and then analyzed for the survival rate among the different gestational ages. A total of 32 extreme preterm infants were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital from November 1991 to February 1998. The mean birth weight of the cohort was noted to be 798+123 gram (Range 480-1015 grams). The mean gestational age was noted to be 25.5+0.95 weeks (Range 23-26 weeks). An equal number of males and females were noted in the cohort, with male to female ratio of 1:1. A total of 13 infants survived out of 32 infants. The overall survival rate for the cohort was noted to be 41%. For the present study, the western statistics are averaged and than compared with the Omani statistics. The survival rate for western 26 week preterm infants was (on average) 61% as compared to 44% among Omani preterm infants. The same trend of low survival was noted for 23 and 24 week Omani infants, except for only one 25 week infant. The significant lower survival rate suggests the need for more attention and improvement in the management and care provided to the extreme preterm Omani infants.

  5. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p

  6. The association among cytochrome P450 3A, progesterone receptor polymorphisms, plasma 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations, and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Martha L; Caritis, Steve N; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Reddy, Uma M; Sorokin, Yoram; Manuck, Tracy; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Carpenter, Marshall W; Peaceman, Alan M; Mercer, Brian M; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J; Ramin, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    578029, rs471767, rs666553, rs503362, and rs500760 for progesteronereceptor. We adjusted for prepregnancy body mass index, race, and treatment group in a multivariable analysis. Differences in the plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate by genotype were evaluated for each CYP single nucleotide polymorphism using general linear models. The association between progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and frequency of spontaneous preterm birth was tested using logistic regression. A logistic model also tested interaction between 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations with each progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphism for the outcome of spontaneous preterm birth. The association between CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms *22, *1G, *1B, and *3 and trough plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate was not statistically significant (P = .68, .44, .08, and .44, respectively). In an adjusted logistic regression model, progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms rs578029, rs471767, rs666553, rs503362, and rs500760 were not associated with the frequency of spontaneous preterm birth (P = .29, .10, .76, .09, and .43, respectively). Low trough plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were statistically associated with a higher frequency of spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence ratio, 0.61-0.99; P = .04 for trend across quartiles), however no significant interaction with the progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms rs578029, rs471767, rs666553, rs503362, and rs500760 was observed (P = .13, .08, .10, .08, and .13, respectively). The frequency of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth appears to be associated with trough 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations. However, the wide va

  7. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  8. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Gill-King, Harrell

    2011-06-27

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds.

  9. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  10. Risk factors associated with preterm birth among singletons following assisted reproductive technology in Australia 2007-2009--a population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu K; Wang, Yueping A; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-07

    Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal death, is more common in multiple births and thus there has being an increasing call for reducing multiple births in ART. However, few studies have compared risk factors for preterm births amongst ART and non-ART singleton birth mothers. A population-based study of 393,450 mothers, including 12,105 (3.1%) ART mothers, with singleton gestations born between 2007 and 2009 in 5 of the 8 jurisdictions in Australia. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate socio-demographic, medical and pregnancy factors associated with preterm births in contrasting ART and non-ART mothers. Ten percent of singleton births to ART mothers were preterm compared to 6.8% for non-ART mothers (P disadvantaged (12.4% in the lowest quintile vs 20.7%), less likely to be smokers (3.8% vs 19.4%), more likely to be first time mothers (primiparous 62.4% vs 40.5%), had more preexisting hypertension and complications during pregnancy. Irrespective of the mode of conception, preexisting medical and pregnancy complications of hypertension, diabetes and antepartum hemorrhages were consistently associated with preterm birth. In contrast, socio-demographic variables, namely young and old maternal age (34), socioeconomic disadvantage (most disadvantaged quintile Odds Ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77-1.17), smoking (OR 1.12, 95%CI: 0.79-1.61) and priminarity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.35, AOR not significant) shown to be associated with elevated risk of preterm birth for non-ART mothers were not demonstrated for ART mothers, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Nonetheless, in multivariable analysis, the association between ART and the elevated risk for singleton preterm birth persisted after controlling for all included confounding medical, pregnancy and socio-economic factors (AOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.42-1.61). Preterm birth rate is approximately one-and-a-half-fold higher in ART mothers than non

  11. Maternal risk factors for singleton preterm births and survival at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... ratio [aOR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92, 6.07), Previous preterm birth (aOR = 5.06; 95% CI: 2.66, 9.12), ... on gestational age at birth and mode of delivery, but not on maternal sociodemographic risk factors for singleton preterm births. ... of preterms in this area have become important in order to.

  12. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  13. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  15. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  16. Association Between Apnea of Prematurity and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLate preterm infants (34 to 36 weeks’ gestation remain a population at risk for apnea of prematurity (AOP. As infants affected by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS have immature lungs, they might also have immature control of breathing. Our hypothesis is that an association exists between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants.ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to assess the association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate if an association exists between apparent RDS severity and AOP.MethodsThis retrospective observational study was realized in a tertiary care center between January 2009 and December 2011. Data from late preterm infants who presented an uncomplicated perinatal evolution, excepted for RDS, were reviewed. Information related to AOP and RDS were collected using the medical record. Odds ratios were calculated using a binary logistic regression adjusted for GA and sex.ResultsAmong the 982 included infants 85 (8,6% had an RDS diagnosis, 281 (28,6% had AOP diagnosis and 107 (10,9% were treated with caffeine for AOP. There was a significant association between AOP treated with caffeine and RDS for all infants (OR = 3.3, 95% CI : 2.0 – 5.7. There was no association between AOP and RDS in 34 weeks infants [AOR : 1.6 (95% CI: 0.7 – 3.8] but an association remains for 35 [AOR : 5.7 (95% CI: 2.5 – 13.4] and 36 [OR: 7.8 (95% CI: 3.2 – 19.4] weeks infants. No association was found between apparent RDS severity and AOP regarding mean oxygen administration duration or complications associated with RDS.ConclusionThe association between RDS and AOP in late preterm infants reflects that patients affected by RDS are not only presenting lung immaturity, but also respiratory control immaturity. Special consideration should be given before discontinuing monitoring after RDS resolution in those patients.

  17. Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Preterm Delivery and Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Sengwee; Mitchell, Allen A.; Louik, Carol; Werler, Martha M.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Objective The associations between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction are controversial and poorly understood. We studied the relation between antidepressant use and these outcomes. Methods Analysis included women with nonmalformed infants interviewed in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study between 1998 and 2008. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for premature and small-for–gestational age (SGA) offsprings, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, medical, and reproductive factors. Results The frequencies of preterm delivery were 7.3% among the 5710 nonusers (reference), 8.9% among the 192 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) users (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6–2.0), and 15.3% among the 59 non-SSRI antidepressant users (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0–4.9); the respective frequencies of delivering an SGA offspring were 7.2%, 10.9% (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7), and 13.6% (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0–4.9). Compared with nonusers, the frequencies of preterm delivery (7.6%) and SGA offspring (5.7%) were not increased among the 106 women who discontinued SSRIs before the end of the first trimester. Among women who continued SSRIs beyond the first trimester, 10.5% delivered a preterm infant (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.6–2.8) and 17.4% had an SGA offspring (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7–5.5). Conclusions Women treated with SSRIs late in pregnancy had a higher frequency of delivering SGA infants, and women receiving non-SSRI antidepressants were more likely to deliver premature and SGA offsprings. The findings suggest an effect of underlying mood disorder or an effect common to both drug classes. In any case, prenatal antidepressant use may help identify women at elevated risks of delivering preterm and SGA infants. PMID:19910720

  18. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal factors expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Factors associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy after adjustment for gestational age and the presence of previously identified antenatal and intrapartum risk factors were patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.5), hypotension (2.3; 1.3 to 4.7), blood transfusion (4.8; 2.5 to 9.3), prolonged ventilation (4.8; 2.5 to 9.0), pneumothorax (3.5; 1.6 to 7.6), sepsis (3.6; 1.8 to 7.4), hyponatraemia (7.9; 2.1 to 29.6) and total parenteral nutrition (5.5; 2.8 to 10.5). Seizures were associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (10.0; 4.1 to 24.7), as were parenchymal damage (32; 12.4 to 84.4) and appreciable ventricular dilatation (5.4; 3.0 to 9.8) detected by cerebral ultrasound. CONCLUSION: A reduction in the rate of cerebral palsy in very preterm babies requires an integrated approach to management throughout the antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods. PMID:9040385

  19. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, A; Ortoft, G; Loft, A; Rasmussen, S C; Ingerslev, H J

    2015-01-01

    Does cervical conization add an additional risk of preterm birth (PTB) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) singleton and twin pregnancies? Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very PTB in ART twin pregnancies. ART and cervical conization are both risk factors for PTB. In this national population-based controlled cohort study, we included all ART singletons and twin deliveries from 1995 to 2009 in Denmark by cross-linkage of maternal and child data from the National IVF register and the Medical Birth register. Furthermore, control groups of naturally conceived (NC) singletons and twins were extracted. Cervical diagnoses were obtained from the Danish Pathology register. Cervical conization included both cold knife cone and LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure) but not cervical biopsies. The main outcomes measures were PTB (PTB ≤ 37 + 0 gestational weeks), very preterm birth (VPTB ≤ 32 + 0 gestational weeks) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). In all 16 923 ART singletons and 4829 ART twin deliveries were included. A random sample of NC singletons, 2-fold the size of the ART singleton group matched by date and year of birth (n = 33 835) and all NC twin deliveries (n = 15 112), was also extracted. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for the following confounders: maternal age, parity, year of child birth and sex of child. Cervical morbidity (dysplasia and conization) was more often observed in ART pregnancies (6.2% of ART singletons and 5.4% ART twins) than in NC pregnancies (4.2% for NC singletons and 4.5% for NC twins), both for singletons and twins. In ART singleton deliveries, the PTB rate was 13.1 versus 8.2% in women with and without conization, respectively, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.01]. In ART twin deliveries, the prevalence of PTB was 58.2 versus 41.3% in women with and without conization, respectively, with an aOR 1.94 (95% CI 1

  20. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  2. Maternal Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in Murmansk County, Russia: A Registry-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usynina, Anna A; Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Anda, Erik Eik

    2016-09-01

    Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry. We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of moderate-to-late PTB, very PTB and extremely PTB for a range of maternal characteristics were estimated using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The overall prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County was 6.9%. Unmarried status, prior PTBs, spontaneous and induced abortions were strongly associated with PTB at any gestational age. Maternal low educational level increased the risk of extremely and moderate-to-late PTB. Young (Murmansk County, Russia was comparable with data on live PTB from European countries. Adverse prior pregnancy outcomes, maternal low educational level, unmarried status, alcohol abuse, and diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes were the most common risk factors for PTB. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Single or Repeat Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Kathleen F.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Chao, Lisa; Berger, Victoria; Naqvi, Mariam; Butwick, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to determine the risk of maternal chorioamnionitis and neonatal morbidity in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) exposed to one corticosteroid course versus a single repeat corticosteroid steroid course. Study Design Secondary analysis of a cohort of women with singleton pregnancies and PPROM. The primary outcome was a clinical diagnosis of maternal chorioamnionitis. Using multivariate logistic regression, we controlled for maternal age, race, body mass index, diabetes, gestational age at membrane rupture, preterm labor, and antibiotic administration. Neonatal morbidities were compared between groups controlling for gestational age at delivery. Results Of 1,652 women with PPROM, 1,507 women received one corticosteroid course and 145 women received a repeat corticosteroid course. The incidence of chorioamnionitis was similar between groups (single course = 12.3% vs. repeat course = 11.0%; p = 0.8). Women receiving a repeat corticosteroid course were not at increased risk of chorioamnionitis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.69–2.14). A repeat course of steroids was not associated with an increased risk of any neonatal morbidity. Conclusion Compared with a single steroid course, our findings suggest that the risk of maternal chorioamnionitis or neonatal morbidity may not be increased for women with PPROM receiving a repeat corticosteroid course. PMID:25545441

  4. In which preterm labor-patients is intravenous maintenance tocolysis effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Noriko; Fukuta, Kaori; Shima, Tomoko; Nakashima, Akitoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoshino, Osamu; Kigawa, Mika; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Saito, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated whether maintenance tocolysis (intravenous ritodrine hydrochloride and/or magnesium sulfate) was effective in cases of spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. One hundred and thirty preterm labor patients who reached 36 weeks of gestation by maintenance tocolysis were selected. Immediate delivery (ID) after ceasing maintenance tocolysis was defined as an 'effective case'. The correlated factors between ID and no immediate delivery (NID) were statistically analyzed. Thirty-six patients delivered maintenance tocolysis (27.7%) and were defined as effective cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that amniotic fluid interleukin-8 at admission (≥ 2.3 ng/mL; odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-17.6; P Maintenance tocolysis may be effective in limited cases with mild intra-amniotic inflammation, in lean women and in cerclage cases. Maintenance tocolysis should be ceased in cases without these clinical factors when clinical symptoms disappear. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. [The progesterone receptor gene polymorphism as factor of risk for the preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; da Cunha, Danielle Renzoni; Policastro, Adriana; Traina, Évelyn; Gomes, Mariano Tamura; Cordioli, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    to investigate the association between gene polymorphism of the progesterone receptor (PROGINS) and the risk of premature birth. In this case-control study, 57 women with previous premature delivery (Case Group) and 57 patients with delivery at term in the current pregnancy and no history of preterm delivery (Control Group) were selected. A 10 mL amount of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator. Genotype and allele PROGINS frequencies were compared between the two groups by the χ2 test, with the level of significance set at value p < 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 75.4% T1/T1, 22.8% T1/T2 and 1.8% T2/T2 in the Group with Preterm Delivery and 80.7% T1/T1, 19.3% T1/T2 and 0% T2/T2 in the term Delivery Group. There were no differences between groups when genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7) and p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7). the present study suggests that the presence of PROGINS polymorphism in our population does not constitute a risk factor for premature birth.

  6. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Bech, Bodil H

    2007-01-01

    .6, CI 1.0-2.4, respectively). For preterm infants (n=3,934, 136 deaths), neonatal mortality in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly increased if they were born to an overweight or obese mother (adjusted hazard ratios 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7, and 5.7, CI 2...

  7. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA.MethodsSubjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA180 mg/dL.ResultsDuring the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6% and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8% neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8% exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4% developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4% neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045 and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006, and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005. Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia. Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia.ConclusionCareful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia.

  8. Maternal obesity and attention-related symptoms in the preterm offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Jelske W; Jensen, Elizabeth T; van de Bor, Margot; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N; Scott, Megan; Hunter, Scott; Hooper, Stephen R; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, in term-born children, is associated with an increased risk of attention problems, however this relationship has not been explored among children born extremely preterm. To estimate the risk of attention problems at age 10years in children born very preterm to overweight (i.e., body mass index (BMI) 25-29kg/m 2 ) and obese (i.e., BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) women relative to the risk among children born to women who were neither overweight nor obese (i.e. BMI<25kg/m 2 ). Multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 764 children born before the 28th week of gestation and whose mother's pre-pregnancy height and pre-pregnancy weight were obtained at birth had an IQ≥70 at age 10years when parents and teachers completed Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaires that included items about the presence of ADHD. Compared to children whose mother's pre-pregnancy weight was in the normal range (BMI<25kg/m 2 ), children were at increased risk of parent-identified ADHD behaviors if their mother was overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.3), or obese (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.9). They were not at increased risk of teacher-identified ADHD characteristics if their mother was overweight before her pregnancy (OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.8), or obese (OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.6). Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of parent-identified ADHD characteristics at 10years of age in children born extremely preterm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: a population-based multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-09-15

    Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989-1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adj OR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adj OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  10. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  11. [Relation Between Stress During Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Martínez, Roberth Alirio; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs before 37 completed weeks, its causes are multifactorial and vary according to the gestational age, ethnicity and geographical context. Although several medical/social factors have been clearly identified, over 50% of cases are unknown or unclear; however, psychopathological components emerge as potentially important risk factors. To determine the relationship between the presence of stress during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth. Through a study of cases and controls in a level III hospital, with a sample of 360 patients during the period from March to November of 2013, where sociodemographic characteristics were collected. In addition, they were applied scales social adjustment, coping strategies and social support. Logistic regression models were developed; psychological, biological and social. Based on the significant variables in each of these generated a final one. The final model was found that stress during pregnancy increases the odds of spontaneous preterm birth 1.91 times (adjusted OR=2.91; 95%CI, 1.67-5.08; P<.05). Other significant variables were: history of preterm delivery, unplanned pregnancy, no emotional support, rural residence, inadequate prenatal care and non-stable partner. The findings support the hypothesis that stress during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Odd Behaviour of the Even Integer 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    article/fulltext/reso/012/10/0057-0066. Keywords. Arithmetic progression; odd and even; partial sum; square number; Pythagorean triple. Author Affiliations. Shailesh A Shirali1. Rishi Valley School, Rishi Valley 517 352, Madanapalle, AP, India.

  13. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  14. The impact of postpartum contraception on reducing preterm birth: findings from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Odd invariant semidensity and divergence-like operators on an odd symplectic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    The divergence-like operator on an odd symplectic superspace which acts invariantly on a specially chosen odd vector field is considered. This operator is used to construct an odd invariant semidensity in a geometrically clear way. The formula for this semidensity is similar to the formula of the mean curvature of hypersurfaces in Euclidean space

  16. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  17. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  18. Antenatal Corticosteroids for Reducing Adverse Maternal and Child Outcomes in Special Populations of Women at Risk of Imminent Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Rachel M; Mlunde, Linda B; Ota, Erika; Swa, Toshiyuki; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    This study synthesizes available evidence on antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) use among special subgroups of women at risk of imminent preterm birth, including those (1) with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, (2) undergoing elective caesarean section (CS) in late preterm (34 to<37 weeks), (3) with chorioamnionitis, and (4) with growth-restricted fetuses. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, POPLINE, and World Health Organization Regional Databases was conducted for all comparative studies. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed study quality. Pooled mean differences and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated from available data, based on fixed- and random-effects models, as appropriate. No eligible studies were identified for ACS use in diabetic pregnant women or those undergoing elective CS at late preterm. Nine studies each on ACS use in women with chorioamnionitis and in women with fetal growth restriction met inclusion criteria; eight studies were separately included in the meta-analyses for the two subpopulations. For ACS administration in women with chorioamnionitis, pooled analyses showed reductions in neonatal mortality (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.73), respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44-0.76), intraventricular haemorrhage (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.69), and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24-0.69). Maternal and long-term newborn outcomes were not reported. Effects of ACS use were inconclusive for cases with fetal growth restriction. Direct evidence on the effectiveness and safety of ACS is lacking for diabetic pregnant women at risk of preterm birth and those undergoing elective late-preterm CS, though this does not necessarily recommend against their use in diabetic women. While evidence remains inconclusive for women with growth-restricted preterm neonates, ACS appears to benefit preterm neonates delivered

  19. Preterm birth and congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, Enora; Lelong, Nathalie; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnet, Damien; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kayem, Gilles; Goffinet, François; Khoshnood, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) and congenital heart defect (CHD) are 2 major causes of mortality and disability of perinatal origin. There are limited data on the relation between CHD and PTB. Our objective was to use population-based data to estimate the risk of PTB in newborns with CHD and to study specific associations between categories of CHD and PTB. We used data from a population-based cohort study of CHD (EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study), including 2189 live births with CHD (excluding isolated atrial septal defects) born between 2005 and 2008. We categorized CHD by using an anatomic and clinical classification. Data from the French National Perinatal Survey of 2003 were used to compare PTB in the EPIdémiologique sur le devenir des enfants porteurs de CARDiopathies congénitales study to that of the general population. Of the newborns with CHD, 13.5% were preterm. The odds of PTB were twofold higher than for the general population (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.5), essentially due to an increase in spontaneous PTB for newborns with CHD. The risk of PTB associated with CHD persisted after exclusion of chromosomal or other anomalies. There were significant variations in risk of PTB across the categories of CHD after adjustment for known risk factors of PTB and factors related to medical management of pregnancy and delivery. We found a higher risk of PTB in newborns with CHD, which was essentially due to spontaneous PTB. Risk of PTB varied for categories of CHD. Our finding may be helpful for generating hypotheses about the developmental links between CHD and PTB.

  20. Outcome of singleton preterm small for gestational age infants born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Rivka H; Arnon, Shmuel; Litmanovitz, Ita; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Reichman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) has been associated with a decreased risk of infant mortality in small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants. To evaluate the influence of PIH on mortality and major neonatal morbidities in singleton preterm SGA infants, in the presence and absence of acute pregnancy complications. Population-based observational study of singleton SGA infants, born at 24 to 32 weeks gestation in the period 1995-2010 (n = 2139). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent effect of PIH on mortality and neonatal morbidities. Acute pregnancy complications comprised premature labor, premature rupture of membranes >6 h, antepartum hemorrhage and clinical chorioamnionitis. In the absence of pregnancy complications, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality (0.77; 0.50-1.16), survival without severe neurological morbidity (1.14; 0.79-1.65) and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (0.85; 0.59-1.21) were similar in the PIH versus no-PIH groups. In the presence of pregnancy complications, mortality (0.76; 0.40-1.44), survival without severe neurological morbidity (1.16; 0.64-2.12) and survival without BPD (1.04; 0.58-1.86) were also similar in the PIH versus no-PIH groups. PIH was not associated with improved outcome in preterm SGA infants, both in the presence and absence of acute pregnancy complications.

  1. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  2. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-09-01

    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Preterm labour: tsunami waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-09-01

    Preterm labour and birth can be delayed but are generally unstoppable, threatening the health of the mother-baby duo. This may be a result of peripheral signals prematurely recruiting the oxytocin neurones that co-ordinate the timing of birth and, via specialised activity and secretion patterns, drive uterine contractions. Once sensitised, these neurones respond with waves of activity, even to weak stimuli, resulting in a positive-feedback loop that escalates towards inevitable birth.

  4. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  5. Odd Degree Polynomials on Real Banach Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aron, R. M.; Hájek, Petr Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 143-153 ISSN 1385-1292 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA ČR GA201/04/0090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : odd degree polynomials * zero sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.356, year: 2007

  6. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  7. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  8. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  9. Physiologic brain dysmaturity in late preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S.; Johnson, Mark W.; Ludington, Susan M.; Loparo, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal EEG sleep was used to determine if differences are expressed between healthy late preterm and full term groups. Twenty-seven 24-channel multi-hour studies were recorded at similar post–menstrual ages (PMA) and analyzed for eight asymptomatic late preterm infants (LPT) compared with nineteen healthy full term (FT) infants as a preliminary analysis, followed by a comparison of a subset of 8 FT infants, matched for gender, race, and PMA. Z scores were performed on data sets from each group pair comparing each of seven EEG/Sleep measures for entire recordings, active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) segments and artifact-free intervals. Six of seven measures showed differences between the 8 LPT and 8 matched FT cohort pair comparisons of >0.3; REMs, arousals during QS, spectral correlations between homologous centro-temporal regions during QS, spectral beta/alpha power ratios during AS and QS, a spectral measure of respiratory regularity during QS, and sleep cycle length. Quantitative neurophysiologic analyses define differences in brain maturation between LPT and FT infants at similar PMA. Altered EEG/Sleep behaviors in the LPT are biomarkers of developmental neuroplasticity involving interconnected neuronal networks adapting to conditions of prematurity for this largest segment of the preterm neonatal population. PMID:21796018

  10. The Aristotle score predicts mortality after surgery of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun Hee; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Ji-yong; Youn, YoungAh; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sena; Lee, Ju Young; Sung, In Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Outcomes after surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants are often complicated by prematurity associated comorbidities. The Aristotle comprehensive complexity score (ACCS) has been proposed as a useful tool for complexity adjustment in the analysis of outcome after congenital heart surgery. The aims of this study were to define preoperative risk factors for mortality and to demonstrate the usefulness of ACCS to predict mortality after surgical ligation of PDA in the preterm. Included were 49 preterm babies (≤35 weeks of gestation) who had surgical ligation of PDA between May 2009 and July 2012. Median gestational age was 27.6 weeks (range, 23 to 35 weeks) and median birth weight was 1,040 g (range, 520 to 2,280 g). Median age at operation was 15 days (range, 4 to 44 days) and median weight was 1,120 g (range, 400 to 2,880 g). Initial oral ibuprofen was ineffective in 24 patients and contraindicated in 25. All surgical ligations were done at bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit. Preoperative clinical and laboratory profiles were reviewed and ACCS was derived. Eight of 49 patients (16.3%) died at a median of 14 days (range, 2 to 73 days) after PDA ligation. Patients who had contraindications for oral ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR] 8.94; p=0.049), coagulopathy (OR 12.13; p=0.025), renal dysfunction (OR 28.88; p=0.003), intraventricular hemorrhage greater than grade II or seizure (OR 34.00; p=0.002), and ACCS points (OR 29.594; p<0.05) were significantly associated with an increased risk for mortality. Among the risk factors, ACCS showed the largest area under curve (0.991) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Optimal cutoff value of ACCS for mortality were 15 or greater, with sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 97.6%. The ACCS, especially for procedure-independent complexity factors, is a useful tool to predict mortality after ligation of PDA in

  11. The influence of refugee status and secondary migration on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, Susitha; Cole, Donald C; Bassil, Kate; Hyman, Ilene; Moineddin, Rahim; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is elevated for forced (refugee) international migrants and whether prolonged displacement amplifies risk. While voluntary migrants who arrive from a country other than their country of birth (ie, secondary migrants) have favourable birth outcomes compared with those who migrated directly from their country of birth (ie, primary migrants), secondary migration may be detrimental for refugees who experience distinct challenges in transition countries. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether refugee status was associated with PTB and (2) whether the relation between refugee status and PTB differed between secondary and primary migrants. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study. Ontario immigration (2002-2010) and hospitalisation data (2002-2010) were linked to estimate adjusted cumulative odds ratios (ACOR) of PTB (22-31, 32-36, 37-41 weeks of gestation), with 95% CIs (95% CI) comparing refugees with non-refugees. We further included a product term between refugee status and secondary migration. Overall, refugees (N=12 913) had 17% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.28) compared with non-refugees (N=110 640). Secondary migration modified the association between refugee status and PTB (p=0.007). Secondary refugees had 58% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.58, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.00) than secondary non-refugees, while primary refugees had 12% greater cumulative odds of short gestation (ACOR=1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23) than primary non-refugee immigrants. Refugee status, jointly with secondary migration, influences PTB among migrants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    AIM To determine the distribution of cognitive and motor scores in preterm children, and to establish the influence of brain lesions and decreasing gestational age thereon. METHOD One hundred and six very preterm children (63 males, 43 females; gestational age 24.0-31.6wk; birthweight 480-2275g)

  13. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  14. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...

  15. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  16. An observational study of type, timing, and severity of childhood maltreatment and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selk, Sabrina C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Koenen, Karestan; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to preterm birth (preterm birth. The aim of this observational study was to explore type of maltreatment (child and adolescent physical and sexual abuse and harsh parenting) as risk factors for preterm birth. We examined these associations in a cross-sectional analysis of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort of female nurses. Women completed a questionnaire about experiences of sexual abuse, physical abuse or harsh parenting, along with pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates including age, race, alcohol and cigarette use during pregnancy, age at menarche, marital status, adult income, body mass index (kg/m(2)) at age 18, physical abuse in pregnancy, and childhood socioeconomic position. Among 51 434 first births, 4110 were preterm (8% of births). Forced sexual activity in childhood or adolescence was associated with a 22% increased odds of preterm birth (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.35). Maltreatment involving sexual touch, physical abuse or harsh parenting was not associated with preterm birth in this sample. Women who experience forced sexual activity in childhood or adolescence may have an increased likelihood of delivering preterm in adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Association of maternal CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with smoking, preterm delivery, and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing eZheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery (PTD is an adverse birth outcome associated with increased infant mortality and negative lifelong health consequences. PTD may be the result of interactions between genetics and maternal/fetal environmental factors including smoking exposure (SMK. A common deletion in the GSTT1 gene was previously reported to affect birth outcomes in smokers. In this study, we dissect the associations among SMK, birth outcomes, and copy number variations (CNVs in the GSTT1/GSTT2 region.A preterm birth case-control dataset of 1937 mothers was part of the GENEVA preterm birth study, which included genome-wide genotyping used to identify CNVs. We examined the association of SMK with birth outcomes, detected CNVs within the GSTT1/GSTT2 region using PennCNV, and examined associations of the identified CNVs with preterm birth and with birth weight (BW in full term birth controls, including interactions with SMK. Finally, we tested the association of CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with SMK.We confirmed the association of smoking with low BW and PTD. We identified 2 CNVs in GSTT2 (GSTT2a and GSTT2b, 1 CNV in GSTTP1 and 2 CNVs in GSTT1 (GSTT1a and GSTT1b. The GSTT2a deletion was associated with reduced BW (-284g, p=2.5E-7 in smokers, and was more common in smokers (odds ratio[OR]=1.3, p=0.036. We found that the size of the reported common deletion CNV in GSTT1 was larger than previously shown. The GSTTP1 and GSTT1b null genotypes were in high linkage disequilibrium (LD (D’=0.89 and less common in smokers (OR=0.68, p=0.019 and OR=0.73, p=0.055 respectively. These two deletions were in partial LD with GSTT2a and GSTT2b duplications. All 5 CNVs seem to be associated with increased risk of preterm birth before 35 completed weeks.CNVs in the GSTTT1/GSTT2 region appear associated with low BW and PTD outcomes, but LD complicated these CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2. In genetic association studies of BW, multiple CNVs in this region need to be investigated instead of a single

  18. Outcomes of Pregnancies Complicated by Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Between 20 and 24 Weeks of Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibel, Mia; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Barrett, Jon; Dunn, Michael S; Tward, Carly; Pittini, Alex; Melamed, Nir

    2016-08-01

    To assess the natural history and contemporary outcomes in pregnancies complicated by previable preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Retrospective study of all women with a singleton or twin pregnancy admitted to a single tertiary referral center who experienced preterm PROM between 20 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation during 2004-2014 and underwent expectant management. Women electing termination of pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by major fetal anomalies were excluded. Severe neonatal morbidity was defined as a composite of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe neurologic injury, or severe retinopathy of prematurity. Long-term follow-up to a corrected age of 18-21 months was available for the majority of surviving neonates. Of the 140 neonates born to women with previable preterm PROM during the study period, 104 were eligible for the study. Overall 51 (49.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 39.4-58.6%) newborns survived to discharge, of whom 24 (47.1%, 95% CI 33.4-60.8%) experienced severe neonatal morbidity. The overall rate of long-term morbidity among surviving neonates was 23.3% (95% CI 11.7-34.9%) and was significantly higher among neonates who previously experienced severe neonatal morbidity compared with those who did not (39.1% compared with 10.0%, P=.04). The only two factors that were significantly associated with overall survival and survival without severe neonatal morbidity were gestational age at preterm PROM of 22 weeks or greater (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 12.2, 95% CI 3.3-44.8 and adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-19.3, respectively) and a latency period of greater than 7 days (adjusted OR 10.1, 95% CI 3.2-31.6, and adjusted OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.2-21.0, respectively). Expectant management was associated with maternal risks including placental abruption (17.3%, 95% CI 10.0-24.6%) and sepsis (4.8%, 95% CI 0.7-8.9%). Expectant management in pregnancies complicated by previable preterm PROM between 20 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation is associated with an

  19. The associations of parental under-education and unemployment on the risk of preterm birth: 2003 Korean National Birth Registration database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Han; Lim, Hyung-tak; Park, Hyun-young; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Han-suk

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in Korea. Data on 427,857 singleton births were obtained from the National Birth Registration (NBR) database in 2003 and analyzed. Parental education and parental employment status were combined as exposure for analysis. Place of birth, sex, marital status, parental age and parity were included for analysis of unconditional multiple logistic regressions. PTB was defined as birth before a gestational age of 37 complete weeks. Group of the lowest educational level, below high school, had the highest odds of PTB in both father and mother in multivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR) 1.15 and 1.16, respectively]. After combining parental educational status for the multivariable analysis, the highest probability of PTB was in families where both parents had below college level education (OR 1.22). As for paternal employment, the multivariable analysis showed an increased rate of PTB occurred where the father was unemployed (OR 1.11). After combining the employment status of both parents, the multivariable analysis revealed that PTB was only significant in families where both parents were unemployed (OR 1.09). We found that combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment increased the likelihood of preterm birth.

  20. Association between Umbilical Catheters and Neonatal Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboraee, Mohamed S; Toye, Jennifer; Ye, Xiang Y; Shah, Prakesh S; Aziz, Khalid

    2018-02-01

     The objective of this study was to examine the association between umbilical catheters and a composite outcome of mortality or major neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants.  Data were abstracted from the Canadian Neonatal Network database for infants born at catheters, umbilical venous catheters (UVCs), umbilical artery catheters (UACs), and those with both UVCs and UACs. The outcomes were compared among the groups using univariate and multivariable analyses.  Of 4,623 eligible infants, 820 (17.7%) had no catheters, 1,032 (22.3%) a UVC only, 120 (2.6%) a UAC only, and 2,651 (57.3%) had both catheters. After adjustment for acuity and other potential confounders, umbilical catheters were associated with higher odds of mortality or any major morbidity (UVC vs. no catheter: adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.18-1.85; UAC vs. no catheter: aOR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.05-2.63; and both UVC + UAC vs. no catheter: aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.79-2.70).  Most of the infants born at catheter was associated with mortality or major morbidity, and the association was stronger when both catheters were present. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Attenuation of ductus arteriosus intimal thickening in preterm sheep twins compared with singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Satoko; Yokoyama, Utako; Saito, Junichi; Sato, Shinichi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Matsuda, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Preterm twins have a higher morbidity rate of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) than do singletons. However, the effect of multiple births on maturation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) has not been reported. Because intimal thickening (IT) is required for DA anatomical closure, we examined IT development in the DA of preterm twins and singletons. Sheep DA tissues obtained from preterm fetuses were subjected to elastica van Gieson staining to evaluate IT. The total IT score in each DA was the sum of the IT scores obtained from six evenly divided parts of the DA, which was positively correlated with gestational ages in singletons. Total IT scores were smaller in preterm twins than in singletons, although no difference in gestational age, birth weight, or gender ratio was observed. These data suggest that IT development of the DA is attenuated in sheep preterm twins, which may affect the higher morbidity of PDA.

  2. Endogenous angiotensins and catecholamines do not reduce skin blood flow or prevent hypotension in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiby, Yvonne A; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Staunton, Michael P; Wright, Layne L; Colditz, Paul B; Wright, Ian M R; Lingwood, Barbara E

    2014-12-01

    Endocrine control of cardiovascular function is probably immature in the preterm infant; thus, it may contribute to the relative ineffectiveness of current adrenergic treatments for preterm cardiovascular compromise. This study aimed to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to stress in the preterm piglet. Piglets were delivered by cesarean section either preterm (97 of 115 days) or at term (113 days). An additional group of preterm piglets received maternal glucocorticoids as used clinically. Piglets were sedated and underwent hypoxia (4% FiO2 for 20 min) to stimulate a cardiovascular response. Arterial blood pressure, skin blood flow, heart rate and plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), and cortisol were measured. Term piglets responded to hypoxia with vasoconstriction; preterm piglets had a lesser response. Preterm piglets had lower blood pressures throughout, with a delayed blood pressure response to the hypoxic stress compared with term piglets. This immature response occurred despite similar high levels of circulating catecholamines, and higher levels of Ang II compared with term animals. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7):Ang II. Preterm piglets, in contrast to term piglets, had no increase in cortisol levels in response to hypoxia. Preterm piglets have immature physiological responses to a hypoxic stress but no deficit of circulating catecholamines. Reduced vasoconstriction in preterm piglets could result from vasodilator actions of Ang II. In glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglets, further inhibition of vasoconstriction may occur because of an increased conversion of Ang II to Ang-(1-7). © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Hand Preference and Cognitive, Motor, and Behavioral Functioning in 10-Year-Old Extremely Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Alice C; Anderson, Peter J; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K; Leviton, Alan

    2018-04-01

    The association of hand preference (left, mixed, and right) with cognitive, academic, motor, and behavioral function was evaluated in 864 extremely preterm children at 10 years of age. Left-handed and right-handed children performed similarly but mixed-handed children had greater odds of functional deficits across domains than right-handed children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does alcohol increase the risk of preterm delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and preterm delivery. Women attending routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1989–1991 and 1992–1996 were eligible. We included 18,228 singleton pregnancies in the analyses. We obtained prospective...... information on alcohol intake at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetrical risk factors from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files. For women with alcohol intake of 1–2, 3–4, 5–9, and >=10 drinks/week the risk ratio (RR) of preterm delivery.......78–7.13) at 30 weeks. Adjustment for smoking habits, caffeine intake, age, height, pre-pregnant weight, marital status, occupational status, education, parity, chronic diseases, previous preterm delivery, mode of initiation of labor, and sex of the child did not change the conclusions, nor did restriction...

  5. Antenatal corticosteroids and outcomes of preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates in a single medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jeng; Han, Young Sin; Ko, Hyun Sun; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul; Wie, Jeong Ha

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate. This study was a retrospective cohort study. We compared women who received ACS with unexposed controls and evaluated neonatal complications among those having a singleton SGA neonate born between 29 and 34 complete gestational weeks. The neonates born after 32 weeks of gestation were divided into subgroups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. A total 82 of the preterm infants met inclusion criteria; 57 (69.5%) were born after 32 weeks of gestation. There were no significant differences in terms of mechanical ventilation, seizure, intracranial hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, feeding difficulty, and neonatal mortality between infants whose mothers received ACS ant those whose mothers did not (all P >0.05). However, newborns whose mothers received ACS exhibited a significantly increased risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.271; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.038-10.305; P =0.043). In case of neonates born beyond 32 weeks of gestation, the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly higher in women receiving ACS after controlling for confounding factors (aOR, 5.832; 95% CI, 1.096-31.031; P =0.039). ACS did not improve neonatal morbidities, in SGA neonates delivered between 29 and 34 gestational weeks. Rather, ACS could increase the risk of RDS. In cases of SGA neonate delivered between 32 and 34 complete gestational weeks, the risk of hypoglycemia was significantly increased. The use of ACS in women with preterm SGA infants needs to be evaluated further, especially after 32 weeks' gestation.

  6. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  7. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  8. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Verma, A.K.; Gandhi, R.; Sharma, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma. (author)

  9. Adult outcomes of preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2009-10-01

    The survivors of the initial years of neonatal intensive care of preterm infants reached adulthood during the last decade. Reports of their adult outcomes examined have included neurodevelopmental, behavioral and health outcomes as well as social functioning and reproduction. Despite statistically significant differences between preterm young adults and controls in most outcomes studied, the majority of preterm survivors do well and live fairly normal lives. The two major predictors of adult outcomes are lower gestational age that reflect perinatal injury and family sociodemographic status which reflects both genetic and environmental effects.

  10. Proton-neutron interactions in the odd-odd nucleus 214Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baxter, A.M.; Schiffer, K.

    1993-01-01

    High spin states have been observed to excitation energies over 8 MeV in the odd-odd nucleus 214 Fr using in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopic techniques and heavy-ion induced reactions. Semi-empirical shell model calculations appear to provide a good description of the states observed, although some states expected within this model heave yet to be identified. (orig.)

  11. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  12. Isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N = Z nuclei within a quartet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, D.; Sandulescu, N.; Gambacurta, D.

    2017-07-01

    The quartet condensation model (QCM) is extended to the treatment of isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N=Z nuclei. In the extended QCM approach the lowest states of isospin T=1 and T=0 in odd-odd nuclei are described variationally by trial functions composed of a proton-neutron pair appended to a condensate of 4-body operators. The latter are taken as a linear superposition of an isovector quartet, built by two isovector pairs coupled to the total isospin T=0, and two collective isoscalar pairs. In all pairs the nucleons are distributed in time-reversed single-particle states of axial symmetry. The accuracy of the trial functions is tested for realistic pairing Hamiltonians and odd-odd N=Z nuclei with the valence nucleons moving above the ^{16}O, ^{40}Ca, and ^{100}Sn cores. It is shown that the extended QCM approach is able to predict with high accuracy the energies of the lowest T=0 and T=1 states. The present calculations indicate that in these states the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations coexist, with the former playing a dominant role.

  13. Prevalence and perinatal mortality associated with preterm births in a tertiary medical center in South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,2 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Gideon Ilechukwu,3 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Sunday Gabriel Mba,1 Isaac Nwabueze Asinobi41Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, Whiston Hospital, St Helen's and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Prescot, Lancashire, UK; 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Preterm birth is a high risk condition associated with significant mortality and morbidity in the perinatal, neonatal, and childhood periods, and even in adulthood. Knowledge of the epidemiology of preterm births is necessary for planning appropriate maternal and fetal care.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern, and perinatal mortality associated with preterm births at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South East Nigeria.Methods: This was a review of prospectively collected routine delivery data involving preterm deliveries that occurred between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.Results: There were 3,760 live births over the 5-year study period out of which 636 were preterm births, giving a prevalence rate of 16.9%. Spontaneous preterm births occurred in approximately 57% of preterm births while provider-initiated births occurred in 43%. The mean gestational age at preterm deliveries was 32.6±3.2 weeks while the mean birth weight was 2.0±0.8 kilograms. Approximately 89% of preterm births involved singleton pregnancies. Sixty-eight percent of preterm births were moderate to late preterm. The male:female ratio of preterm babies born during the period was 1.2:1. The adjusted

  14. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  15. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Term induction of labor and subsequent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Bogner, Hillary R; Hirshberg, Adi; Elovitz, Michal A; Sammel, Mary D; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2014-04-01

    Although the rate of inductions continues to rise, there is a paucity of data investigating subsequent pregnancy outcomes after induction. Our objective was to compare term inductions with term spontaneous labor and evaluate the rate of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). A retrospective cohort study of women with 2 consecutive deliveries from 2005 through 2010 was performed. Term inductions or term spontaneous labor in the index pregnancy was included, and those with a prior sPTB were excluded. Data were obtained through chart abstraction. The primary outcome was sPTB (Term inductions were less likely to have a subsequent sPTB compared with term spontaneous labor (6% vs 11%; odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.81; P = .005). This remained after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR, 0.55; P = .04). The sPTB risk depended on gestational age of index delivery. At 37-38.9 weeks, the sPTB rate after spontaneous labor was 24% vs 9% after induction (OR, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.16; P = .003). This was not significant for 39-39.9 weeks (P = .2) or 40 weeks or longer (P = .8). Induction is not a risk factor for subsequent sPTB. Spontaneous labor, however, in the early term period is associated with subsequent sPTB. Further investigation among early term deliveries is warranted to evaluate the risk of sPTB and target interventions in this cohort. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of thallium exposure and its relation with preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yangqian; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Xinyun; Liu, Wenyu; Jin, Shuna; Huo, Wenqian; Liu, Hongxiu; Peng, Yang; Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hongling; Zhou, Aifen; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a well-recognized hazardous toxic heavy metal that has been reported to have embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity. However, little is known about its association with preterm birth (PTB) in humans. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of Tl exposure and assessed its relation with PTB. The study population included 7173 mother-infant pairs from a birth cohort in Wuhan, China. Predictors of Tl concentrations were explored using linear regression analyses, and associations of Tl exposure with risk of PTB or gestational age at birth were estimated using logistic regression or generalized linear models. The geometric mean and median values of urinary Tl concentrations were 0.28 μg/L (0.55 μg/g creatinine) and 0.29 μg/L (0.53 μg/g creatinine). We found that maternal urinary Tl concentrations varied by gestational weight gain, educational attainment, multivitamin and iron supplementations. Women with Tl concentrations higher than 0.80 μg/g creatinine were at higher risk of giving birth prematurely versus those with Tl concentrations lower than 0.36 μg/g creatinine [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.55 (1.05, 2.27)], and the association was more pronounced in PTB with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) rather than in PTB without PROM. About 3-fold increase in creatinine-corrected Tl concentrations were associated with 0.99-day decrease in gestational length (95% CI: -1.36, -0.63). This is the first report on the associations between maternal Tl exposure and the risk of PTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of elevated central-peripheral temperature difference in early detection of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussat, M; Vogtmann, C; Gebauer, C; Pulzer, F; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the association between clinical symptoms and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants with the aim of identifying a non-invasive tool for the early detection of LOS. This was a prospective study of 83 episodes of suspected LOS in 67 preterm infants. At the time LOS was suspected, we recorded a standardized set of clinical symptoms. A diagnosis of "clinical LOS" (Clin-LOS), "culture-proven LOS" (Prov-LOS) or "LOS not present" (No-LOS) was made on the basis of C-reactive protein (CrP) and blood culture results where Clin-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l, Prov-LOS was defined as CrP>10mg/l AND positive blood cultures, or it was established that there was no sepsis present (No-LOS). We examined univariable associations between clinical signs and LOS using odds ratio (OR) analysis and then adjusted the odds ratio (adOR) through binary regression analysis. Clin-LOS was diagnosed in 20/83 episodes, 19 cases were found to have Prov-LOS. Clinical signs which had a significant association with Clin-LOS were capillary refill time >2s (OR 2.9) and decreased responsiveness (OR 5.2), whereas there was a negative association between gastric residuals and LOS (OR 0.35). However, the most marked association was found for a greater central-peripheral temperature difference (cpTD) >2°C (OR 9). In Prov-LOS an increased heart rate (OR 3.1), prolonged capillary refill time (OR 3.3) and again an increased cpTD (OR 16) had a significant association with LOS, whereas gastric residuals were negatively associated (OR 0.29). Regression analysis showed that cpTD was the most striking clinical sign associated with both Clin- (adOR 6.3) and Prov-LOS (adOR 10.5). Prolonged capillary refill time and - more impressive - elevated cpTD were the most useful clinical symptoms for detection of LOS in preterm infants. We especially suggest using cpTD as a predictor of LOS. It is a cheap, non-invasive and readily available tool for daily routines. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  19. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy After a Single Dose of Dexamethasone in a Preterm Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kale

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone is widely used in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a transient side effect observed after multiple doses of dexamethasone. We report a preterm infant with myocardial hypertrophy after a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg used to treat laryngeal edema secondary to prolonged intubation. A benign course was observed without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and with recovery within 4 weeks. Myocardial effects of dexamethasone may be independent of dose and duration of treatment. The risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered before using even a single dose of dexamethasone in preterm infants.

  20. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  1. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. [Effect of caffeine citrate on early pulmonary function in preterm infants with apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Huang, Jin-Hua; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Xu-Zhong; Wu, Wan-Yun; Wen, Xiao-Hong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of caffeine citrate treatment on early pulmonary function in preterm infants with apnea. Forty preterm infants with apnea were randomly divided into aminophylline treatment group (20 infants) and caffeine citrate treatment group (20 infants). When the preterm infants experienced apnea after birth, they were given aminophylline or caffeine citrate in addition to assisted ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). After drug discontinuation, pulmonary function was measured and compared between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the aminophylline treatment group, the caffeine citrate treatment group had significantly higher tidal volume, minute ventilation volume, ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory time, ratio of volume to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory volume, peak expiratory flow, and breathing flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of tidal volume (Papnea attacks (Papnea in preterm infants, caffeine citrate can improve early pulmonary function and reduce the incidence of apnea.

  3. Cerclage position, cervical length and preterm delivery in women undergoing ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna R Cook

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess whether anatomical location of ultrasound (USS indicated cervical cerclage and/or the degree of cervical shortening (cervical length; CL prior to and following cerclage affects the risk of preterm birth (PTB.A retrospective cohort study of 179 women receiving cerclage for short cervix (≤25mm was performed. Demographic data, CL before and after cerclage insertion, height of cerclage (distance from external os and gestation at delivery were collected. Relative risk (RR and odds ratio (OR of preterm delivery were calculated according to the anatomical location of the cerclage within the cervix and the CL before and after cerclage as categorical and continuous variables. Partition tree analysis was used to identify the threshold cerclage height that best predicts PTB.25% (n = 45 delivered <34 weeks and 36% (n = 65 delivered <37 weeks. Risk of PTB was greater with cerclage in the distal 10mm (RR2.37, 95% CI 1.45-3.87 or the distal half of a closed cervix (RR2.16, 95% CI 1.45-3.87. Increasing absolute cerclage height was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.94. A cerclage height <14.5 mm best predicts PTB (70.8%. Increasing CL following cerclage was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.94. Conversely, the risk of PTB was increased where CL remained static or shortened further following cerclage (RR2.34, 95% CI 1.04-5.25.The higher a cerclage was placed within a shortened cervix, the lower the subsequent odds of PTB. Women whose cerclage is placed in the distal 10mm of closed cervix or whose cervix fails to elongate subsequently, should remain under close surveillance as they have the highest risk of PTB.

  4. Cerclage position, cervical length and preterm delivery in women undergoing ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joanna R; Chatfield, Susan; Chandiramani, Manju; Kindinger, Lindsay; Cacciatore, Stefano; Sykes, Lynne; Teoh, Tiong; Shennan, Andrew; Terzidou, Vasso; Bennett, Phillip R

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to assess whether anatomical location of ultrasound (USS) indicated cervical cerclage and/or the degree of cervical shortening (cervical length; CL) prior to and following cerclage affects the risk of preterm birth (PTB). A retrospective cohort study of 179 women receiving cerclage for short cervix (≤25mm) was performed. Demographic data, CL before and after cerclage insertion, height of cerclage (distance from external os) and gestation at delivery were collected. Relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) of preterm delivery were calculated according to the anatomical location of the cerclage within the cervix and the CL before and after cerclage as categorical and continuous variables. Partition tree analysis was used to identify the threshold cerclage height that best predicts PTB. 25% (n = 45) delivered <34 weeks and 36% (n = 65) delivered <37 weeks. Risk of PTB was greater with cerclage in the distal 10mm (RR2.37, 95% CI 1.45-3.87) or the distal half of a closed cervix (RR2.16, 95% CI 1.45-3.87). Increasing absolute cerclage height was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.94). A cerclage height <14.5 mm best predicts PTB (70.8%). Increasing CL following cerclage was associated with a reduction in PTB (OR0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.94). Conversely, the risk of PTB was increased where CL remained static or shortened further following cerclage (RR2.34, 95% CI 1.04-5.25). The higher a cerclage was placed within a shortened cervix, the lower the subsequent odds of PTB. Women whose cerclage is placed in the distal 10mm of closed cervix or whose cervix fails to elongate subsequently, should remain under close surveillance as they have the highest risk of PTB.

  5. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation, preterm delivery, and birthweight. The Infancia y Medio Ambiente Cohort, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Gemma; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Castilla, Ane M; Basterrechea, Mikel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Blarduni, Elizabeth; Foradada, Carles M; Tardón, Adonina; Vioque, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery. We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4 ), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and 95th percentile and fT4 normal or 95 th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH 95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery. An inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes. High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changes in infant mortality among extremely preterm infants: US vital statistics data 1990 vs 2000 vs 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, M H

    2015-10-01

    Infant mortality among extremely preterm infants (22 to 28 weeks gestation) varies considerably by gestational age. The reduction in mortality over a 20-year period, when examined in gestational age week increments, may give a more precise estimate of progress or lack thereof in caring for these infants and provide information to better inform practitioners and parents of the risk of mortality among these small infants. The objective of this analysis is to examine infant mortality (birth to 365 days) by week of gestation for infants 22 to 28 weeks gestation comparing mortality rates, adjusting for maternal and infant birth characteristics, among US births for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. US vital statistics period-linked birth and infant death certificate files for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010 were used. Maternal and infant characteristics for births at 22 to 28 weeks were abstracted from the files. A trimming procedure was used to remove records that had birth weights that exceeded the interquartile range of birth weights for a given week of gestational age. Infant mortality rates were calculated, and adjusted odds ratios for mortality were generated using logistic regression models. A total of 15,593 live births, 22 to 28 weeks gestation were available for the year 1990; 17,095 for the year 2000; and 14,721 for the year 2010. Infant mortality rates ranged from 904 per 1000 live births at 22 weeks gestation in 1990, to 835 in 2000, to 866 in 2010. Across all gestational age groups there was an adjusted reduction in the odds ratio for mortality of ~50% from 1990 to the year 2000. However, between 2000 and 2010 there was no significant reduction in infant mortality except at 25 weeks gestation (adjusted odds ratio=0.81, 95% confidence interval=0.70, 0.93). Despite a significant reduction in infant mortality among extremely preterm infants between the years 1990 and 2000, there has been little progress in reducing mortality between the years 2000 and 2010.

  7. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. K-mixing effects on the magnetic dipole transition probabilities of odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Mahesh, P.S.; Sharma, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that asymmetric core collective model extended to odd-odd nuclei by Sharma and Davidson predicts very good results for magnetic moments of these nuclei even without configuration. These results are further improved when Coriolis perturbation effects are taken into account. The influence of Coriolis coupling on gamma-ray transition probabilities has been studied by Reich et al. In the frame-work of the Coriolis coupling model, M-1 transition probabilities are computed and compared with the results of earlier workers. The asymmetry of the core is expected to influence these results. (author)

  9. Exploration of preterm birth rates associated with different models of antenatal midwifery care in Scotland: Unmatched retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew; Winter, Clare; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-06-01

    preterm birth represents a significant personal, clinical, organisational and financial burden. Strategies to reduce the preterm birth rate have had limited success. Limited evidence indicates that certain antenatal care models may offer some protection, although the causal mechanism is not understood. We sought to compare preterm birth rates for mixed-risk pregnant women accessing antenatal care organised at a freestanding midwifery unit (FMU) and mixed-risk pregnant women attending an obstetric unit (OU) with related community-based antenatal care. unmatched retrospective 4-year Scottish cohort analysis (2008-2011) of mixed-risk pregnant women accessing (i) FMU antenatal care (n=1107); (ii) combined community-based and OU antenatal care (n=7567). Data were accessed via the Information and Statistics Division of the NHS in Scotland. Aggregates analysis and binary logistic regression were used to compare the cohorts׳ rates of preterm birth; and of spontaneous labour onset, use of pharmacological analgesia, unassisted vertex birth, and low birth weight. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, parity, deprivation score and smoking status in pregnancy. after adjustment the 'mixed risk' FMU cohort had a statistically significantly reduced risk of preterm birth (5.1% [n=57] versus 7.7% [n=583]; AOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.98]; p=0.034). Differences in these secondary outcome measures were also statistically significant: spontaneous labour onset (FMU 83.9% versus OU 74.6%; AOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.46-2.08]; p<0.001); minimal intrapartum analgesia (FMU 53.7% versus OU 34.4%; AOR 2.17 [95% CI 1.90-2.49]; p<0.001); spontaneous vertex delivery (FMU 71.9% versus OU 63.5%; AOR 1.46 [95% CI 1.32-1.78]; p<0.001). Incidence of low birth weight was not statistically significant after adjustment for other variables. There was no significant difference in the rate of perinatal or neonatal death. given this study׳s methodological limitations, we can only claim associations between the care model

  10. Use of metabolomics for the identification and validation of clinical biomarkers for preterm birth: Preterm SAMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Cecatti, Jose G.; Souza, Renato T.; Sulek, Karolina; Costa, Maria L.; Kenny, Louise C.; McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Villas-Boas, Silas G.; Mayrink, Jussara; Passini, Renato; Franchini, Kleber G.; Baker, Philip N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous preterm birth is a complex syndrome with multiple pathways interactions determining its occurrence, including genetic, immunological, physiologic, biochemical and environmental factors. Despite great worldwide efforts in preterm birth prevention, there are no recent effective therapeutic strategies able to decrease spontaneous preterm birth rates or their consequent neonatal morbidity/mortality. The Preterm SAMBA study will associate metabolomics technologies to identi...

  11. Odd-Paired: The Drosophila Zic Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Deborah A; Stultz, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain. opa was initially identified as a pair-rule gene, part of the hierarchy of genes that establish the segmental body plan of the early Drosophila embryo. However, its wide expression pattern during embryogenesis indicates it plays additional roles. Embryos deficient in opa die before hatching with aberrant segmentation but also with defects in larval midgut formation. Post-embryonically, opa plays important roles in adult head development and circadian rhythm. Based on extensive neural expression, opa is predicted to be involved in many aspects of neural development and behavior, like other proteins of the Zic family. Consensus DNA binding sites have been identified for Opa and have been shown to activate transcription in vivo. However, there is evidence Opa may serve as a transcriptional regulator in the absence of direct DNA binding, as has been seen for other Zic proteins.

  12. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  13. Relative cost-effectiveness of using a liquid human milk fortifier in preterm infants in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Fernando Moya,3 Paula M Sisk,4 Mark L Hudak,5 Devon Kuehn6 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Coastal Carolina Neonatology, Wilmington, NC, USA; 4Novant Health Forsyth Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 6Department of Pediatrics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using a liquid human milk fortifier (LHMF compared to a powdered human milk fortifier (PHMF in preterm infants in the US from the perspective of third-party payers and parents.Methods: This was a decision modelling study using patient data obtained from a randomized controlled trial comparing a LHMF with a PHMF in preterm infants, supplemented with additional data obtained by performing a chart review among 79% of the trial patients. The model estimated the cost-effectiveness of LHMF versus PHMF in US$ at 2014/2015 prices.Results: More infants in the LHMF group were discharged home (92% versus 89% and more infants in the PHMF group were transferred to another unit (9% versus 5%. Gestational age was an independent predictor for being discharged home (odds ratio of 2.18; p=0.006 for each week of gestational age. Mean length of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU stay was 1 day less in the LHMF than the PHMF group (62.3 versus 63.4 days, but mean length of NICU stay among infants who developed NEC or sepsis was 79.3 days and 61.2 days in the PHMF and LHMF groups, respectively. Total management cost up to discharge was $10,497 per infant less in the LHMF group than the PHMF group ($240,928 versus $251,425.Conclusion: Using LHMF instead of PHMF in preterm infants enabled resources to be freed-up for alternative use within the system. There is no health economic reason why LHMF should not be used in preference to PHMF

  14. Cerebral oxygenation in the preterm neonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dix, L.M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although survival rates of preterm infants are improving, preterm birth is still associated with significant morbidity.The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs in preterm infants. Neonatal brain injury can have a large impact on the quality of life. Monitoring the immature brain is therefore

  15. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  16. Maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery: results from large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sengpiel, Verena; Haugen, Margareta; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-03-04

    To examine whether an association exists between maternal dietary patterns and risk of preterm delivery. Prospective cohort study. Norway, between 2002 and 2008. 66 000 pregnant women (singletons, answered food frequency questionnaire, no missing information about parity or previously preterm delivery, pregnancy duration between 22+0 and 41+6 gestational weeks, no diabetes, first enrolment pregnancy). Hazard ratio for preterm delivery according to level of adherence to three distinct dietary patterns interpreted as "prudent" (for example, vegetables, fruits, oils, water as beverage, whole grain cereals, fibre rich bread), "Western" (salty and sweet snacks, white bread, desserts, processed meat products), and "traditional" (potatoes, fish). After adjustment for covariates, high scores on the "prudent" pattern were associated with significantly reduced risk of preterm delivery hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest third (0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.97). The prudent pattern was also associated with a significantly lower risk of late and spontaneous preterm delivery. No independent association with preterm delivery was found for the "Western" pattern. The "traditional" pattern was associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery for the highest versus the lowest third (hazard ratio 0.91, 0.83 to 0.99). This study showed that women adhering to a "prudent" or a "traditional" dietary pattern during pregnancy were at lower risk of preterm delivery compared with other women. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they support dietary advice to pregnant women to eat a balanced diet including vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and fish and to drink water. Our results indicate that increasing the intake of foods associated with a prudent dietary pattern is more important than totally excluding processed food, fast food, junk food, and snacks.

  17. Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER’s improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects.

  18. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  19. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  20. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  1. The apparent breastfeeding paradox in very preterm infants: relationship between breast feeding, early weight gain and neurodevelopment based on results from two cohorts, EPIPAGE and LIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Flamant, Cyril; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Savagner, Christophe; Claris, Olivier; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mitanchez, Delphine; Branger, Bernard; Simeoni, Umberto; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Context Supplementation of breast milk is difficult once infants suckle the breast and is often discontinued at end of hospitalisation and after discharge. Thus, breastfed preterm infants are exposed to an increased risk of nutritional deficit with a possible consequence on neurodevelopmental outcome. Objective To assess the relationship between breast feeding at time of discharge, weight gain during hospitalisation and neurodevelopmental outcome. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Two large, independent population-based cohorts of very preterm infants: the Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) and the EPIPAGE cohorts. Patients 2925 very preterm infants alive at discharge. Main outcome measure Suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcome, defined as a score in the lower tercile, using Age and Stages Questionnaire at 2 years in LIFT and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Test at 5 years in EPIPAGE. Two propensity scores for breast feeding at discharge, one for each cohort, were used to reduce bias. Results Breast feeding at time of discharge concerned only 278/1733 (16%) infants in LIFT and 409/2163 (19%) infants in EPIPAGE cohort. Breast feeding is significantly associated with an increased risk of losing one weight Z-score during hospitalisation (LIFT: n=1463, adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=2.51 (95% CI 1.87 to 3.36); EPIPAGE: n=1417, aOR=1.55 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.12)) and with a decreased risk for a suboptimal neurodevelopmental assessment (LIFT: n=1463, aOR=0.63 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.87); EPIPAGE: n=1441, aOR=0.65 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.89) and an increased chance of having a head circumference Z-score higher than 0.5 at 2 years in LIFT cohort (n=1276, aOR=1.43 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.02)) and at 5 years in EPIPAGE cohort (n=1412, aOR=1.47 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.95)). Conclusions The observed better neurodevelopment in spite of suboptimal initial weight gain could be termed the ‘apparent breastfeeding paradox’ in very preterm infants. Regardless of the mechanisms involved

  2. Cerebral NIRS patterns in late preterm and very preterm infants becoming late preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grometto, Alice; Pizzo, Benedetta; Strozzi, Maria Chiara; Gazzolo, Francesca; Gazzolo, Diego

    2017-11-20

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as a useful, noninvasive monitoring technique providing reliable information about central nervous system (CNS) oximetry and function. Recently, brain damage has been reconsidered as a dynamic process evolving over the weeks of gestation. We therefore investigated NIRS cerebral pattern differences between healthy late preterm infants (LPTo) and very preterm infants becoming late preterm (LPT). We conducted an observational study in 40 healthy late preterm infants, matched for gestational age at monitoring, of whom 20 where LPTo and 20 LPT. Clinical, diagnostic and laboratory monitoring procedures and cerebral oximetry (crSO 2 ) and function (cFTOE) were recorded on admission into the study. No significant differences (p > .05, for all) were found between groups regarding clinical, diagnostic or laboratory parameters. Higher crSO 2 and lower cFTOE (p preterm infants becoming LPT. Future studies correlating NIRS variables and long-term neurological outcome in LPT are needed to elucidate the concept of dynamic brain damage pathogenesis.

  3. The heritability of preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth; Argyle, VeeAnn; Meade, Mary; Nelson, Lesa

    2005-12-01

    To study the heritability of preterm delivery. Women who delivered a singleton infant at less than 36 weeks of gestation were asked about their family history. Twenty-eight families were identified in which the proband had at least five first- or second-degree relatives with preterm delivery. An extensive genealogy database (GenDB) was constructed using more than 9,000 genealogy sources in the public domain (records before 1929). GenDB documents the relationships between more than 17.5 million ancestors and 3.5 million descendants of approximately 10,000 individuals who moved to Utah in the mid 1800s. This database was searched for the names, birth dates, and birthplaces of the four grandparents for each of the 28 probands. Pairwise coefficients of kinship were determined for the 93 preterm delivery grandparents identified, and for sets of 100 individuals born in the 1920s who were randomly selected from the population database. Probands had a mean of 3.3 grandparents included in this database. The average coefficient of kinship for controls was 1.5 x 10(6) (standard deviation = 0.6 x 10(6)). This measure agrees with previous calculations for the Utah population. The coefficient of kinship for familial preterm delivery grandparents was more than 50 standard deviations higher (3.4 x 10(5) [P < .001]). This study confirms the familial nature of preterm delivery. On average, gravidae randomly selected from our population are 23rd degree relatives, while these preterm delivery probands are eighth-degree relatives. A genome-wide scan using these affected families is underway.

  4. Diffuse periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey matter changes by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, L.C.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.K.; Papastefanaki, M.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S. [University of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, L.G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Preterm children may have cognitive deficits and behavioural disorders suggestive of grey matter (GM) injury. The prevalence is higher in preterm children with diffuse periventricular leukomalacia (dPVL). Evaluate changes in the volume of 116 GM areas in preterm children with dPVL. Eleven preterm children with dPVL, gestational age 32.8 {+-} 2.6 weeks, examined at corrected age 22.0 {+-} 18.2 months and 33 matched preterm controls with normal brain MRI were studied. Volumes of 116 individual GM areas, and white matter/cerebrospinal fluid (WM/CSF) ratio were calculated on T1-weighted high-resolution images after segmentation. Relative to controls, children with dPVL had decreased GM volume of the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes and temporal middle gyrus (P < 0.05); increased GM volume of the putamen, thalamus, globus pallidum, superior temporal gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes (P < 0.05) and lower WM volume/higher CSF volume (P < 0.05). WM/CSF ratios also differed (P < 0.05). Preterm children with dPVL have increased regional GM volume in some areas probably related with a process of brain plasticity-regeneration and reduced GM volume in areas associated with cognition and memory. (orig.)

  5. Diffuse periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey matter changes by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarouchi, L.C.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.K.; Papastefanaki, M.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S.; Astrakas, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm children may have cognitive deficits and behavioural disorders suggestive of grey matter (GM) injury. The prevalence is higher in preterm children with diffuse periventricular leukomalacia (dPVL). Evaluate changes in the volume of 116 GM areas in preterm children with dPVL. Eleven preterm children with dPVL, gestational age 32.8 ± 2.6 weeks, examined at corrected age 22.0 ± 18.2 months and 33 matched preterm controls with normal brain MRI were studied. Volumes of 116 individual GM areas, and white matter/cerebrospinal fluid (WM/CSF) ratio were calculated on T1-weighted high-resolution images after segmentation. Relative to controls, children with dPVL had decreased GM volume of the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes and temporal middle gyrus (P < 0.05); increased GM volume of the putamen, thalamus, globus pallidum, superior temporal gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes (P < 0.05) and lower WM volume/higher CSF volume (P < 0.05). WM/CSF ratios also differed (P < 0.05). Preterm children with dPVL have increased regional GM volume in some areas probably related with a process of brain plasticity-regeneration and reduced GM volume in areas associated with cognition and memory. (orig.)

  6. Genetic Factors Contribute to Risk for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome among Moderately Preterm, Late Preterm, and Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Carol L.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Meyer, Julia; Cole, F. Sessions; Wambach, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the genetic contribution to risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among moderately preterm, late preterm, and term infants (estimated gestational age ≥32 weeks) of African and European-descent. Study Design We reviewed clinical records for 524 consecutive twin pairs ≥32 weeks gestation. We identified pairs in which at least 1 twin had RDS (n=225) and compared the concordance of RDS between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). Using mixed effects logistic regression, we identified covariates that increased disease risk. We performed additive genetic, common environmental, and residual effects modeling to estimate genetic variance and used the ratio of genetic variance to total variance to estimate genetic contribution to RDS disease risk. Results Monozygotic twins were more concordant for RDS than dizygotic twins (p=0.0040). Estimated gestational age, European-descent, male sex, delivery by cesarean, and five minute Apgar score each independently increased risk for RDS. After adjusting for these covariates, genetic effects accounted for 58% (p=0.0002) of the RDS disease risk variance for all twin pairs. Conclusions In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may contribute to RDS risk among moderately preterm, late preterm, and term infants. Discovery of risk alleles may be important for prediction and management of RDS risk. PMID:26935785

  7. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  8. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  9. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  10. Circulating Protein Carbonyls, Antioxidant Enzymes and Related Trace Minerals among Preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed El-Abd; Abd-Elmawgood, Eman Ahmed; Hassan, Mohammed H

    2017-07-01

    Information about oxidative stress in preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is defective, so various researches in this area are required, which may open new roads in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, hence provide additional helpful therapeutic approaches. To assess and compare the plasma level of protein carbonyls as a marker for oxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and the related trace minerals in the form of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) as markers for antioxidant status, in preterms with and without RDS. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on fifty-seven preterm neonates (37 preterms with RDS and 20 preterms without RDS) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Qena University Hospitals after approval of the University Hospital Ethical Committee. Plasma protein carbonyls assay was done using commercially available ELISA assay kit. Plasma Cu, Zn, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities assays were done using commercially available colorimetric assay kits. Significant higher plasma levels of protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio (protein carbonyls/{SOD+GPx}) with significant lower plasma levels of Zn, Cu, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities were found in the preterms with RDS when compared with the preterms without RDS (p<0.001 for all measured markers for both groups). In terms of birth weights and gestational ages, they were negatively correlated with both plasma protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio and positively correlated with plasma copper, zinc, selenium, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities in a statistically significant manner. Non-significant correlations were found between the measured oxidative stress markers and the severity of RDS. Oxidative stress may have a contributory role in the development of RDS among preterms. Lower birth weight and prematurity may increase the susceptibity to oxidative stress among

  11. Characteristics of childbearing women, obstetrical interventions and preterm delivery: a comparison of the US and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Blondel, Béatrice; Ananth, Cande V

    2015-05-01

    Preterm delivery rates have remained consistently higher in the US than France, but the reasons for this excess remain poorly understood. We examined if differences in socio-demographic risk factors or more liberal use of obstetrical interventions contributed to higher rates in the US. Data on singleton live births in 1995, 1998 and 2003 from US birth certificates and the French National Perinatal Survey were used to analyze preterm delivery rate by maternal characteristics (age, parity, marital status, education, race (US)/nationality (France), prenatal care and smoking). We distinguished between preterm deliveries with a cesarean or a labor induction and those without these interventions. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RR) for the US compared to France were estimated using log-binomial regression. Preterm delivery rates were 7.9 % in the US and 4.7 % in France (risk ratio [RR] = 1.7, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.6-1.8). The US had more teen mothers and late entry to prenatal care, but fewer women smoked, although adjustment for these and other confounders did not reduce RR (1.8, 95 % CI 1.7-1.9). Preterm delivery rates associated with labor induction or cesarean were 3.3 % in the US and 2.1 % in France (RR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.5-1.7); the corresponding rates for preterm delivery without these interventions were 4.5 and 2.5 % (RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.7-1.9), respectively. Key socio-demographic risk factors and more obstetric intervention do not explain higher US preterm delivery rates. Avenues for future research include the impact of universal access to health services (universal health insurance?) on health care quality and the association between more generous social policies, stress and the risks of preterm delivery.

  12. Ethanol for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Morgan, Amanda M; Deans, Samantha J; Schubert, Frank P

    2015-11-05

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death and disability in newborns worldwide. A wide variety of tocolytic agents have been utilized to delay birth for women in preterm labor. One of the earliest tocolytics utilized for this purpose was ethanol infusion, although this is not generally used in current practice due to safety concerns for both the mother and her baby. To determine the efficacy of ethanol in stopping preterm labor, preventing preterm birth, and the impact of ethanol on neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomized and quasi-randomized studies. Cluster-randomized trials and cross-over design trials were not eligible for inclusion. We only included studies published in abstract form if there was enough information on methods and relevant outcomes. Trials were included if they compared ethanol infusion to stop preterm labor versus placebo/control or versus other tocolytic drugs. At least two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias. At least two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Twelve trials involving 1586 women met inclusion criteria for this review. One trial did not report on the outcomes of interest in this review.Risk of bias of included studies: The included studies generally were of low quality based on inadequate reporting of methodology. Only three trials had low risk of bias for random sequence generation and one had low risk of bias for allocation concealment and participant blinding. Most studies were either high risk of bias or uncertain in these key areas. Comparison 1: Ethanol versus placebo/control (two trials, 77 women) Compared to controls receiving pain medications and dextrose solution, ethanol did not improve any of the primary outcomes: birth confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 2.00), or neonatal mortality (one trial, 35 women; RR

  13. Association between prenatal care utilization and risk of preterm birth among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Rong; Liang, Sheng-Wen; Wang, Jing; Chang, Jen Jen; Hu, Ke; Dong, Guang-Hui; Hu, Rong-Hua; Flick, Louise H; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Dan; Li, Qing-Jie; Zheng, Tong-Zhang; Xu, Shun-Qing; Yang, Shao-Ping; Qian, Zheng-Min

    2017-08-01

    It is recognized that prenatal care plays an important role in reducing adverse birth. Chinese pregnant women with medical condition were required to seek additional health care based on the recommended at least 5 times health care visits. This study was to estimate the association between prenatal care utilization (PCU) and preterm birth (PTB), and to investigate if medical conditions during pregnancy modified the association. This population-based case control study sampled women with PTB as cases; one control for each case was randomly selected from women with term births. The Electronic Perinatal Health Care Information System (EPHCIS) and a questionnaire were used for data collection. The PCU was measured by a renewed Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) index. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Totally, 2393 women with PTBs and 4263 women with term births were collected. In this study, 695 (10.5%) women experienced inadequate prenatal care, and 5131 (77.1%) received adequate plus prenatal care. Inadequate PCU was associated with PTB (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.32-1.84); the similar positive association was found between adequate plus PCU and PTB. Among women with medical conditions, these associations still existed; but among women without medical conditions, the association between inadequate PCU and PTB disappeared. Our data suggests that women receiving inappropriate PCU are at an increased risk of having PTB, but it does depend on whether the woman has a medical condition during pregnancy.

  14. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Human Milk From Mothers of Preterm Compared With Term Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Treumuth, Sirli; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-05-01

    Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used. The presence of the mecA gene, icaA gene of the ica-operon, IS 256, and ACME genetic elements was determined by PCR. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates had higher counts of staphylococci but lower species diversity. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates more often contained Staphylococcus epidermidis mecA (32.7% vs. 2.6%), icaA (18.8% vs. 6%), IS 256 (7.9% vs. 0.9%), and ACME (15.4% vs. 5.1%), as well as Staphylococcus haemolyticus mecA (90.5% vs. 10%) and IS 256 (61.9% vs. 10%). The overall distribution of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) types and sequence types was similar between the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates, but a few mecA-IS 256-positive MLVA types colonized only mothers of preterm neonates. Maternal hospitalization within 1 month postpartum and the use of an arterial catheter or antibacterial treatment in the neonate increased the odds of harboring mecA-positive staphylococci in human milk. Limiting exposure of mothers of preterm neonates to the hospital could prevent human milk colonization with more pathogenic staphylococci.

  15. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the effica...

  16. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  17. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  18. Skipping meals and less walking among African Americans diagnosed with preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Mary Dawn; Volpe, Stella L; Sammel, Mary D; Gennaro, Susan

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to compare meal frequency, macronutrient intake, and physical activity between African Americans with preterm labor and those without preterm labor. A descriptive comparative study was used with 80 pregnant African Americans. Three 24-hour diet recalls, the Block 2005 food frequency questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale were collected at 24 to 34 weeks of gestation. The odds of skipping meals for women in the preterm labor group was 3.57 times the odds of skipped meals for women in the term labor group (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-10.16, p=.006). The association was increased to 6.86 (95% CI 2.13-22.12, plabor group (p=.03). Results have implications for prenatal counseling regarding the importance of frequent meal and snack consumption throughout the day. Further research is necessary to establish the mechanisms by which energy consumption contributes to risk for preterm labor. Pregnancy is a time when health professionals monitor women regularly and presents a unique opportunity for practitioners to communicate the importance of frequent meals and snacks throughout pregnancy, as well as the health benefits of walking as a form of physical activity.

  19. Psychosocial Stress and Preterm Birth: The Impact of Parity and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarahn; Maxson, Pamela; Truong, Tracy; Swamy, Geeta

    2018-03-29

    Objectives Studies examining risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) such as psychosocial stress are often focused on women with a history of PTB; however, most preterm babies are born to women with no history of preterm birth. Our objective was to determine if the relationship between psychosocial stress and PTB is altered by parity. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) women have increased psychosocial stress and PTB; therefore, we further aimed to determine if race alters the relationship between psychosocial stress, parity, and PTB. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby Study comparing pregnant women who were primiparous (first pregnancy), multiparous with history of preterm birth, or multiparous with history of term birth. Perceived stress, perceived racism, interpersonal support, John Henryism and self-efficacy were measured using validated instruments. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of psychosocial stress on PTB stratified by parity and race. Results The analysis entire cohort included 1606 subjects, 426 were primiparous, 268 had a history of presterm birth, and 912 had a history of term birth. In women with a history of term birth, higher self-efficacy was associated with lower odds of spontaneous PTB, and this association was amplified in NHB women. In women with a history of spontaneous PTB, John Henryism Active Coping was associated with lower odds of spontaneous PTB in the index pregnancy. Conclusions for Practice The relationship between psychosocial stress and PTB may be mediated by parity and race.

  20. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  1. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  2. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)

  3. Association Between Moderate and Late Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopment and Social-Emotional Development at Age 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jeanie L; Doyle, Lex W; Burnett, Alice C; Lee, Katherine J; Walsh, Jennifer M; Potter, Cody R; Treyvaud, Karli; Thompson, Deanne K; Olsen, Joy E; Anderson, Peter J; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-04-03

    development, and -7.3 (95% CI, -10.6 to -3.9) for motor development. The odds of developmental delay were higher in the MLPT group compared with controls, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0) for cognitive delay, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.8-5.2) for language delay, and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3-4.5) for motor delay. Overall social-emotional competence was worse in MLPT children compared with controls (t statistic mean difference, -3.6 (95% CI, -5.8 to -1.4), but other behavioral domains were similar. The odds of being at risk for social-emotional competence were 3.9 (95% CI, 1.4-10.9) for MLPT children compared with controls. Moderate and late preterm children exhibited developmental delay compared with their term-born peers, most marked in the language domain. This knowledge of developmental needs in MLPT infants will assist in targeting surveillance and intervention.

  4. Improved Prediction of Preterm Delivery Using Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of Uterine Electromyography Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ren

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery increases the risk of infant mortality and morbidity, and therefore developing reliable methods for predicting its likelihood are of great importance. Previous work using uterine electromyography (EMG recordings has shown that they may provide a promising and objective way for predicting risk of preterm delivery. However, to date attempts at utilizing computational approaches to achieve sufficient predictive confidence, in terms of area under the curve (AUC values, have not achieved the high discrimination accuracy that a clinical application requires. In our study, we propose a new analytical approach for assessing the risk of preterm delivery using EMG recordings which firstly employs Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD to obtain their Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF. Next, the entropy values of both instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency of the first ten IMF components are computed in order to derive ratios of these two distinct components as features. Discrimination accuracy of this approach compared to those proposed previously was then calculated using six differently representative classifiers. Finally, three different electrode positions were analyzed for their prediction accuracy of preterm delivery in order to establish which uterine EMG recording location was optimal signal data. Overall, our results show a clear improvement in prediction accuracy of preterm delivery risk compared with previous approaches, achieving an impressive maximum AUC value of 0.986 when using signals from an electrode positioned below the navel. In sum, this provides a promising new method for analyzing uterine EMG signals to permit accurate clinical assessment of preterm delivery risk.

  5. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-06-19

    Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Infants with gestational age of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not statistically different from the control infants. Lower weight at the time of immunization was a risk factor for a resurgence of or increased ABD post-immunization. Birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age or sex were not risk factors. There is an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events following the first dose of DTP

  6. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis [University Hospital of Ioannina, Radiology Department, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina Medical School, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-10-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length ({+-} SD) of 56{+-}4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9{+-}4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3{+-}4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2{+-}4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6{+-}4.6, 62.8{+-}4.3, and 62.3{+-}4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  7. Ancestry informative markers and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes on preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; Mendes, Niele Dias; Tanikawa, Aline Aki; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Castelli, Erick C; Witkin, Steven S; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-02-05

    A genetic predisposition to Preterm Labor (PTL) and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) has been suggested; however the relevance of polymorphisms and ancestry to susceptibility to PTL and PPROM in different populations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of maternal and fetal SNPs in the IL1B, IL6, IL6R, TNFA, TNFR, IL10, TLR2, TLR4, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 genes and the influence of ancestry background in the susceptibility to PTL or PPROM in Brazilian women. Case-control study conducted at a tertiary hospital in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included women with PTL or PPROM and their babies (PTL: 136 women and 88 babies; PPROM: 65 women and 44 babies). Control group included 402 mother-babies pairs of term deliveries. Oral swabs were collected for identification of AIMs by fragment analysis and SNPs by Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assays and PCR. Linkage Disequilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg proportions were evaluated using Genepop 3.4. Haplotypes were inferred using the PHASE algorithm. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared by Fisher's exact test or χ (2) and Odds Ratio. Logistic regression was performed. Clinical and sociodemographic data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney. PTL was associated with European ancestry and smoking while African ancestry was protective. The fetal alleles IL10-592C (rs800872) and IL10-819C (rs1800871) were also associated with PTL and the maternal haplotype TNFA-308G-238A was protective. Maternal presence of IL10-1082G (rs1800896) and TLR2A (rs4696480) alleles increased the risk for PPROM while TNFA-238A (rs361525) was protective. Family history of PTL/PPROM was higher in cases, and time to delivery was influenced by IL1B-31T (rs1143627) and TLR4-299G (rs4986790). There is an association between European ancestry and smoking and PTL in our Brazilian population sample. The presence of maternal or fetal alleles that modify the inflammatory response increase the

  8. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    : High levels of sCD163 or CRP are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery in women with symptoms of delivery. Good prediction of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation was obtained by a combination of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), overweight, relaxin, CRP and s...

  9. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  10. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. M.; Hof, M. H. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Ravelli, A. C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Schaaf J, Hof M, Mol B, Abu-Hanna A, Ravelli A. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery.BJOG 2012;119:16241629. Objective To determine the risk of preterm birth in a subsequent twin pregnancy after previous singleton

  11. Association among Maternal Obesity, Cervical Length, and Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Anna; Miller, Emily S; Son, Moeun; Kominiarek, Michelle A

    2017-04-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to determine if mid-trimester cervical length is associated with the inverse relationship between maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Materials and Methods  This was a retrospective cohort of women with a singleton pregnancy without prior SPTB who underwent routine transvaginal cervical length assessment between 18 and 24 weeks. Women were categorized into four BMI groups: (1) 18.5 to 24.9, (2) 25 to 29.9, (3) 30 to 34.9, and (4) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 . Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine whether BMI group was associated with SPTB at < 37, 34, or 32 weeks independent of the cervical length. Results  Of the 18,100 women in this analysis, 43.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. In univariable analysis, increasing BMI group was associated with longer cervical length but not with cervical length < 10th percentile. SPTB at < 37, 35, and 32 weeks was less common among women with higher BMI. In multivariable regression, a higher BMI group was associated with a lower frequency of SPTB at 37 weeks (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.51), at 34 weeks (aORs of 0.53, 0.54, and 0.31) and at 32 weeks (aORs of 0.47, 0.60, and 0.27) for BMI groups 2 to 4, respectively. This association persisted even when cervical length was entered into the model as a covariate. Conclusion  Women with a higher BMI group had longer mid-trimester cervical length, and correspondingly reduced SPTB. However, the decreased risk of SPTB was not associated with cervical length. The reason for the potential protective effect from prematurity is unknown and its mechanisms require further investigation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N; Owens, Chantelle J; Brown, David R; Lankford, Tina J; Simoes, Eduardo J; Caspersen, Carl J

    2015-06-16

    We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990-2012 on dog owners' PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers' performance with non-dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non-dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09-3.60). Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health.

  13. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  14. Peak Bone Mass and Bone Microarchitecture in Adults Born With Low Birth Weight Preterm or at Term: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Chandima N D; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Mosti, Mats P; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Jacobsen, Geir W; Indredavik, Marit S; Schei, Berit; Stunes, Astrid Kamilla; Syversen, Unni

    2017-07-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is regarded as the most important determinant of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests a role of intrauterine programming in skeletal development. We examined PBM and trabecular bone score (TBS) in adults born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) at term compared with term-born controls. This follow-up cohort study included 186 men and women (25 to 28 years); 52 preterm VLBW (≤1500 g), 59 term-born SGA (10th percentile). Main outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral content (BMC), TBS, and serum bone markers. VLBW adults had lower BMC and BMD vs controls, also when adjusted for height, weight, and potential confounders, with the following BMD Z-score differences: femoral neck, 0.6 standard deviation (SD) (P = 0.003); total hip, 0.4 SD (P = 0.01); whole body, 0.5 SD (P = 0.007); and lumbar spine, 0.3 SD (P = 0.213). The SGA group displayed lower spine BMC and whole-body BMD Z-scores, but not after adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for osteopenia/osteoporosis were 2.4 and 2.0 in VLBW and SGA adults, respectively. TBS did not differ between groups, but it was lower in men than in women. Serum Dickkopf-1 was higher in VLBW subjects vs controls; however, it was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Both low-birth-weight groups displayed lower PBM and higher frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis, implying increased future fracture risk. The most pronounced bone deficit was seen in VLBW adults. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Association between perinatal hypoxic-ischemia and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichong Huang

    Full Text Available Although investigators have implicated hypoxic-ischemia (HI as a potential cause of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, the role of clinical risk factors or markers for HI in the development of PVL remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify perinatal HI-related factors associated with PVL.The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The last search was performed on January 2017. Summary effect estimates (pooled odds ratios [ORs] were calculated for each risk factor using fixed or random effects models with tests for heterogeneity and publication bias.Fifteen studies with a total of 12,851 participants were included in this meta-analysis, and 14 potential risk factors were analyzed. The pooled results showed that mothers with oligohydramnios (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.30, preterm infants with acidemia (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.97, 1-minute Apgar score <7 (OR 2.69; 95% CI, 1.13 to 6.41, 5-minute Apgar score <7 (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.56, apnea (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.90, respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.03, and seizures (OR, 4.60; 95% CI, 2.84 to 7.46 were associated with increased risk of PVL.This study identified perinatal HI-related risk factors for the development of PVL in preterm infants. Future large-scale prospective clinical studies are required to validate and extend these findings.

  16. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  17. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  18. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  19. Sex of the first-born and risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Cnattingius, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the chance of successfully maintaining a pregnancy may be influenced by the sex of previously born children. We explored a possible relation between sex of the first-born infant and the risk of preterm birth in the second pregnancy. METHODS: Using data from...... regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of preterm birth in the second pregnancy according to the sex of the first-born infant. RESULTS: Compared with women whose first baby was a girl, women with boys had an increased risk of preterm birth in a second pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95......% confidence interval = 1.07-1.13]). This result was consistent in the 2 populations. The association was not confounded by maternal age, interpregnancy interval, or sex of the second infant or by maternal characteristics that do not vary from one pregnancy to the next. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a male fetus...

  20. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  1. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeši-Drljan Čila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size was 206 children with CP. The data were obtained from medical records and included gestational age at birth, clinical characteristics of CP and associated conditions. Clinical CP type was determined according to Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE and topographically. Gross motor function abilities were evaluated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Results. More than half of the children with CP were born prematurely (54.4%. Statistically significant difference was noted with respect to the distribution of various clinical types of CP in relation to gestational age (p < 0.001. In the group with spastic bilateral CP type, there is a greater proportion of children born preterm. Statistically significant difference was noted in the functional classification based on GMFCS in terms of gestational age (p = 0.049, children born at earlier gestational age are classified at a higher GMFCS level of functional limitation. The greatest percentage of children (70.0% affected by two or more associated conditions was found in the group that had extremely preterm birth, and that number declined with increasing maturity at birth. Epilepsy was more prevalent in children born at greater gestational age, and this difference in distribution was statistically significant (p = 0.032. Conclusion. The application of antenatal and postnatal protection of preterm children should be a significant component of the CP prevention strategy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  2. Prenatal food allergen exposures and odds of childhood peanut, tree nut, or sesame seed sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joyce T; Missmer, Stacey A; Young, Michael C; Correia, Katharine F; Twarog, Frank J; Coughlin, Irene B; Hornstein, Mark D; Schneider, Lynda C

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of peanut (PN) and tree nut (TN) allergy in children has tripled in the past decade. Prenatal exposures, including maternal diet and medications, may account for some of this increase. In the United States, progesterone for luteal support in assisted reproduction is commonly formulated in PN or sesame seed (SS) oil. To determine whether prenatal exposure to PN or SS oil as progesterone in oil increases the child's odds of PN, TN, or SS allergy. Parents of 1,272 children evaluated by allergists from May 2005 through October 2009 completed questionnaires on conception, prenatal exposures, dietary history, and allergic history, with review of the child's medical record and skin prick and specific IgE test results. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression models. Children of mothers with a history of infertility, in vitro fertilization, or use of progesterone in oil did not have increased odds of PN, TN, and/or SS sensitization. Maternal consumption of TNs during first 2 trimesters was associated with 60% higher odds of having a PN/TN/SS-sensitized child (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.51), with similarly increased odds with maternal SS ingestion. Odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization were doubled in children with asthma or environmental allergies. Neither maternal infertility nor exposure to PN or SS oils through progesterone support during assisted reproduction treatment was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. However, maternal ingestion of TNs and SS during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical aspects on dental hard tissues in primary teeth from preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rythén, Marianne; Sabel, Nina; Dietz, Wolfram; Robertson, Agneta; Norén, Jörgen G

    2010-08-01

    Preterm children with very low birth weight suffer from several neonatal and postnatal complications that may affect the mineralization of teeth. Clinical and morphological studies have shown enamel aberrations in teeth from preterm children. In this study, the chemical composition in enamel and dentin was compared in primary teeth from preterm children and full-term children, and the relationship between the chemical composition and the morphological appearance was investigated. Enamel and dentin in 17 exfoliated primary teeth, from 14 children with a gestational age below 29 wk, were investigated and compared with 36 exfoliated primary teeth from full-term children, using X-ray microanalyses (XRMA). In comparison with the teeth from the controls, the teeth from preterm children had a higher relative value of carbon (C), a lower relative value of calcium (Ca), a lower ratio of calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) and a lower ratio of Ca/C throughout the outer part of the enamel. In dentin, the relative values for P were higher, and Ca/P ratio was lower, at the dentin-pulp junction. The Ca/P ratio indicated normal hydroxyapatite in the crystals in enamel and dentin. The lower ratio of Ca/C in the bulk and outer part of the enamel indicated more porous enamel. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Neurologic and metabolic issues in moderately preterm, late preterm, and early term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptook, Abbot R

    2013-12-01

    Common neurologic morbidities encountered in very preterm and extremely preterm infants (intracranial hemorrhage, white matter injury and periventricular leukomalacia, and apnea of prematurity) are much less common in moderately preterm and late preterm infants. The frequency of germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury are reported to be low, but selection bias in neuroimaging surveillance prevents ascertainment of precise frequencies. The major neurologic morbidity of moderately and late preterm infants is feeding difficulty reflecting developmental integration of suck, swallow, and breathing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Even and odd symplectic and Kaehlerian structures on projective superspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersessyan, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Supergeneralization of CP(N) provided by even and odd Kaehlerian structures from Hamiltonian reduction are construct. Operator Δ which used in Batalin - Vilkovsky quantization formalism and mechanics which are bi-Hamiltonian under corresponding even and odd Poisson brackets are considered. 21 refs

  6. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  7. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  8. Melham's conjecture on odd power sums of fibonacci numbers | Sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozeki and Prodinger showed that the odd power sum of the first several consecutive Fibonacci numbers of even order is equal to a polynomial evaluated at a certain Fibonacci number of odd order. We prove that this polynomial and its derivative both vanish at 1, and will be an integer polynomial after multiplying it by a ...

  9. GEEORD: A SAS macro for analyzing ordinal response variables with repeated measures through proportional odds, partial proportional odds, or non-proportional odds models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Schwartz, Todd A; Preisser, John S; Perin, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    A SAS macro, GEEORD, has been developed for the analysis of ordinal responses with repeated measures through a regression model that flexibly allows the proportional odds assumption to apply (or not) separately for each explanatory variable. Previously utilized in an analysis of a longitudinal orthognathic surgery clinical trial by Preisser et al. [1,2], the basis of GEEORD is the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for cumulative logits models described by Lipsitz et al. [3]. The macro extends the capabilities for modeling correlated ordinal data of GEECAT, a SAS macro that allows the user to model correlated categorical response data [4]. The macro applies to independent ordinal responses as a special case. Examples are provided to demonstrate the convenient application of GEEORD to two different datasets. The macro's features are illustrated in fitting models to ordinal response variables in univariate and repeated measures settings; this includes the capacity to fit the non-proportional odds model, the partial proportional odds model, and the proportional odds model. The macro additionally provides relevant tests of the proportional odds assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  11. Hypothyroxinaemia and thyroid function after preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of thyroid hormone in preterm infants is lower than that in term infants. This phenomenon is referred to as transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity. Low thyroid hormone levels after very preterm birth are associated with worse developmental outcome in childhood, but only one

  12. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  13. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  14. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  15. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: A study of 19 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Szamotulska, K.; Drewniak, N.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Chalmers, J.; Sakkeus, L.; Irgens, L.; Gatt, M.; Gissler, M.; Blondel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of

  16. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  17. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults Born Preterm: Support for Accelerated Biological Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Subjects born preterm have an increased risk for age-associated diseases, such as cardiovascular disease in later life, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of biological age, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To compare LTL between subjects born preterm and at term and to assess if LTL is associated with other putative cardiovascular risk factors at young adult age.We measured mean LTL in 470 young adults. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay and expressed as T/S ratio. We analyzed the influence of gestational age on LTL and compared LTL between subjects born preterm (n = 186 and at term (n = 284. Additionally, we analyzed the correlation between LTL and potential risk factors of cardiovascular disease.Gestational age was positively associated with LTL (r = 0.11, p = 0.02. Subjects born preterm had shorter LTL (mean (SD T/S ratio = 3.12 (0.44 than subjects born at term (mean (SD T/S ratio = 3.25 (0.46, p = 0.003. The difference remained significant after adjustment for gender and size at birth (p = 0.001. There was no association of LTL with any one of the putative risk factors analyzed.Young adults born preterm have shorter LTL than young adults born at term. Although we found no correlation between LTL and risk for CVD at this young adult age, this biological ageing indicator may contribute to CVD and other adult onset diseases at a later age in those born preterm.

  18. BKP and CKP revisited: the odd KP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2009-01-01

    By restricting a linear system for the KP hierarchy to those independent variables t n with odd n, its compatibility (Zakharov-Shabat conditions) leads to the 'odd KP hierarchy'. The latter consists of pairs of equations for two dependent variables, taking values in an (typically noncommutative) associative algebra. If the algebra is commutative, the odd KP hierarchy is known to admit reductions to the BKP and the CKP hierarchy. We approach the odd KP hierarchy and its relation to BKP and CKP in different ways, and address the question of whether noncommutative versions of the BKP and the CKP equation (and some of their reductions) exist. In particular, we derive a functional representation of a linear system for the odd KP hierarchy, which in the commutative case produces functional representations of the BKP and CKP hierarchies in terms of a tau function. Furthermore, we consider a functional representation of the KP hierarchy that involves a second (auxiliary) dependent variable and features the odd KP hierarchy directly as a subhierarchy. A method to generate large classes of exact solutions to the KP hierarchy from solutions to a linear matrix ODE system, via a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations, then also applies to the odd KP hierarchy, and this in turn can be exploited, in particular, to obtain solutions to the BKP and CKP hierarchies

  19. preterm births in a resource constrained setting: soci

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... cerebral palsy, visual and hearing impairment are also more common in preterm infants. Preterm birth in it- ... vious history of induced abortion, previous history of pre-term delivery, history of antenatal ..... cioeconomic status with stress which has been found to be a trigger for preterm labour and delivery.6 ...

  20. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  1. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... comparison. We present a theoretical analysis of the quality of estimation to guarantee the reliability of Odd Sketch-based estimators. Our experiments confirm this efficiency, and demonstrate the efficiency of Odd Sketches in comparison with $b$-bit minwise hashing schemes on association rule learning...

  2. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  3. Total matrix metalloproteinase-8 serum levels in patients labouring preterm and patients with threatened preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Laudański

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour and prematurity are still a main cause of perinatal morbidity nowadays. The aim of our study was to assess the role of MMP-8 as a predictive marker of preterm delivery. Four groups of patients were involved to the study: I - pregnant women at 24-34 weeks of gestation with any symptoms of threatened preterm labour; II - threatened preterm labour patients between 24-34 weeks of gestation; III - preterm vaginal delivery patients; IV - healthy term vaginal delivery patients. Serum concentration of total MMP-8 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of total MMP-8 between physiological pregnancy and threatened preterm labour patients with existing uterine contractility. No significant differences of total MMP-8 were either found between healthy term and preterm labouring patients. The studies on a larger population are needed to reject the hypothesis that preterm labour is connected with increased MMP-8 plasma concentrations of women in preterm labour and threatened preterm delivery.

  4. Fetal Doppler to predict cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal status in the severe small-for-gestational-age fetuses of late preterm and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Hye; Choi, Yong Hee; Wie, Jeong Ha; Ko, Hyun Sun; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the significance of fetal Doppler parameters in predicting adverse neonatal outcomes and the risk of cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, in severe small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses of late preterm and term gestation. Fetal brain and umbilical artery (UmA) Doppler parameters of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and UmA pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated in a cohort of 184 SGA fetuses between 34 and 41 weeks gestational age, who were less than the 5th percentile. The risks of neonatal morbidities and cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status were analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that abnormal CPR was significantly associated with cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status ( P =0.018), but not with neonatal morbidities. However, abnormal CPR did not increase the risk of cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal CPR with abnormal PI of UmA was associated with low Apgar score at 1 minute ( P =0.048), mechanical ventilation ( P =0.013) and cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status ( P cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal status (adjusted odds ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-41.3; P =0.033), but did not increase risk of low Apgar score or mechanical ventilation in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal CPR with abnormal PI of UmA increases the risk of cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal status, in severe SGA fetuses of late preterm and term. Monitoring of CPR and PI of UmA can help guide management including maternal hospitalization and fetal monitoring.

  5. Phytosterol Esterification is Markedly Decreased in Preterm Infants Receiving Routine Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Sara; Correani, Alessio; Pupillo, Daniele; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Biagetti, Chiara; Pompilio, Adriana; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Taus, Marina; Nicolai, Albano; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for measurements. Plasma concentrations of free cholesterol (Free-CHO), free phytosterols (Free-PHY) and esterified phytosterols (Ester-PHY) were not different among the three PN groups. Esterified cholesterol (Ester-CHO) was statistically lower in Preterm-PN than Adult-PN. Preterm-PN had significantly higher Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and Free-PHY/Ester-PHY ratios than Adult-PN (Free-CHO/Ester-CHO: 1.1 ± 0.7 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2; Free-PHY/Ester-PHY: 4.1 ± 2.6 vs. 1.3 ± 0.8; *P phytosterol intake in Preterm-PN. Free-PHY/Ester-PHY of Preterm-PN was positively correlated with the Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight. In conclusion, PHY were esterified to a lesser extent than CHO in all study groups; the esterification was markedly decreased in Preterm-PN compared to Adult-PN. The clinical consequences of these findings warrant further investigations.

  6. Supine sleep positioning in preterm and term infants after hospital discharge from 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S S; Smith, R A; Barfield, W D; Smith, V C; McCormick, M C; Williams, M A

    2016-09-01

    Supine sleep positioning (SSP) has been shown to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at higher risk for SIDS. Population-based estimates of SSP are lacking for the preterm population. The objectives of this study are: (1) compare the prevalence of SSP after hospital discharge for preterm and term infants in the United States; and (2) assess racial/ethnic disparities in SSP for preterm and term infants. We analyzed the 2000 to 2011 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 35 states. We measured prevalence of SSP by preterm and term gestational age (GA) categories. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) to evaluate the likelihood of SSP for each GA category compared with term infants and the likelihood of SSP for non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Hispanic infants compared with non-Hispanic white (NHW) infants. Prevalence of SSP varied by GA: ⩽27, 59.7%; 28 0/7 to 33 6/7, 63.7%; 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 (late preterm), 63.6%; and 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 (term) weeks, 66.8% (Ppreterm infants were slightly less likely to be placed in SSP compared with term infants (APR: 0.96, confidence interval: 0.95 to 0.98). There were racial/ethnic disparities in SSP for all GA categories when NHB and Hispanic infants were compared with NHW infants. All infants had suboptimal adherence to SSP indicating a continued need to better engage families about SSP. Parents of late preterm infants and families of NHB and Hispanic infants will also require greater attention given their decreased likelihood of SSP.

  7. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This......, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with preterm birth compared...

  8. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  9. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  10. Association of Noninvasive Ventilation Strategies With Mortality and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Among Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Iwami, Hiroko; McDonald, Sarah; Beyene, Joseph

    2016-08-09

    Various noninvasive ventilation strategies are used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) of preterm infants; however, the best mode is uncertain. To compare 7 ventilation strategies for preterm infants including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alone, intubation and surfactant administration followed by immediate extubation (INSURE), less invasive surfactant administration (LISA), noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation, nebulized surfactant administration, surfactant administration via laryngeal mask airway, and mechanical ventilation. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from their inceptions to June 2016. Randomized clinical trials comparing ventilation strategies for infants younger than 33 weeks' gestational age within 24 hours of birth who had not been intubated. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses. A composite of death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age was the primary outcome. Death, BPD, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and air leak by discharge were the main secondary outcomes. Among 5598 infants involved in 30 trials, the incidence of the primary outcome was 33% (1665 of 4987; including 505 deaths and 1160 cases of BPD). The secondary outcomes ranged from 6% (314 of 5587) for air leak to 26% (1160 of 4455) for BPD . Compared with mechanical ventilation, LISA had a lower odds of the primary outcome (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.30-0.79; absolute risk difference [RD], 164 fewer per 1000 infants; 57-253 fewer per 1000 infants; moderate quality of evidence), BPD(OR, 0.53; 95% CrI, 0.27-0.96; absolute RD, 133 fewer per 1000 infants; 95% CrI, 9-234 fewer per 1000 infants; moderate-quality), and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (OR, 0.44; 95% CrI, 0.19-0.99; absolute RD, 58 fewer per 1000 births; 95% CrI, 1-86 fewer per 1000 births; moderate-quality). Compared with nasal CPAP alone, LISA had a lower odds

  11. The odd-proton effects on the potential energy surfaces of odd mass Tl, Au, Ir and Re isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    De Wieclawik, W; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Vieu, C; Dionisio, J S

    1976-01-01

    The total potential energy surfaces of thallium, gold, iridium and rhenium odd mass isotopes are calculated microscopically as functions of the quadrupole deformation, epsilon /sub 2/, when the odd protons occupy definite orbitals. The nuclear shapes and the static equilibrium deformations of these nuclei are deduced from the results of these calculations for the proton orbitals nearest to the Fermi level. The influence of the hexadecapole deformation, epsilon /sub 4/, on these results is investigated too. Finally, a few experimental data available for these odd mass nuclei are correlated to the corresponding theoretical results. (16 refs).

  12. Heightened risk of preterm birth and growth restriction after a first-born son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mayo, Jonathan A; Gould, Jeffrey B; Stevenson, David K; Lewis, David B; Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2015-10-01

    In Scandinavia, delivery of a first-born son elevates the risk of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction of the next-born infant. External validity of these results remains unclear. We test this hypothesis for preterm delivery and growth restriction using the linked California birth cohort file. We examined the hypothesis separately by race and/or ethnicity. We retrieved data on 2,852,976 births to 1,426,488 mothers with at least two live births. Our within-mother tests applied Cox proportional hazards (preterm delivery, defined as less than 37 weeks gestation) and linear regression models (birth weight for gestational age percentiles). For non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indian and/or Alaska Natives, analyses indicate heightened risk of preterm delivery and growth restriction after a first-born male. The race-specific hazard ratios for preterm delivery range from 1.07 to 1.18. Regression coefficients for birth weight for gestational age percentile range from -0.73 to -1.49. The 95% confidence intervals for all these estimates do not contain the null. By contrast, we could not reject the null for non-Hispanic black mothers. Whereas California findings generally support those from Scandinavia, the null results among non-Hispanic black mothers suggest that we do not detect adverse outcomes after a first-born male in all racial and/or ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges and Consequences of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm births have been a challenge to obstetricians and paediatricians. Preterm births affect all population irrespective of age, race and economic status due to lack of seriousness and awareness among the pregnant women. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, amounting to billions of dollars each year, thus increasing the cost for health care. Proper awareness programs about preterm birth may help the women population to know and understand better the signs and symptoms of preterm labour. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality through this study.

  14. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life......-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α production. These immune parameters remained different between preterm and near-term pigs at 2-3 weeks, even when adjusted for post-conceptional age. Our data suggest that systemic immunity follows a distinct developmental trajectory following preterm birth that may be influenced......, poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2...

  15. Heart rate variability and salivary cortisol in very preterm children during school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Ludyga, Sebastian; Stalder, Tobias; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (position at rest (wake) and during different sleep stages (stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep, rapid-eye-movement sleep). Autonomic function was assessed by use of heart rate variability, specifically low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), total spectral power (Tot Pow), and the LF/HF ratio. HPA axis activity was measured using salivary cortisol the next morning at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Children born very preterm had lower LF/HF ratio during wake and stage 2 sleep compared to full-term children. Moreover, higher LF, Tot Pow, and LF/HF ratio during wake, stage 2 sleep, and REM sleep were related to more post-awakening cortisol secretion. The present study provides evidence on long-term ANS alterations after very preterm birth. Moreover, findings suggest a relation between the ANS and the HPA axis and therefore support the notion of mutual feedback between the two human stress systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound measurement of the transverse diameter of the fetal thymus in pregnancies complicated by the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Kostal, Milan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether the measurement of the transverse diameter of the fetal thymus is of value in the identification of either histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). The transverse diameter of the fetal thymus was measured in 216 fetuses from PPROM pregnancies. A small thymus was defined as a transverse thymic diameter below the fifth percentile according to a previously published nomogram. The placenta, the fetal membranes, and the umbilical cord were assessed for the presence of inflammation. A small thymus was identified in 69% (150/216) of fetuses. A small thymus was present in 80% (106/133) and 88% (36/41) of women with histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis, respectively. The presence of a small thymus had a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 47%, positive predictive value of 71%, negative predictive value of 59% for the identification of chorioamnionitis (p value of 24%, and negative predictive value of 92% in the identification of funisitis (p = 0.004; odds ratio 4.4). The sonographic finding of a small thymus is a sensitive indicator of histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis; low specificity excludes it as a possible clinical implication in the management of PPROM pregnancies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Poor attention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity predicts academic achievement in very preterm and full-term adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, J; Wolke, D; Bartmann, P

    2013-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children are at particular risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the inattentive subtype. It is unknown whether the neurodevelopmental pathways to academic underachievement are the same as in the general population. This study investigated whether middle childhood attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems are better predictors of VP adolescents' academic achievement. In a geographically defined prospective whole-population sample of VP (full-term control children (n = 286) in South Germany, ADHD subtypes were assessed at 6 years 3 months and 8 years 5 months using multiple data sources. Academic achievement was assessed at 13 years of age. Compared with full-term controls, VLBW/VP children were at higher risk for ADHD inattentive subtype [6 years 3 months: odds ratio (OR) 2.8, p attention measures predicted academic achievement in VLBW/VP and also full-term adolescents, whereas hyperactive/impulsive behaviour did not. Attention is an important prerequisite for learning and predicts long-term academic underachievement. As ADHD inattentive subtype and cognitive impairments are frequent in VLBW/VP children, their study may help to identify the neurofunctional pathways from early brain development and dysfunction to attention problems and academic underachievement.

  18. Born too soon: preterm birth matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Christopher P; Kinney, Mary V; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the fi rst country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the fi rst in a supplement entitled “Born Too Soon”, this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) investments also linking to non-communicable diseases. For preterm babies who survive, the additional burden of prematurity-related disability may aff ect families and health systems. Prematurity is an explicit priority in many high-income settings; however, more attention is needed especially in low- and middle-income countries where the invisibility of preterm birth as well as its myths and misconceptions have slowed action on prevention and care. Recent global attention to preterm birth hit a tipping point in 2012, with the May 2 publication of Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth and with the 2nd annual World Prematurity Day on November 17 which mobilised the actions of partners in many countries to address preterm birth and newborn health. Interventions to strengthen preterm birth prevention and care span the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Both prevention of preterm birth and implementation of care of premature babies require more research, as well as more policy attention and programmatic investment.

  19. Appendicectomy during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: A population data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Schnitzler, Margaret; Nippita, Tanya; Ford, Jane B

    2018-03-30

    Suspected appendicitis is a common non-obstetric indication for emergency abdominal surgery during pregnancy. Assess the risk of preterm birth and other maternal and neonatal adverse birth outcomes following appendicectomy during pregnancy. Population-based data linkage study of women with singleton births in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2014. Pregnancies with appendicitis and appendicectomy were compared to pregnancies without appendicitis. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm birth were estimated. Modified Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 99% CI for other outcomes. Of 1 124 551 eligible pregnancies, 1024 (0.9/1000 pregnancies) had appendicitis and appendicectomy. Of these, 566 (55.3%) had laparoscopic and 458 (44.7%) had open appendicectomy. Appendicectomy at later gestational ages was associated with increasing rates of preterm birth. After adjustment for maternal and pregnancy factors, appendicectomy was associated with increased risk of preterm birth (overall aHR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09; planned aHR 2.08, 95% CI 1.60-2.72), maternal morbidity (aRR 2.68, 99% CI 1.88-3.83) and neonatal morbidity (aRR 1.42, 99% CI 1.03-1.94). However, there was no difference in perinatal mortality rates. Appendicectomy during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of spontaneous and planned preterm birth, maternal and neonatal morbidity. Availability of resources to prevent or manage preterm labour should be considered when appendicectomy is performed at gestational ages of 20 weeks or more. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  1. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group: 1 preterm control (PTC, 2 preterm ventilated (PTV, 3 preterm asphyxiated (PTA, 4 preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV, 5 term control (TC, 6 term ventilated (TV, 7 term asphyxiated (TA, and 8 term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV. We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW, (BrW, (IW, (BrW/BW and (IW/BW]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus and intestine (jejunum/ileum tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP. IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05, and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005. PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex and TA (cortex/hippocampus (P<0.005. I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005 and TA (ileum (P<0.05. I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001. Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  2. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  3. Survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2007-12-01

    Survival of preterm infants, which increased dramatically during the years after the introduction of neonatal intensive care, reached a plateau in the mid- to late 1990s. Neonatal morbidity, which increased initially, has decreased since 2000 and resulted in a decrease in the rates of cerebral palsy. Follow-up of preterm infants to early childhood and school age reveals higher rates of asthma, cerebral palsy, subnormal cognitive function, poorer academic achievement, and behavioral problems. Although many of the problems persist into adulthood, preterm survivors regard their overall health and quality of life similar to that of normal birth weight controls.

  4. Gamow-Teller transitions and proton-neutron pair correlation in N =Z odd-odd p -shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from N =Z +2 neighbors to N =Z odd-odd nuclei in the p -shell region by using isospin-projected and β γ -constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method. The calculated GT transition strengths from 0+1 states to 1+0 states such as 6He(01+1 ) →6Li(11+0 ) , 10Be(01+1 ) →10B(11+0 ) , and 14C(01+1 ) →14N(12+0 ) exhaust more than 50% of the sum rule. These N =Z +2 initial states and N =Z odd-odd final states are found to dominantly have S =0 ,T =1 n n pairs and S =1 ,T =0 p n pairs, respectively. Based on the two-nucleon (N N ) pair picture, we can understand the concentration of the GT strengths as the spin-isospin-flip transition n n (S =0 ,T =1 )→p n (S =1 ,T =0 ) in L S coupling. The GT transition can be a good probe to identify the spin-isospin partner states with n n pairs and p n pairs of N =Z +2 and N =Z odd-odd nuclei, respectively.

  5. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per T.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts, poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α production. These immune parameters remained different between preterm and near-term pigs at 2–3 weeks, even when adjusted for post-conceptional age. Our data suggest that systemic immunity follows a distinct developmental trajectory following preterm birth that may be influenced by postnatal age, complications of prematurity and environmental factors. Consequently, the immediate postnatal period may represent a window of opportunity to improve innate immunity in preterm neonates by medical, antimicrobial or dietary interventions. PMID:27830761

  6. Maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between maternal lipid levels and preterm birth (PTB. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between maternal dyslipidemia and PTB. Overall, three nested case-control studies and eight cohort studies were eligible. Effect estimates [odds ratio(OR/relative risk] were pooled using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and metaregression analyses were conducted to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. Eleven studies involving 13,025 pregnant women were included. Compared with pregnant women with normal lipid levels, the women with elevated levels of lipids had an increased risk of PTB, and the pooled OR was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25–2.26]; meanwhile, women with lower levels of lipids also had a trend of an increased risk of PTB (OR=1.52, 95% CI=0.60–3.82. The pooled ORs for elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.05–2.79, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13–2.12, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.95–1.48, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14–1.56, respectively. The present meta-analysis found that maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy, either the elevated total cholesterol or triglycerides, was associated with an increased risk of PTB. These findings indicate that a normal level of maternal lipid during pregnancy may reduce the risk of PTB.

  7. Association of prior HPV vaccination with reduced preterm birth: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Beverley; Howe, Anna S; Turner, Nikki; Filoche, Sara; Slatter, Tania; Devenish, Celia; Hung, Noelyn Anne

    2018-01-02

    Emerging evidence suggests that HPV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine if prior HPV vaccination reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. A New Zealand population-based retrospective study linking first pregnancy outcome data (2008-2014 n = 35,646) with prior quadrivalent HPV vaccination status. Primary outcomes were likelihood (odds ratios, ORs) of PTB, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth. Exposure groups were based on HPV vaccination. Adjusted ORs were calculated for each outcome, controlling for mother's age at delivery, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health board region at time of delivery, and body mass index and smoking status at time of registration with maternity care provider. Mother's mean age at delivery was 19 (SD 2.1) years. Of 34,994 the pregnancies included in the final study analyses 62.3% of women were unvaccinated, 11.0% vaccinated with one or two doses and 27.7% vaccinated with three doses prior to pregnancy. PTB (OR: 0.87; CI 0.78, 0.96)) was significantly lower for women who previously received the HPV vaccine. A dose response effect was found with each successive dose received decreasing the likelihood of PTB. No associations between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were shown for pre-eclampsia or stillbirth. Prior receipt of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in PTB (13%); suggesting that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing PTB. The potential global public health impact is considerable and there is urgency to undertake further research to replicate and explore these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  9. Mid-pregnancy circulating cytokine levels, histologic chorioamnionitis and spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Holzman, Claudia; Senagore, Patricia; Thorsen, Poul; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Chung, Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Some spontaneous preterm deliveries (PTD) are caused by occult infections of the fetal membranes (histologic chorioamnionitis [HCA]). High levels of infection-related markers, including some cytokines, sampled from maternal circulation in mid-pregnancy have been linked to PTD, but whether these specifically identify HCA has not been established. We have tested associations between thirteen Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and PTD with and without HCA in a prospective cohort study. The study sample included 926 Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study subcohort women; women with medically indicated PTD or incomplete data excluded. A panel of cytokines was assessed using a multiplex assay in maternal plasma collected at 15–27 weeks of gestation. Severe HCA was scored by a placental pathologist blinded to clinical variables. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in cytokine levels using a 5 level outcome variable: PTD <35 weeks with HCA, PTD <35 weeks without HCA, PTD 35–36 weeks with HCA, PTD 35–36 weeks without HCA, and term (referent). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β were all significantly associated with PTD <35 weeks with HCA, with ORs of 1.6 – 2.3 per SD increase. None of these were associated with PTD <35 weeks without HCA or PTD 35–36 weeks with HCA. Although the tissues of origin of circulating cytokines are unclear, the observed elevations across many cytokines among women who later delivered <35 weeks with HCA may represent a robust immune response to infection within gestational tissues. These results suggest that women with HCA could be identified using relatively non-invasive means. PMID:18814919

  10. Neonatal brain abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Alexandra M; Treyvaud, Karli; Thompson, Deanne K; Pascoe, Leona; Roberts, Gehan; Lee, Katherine J; Seal, Marc L; Northam, Elisabeth; Cheong, Jeanie L; Hunt, Rod W; Inder, Terrie; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Very preterm (VP) survivors are at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with term-born children. This study explored whether neonatal magnetic resonance (MR) brain features differed in VP children with and without ASD at 7 years. One hundred and seventy-two VP children (brain MR scans at term equivalent age (TEA; 40 weeks' gestation ±2 weeks) and were assessed for ASD at 7 years of age. The presence and severity of white matter, cortical gray matter, deep nuclear gray matter, and cerebellar abnormalities were assessed, and total and regional brain volumes were measured. ASD was diagnosed using a standardized parent report diagnostic interview and confirmed via an independent assessment. Eight VP children (4.7%) were diagnosed with ASD. Children with ASD had more cystic lesions in the cortical white matter at TEA compared with those without ASD (odds ratio [OR] 8.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 51.3, P = 0.02). There was also some evidence for smaller cerebellar volumes in children with ASD compared with those without ASD (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.66, 1.00, P = 0.06). Overall, the results suggest that VP children with ASD have different brain structure in the neonatal period compared with those who do not have ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 543-552. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  12. Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.

  13. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  14. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  15. Preterm twin gestation and cystic periventricular leucomalacia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, B; Jammernegg, A; Vollaard, E; Maurer, U; Mueller, WD; Pertl, B

    Objective: To identify risk factors for the development of cystic periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in twin gestation. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Graz, Austria. Patients: Preterm twin

  16. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  17. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  18. Association of Placebo, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, and Acetaminophen With Closure of Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Souvik; Florez, Ivan D; Tamayo, Maria E; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Zea, Adriana M; Zhang, Yuan; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-03-27

    Despite increasing emphasis on conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, different pharmacotherapeutic interventions are used to treat those developing a hemodynamically significant PDA. To estimate the relative likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure with common pharmacotherapeutic interventions and to compare adverse event rates. The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until August 15, 2015, and updated on December 31, 2017, along with conference proceedings up to December 2017. Randomized clinical trials that enrolled preterm infants with a gestational age younger than 37 weeks treated with intravenous or oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen vs each other, placebo, or no treatment for a clinically or echocardiographically diagnosed hemodynamically significant PDA. Data were independently extracted in pairs by 6 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses. Primary outcome: hemodynamically significant PDA closure; secondary: included surgical closure, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In 68 randomized clinical trials of 4802 infants, 14 different variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen were used as treatment modalities. The overall PDA closure rate was 67.4% (2867 of 4256 infants). A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a significantly higher odds of PDA closure vs a standard dose of intravenous ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.64-8.17; absolute risk difference, 199 [95% CrI, 95-258] more per 1000 infants) and a standard dose of intravenous indomethacin (OR, 2.35 [95% CrI, 1.08-5.31]; absolute risk difference, 124 [95% CrI, 14-188] more per 1000 infants). Based on the ranking statistics, a high dose of oral ibuprofen ranked as the best pharmacotherapeutic option for PDA closure (mean surface under the

  19. Tricomplex Dynamical Systems Generated by Polynomials of Odd Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Pierre-Olivier; Rochon, Dominic

    In this paper, we give the exact interval of the cross section of the Multibrot sets generated by the polynomial zp + c where z and c are complex numbers and p > 2 is an odd integer. Furthermore, we show that the same Multibrots defined on the hyperbolic numbers are always squares. Moreover, we give a generalized 3D version of the hyperbolic Multibrot set and prove that our generalization is an octahedron for a specific 3D slice of the dynamical system generated by the tricomplex polynomial ηp + c where p > 2 is an odd integer.

  20. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  1. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  2. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  3. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  4. Pathomorphological findings in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphology in the preterm infant represents an interaction of morphological organ immaturity and neonatal management with their respective sequelae. Pathomorphological examples include the modification in the morphology of hyaline membrane disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a consequence of modern neonatal therapy. Hemorrhagic and ischemic/hypoxic lesions of the central nervous system may occur in age- and agent-related distributional patterns, with subependymal hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia representing the most important examples. The most common intestinal finding, namely, necrotizing enterocolitis, typically shows segmental alterations, the morphology of which largely depends on the dominating causative agent. Hepatic cholestasis and fatty change are mostly consequences of parenteral nutrition or hypoxic/ischemic stress. Hepatic necrosis can be associated with the latter, but may also indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation. Vascular pathomorphology is represented by thromembolic lesions, in most instances corresponding to sequelae of neonatal management. (orig.) [de

  5. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  6. Behavioral influences on preterm birth: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Murnane, Pamela

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies of potential behavioral influences on preterm birth have proliferated and yet, with the exception of tobacco smoking, none can be considered an established cause. We conducted a comprehensive summary of the epidemiologic evidence on tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use, and physical, sexual, and occupational activity, to identify promising research directions, as well as research topics that are at an impasse based on currently available methods. Tobacco use is weakly but consistently associated with preterm birth-stronger for heavier smoking, and for spontaneous preterm birth and earlier preterm births. Weaker evidence suggests an adverse effect of environmental tobacco smoke, heavy alcohol or cocaine use, and physically strenuous work. Low levels of alcohol use, caffeine, sexual activity, and employment have generally not been found to be associated with preterm birth, and leisure-time physical activity has generated mixed results. Progress will require more detailed consideration of antecedents, new technologies for assessing exposure, and examination of biologic consequences of the behaviors of interest, focusing on pathways thought to mediate preterm delivery. New strategies-rather than more applications of the same approaches used in past studies-will move the research toward identifying causal relationships and, ultimately, may suggest preventive measures.

  7. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  8. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  9. Odd Couples : A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rydström, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.

  10. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  11. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, θ A , induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tanβ, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by θ A . We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development

  12. RENORMALIZATION FACTOR AND ODD-OMEGA GAP SINGLET SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLGOV, OV; LOSYAKOV, VV

    1994-01-01

    Abrahams et al. [Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 513] have considered the possibility of a nonzero critical temperature of the superconductor transition to the state with odd-omega pp function and shown that the condition for it is the following inequality for the renormalization factor. Z (k, omega(n)) <1.

  13. Partial dynamical symmetry in odd-mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral features of the odd-mass nucleus 195 Pt are analyzed by means of an interacting boson-fermion Hamiltonian with SO(6) partial dynamical symmetry. For the latter, selected eigenstates are solvable and preserve the symmetry exactly, while other states are mixed. The analysis constitutes a first example of this novel symmetry construction in a mixed Bose-Fermi system

  14. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  15. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent singleton pregnancy after preterm twin delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Hof, Michel H. P.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the recurrence risk of preterm birth ( <37 weeks' gestation) in a subsequent singleton pregnancy after a previous nulliparous preterm twin delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We included 1957 women who delivered a twin gestation and a subsequent singleton

  16. Proteomics mapping of cord blood identifies haptoglobin "switch-on" pattern as biomarker of early-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T; Nayeri, Unzila A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Pettker, Christian M; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2011-01-01

    Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1(st)-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of "antenatal IAI exposure" as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2(nd)-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the selection of newborns for prompt and targeted treatment at birth.

  17. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin “Switch-On” Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1st-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of “antenatal IAI exposure” as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2nd-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions/Significance Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the

  18. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  19. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  20. What is the impact of interventions that prevent fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; da Silva, Zilda Pereira; Santos, Patrícia Carla; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Moura, Barbara Laisa Alves; de Almeida, Marcia Furquim; do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2015-07-23

    There is a global growing trend of preterm births and a decline trend of fetal deaths. Is there an impact of the decline of fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil? The time trends were evaluated by gestational age through exponential regression analysis. Data analyzed included the fetal mortality ratio, proportion of preterm live births, fertility rate of women 35 years and over, prenatal care, mother's education, multiple births and cesarean section deliveries. A survival analysis was carried out for 2000 and 2010. Preterm births showed the highest annual increase (3.2%) in the less than 28 weeks of gestation group and fetal mortality ratio decreased (7.4%) in the same gestational age group. There was an increase of cesarean section births and it was higher in the increased trend in multiple births and fertility rates of women of 35 years and over. The variables were highly correlated to which other over time. In 2000, 8.2% of all pregnancies resulted in preterm births (0.9% in fetal deaths and 7.3% in live births). In 2010, the preterm birth increased to 9.4% (0.8% were preterm fetal deaths and 8.6% preterm live births). The results suggest that 45.2% could be the maximum contribution of successful interventions to prevent a fetal death on the increase in preterm live births. This increasing trend is also related to changes of the women reproductive profile with the change of the women reproductive profile and access to prenatal care.

  1. Log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to other measures for evaluating the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of the log odds of positive lymph nodes to predict prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correlations between the log odds of positive lymph nodes, numbers of dissected lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations, positive lymph nodes, positive lymph node ratio, and positive lymph node stations were retrospectively evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients (r), survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard ratio model, and log-rank tests. The numbers of dissected lymph nodes, positive lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations and positive lymph node stations significantly correlated with the log odds of positive lymph nodes (P log odds of positive lymph nodes -1.412 were 63.9% and 32.5%, respectively (P log odds of positive lymph nodes are independent risk factors for overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.660, 95% confidence interval 2.114-3.346, P log odds of positive lymph nodes and a tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system was established for predicting survival. The log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to the positive lymph node ratio and p-N-stage for predicting prognosis of NSCLC. A new staging system that combines log odds of positive lymph nodes and the current TNM staging system predicts prognosis more accurately than the TNM system alone.

  2. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yang Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.66. In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88. The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  3. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  4. [Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentilhes, L; Bouhours, A-C; Bouet, P-E; Boussion, F; Biquard, F; Gillard, P; Descamps, P

    2009-12-01

    To determine prenatal methods to predict and prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Articles were searched using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library. Uterine activity monitoring and bacterial vaginosis screening are not useful to predict preterm birth (EL2 and EL3 respectively). Current literature data are contradictory and insufficient to determine whether fetal fibronectin and digital cervical assessment are predictors of preterm birth. History of preterm birth (EL4), and cervical length measurement by transvaginal ultrasonography (EL2) predict preterm birth. Nevertheless, there are no intervention studies that have evaluated cervical length measurement in the prevention of preterm birth. Hospital bedrest, prophylactic tocolytic and progesterone therapy, and prophylactic cervical cerclage in patients with or without short cervix have not been shown to be effective in preventing preterm birth. Prenatal methods to prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies are currently very limited. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Melville

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.

  6. Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Wells, J.; Post, M. D.; Donnelly, M.; Manco-Johnson, M. J.; Fisher, B. M.; Winn, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histological indicators of inflammation and thrombosis. Student’s t-test (or Mann–Whitney U-test), χ2 analysis (or Fisher’s exact test), mean square contingency and logistic regression were used when appropriate. The prevalence of histologic acute chorioamnionitis (HCA) was 59%. Fetal-derived inflammation (funisitis and chorionic plate vasculitis) was seen at lower frequency (30% and 45%, respectively) and not always in association with HCA. There was a trend for Hispanic women to have higher odds of funisitis (OR = 5.9; P = 0.05). Subchorionic thrombi were seen in 34% of all placentas. The odds of subchorionic thrombi without HCA was 6.3 times greater that the odds of subchorionic thrombi with HCA (P = 0.02). There was no difference in gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval, with the presence or absence of inflammatory or thrombotic lesions. These findings suggest that PPROM is caused by or can result in fetal inflammation, placental malperfusion, or both, independent of gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval; maternal ethnicity and altitude may contribute to these findings. Future studies focused on this constellation of PPROM placental findings, genetic polymorphisms and neonatal outcomes are needed. PMID:23828732

  7. Effect of sitting position on respiratory status in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mika; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Shimizu, Satoru; Nishida, Hiroshi; Osawa, Makiko

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether using a sitting-type car safety seats for preterm infants is advisable. A total of 65 preterm infants underwent polysomnography in the supine and sitting positions. The infants with position were suspected to cause DS in infants. Sitting-type car safety seats should be used with caution for preterm infants, and all preterm infants need to be screened by polysomnographic examination in the sitting position.

  8. Thymic size in preterm neonates: a sonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the variation in size of the thymus in vivo in preterm neonates and to identify relations between thymic size and gestational age (GA), birthweight, occurrence of postnatal infections and maternal alcohol and tobacco intake during pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty preterm neonates with a GA...... neonates. A normal range for Ti in preterm neonates has been established. The sonographic method is a safe and effective technique for measuring the size of the thymus in preterm infants....

  9. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  10. Maternal and fetal factors observed with late preterm births

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudan Dey; Raju Agarwal; Devkalyan Maji; Uttara A. Kohli

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Although neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are fallen in recent decades, the prevalence of preterm deliveries has increased especially late preterm births. Late preterm deliveries are at increased risk of various neonatal complications compared to term deliveries. This study was carried out to identify the maternal characteristics and co-morbidites found with late preterm births and feto-maternal outcome in terms of indication of delivery, route of delivery, Apgar score and...

  11. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.; Møller, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... finish the proof of this conjecture, for p an odd prime, proving that there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. We do this by providing the last, and rather intricate, piece, namely that the exceptional compact Lie...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  12. MODELLING OF ORDINAL TIME SERIES BY PROPORTIONAL ODDS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil AKTAŞ ALTUNAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical time series data with random time dependent covariates often arise when the variable categories are assigned as categorical. There are several other models that have been proposed in the literature for the analysis of categorical time series. For example, Markov chain models, integer autoregressive processes, discrete ARMA models can be utilized for modeling of categorical time series. In general, the choice of model depends on the measurement of study variables: nominal, ordinal and interval. However, regression theory is successful approach for categorical time series which is based on generalized linear models and partial likelihood inference. One of the models for ordinal time series in regression theory is proportional odds model. In this study, proportional odds model approach to ordinal categorical time series is investigated based on a real air pollution data set and the results are discussed.

  13. Fermions in odd space-time dimensions: back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano Jesus de, Ma.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known feature of odd space-time dimensions d that there exist two inequivalent fundamental representations A and B of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, the parity transformation swaps the fermion fields living in A and B. As a consequence, a parity-invariant Lagrangian can only be constructed by incorporating both the representation. Based upon these ideas and contrary to long-held belief, we show that in addition to a discrete exchange symmetry for the massless case, we can also define chiral symmetry provided the Lagrangian contains fields corresponding to both the inequivalent representations. We also study the transformation properties of the corresponding chiral currents under parity and charge-conjugation operations. We work explicitly in 2 + 1 dimensions and later show how some of these ideas generalize to an arbitrary number of odd dimensions. (author)

  14. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part

  15. J/ψ dissociation in parity-odd bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the quarkonium dissociation rate in the P and CP-odd domains (bubbles) that were possibly created in heavy-ion collisions. In the presence of the magnetic field produced by the valence quarks of colliding ions, parity-odd domains generate electric field. Quarkonium dissociation is the result of quantum tunneling of quark or antiquark through the potential barrier in this electric field. The strength of the electric field in the quarkonium comoving frame depends on the quarkonium velocity with respect to the background magnetic field. We investigate momentum, electric field strength and azimuthal dependence of the dissociation rate. Azimuthal distribution of quarkonia surviving in the electromagnetic field is strongly anisotropic; the form of anisotropy depends on the relation between the electric and magnetic fields and quarkonium momentum P ⊥ . These features can be used to explore the properties of the electromagnetic field created in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  17. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  18. gamma -transition rates in transitional odd gold nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, V; Oms, J

    1981-01-01

    The results of two half-life measurements of excited states in /sup 185/Au are presented. One supports the proposed interpretation of the ground state configuration, the other one calls attention to the h 9/2 to h 11/2 M1 transitions in odd mass gold nuclei, which, in spite of considerable deformation changes of the h 9/2 state, all show the same retardation. (5 refs).

  19. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), I-38050 Villazano, Trento (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to {sup 167}Er and {sup 161}Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. {copyright} {ital 1997 } {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.; Leviatan, A.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to 167 Er and 161 Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  2. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  3. Regulation and function of odd-paired in Tribolium segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chong Pyo; Stellabotte, Frank; Brown, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns, regulation, and function of the Tribolium ortholog of opa (Tc-opa). Tc-opa is expressed in segmental stripes in the early stages of segmentation and then is expressed in a broad domain at the growth zone of elongating germbands where new segments form. This broad expression of Tc-opa is processed into segmental stripes once the trunk has become segmented. Tc-opa expression is regulated positively and negatively by even-skipped and odd-skipped, respectively. However, knock-down of Tc-opa does not affect embryonic segmentation. Our findings suggest that Tc-opa expression is regulated by the pair-rule gene network even though its requirement for segmentation is uncertain in Tribolium.

  4. Singleton preterm births in Korle bu teaching hospital, Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the singleton preterm birth rate, the relative proportions of the clinical categories of preterm births and to compare the outcomes in these categories. Setting: Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecol-ogy, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Participants: Preterm births from 1st July to 31st December 2003.

  5. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koullali, B.; Oudijk, M. A.; Nijman, T. A. J.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history

  6. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  7. Early postnatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christmann, Viola; de Grauw, Anne M.; Visser, Reina; Matthijsse, René P.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Heijst, Arno F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineralisation in preterm infants is related to the supply of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). We increased the amount of minerals in parenteral nutrition (PN) for preterm infants and evaluated postnatal Ca and P metabolism in relation to mineral and vitamin D (vitD) intake. Preterm infants,

  8. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events.Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth.CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase-1. Moreover, CB1 inactivation resulted in

  9. [Neonatal septicemia: differences in full-term and pre-term newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Ramírez, J; Sánchez-Saucedo, L U

    1990-04-01

    Neonatal septicemia was assessed by blood cultures in 115 newborns (NB) during a two years study in a pediatric hospital of reference in Mexico City. The studied patients were divided in two groups of gestational age, and the differences of etiologic agents, clinical signs, laboratory findings and clinical outcome were compared at term and preterm neonates. We observed Staphylococcus epidermidis became the first cause of septicemia in at term NB (P less than 0.001), while Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) were more frequent in the preterm neonates. The clinical manifestations of fever (P less than 0.001), hepatomegaly (P less than 0.01), splenomegaly (P less than 0.05), and rejection to feeding (P less than 0.05) were more common in at term NB. On the other hand, apneas (P less than 0.01), hypothermia (P less than 0.02), and abdominal distension (P less than 0.05) were more frequent in the preterm NB. The altered white blood cell counts were more commonly observed in the preterm group, as leukopenia (P less than 0.05), neutropenia (P less than 0.01), and high I/T ratio (P less than 0.05). There were not significant differences in complications or sequels between the two groups; however, the mortality ratio was higher in the preterm NB group (P less than 0.02). Changing etiology of neonatal septicemia is discussed, and we propose these kind of data are very useful for purpose of detection, diagnostic and treatment of septic neonates.

  10. Optimising preterm nutrition: present and future

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Ann-Marie

    2016-04-01

    The goal of preterm nutrition in achieving growth and body composition approximating that of the fetus of the same postmenstrual age is difficult to achieve. Current nutrition recommendations depend largely on expert opinion, due to lack of evidence, and are primarily birth weight based, with no consideration given to gestational age and\\/or need for catch-up growth. Assessment of growth is based predominately on anthropometry, which gives insufficient attention to the quality of growth. The present paper provides a review of the current literature on the nutritional management and assessment of growth in preterm infants. It explores several approaches that may be required to optimise nutrient intakes in preterm infants, such as personalising nutritional support, collection of nutrient intake data in real-time, and measurement of body composition. In clinical practice, the response to inappropriate nutrient intakes is delayed as the effects of under- or overnutrition are not immediate, and there is limited nutritional feedback at the cot-side. The accurate and non-invasive measurement of infant body composition, assessed by means of air displacement plethysmography, has been shown to be useful in assessing quality of growth. The development and implementation of personalised, responsive nutritional management of preterm infants, utilising real-time nutrient intake data collection, with ongoing nutritional assessments that include measurement of body composition is required to help meet the individual needs of preterm infants.

  11. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  12. Palivizumab use in preterm neonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kingston, S

    2012-01-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Palivizumab is an immunoprophylactic agent for RSV prevention in preterm infants and those with neonatal chronic lung disease. This study examines its use across neonatal units in Ireland. A questionnaire was administered to one Consultant Neonatologist or Paediatrician in each of the 20 maternity centres in Ireland about their guidelines for Palivizumab administration. There is variation in administration of Palivizumab with little consistency found between protocols reported in terms of age and presence of chronic lung disease. Ten centres have in house protocols, 3 centres use the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) guidelines, 2 centres prefer the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) guidelines and 3 centres do not have a set protocol. Four participants felt its use has impacted on hospital admissions and 61% believe its use is cost effective. The budgetary implication for immunoprophylaxis with Palivizumab in Ireland is estimated at 1.5 to 2 million euros annually. Given current pharmacoeconomic constraints there is a need to implement a national protocol on RSV immunoprophylaxis.

  13. Palivizumab use in preterm neonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kingston, S

    2010-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Palivizumab is an immunoprophylactic agent for RSV prevention in preterm infants and those with neonatal chronic lung disease. This study examines its use across neonatal units in Ireland. A questionnaire was administered to one Consultant Neonatologist or Paediatrician in each of the 20 maternity centres in Ireland about their guidelines for Palivizumab administration. There is variation in administration of Palivizumab with little consistency found between protocols reported in terms of age and presence of chronic lung disease. Ten centres have in house protocols, 3 centres use the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) guidelines, 2 centres prefer the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) guidelines and 3 centres do not have a set protocol. Four participants felt its use has impacted on hospital admissions and 61% believe its use is cost effective. The budgetary implication for immunoprophylaxis with Palivizumab in Ireland is estimated at 1.5 to 2 million euros annually. Given current pharmacoeconomic constraints there is a need to implement a national protocol on RSV immunoprophylaxis.

  14. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood: a risk factor for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between maternal comorbidity and preterm birth by severity and clinical subtype: retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTB is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, but the relationship between comorbidity and PTB by clinical subtype and severity of gestational age remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations between maternal comorbidities and PTB by clinical subtype and gestational age. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,329,737 singleton births delivered in hospitals in the province of Québec, Canada, 1989-2006. PTB was classified by clinical subtype (medically indicated, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, spontaneous preterm labour and gestational age ( Results PTB rates were higher among mothers with comorbidity (10.9% compared to those without comorbidity (4.7%. Several comorbidities were associated with greater odds of medically indicated PTB compared with no comorbidity, but only comorbidities localized to the reproductive system were associated with spontaneous PTB. Drug dependence and mental disorders were strongly associated with PPROM and spontaneous PTBs across all gestational ages (OR > 2.0. At the population level, several major comorbidities (placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, oliogohydramnios, structural abnormality, cervical incompetence were key contributors to all clinical subtypes of PTB, especially at Conclusions The relationship between comorbidity and clinical subtypes of PTB depends on gestational age. Prevention of PPROM and spontaneous PTB may benefit from greater attention to preeclampsia, anemia and comorbidities localized to the reproductive system.

  16. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  17. Changes in perinatal care and survival in very preterm and extremely preterm infants in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Ouden, L.D.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Gravenhorst, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in obstetrical and neonatal care for very preterm and extremely preterm infants between 1983 and 1995 in The Netherlands and to evaluate the effect of those changes. Study design: Data on all very preterm or VLBW infants from the linked national obstetrical and

  18. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  19. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term inf...... infant benefits include improved hematologic status measured as hematocrit and iron status and less risk of anaemia during the first months of life. No harmful effects were seen, even though significant polycythaemia could be demonstrated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/26...

  20. History of postpartum depression and the odds of maternal corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Rosenberger, Ryan; Sarwar, Sajjad; Mangewala, Vikas; Klag, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object. The mothers were recruited from a community mental health agency, an urban community center, and a court of common pleas. The measures in the present study were administered prior to mothers' participation in a parent training program. Mothers referred by the court of common pleas were mandated to participate in the parent training program, and the mothers from the community mental health agency and the urban community center volunteered to participate in the parent training program. However, all participants voluntarily completed the research measures. Binary logistic regression identified postpartum depression as the only variable to significantly increase the odds of corporal punishment (odds ratio = 6.307, 95% confidence interval = 1.098-36.214, p = .039). The findings demonstrate increased odds of corporal punishment among a high-risk sample of women with postpartum depression. The generalizability of these findings may be limited to low socioeconomic class and White and African American mothers enrolled in parent-training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokuolu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, over 900,000 children under the age of five years die every year. Early neonatal death is responsible for a little over 20% of these deaths. Prematurity remains a significant cause of these early neonatal deaths. In some series, it is reported to be responsible for 60-70% of these deaths. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. This was a prospective cohort study conducted over a 9-month period at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Records of deliveries and data on maternal socio-biological and antenatal variables were collected during this period in order to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries. Out of the 2,489 deliveries that took place over a 9-month period, there were 293 pre-terms, giving a pre-term delivery rate of 120 per 1,000 deliveries. Of the total deliveries, 1,522 singleton deliveries that satisfied inclusion criteria were recruited; 185 of them were pre-term deliveries giving a case:control ratio of 1:7. Significant determinants of pre-term delivery identified were previous pre-term delivery (P=0.001; OR=3.55; 95% CI=1.71-7.30, antepartum hemorrhage (P=0.000; OR=8.95; 95%CI=4.06-19.78, premature rupture of the membranes (P=0.000; OR=6.48; 95%CI=4.33-9.67, maternal urinary tract infection (P=0.006; OR=5.89; 95%CI=1.16-27.57, pregnancy induced hypertension (P=0.007; OR=3.23; 95%CI=2.09-4.99, type of labor (P=0.000; OR=6.44; 95%CI=4.42-9.38 and booking status (P=0.000; OR=4.67; 95%CI=3.33-6.56. The prevalence of pre-term delivery was 120 per 1,000 live births. Factors significantly associated with pre-term delivery were low socio-economic class, previous pre-term delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, urinary tract infection, pregnancy induced hypertension, induced labor, and booking elsewhere outside the teaching hospital.

  2. Atosiban in the Management of Preterm Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail M Fullerton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to look at the evidence available for the use of atosiban as a tocolytic in cases of threatened preterm labour. A Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline concluded that there was no clear evidence to show a benefit to tocolysis in reducing perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Using a systematic literature search, we summarise the evidence available on the use of atosiban for the prevention of preterm birth and compare it with other commonly used tocolytic agents in terms of efficacy, patient preference and drug safety. We conclude that although atosiban appears to be the tocolytic of choice, a clear benefit of using tocolysis in all cases of threatened preterm labour remains to be justified and clinical management should be tailored according to individual needs.

  3. Prognostic accuracy of electroencephalograms in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...... neurodevelopmental outcomes 1 to 10 years later. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently performed data extraction with regard to participants, prognostic testing, and outcomes. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies with a total of 1181 infants were included. A metaanalysis was performed based on 3 studies...

  4. Periodontal therapy reduces the rate of preterm low birth weight in women with pregnancy-associated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Néstor J; Da Silva, Isabel; Ipinza, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    One hypothesis to explain the association between periodontal disease (PD) preterm/low birth weight (PT/LBW) is that PT/LBW may be indirectly mediated through translocation of bacteria or bacterial products in the systemic circulation. Transient bacteremias occur in subjects with marginal periodontitis or with gingivitis, and it is possible that bacteria and their products may reach the placental membranes hematogenously and provide the inflammatory effect to induce preterm labor. The effect of gingivitis as a potential risk factor for PT/LBW has still not been studied. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine the effect of routine plaque control and scaling on the pregnancy outcomes in women with gingivitis. Eight hundred seventy (870) pregnant women with gingivitis, aged 18 to 42, were enrolled while receiving prenatal care in Santiago, Chile. Women were randomly assigned in a two-to-one fashion to either a treatment group (N = 580), receiving periodontal treatment before 28 weeks of gestation or to a control group (N = 290), receiving periodontal treatment after delivery. Periodontal therapy consisted of plaque control, scaling, and daily rinsing with 0.12% clorhexidine. Maintenance therapy was provided every 2 to 3 weeks until delivery, and consisted of oral hygiene instruction and supragingival plaque removal by instrumentation, as needed. The primary outcomes assessed were delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation or an infant weighing less than 2,500 g. Of the 870 women enrolled, 36 women (27 in the treatment group and nine in the control group) were excluded from the analyses for different reasons. The incidence of PT/LBW in the treatment group was 2.14% (12/560) and in the control group, 6.71% (19/283) (odds ratio [OR] 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 6.83; P = 0.0009). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for several known risk factors for PT/LBW, women with gingivitis were at a higher risk of

  5. Second-Trimester Sonographic Thymus Measurements Are Not Associated With Preterm Birth and Other Adverse Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin S; Bastek, Jamie A; Wang, Eileen; Purisch, Stephanie; Schwartz, Nadav

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm birth, and in utero inflammation. The fetal thymus, which can be visualized in the anterior mediastinum on obstetric sonography, may involute in response to such inflammation and thus may identify pregnancies at increased risk for these outcomes. We therefore sought to determine whether second-trimester fetal thymus measurements are associated with preterm birth. Transabdominal fetal thymus measurements were prospectively obtained in singleton pregnancies at gestational ages of 18 weeks to 23 weeks 6 days during a 5-month period. The transverse and anterorposterior thymus diameters and the thymic-thoracic ratio were measured. Delivery outcomes were collected from our clinical database. The primary outcome was preterm birth, which we defined as delivery between 24 weeks and 36 weeks 6 days. Small for gestational age (SGA) and pregnancy-related hypertension, which are adverse obstetric outcomes that may also be associated with in utero inflammation, were included as secondary outcomes. We included 520 patients with thymus measurements and obstetric outcome data. The prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3% (n = 64). None of the thymus measurements were associated with preterm birth. Similarly, there was no association between thymus measurements and SGA or pregnancy-related hypertension. Sonographic assessment of the second-trimester fetal thymus did not identify patients at increased risk for preterm birth, SGA, and pregnancy-related hypertension. Routine thymus measurements during the second-trimester anatomic scan are not clinically useful for prediction of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  7. Christiansen filter realized by an odd smooth cylindrical lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Goddard, N; Xie, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The Christiansen filter that is realized by odd smooth cylindrical lenses is analyzed in detail. Several popular filtering functions are discussed. The corresponding lens profile functions are obtained by an inverse scattering theory, which enables the filter to synthesize a desired prescribed response function. This kind of Christiansen filter has a passband narrower than that of the traditional Christiansen filter. Three Christiansen filters centered at 545 nm with full width at half-maximum of 2 nm are synthesized, and the approach to a better suppression of halos from the main transmission peak of the filters is presented in a systematic way.

  8. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  9. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  10. Low-spin states of odd-mass xenon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 2d5/2, 1g7/2, 3s1/2, 2d3/2 and 1h11/2, single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-mass nucleus 125-129Xe. Also, an IBM- 1 calculation is ... Harun R Yazar1. Faculty of Arts and Science, Nev»sehir University, 50300 Nev»sehir, Turkey ...

  11. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not 'skip' a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33-1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14-1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17-1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97-1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities.

  12. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Predicting preterm birth: Cervical length and fetal fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Moeun; Miller, Emily S

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounts for a significant global health burden. Several obstetric strategies to screen for spontaneous preterm delivery, such as cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement, have emerged. However, the effectiveness of these strategies relies on their ability to accurately predict those pregnancies at increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Transvaginal cervical shortening is predictive of preterm birth and when coupled with appropriate preterm birth prevention strategies, has been associated with reductions in SPTB in asymptomatic women with a singleton gestation. The use of qualitative fetal fibronectin may be useful in conjunction with cervical length assessment in women with acute preterm labor symptoms, but data supporting its clinical utility remain limited. As both cervical length and qualitative fetal fibronectin have limited capacity to predict preterm birth, further studies are needed to investigate other potential screening modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; McQuillan, C. J.

    1983-09-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO 2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO 2NO 2 mixing ratios. Like HO 2NO 2 and HNO 3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  16. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Lisa M; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Observational. Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = -0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = -0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate -0.029; 95% confidence interval -0.06, -0.002). The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Quadruple symmetric real signals spectral even and odd decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivkov Venelin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of quadruple symmetric real signals are analyzed in the study. Six number theorems are formulated and proofed analytically in a capacity of central results of the research. Lasted theorem could be used to construct complex Fourier spectrum for arbitrary real function by even - odd decomposition. The theorem is illustrated numerically. The initial signal with length N (analogous values length interval or number of discrete samples in the time domain is Fourier transformed through two spectral - real and imaginary parts with length N in the frequency domain. The real and imaginary parts of the complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal, could be obtained by procedure, described in the paper. Spectral parts could be calculated by equivalent functions-signals. Even left and odd right equivalent functions-signals contain N/2 nonzero analogous values or discrete samples. This strategy allows constructing complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal with length N in the time domain based on equivalent real and imaginary spectral parts with the length N/2 in the frequency domain. The study is an extension and resume of AMC 221(2013 pp. 344-350.

  18. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions.

  19. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  20. The odds of duplicate gene persistence after polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chain Frédéric JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is an important biological phenomenon associated with genomic redundancy, degeneration, specialization, innovation, and speciation. After duplication, both copies continue functioning when natural selection favors duplicated protein function or expression, or when mutations make them functionally distinct before one copy is silenced. Results Here we quantify the degree to which genetic parameters related to gene expression, molecular evolution, and gene structure in a diploid frog - Silurana tropicalis - influence the odds of functional persistence of orthologous duplicate genes in a closely related tetraploid species - Xenopus laevis. Using public databases and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained genetic and expression data from S. tropicalis orthologs of 3,387 X. laevis paralogs and 4,746 X. laevis singletons - the most comprehensive dataset for African clawed frogs yet analyzed. Using logistic regression, we demonstrate that the most important predictors of the odds of duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid species are the total gene expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and development in the diploid species. Slow protein evolution and information density (fewer exons, shorter introns in the diploid are also positively correlated with duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a combination of factors contribute to duplicate gene persistence following whole genome duplication, but that the total expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and through development before duplication are most important. We speculate that these parameters are useful predictors of duplicate gene longevity after whole genome duplication in other taxa.

  1. The Beam Spin Asymmetry and T-odd Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Daniel; Gamberg, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    The focus of this research is to model the internal structure of the nucleon based on its momentum and spin-polarization properties. We focus on the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA) in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. When the produced pion's transverse momentum is on the order of quark intrinsic transverse momentum, TMD factorization suggest that the structure function for the BSA is a momentum convolution integral of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution and fragmentation functions. Theoretically there are four possible structure functions. We focus on the naive time reversal odd (T-odd) contribution. Namely, the g⊥ TMD PDF which relates the transverse spin polarization and transverse momentum of quarks for the case of an unpolarized nucleon and longitudinally polarized electron beam. We model the BSA in the spectator model framework (L. Gamberg et al., Phys. Rev. D 77, 094016 (2008)) and calculate g⊥ and extend our earlier numerical work on the BSA for π+ to results for π-, π0, production. We present these new results for the BSA and compare them with the recent results from CLAS, Hall B collaboration at JLAB (M. Aghasyan, H. Avakian et al., Phys. Lett. B 704, 397 (2011)).

  2. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the ''connectome'' is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  3. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Furtado, Andre [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lepore, Natasha [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bluml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the ''connectome'' is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long

  4. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage IVH and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the “connectome” is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  5. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended. PMID:22876799

  6. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously or...

  7. Umbilical cord blood IL-6 as predictor of early-onset neonatal sepsis in women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cobo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate umbilical cord interleukin (IL-6 and funisitis as independent predictors of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Evaluation of umbilical cord IL-6 and funisitis as predictors of early-onset neonatal sepsis in PPROM. POPULATION: 176 women with PPROM between 23+0-36+6 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Umbilical cord IL-6 was assayed by ELISA. Funisitis was defined according to the Salafia classification. Data was adjusted by gestational age at delivery and prenatal administration of corticosteroids and antibiotics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the independence of umbilical cord IL-6 and funisitis to predict EONS in women complicated with PPROM. RESULTS: The rate of EONS was 7%. Funisitis was present in 18% of women. Umbilical cord IL-6 was significantly higher in women complicated with EONS than without [median (range 389.5 pg/mL (13.9-734.8 vs 5.2 (0.1-801-4, p<0.001]. Umbilical cord IL-6 was the only independent predictor of early-onset neonatal sepsis (odds ratio 13.6, p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord IL-6 was the only predictor of early-onset neonatal sepsis in PPROM. Contrary to what is reported, funisitis was not.

  8. Prenatal Maternal Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Preterm Birth and the Effects of Heterogeneity on This Relationship: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarah Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systematic reviews (SR and meta-analyses (MA that previously explored the relationship between prenatal maternal anxiety (PMA and preterm birth (PTB have not been comprehensive in study inclusion, failing to account for effects of heterogeneity and disagree in their conclusions. Objectives. This SRMA provides a summary of the published evidence of the relationship between PMA and PTB while examining methodological and statistical sources of heterogeneity. Methods. Published studies from MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, until June 2015, were extracted and reviewed. Results. Of the 37 eligible studies, 31 were used in this MA; six more were subsequently excluded due to statistical issues, substantially reducing the heterogeneity. The odds ratio for PMA was 1.70 (95% CI 1.33, 2.18 for PTB and 1.67 (95% CI 1.35, 2.07 for spontaneous PTB comparing higher levels of anxiety to lower levels. Conclusions. Consistent findings indicate a significant association between PMA and PTB. Due to the statistical problem of including collinear variables in a single regression model, it is hard to distinguish the effect of the various types of psychosocial distress on PTB. However, a prenatal program aimed at addressing mental health issues could be designed and evaluated using a randomised controlled trial to assess the causal nature of different aspects of mental health on PTB.

  9. On the assessment of adverse drug reactions from spontaneous reporting systems: The influence of under-reporting on odds ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Buuren, S. van; Hofstede, J.W. van der

    2002-01-01

    A well-known problem in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is under-reporting, that is, the problem that not all occurrences of ADRs are reported to the SRS. We look at the question of how to draw statistical conclusions from analyses of SRS data using reporting

  10. Home care practices for preterm and term infants after hospital discharge in Massachusetts, 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S S; Lu, E; Cui, X; Diop, H; Barfield, W D; Manning, S E

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of home care practices in very to moderately preterm (VPT), late preterm (LPT) and term infants born in Massachusetts. Using 2007 to 2010 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data, births were categorized by gestational age (VPT: 23 to 33 weeks; LPT: 34 to 36 weeks; term: 37 to 42 weeks). Home care practices included breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and infant sleep practices (supine sleep position, sleeping in a crib, cosleeping in an adult bed). We developed multivariate models to examine the association of infant sleep practices and breastfeeding with preterm status, controlling for maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Supine sleep position was more prevalent among term infants compared with VPT and LPT infants (77.1%, 71.5%, 64.4%; P=0.02). In the adjusted model, LPT infants were less likely to be placed in supine sleep position compared with term infants (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.75 to 0.97). Breastfeeding initiation and continuation did not differ among preterm and term groups. Nearly 16% of VPT and 18% of LPT and term infants were not sleeping in cribs and 14% of LPT and term infants were cosleeping on an adult bed. Compared with term infants, LPT infants were less likely to be placed in supine sleep position after hospital discharge. A significant percent of preterm and term infants were cosleeping on an adult bed. Hospitals may consider improving their safe sleep education, particularly to mothers of LPT infants.

  11. Are intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth associated with dental caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria C D; Bettiol, Heliosa; Barbieri, Marco A; Silva, Antonio A

    2007-10-01

    To assess the association between two intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) surrogates - IUGR [small for gestational age birth (SGA) and fetal growth restriction (FGR)] and preterm birth with dental caries. Data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used, including 2- to 5.9-year-old singletons (n = 3189). Dental caries was defined as presence of any teeth with dental caries (treated or untreated) and also as presence of at least two teeth with dental caries. Exposure variables were preterm birth (education of head of household, breastfeeding, and use of baby bottle. Separate statistical analyses were conducted for IUGR and for preterm birth through the estimation of prevalence ratio (PR), taking complex sampling design into consideration and adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was conducted including and excluding 2-year-old children and also with the two definitions of dental caries. In general, the inclusion of 2-year-old children and the case definition of presence of any teeth with dental caries biased the results toward the null, but with no major changes in the results. In bivariate analysis, SGA and FGR birth were both negatively but not significantly associated with dental caries while a significant positive association was found for preterm birth. Sensitivity analysis showed that the PR for preterm in bivariate analysis varied from 1.65 (95% CI 1.14-2.40) to 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.83). After adjusting for confounders, the PR for preterm birth varied from 1.38 (95% CI 1.00-1.89) to 1.64 (95% CI 1.22-2.20). After adjustment, the PR for SGA varied from 0.79 (95% CI 0.56-101) to 0.66 (95% CI 0.33-0.96). For children from 3 to 5.9 years old, the adjusted PR for FGR using the category 'none' as reference were mild (PR 1.10; 95% CI 0.76-1.58), moderate (PR 0.66; 95% CI 0.26-167), and severe (PR 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.99). These values for FGR were very similar for the other models using other classifications of

  12. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  13. [Progesterone and prevention of preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V

    2015-10-01

    The literature confirms the interest of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in specific indications for patients carrying a singleton pregnancy. In contrast, randomized trials have shown no benefit using progesterone in the prevention of prematurity in twins and even an adverse effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary oedema after hexoprenaline administration in preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the widespread use of ,a-sympathomimetic agents for preterm labour there appears to be a limited appreciation of the need for cardiovascular monitoring in the mother. Four patients in whom pulmonary oedema developed during tocolysis with hexoprenaline are described and the aetiological factors and ...

  15. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... accompany PPROM include prematurity, umbilical cord prolapse and compression, neonatal sepsis, respiratory. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. TC Okeke ...

  16. ACHIEVING OPTIMAL FEEDS FOR PRETERM BABIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonization of the gut by bacteria and the introduction of nutrients into the gut affect postnatal gastrointestinal and .... inflammatory response syndrome20. The anatomically and functionally immature intestine ... milk are significantly diminished by storage and heat processing of the donor milk. Preterm maternal milk.

  17. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos...

  18. PRETERM LABOUR - IS BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INVOLVED?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metronidazole, or 100 mg vitamin C orally twice daily for. 2 days. The Gram's stain was repeated after 4 weeks. If BV. W?S found again, treatment with the same drug was repeated. Outcome measures. Preterm delivery, birth weight and perinatal deaths. Results. One thousand and five patients entered the study, but. 40 were ...

  19. Pulmonary oedema after hexoprenaline administration in preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-18

    May 18, 1991 ... Complications associ~ted with the use of j:l-sympathomimetic agents in preterm labour have been reviewed by Benederti.1. Pulmonary oedema, myocardial ischaemia, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebral vasospasm, hypotension, hyperglycaemia and hypo- kalaemia have all been reponed. Pulmonary oedema is ...

  20. Neutral oligosaccharide content of preterm human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, T; Fu, D; Zopf, D; Brodsky, N L; Hurt, H

    1999-11-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are known to play a role in protection against certain infectious diseases. Previous reports indicate that the content of human milk oligosaccharides varies widely among individuals at term but such information on preterm milk is lacking. After removal of the fat, protein and most of the lactose from non-pooled human milk samples, a total neutral oligosaccharide fraction was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. A Dionex high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system equipped with a pulsed electrometric detector was then employed to measure the levels of ten neutral oligosaccharides in the individual milk samples. Twenty-three milk samples from thirteen mothers who delivered at a mean gestational age of 29.5 (SD 3.1) weeks were collected between days 0 and 33 of lactation, and compared with three samples of term milk from two mothers. The ranges of the total and individual levels of the ten neutral oligosaccharides in preterm milk were similar to those in term milk. Further, as previously described in term milk, preterm milk exhibited a quantitative individual variation. This variation was independent of the gestational age, day of lactation, and postconceptional age. In conclusion, levels of ten neutral oligosaccharides did not differ between preterm and term human milk.

  1. Preterm birth, osteoporosis, and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, M K

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this two-part article is to review two major events in the life span of a woman. These include the putative relationship between oral health, pregnancy, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Current knowledge about risk factors for preterm birth and for osteoporosis are discussed. The newest studies that address the relationship between oral and systemic health are also reviewed.

  2. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  3. Diaphragmatic electromyography monitoring in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, J.V.S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis starts in Chapter 1 with general aspects of prematurity and its consequences on the respiratory system. Thereby, common types of respiratory failure in preterm infants, the physiology of respiratory muscles and different cardiorespiratory monitoring techniques used in the neonatal

  4. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  5. Preterm labour - Is Mycoplasma hominis involved? | Odendaal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gram's stains were done on smears taken from the posterior vaginal fornix, at the first antenatal visit, between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation, in primigravidae and multigravidae at risk for preterm labour. Cultures for M. hominis and other commonly occurring organisms were done ·from endocervical swabs taken at the same ...

  6. [Periodontal disease, tobacco and preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Marta; Pinto, Elisabete; Pinto, Miguel; Montenegro, Nuno

    2011-12-01

    Preterm delivery is associated with high mortality and morbility perinatal, being the costs dispended by the family and the National Health System with preterm newborns extremely high. However, it has been difficult to reduce its incidence due to the various factors involved. There is scientific evidence which support the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm delivery. There is also evidence of tobacco as a risk factor for periodontal disease, even though the relationship with preterm delivery is not yet clear. The aims of our study were to evaluate, in women in a post-partum period, dental and periodontal status as well as the exposure to tobacco and to establish the relationship between these two factors with preterm delivery. We performed a case control study with 237 parturient women from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hospital S. João, E.P.E., during the first 48 hours after birth. A total of 86 gave birth at a gestational age under 37 weeks (case group ) and 151 gave birth to term newborns with birthweight equal or superior 2500 g (control group). The prevalence of some indicators of periodontal disease in the studied population was extremely high, namely gingival inflammation and gingival recession, and more of 30% had values of probing depth equal or higher than 4 mm significantly. Based on these periodontal indicators, only the presence of recession in more than two teeth seems to increase the risk of preterm delivery in fivefold (OR = 5,28; IC95%: 1,63-17,04). There is a statistically significant association between probing depth equal or higher than 4mm and smoking during pregnancy. This association might be relevant because 20% of preterm newborns mothers smoked during pregnancy and the proportion that stopped smoking during pregnancy in this group of mothers was almost half of the number of the control group. Therefore it is necessary to embody the information about this thematic in the health education, not only in

  7. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  8. Global systematics of nuclear observables in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, D.

    1996-01-01

    Different correlations between observables related to the unique parity orbital structures in the odd-A nuclei are studied. It is shown that the correlations between excitation energies within the unique parity orbital quasibands allow a tripartite classification of the evolution of the nuclear structure, similar to that observed in the adjacent even-even nuclei: all nuclei can be assigned to three different regimes, the precollective, anharmonic vibrator and strong coupling, respectively, interconnected by fast, critical phase-like transitions. It is shown that both an index which characterizes the signature splitting, and the B(E2) values within the quasibands can be organized in terms of a valence correlation scheme. (author)

  9. Subcoulomb fusion of 16O in odd Sm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections for the formation of evaporation residues were measured for the reaction of 16 O with the odd 147 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei at near barrier energies. The results are well described by statistical model calculations. Fusion cross sections as a function of energy do not show any unusual behaviour that could be attributed to the presence of unpaired nucleons. An analysis based on a one-dimensional penetration model that includes the effect of permanent quadrupolar deformations shows that the extracted values of the parameter β 2 follow the systematics established by the rest of the even samarium isotopes. The dependence of β 2 on the mass of the target nucleus indicates that the influence exerted by collective aspects upon the subbarrier fusion process increases rapidly as a function of the number of neutrons added to the spherical semimagic 144 Sm nucleus. (Author) [es

  10. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  11. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  12. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-04-09

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preterm Life in Sterile Conditions: A Study on Preterm, Germ-Free Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splichalova, Alla; Slavikova, Vera; Splichalova, Zdislava; Splichal, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants born with immature organ systems, which can impede normal development, can also be highly sensitive to different biological and/or environmental factors. Animal models could aid in investigating and understanding the effects of different conditions on the health of these immunocompromised infants. The epitheliochorial placentation of the pig prevents the prenatal transfer of protective colostral immunoglobulins. Surgical colostrum-deprived piglets are free of maternal immunoglobulins, and the cells that are normally provided via colostrum. We bred preterm germ-free piglets in sterile conditions and compared them with their term counterparts. Enterocyte development and intestinal morphology, tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin, pattern-recognizing receptors, adaptor molecules and coreceptors (RAGE, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88, TRIF, MD2, and CD14), and inflammasome NLRP3 transcription were all evaluated. The production of inflammatory mediators IFN-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/23 p40, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the intestine of germ-free piglets was also assessed. In the preterm germ-free piglets, the ileum showed decreased lamina propria cellularity, reduced villous height, and thinner and less distinct stratification - especially muscle layer, in comparison with their term counterparts. Claudin-1 transcription increased in the intestine of the preterm piglets. The transcription levels of pattern-recognizing receptors and adaptor molecules showed ambiguous trends between the groups. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were increased in the preterm ileum numerically (though not significantly), with statistically significant increases in the colon. Additionally, IL-12/23 p40 and IFN-γ were statistically significantly higher in the preterm colon. Both blood plasma and intestinal HMGB1 levels were nonsignificantly higher in the preterm group. We propose that the intestine of the preterm germ

  14. A randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestation (PROGESTWIN): evidence for reduced neonatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, J; Usta, I M; Ghazeeri, G; Yacoub, N; Succar, J; Hayek, S; Saasouh, W; Nassar, A H

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) prolongs gestation beyond 37 weeks of gestation (primary outcome) and reduces neonatal morbidity (secondary outcome) in twin pregnancy. Randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial. Tertiary-care university medical centre. Unselected women with twin pregnancies. Participants received weekly injections of 250 mg 17OHPC (n = 194) or placebo (n = 94), from 16-20 to 36 weeks of gestation. Randomisation was performed using the permuted-block randomisation method. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Preterm birth (PTB) rate before 37 weeks of gestation. There were no significant differences in the average gestational age at delivery, or in the rates of PTB before 37, 32, and 28 weeks of gestation, between the two groups. The proportion of very-low-birthweight neonates (<1500 g) was significantly lower in the 17OHPC group (7.6%) compared with placebo (14.3%) (relative risk, RR 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.3-0.9; P = 0.01). Progestogen-treated neonates had a significantly lower composite neonatal morbidity (19.1%) compared with placebo (30.9%) (odds ratio, OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90; P = 0.02), with significantly lower odds for respiratory distress syndrome (14.4 versus 23.4%; OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.31-0.98; P = 0.04), retinopathy of prematurity (1.1 versus 4.6%; OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.05-0.96; P = 0.04), and culture-confirmed sepsis (3.4 versus 12.8%; OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.57; P = 0.00). Intramuscular 17OHPC therapy did not reduce PTB before 37 weeks of gestation in unselected twin pregnancies. Nonetheless, 17OHPC significantly reduced neonatal morbidity parameters and increased birthweight. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  16. Is periodontitis associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and preterm and/or low birth weight births?

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    Madianos, Phoebus N; Bobetsis, Georgios A; Kinane, Denis F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and preterm and/or low birth weight deliveries (PLBW). A literature search was performed to identify cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies as well as clinical trials addressing different aspects of periodontal disease (clinical, microbial, immunological) and clinical outcomes of CHD or PLBW. The periodontitis-CHD association was evaluated in eight cohort, four case-control- and four cross-sectional studies. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the extensive heterogeneity of the studies, particularly with regard to periodontitis measures, which varied from full mouth probing assessments to questionnaires. Percentage-wise, 50% of the cohort studies (4/8), 75% of the case-control studies (3/4) and 50% of the cross-sectional studies (2/4) reported a significant association between clinical measures of periodontitis and CHD (excess risk ranged from 0 to 3.3-fold). The periodontitis-PLBW association was evaluated in one cohort and two case-control studies. The cohort study as well as one of the two case-control studies reported a significant association between periodontitis and PLBW (odds ratios 4.4-7.9). From two additional case-control studies microbiological data could be extracted. Bacteroides forsythus was found to be associated with PLBW in both studies. In conclusion, the evidence linking periodontitis with an increased risk for CHD and PLBW is limited. There is a clear need for new, well designed observational and intervention studies to confirm the thus far observed associations, explore the validity of the associations in diverse populations, establish whether they are causal in nature and determine potential benefits of periodontal intervention in reducing the risk for these conditions.

  17. Transvaginal cervical length and amniotic fluid index: can it predict delivery latency following preterm premature rupture of membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Suwan; Amon, Erol; Hopkins, Sarah; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Shyken, Jaye

    2015-03-01

    We sought to determine whether transvaginal cervical length (TVCL), amniotic fluid index (AFI), or a combination of both can predict delivery latency within 7 days in women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). This was a prospective observational study of TVCL measurements in 106 singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 23-33 weeks. Delivery latency was defined as the period (in days) from the initial TVCL after PPROM to delivery of the infant, with our primary outcome being delivery within 7 days of TVCL. The independent predictability of significant characteristics for delivery within 7 days was determined using multiple logistic regression. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to examine whether the presence of a short TVCL, AFI, or a combination of both affected the risk of delivery within 7 days. Delivery within 7 days occurred in 51/106 (48%) of pregnancies. Median duration (interquartile range) from PPROM to delivery and TVCL to delivery was 8 days (4.0-16.0) and 8 days (3.0-15.0), respectively. Using multiple regression TVCL as a continuous variable (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97; P 7 days for TVCL >2 cm alone was 61%. This predictive value changed when analyzed in conjunction with an AFI ≤5 cm and >5 cm at 42% and 89%, respectively. A shorter TVCL and an AFI ≤5 cm independently predict delivery within 7 days in women presenting with PPROM. The combination of an AFI >5 cm and TVCL >2 cm greatly improved the potential to remain undelivered at 7 days following cervical length assessment. These findings may be helpful for counseling and optimizing maternal and neonatal care in women with PPROM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of correlation between vitamin D level and prevalence of preterm births in the population of pregnant women in Poland

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    Marta Baczyńska-Strzecha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of this project is determination of the correlation between the level of vitamin D in blood serum and duration of pregnancy in population in central Poland. Material and Methods: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD level was determined in blood serum, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Standardized history of each patient was recorded. The history included: general medical history, data regarding the course of pregnancy and information about health-related behavior that could influence vitamin D concentration. Two hundred-and-one Caucasian women at childbirth were qualified into the study. The study group was divided into 2 parts: 100 patients who had a spontaneous premature birth and 101 patients who had birth at full term. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (< 30 ng/ml was very common for both groups (69.6% of patients in the premature group and 72% – in the control group. Patients who had a premature birth had severe vitamin D deficiency (less than 10 ng/ml more often than in the control group (34% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.001. Severe vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of premature birth but the association was not statistically significant in the multivariate regression model (odds ratio (OR = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.86–7.15, p = 0.094. Conclusions: Severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml may be the factor increasing the risk of preterm birth. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:933–941

  19. Dummy/pacifier use in preterm infants increases blood pressure and improves heart rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rosemary S C; Fyfe, Karinna L; Odoi, Alexsandria; Athukoralage, Anjalee; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y

    2016-02-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Use of a dummy/pacifier is thought to be protective against SIDS; accordingly, we assessed the effects of dummy/pacifier use on blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation, and heart rate control over the first 6 mo of life after term corrected age (CA) when SIDS risk is greatest. Thirty-five preterm infants were studied longitudinally at 2-4 wk, 2-3 mo, and 5-6 mo CA. Cardiac control was assessed from spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) in the low frequency (LF) and the high frequency (HF) range, and the ratio of HF/LF indicating sympathovagal balance was calculated. Overall, at 2-3 mo, mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the supine position in dummy/pacifier users in both quiet sleep (70 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2 mm Hg; P pacifier users had higher LF HRV and LF/HF ratio and lower HF HRV. Dummy/pacifier use increased blood pressure during sleep, at the age of greatest SIDS risk. Overall, LF HRV was elevated and HF HRV reduced in dummy/pacifier users, suggesting that dummy use alters cardiac control in preterm infants.

  20. An association between preterm delivery and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessous, Roy; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Pariente, Gali; Holcberg, Gershon; Sheiner, Eyal

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a history of preterm delivery (PTD) poses a risk for subsequent maternal long-term cardiovascular morbidity. A population-based study compared the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity in a cohort of women who delivered preterm (term at the same period. Deliveries occurred during the years 1988-1999 with follow up until 2010. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of cardiovascular hospitalizations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular hospitalizations. During the study period 47,908 women met the inclusion criteria; 12.5% of the patients (n = 5992) delivered preterm. During a follow-up period of >10 years, patients with PTD had higher rates of simple and complex cardiovascular events and higher rates of total cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. A linear association was found between the number of previous PTD and future risk for cardiovascular hospitalizations (5.5% for ≥2 PTDs; 5.0% for 1 PTD vs 3.5% in the comparison group; P hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.6). PTD is an independent risk factor for long-term cardiovascular morbidity in a follow-up period of more than a decade. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Short interpregnancy interval increases the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes and early delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Raj; Caughey, Aaron B; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra

    2017-08-09

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a major contributor to overall preterm birth (PTB) rates. A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) is a well-known risk factor for PTB. It is unknown if a short IPI specifically affects the risk of developing PPROM in a subsequent pregnancy. We sought to determine the association between IPI and the risk of PPROM in a subsequent pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study using the Missouri birth certificate database of singleton births from 2003 to 2013 was conducted. A short IPI (delivery of the prior pregnancy to conception of the index pregnancy) was defined as ≤6 months. IPI >6 months was categorized into two groups: IPI 7-23 months and IPI ≥24 months. PPROM was defined as premature rupture of membranes between 16 0 and 36 6 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the association between IPI and PPROM while controlling for maternal age, race, body mass index (BMI), education level, use of social services (Medicaid insurance, food stamps, or participation in the WIC [Women, Infants, and Children] program), tobacco use, and history of PTB. Secondary outcome included the gestational age at delivery, categorized into five subgroups (≤24 0 , 24 1 -28 0 , 28 1 -32 0 , 32 1 -34 0 , and 34 1 -36 6 weeks). 474,957 subjects with singleton gestations had data available to calculate the IPI. Of these, 1.4% (n = 6797) experienced PPROM. IPI ≤6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing PPROM compared with patients with IPI ≥24 months (odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% CI 1.70-1.90, p < .001). A higher proportion of women with IPI ≤6 months delivered between 28 1 and 32 0 weeks compared to the other two IPI groups (27.0 versus 15.0 and 16.4%, p < .001). Individual maternal factors associated with an increased risk of PPROM included advanced maternal age, African American race, BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 , BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 , use of social services, tobacco use, and

  2. Comparison of Risk of Preterm Labor between Vaginal Progesterone and17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Caproate in Women with Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Abootaleb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Threatened miscarriage is a common complication in pregnancy that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor. This study aimed to compare the vaginal progesterone (Cyclogest versus 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton on preventing preterm labor in pregnant women with threatened abortion at less than 34 weeks’ gestational age. Materials and methods This balanced randomized, double-blind, single-center controlled clinical trial included 190 women with threatened abortion. They were then randomly allocated into Cyclogest (n=95 and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton, n=95 groups. Interested outcome was preterm labor less than 34 weeks. The Pearson chi-square and Student’s t test were used to compare two groups. The data were analyzed by Stata software version 13. Results The risks of preterm labor less than 34 weeks in Proluton and Cyclogest groups were 8.6 and 6.52%, respectively. There was no significant difference for risk of preterm labor less than 34 weeks [relative ratio (RR: 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47- 3.66, P=0.59] between two groups. Conclusion Risk of preterm labor in the vaginal progesterone group and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group in pregnant women with threatened abortion is the same (Registration Number: IRCT2014123120504N1.

  3. An Elevated Maternal Plasma Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 to Placental Growth Factor Ratio at Midtrimester Is a Useful Predictor for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Fathy Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess the ability of mid-trimester sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for prediction of preeclampsia in two different Arabic populations. Methods. This study measured levels of sFlt-1, PlGF, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at midtrimester in 83 patients who developed preeclampsia with contemporary 250 matched controls. Results. Women subsequently developed preeclampsia had significantly lower PlGF levels and higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio levels than women with normal pregnancies (P<0.0001 for all. Women who with preterm preeclampsia had significantly higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than term preeclamptic women (P=0.01, 0.003, resp.. A cutoff value of 3198 pg/mL for sFlt-1 was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88%, 83.6%, and 84.7%, respectively, with odds ratio (OR 37.2 [95% confidence interval (CI 17.7–78.1]. PIGF at cutoff value of 138 pg/mL was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.5%, 77.2%, and 79.3%, respectively, with OR 20 [95% CI, 10.2–39.5]. The sFlt-1/PIGF ratio at cutoff value of 24.5 was able to predict preeclampsia with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.6%, 86.4%, and 87.7%, respectively with OR 67 [95% CI, 29.3–162.1]. Conclusion. Midtrimester sFlt-1/PlGF ratio displayed the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and OR for prediction of preeclampsia, demonstrating that it may stipulate more effective prediction of preeclampsia development than individual factor assay.

  4. Associations of Maternal Antidepressant Use During the First Trimester of Pregnancy With Preterm Birth, Small for Gestational Age, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Ayesha C; Rickert, Martin E; Öberg, A Sara; Quinn, Patrick D; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-04-18

    Prenatal antidepressant exposure has been associated with adverse outcomes. Previous studies, however, may not have adequately accounted for confounding. To evaluate alternative hypotheses for associations between first-trimester antidepressant exposure and birth and neurodevelopmental problems. This retrospective cohort study included Swedish offspring born between 1996 and 2012 and followed up through 2013 or censored by death or emigration. Analyses controlling for pregnancy, maternal and paternal covariates, as well as sibling comparisons, timing of exposure comparisons, and paternal comparisons, were used to examine the associations. Maternal self-reported first-trimester antidepressant use and first-trimester antidepressant dispensations. Preterm birth (disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Among 1 580 629 offspring (mean gestational age, 279 days; 48.6% female; 1.4% [n = 22 544] with maternal first-trimester self-reported antidepressant use) born to 943 776 mothers (mean age at childbirth, 30 years), 6.98% of exposed vs 4.78% of unexposed offspring were preterm, 2.54% of exposed vs 2.19% of unexposed were small for gestational age, 5.28% of exposed vs 2.14% of unexposed were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder by age 15 years, and 12.63% of exposed vs 5.46% of unexposed were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by age 15 years. At the population level, first-trimester exposure was associated with all outcomes compared with unexposed offspring (preterm birth odds ratio [OR], 1.47 [95% CI, 1.40-1.55]; small for gestational age OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.25]; autism spectrum disorder hazard ratio [HR], 2.02 [95% CI, 1.80-2.26]; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder HR, 2.21 [95% CI, 2.04-2.39]). However, in models that compared siblings while adjusting for pregnancy, maternal, and paternal traits, first-trimester antidepressant exposure was associated with preterm birth (OR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1

  5. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. How to diagnose preterm labor: a clinical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R H; Mozurkewich, E L

    2000-12-01

    The clinician is faced with many dilemmas in the diagnosis of preterm labor. The tools at hand (no pun intended) yield subjective information and it is difficult to distinguish true labor from false labor. Because preterm labor is multifactorial in cause and can occur in primiparas, estimating risk for the individual patient is difficult. The cause of the preterm labor in the majority of patients is idiopathic; in this group, the use of salivary estriol as a biochemical marker for preterm labor can increase the accuracy of the diagnosis of true labor. It may also lend confidence to the diagnosis of false labor and may allay anxiety and prevent unnecessary interventions. On the horizon are two noninvasive methods: the EMG, to evaluate uterine contractility, and the collascope, to evaluate the cervix. Both show promise and may provide a more objective assessment of risk for preterm delivery among women with symptoms of preterm labor.

  8. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Josephine, E-mail: jkang3@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  9. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

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    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  10. Are risk factors for preterm and early-term live singleton birth the same? A population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Prunet, Caroline; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-24

    To investigate whether risk factors for preterm (term birth (37 and 38 weeks gestation) are similar. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of births. France in 2010. Live singleton births (n=14 326). Preterm and early-term birth rates overall and by mode of delivery (spontaneous and indicated). Risk factors were maternal sociodemographic characteristics, previous preterm birth, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking, assessed using multinomial regression models with full-term births 39 weeks and over as the reference group. There were 5.5% preterm and 22.5% early-term births. Common risk factors were: a previous preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 8.2 (95% CI 6.2 to 10.7) and aRRR 2.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.0), respectively), short stature, underweight (overall and in spontaneous deliveries), obesity (in indicated deliveries only), a low educational level and Sub-Saharan African origin. In contrast, primiparity was a risk factor only for preterm birth, aRRR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.2), while higher parity was associated with greater risk of early-term birth. Most population-level risk factors were common to both preterm and early-term birth with the exception of primiparity, and BMI which differed by mode of onset of delivery. Our results suggest that preterm and early-term birth share similar aetiologies and thus potentially common strategies for prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

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    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  12. Higher-spin Chern-Simons theories in odd dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, Johan [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.engquist@phys.uu.nl; Hohm, Olaf [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: o.hohm@phys.uu.nl

    2007-12-10

    We construct consistent bosonic higher-spin gauge theories in odd dimensions D>3 based on Chern-Simons forms. The gauge groups are infinite-dimensional higher-spin extensions of the anti-de Sitter groups SO(D-1,2). We propose an invariant tensor on these algebras, which is required for the definition of the Chern-Simons action. The latter contains the purely gravitational Chern-Simons theories constructed by Chamseddine, and so the entire theory describes a consistent coupling of higher-spin fields to a particular form of Lovelock gravity. It contains topological as well as non-topological phases. Focusing on D=5 we consider as an example for the latter an AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 1} Kaluza-Klein background. By solving the higher-spin torsion constraints in the case of a spin-3 field, we verify explicitly that the equations of motion reduce in the linearization to the compensator form of the Fronsdal equations on AdS{sub 4}.

  13. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Predictors factors for the extubation failure in two or more times among preterm newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, Carlos Antonio; De León-Gómez, Noé; Ballesteros-Del-Olmo, Julio César; Ruelas-Vargas, Consuelo; Cuevas-Urióstegui, María Luisa; Castillo-Pérez, José Juan

    2010-01-01

    With the ventilatory mechanical attendance has been prolonged the life of the preterm newborn (PTNB) critically sick and during that lapse many occasions it is necessary reintubation to PTNB in two or more times with the subsequent damage that makes enter to the patient to a vicious circle with more damage during the same reintubated. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that predict the extubation failure among PTNB from 28 to 36 weeks of gestational age in two or more times. It was considered extubation failure when in the first 72 hours of being had extubated the patient; there was reintubation necessity, independent of the cause that originated it. For the second extubation or more took the same approach. During the period of September to December of the 2004 were included in retrospective study to all PTNB that were interned in one hospital of third level that fulfilled the inclusion approaches (one study published where we take account the first extubation failure) and in retrolective study to the patients of the same hospital of January to October of the 2006. They were formed two groups, group A of cases (who failed in extubation two or more times) and the B of controls (who failed in extubation for the first time). The descriptive statistic and the inferential through of Student t test or Mann-Whitney U or rank sum test Wilcoxon, in suitable case; Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used. Odds ratio (OR) and multivariate analysis for to study predictors factors for the extubation failure was employed. Statistical significance was considered at p 2, OR 5.3, IC to 95% of 1.3-21.4 (P = 0.02). In the bronchoscopy study they were some anatomical alterations that they explained the extubation failure in the second time. We conclude that it is important to plan an extubation in the PTNB, when there has already been a previous failure, and to avoid the well-known predictors factors for extubation failure as much as possible in the extubation

  15. Community-based screening to detect school readiness problems in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Nitin; McKinlay, Chris; Purdie, Gordon; Filipovska, Julia; Battin, Malcolm; Patel, Harshad; Tuohy, Pat

    2018-03-01

    Very preterm (VPT) children (≤32 weeks) have school readiness difficulties across multiple domains, but routine follow-up is often limited. We assessed the performance of VPT children on the Before School Check (B4SC), a community-based screening programme of school readiness at 4 years of age. VPT children discharged from Wellington and Auckland Neonatal Intensive Care Units (2005-2009) were compared to a national control cohort born during the same period. Outcome measures included Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P and SDQ-T) and vision and hearing screening, and were related to perinatal and demographic characteristics obtained from the Australia and New Zealand Neonatal Network database. Of 1105 VPT children, 920 were matched to the B4SC database, of whom 814 (88%) had one or more B4SC screening outcomes recorded. Compared with controls, VPT children were more likely to have abnormal PEDS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 1.53-2.10), SDQ-P (OR = 1.82, 1.49-2.23), SDQ-T (OR = 1.51, 1.10-2.06), vision (OR = 2.00, 1.54-2.60) and hearing (OR = 1.95, 1.65-2.31) screen outcomes. While VPT children with an abnormal screen were more likely to be referred for further assessment, only 34%, 22%, 94% and 51% with abnormal PEDS, SDQ or vision and hearing screen, respectively, had evidence of appropriate referral. School readiness difficulties were significantly associated with birthweight z-score ≤ -1, vaginal delivery, significant cranial ultrasound abnormalities, younger maternal age, higher deprivation neighbourhood and ventilation ≥72 h. Community-based screening may be useful for identifying VPT children with school readiness difficulties, but low referral rates may limit the effectiveness of such programmes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a com