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Sample records for preterm brazilian children

  1. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP.

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    Renato T Souza

    Full Text Available About 15 million children are born under 37 weeks of gestation worldwide. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal deaths and short/long term morbidities, entailing consequences not only for the individual, but also their family, health agencies, facilities and all community. The provider-initiated preterm birth is currently one of the most important obstetric conditions related to preterm births, particularly in middle and high income countries, thus decreasing the need for therapeutic preterm birth is essential to reduce global prematurity. Therefore detailed knowledge on the factors associated with provider-initiated preterm birth is essential for the efforts to reduce preterm birth rates and its consequences. In this current analysis we aimed to assess the proportion of provider-initiated (pi-PTB among preterm births in Brazil and identify associated factors.This is an analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component called Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP. EMIP was conducted in 20 referral obstetric hospitals located in the three most populated of the five Brazilian regions. We analysed data of women with pi-PTB, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks, medically indicated for maternal/fetal compromise or both; and women with term birth, childbirth at or after 37 weeks. Maternal, sociodemographic, obstetric, prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal characteristics were assessed as possible factors associated with pi-PTB, compared to term births. The overall prevalence of preterm births was 12.3%. Of these, approximately one-third of cases were initiated by the provider. Hypertensive disorders, placental abruption, and diabetes were the main maternal conditions leading to pi-PTB. Caesarean section was the most common mode of delivery. Chronic hypertension (OR 7.47; 95%CI 4.02-13.88, preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP syndrome (OR 15.35; 6.57-35.88, multiple pregnancy (OR 12

  2. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

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    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Neurological disorders in preterm children with neuropathy].

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    Nikolaeva, G V; Sidorenko, E I; Guseva, M R; Akbasheva, N G

    2017-01-01

    To establish the correlation between the frequency and severity of hypoxic CNS lesions in preterm children with neuropathy and improve the early diagnosis of lesions of the brain structures based on clinical ophthalmologic results. The authors examined 712 premature infants with body mass neurological examination and neurosonography were performed. RP was found in 367 (51.5%) children. In 255 children, the disease regressed naturally. One hundred and twelve (15.7%) children, underwent laser coagulation of the avascular retina due to the severity of RP. Signs of intraventricular hemorrhages (IVH) were noted in 434 (61%) children in the neonatal period. IVH were found in 285 (77.6%) children with RP. RP with the regression after laser coagulation was combined with IVH in 98% of cases, with the higher frequency (55.3%) of IVH, 3 rd degree. Periventricular leucomalation (PVL) was found in 10% of children without RP, in 22.3% of children with RP with naturally regression and in 51,7% of children with RP with laser coagulation of the retina. In 70 children, neurosonographic signs of ischemia of the head of caudate nucleus were identified on the 14-15 th days of life. In this group, RP developed in 54 (77%) children, 27 (38.5%) children needed laser coagulation of the retina. The correlation found between the severity of RP and hypoxic CNS lesions in highly preterm infants might allow the prognosis of visual and neurosomatic disturbances in the early age and timely effective rehabilitation.

  4. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in

  5. Chinese handwriting performance in preterm children in grade 2

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    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Hong, Rong-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Background First graders born prematurely perform poorly on handwriting speed and legibility. However, whether there are specific legibility factors in which preterm children demonstrate difficulty remains unknown. In addition, handwriting performance beyond the first grade and the influence of sex on handwriting performance in preterm children are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of prematurity and sex on multiple dimensions of handwriting in grade two and to identify the contributors to performance. Methods Sixty-three preterm (34 boys and 29 girls) and 67 full-term (27 boys and 40 girls) peers in grade two were included. Class teachers were asked to complete the Chinese Handwriting Evaluation Form. A subgroup of 39 preterm children received assessments on intelligence, visual perception, tactile and kinesthetic sensation, and fine motor skills. Their inattention behavior was rated using a maternal self-report with a behavioral scale. Results Boys born prematurely exhibited poorer performance in the speed dimension than full-term boys (p = 0.008), whereas there was comparable performance in the two groups of girls (p = 0.221). In the dimensions related to legibility, preterm boys (32.4%) had a higher percentage of children with difficulty in the construction dimension than the other groups (preterm girls: 6.9%, full-term boys: 7.4%, full-term girls: 5.0%). However, no group difference was found in the dimensions of accuracy and directionality. Of the sensory-perceptual-motor factors, attention was the most significant predictor of accuracy in performance (p = 0.046) and speed dimensions (p = 0.001) in preterm children. Conclusions Boys appear to be vulnerable to the adverse impacts of preterm birth in terms of performance in the dimensions of speed and construction in grade two. Based on the significant contribution of attention to handwriting performance in preterm children, assessment and intervention in the area of attention is strongly

  6. Dysphonia in very preterm children: a review of the evidence.

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    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Intubation is a known risk factor for dysphonia yet is essential in the perinatal care of many very preterm infants. Children born preterm, who are frequently resuscitated with endotracheal intubation, may be at risk of dysphonia at school age and beyond. To identify and describe the evidence pertaining to long-term voice outcomes and risk factors for developing dysphonia in preterm children. In addition to case studies and series, three larger-scale studies have reported on dysphonia and voice outcomes in preterm children. Studies reporting treatment outcomes were not available. Factors associated with poor voice outcomes included female gender, birth weight Dysphonia is a newly reported, long-term complication of preterm birth, yet the number of relevant studies remains limited. Further research is required to confirm the risk factors for developing dysphonia, which will inform future voice treatment studies.

  7. [Evaluation of coordination and balance in preterm children].

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    Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Mata Zubillaga, Daniel; Rodríguez Fernández, Luis Miguel; Regueras Santos, Laura; Reguera García, Maria Mercedes; de Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Lapeña López de Armentia, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that many preterm children without apparent neurological sequelae present some difficulties in different areas, such as coordination or balance during their school years. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) has demonstrated to be a useful tool to validate the coordination, while the stabilometric platform was the reference standard test for validating the balance. Case-control study carried out on preterm children from 7 to 10 years old and healthy term infant controls of the same ages. The same age band of MABC-2 was applied and the static balance by the stabilometric platform was analysed. A total of 89 subjects were included, 30 preterm children≤1,500g birthweight, 29 preterm children>1,500g birthweight, and 30 controls. Preterm children obtained the lowest scores on an overall basis in hand dexterity and balance tests in MABC-2, regardless of their birthweight. Lower gestational age was associated with poorer outcomes in hand dexterity and total scores in MABC-2. Balance results were similar using the stabilometric platform, regardless of prematurity. A little more than 10% preterm and term children could have coordination disorders or be at risk of developing them using the MABC-2. Despite the visual-motor coordination being similar, preterm children could face greater difficulties in hand dexterity while, in the absence of neurological comorbidity, preterm and term children balance could be comparable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review.

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    Tinka Bröring

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children.This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems.Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation or with prematurity as a risk factor.Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies.Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.

  9. Expressive language of two year-old pre-term and full-term children.

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    Isotani, Selma Mie; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Perissinoto, Jacy

    2009-01-01

    expressive language of pre-term children. to compare the expressive vocabulary of two year-old children born prematurely, to that of those born at term. the study sample was composed by 118 speech-language assessment protocols, divided in two groups: the pre-term group (PTG) composed by 58 underweight premature children followed by a multi-professional team at the Casa do Prematuro (House of Premature Children) at Unifesp, and the full-term group (FTG) composed by 60 full-term born children. In order to evaluate the expressive language of these children, the Lave - Lista de Avaliação do Vocabulário Expressivo (Assessment List of the Expressive Vocabulary) was used. The Lave is an adaptation of the LDS - Language Development Survey - for the Brazilian Portuguese Language. The Lave investigates the expressive language and detects delays in oral language. children born underweight and prematurely present a greater occurrence of expressive language delay, 27.6%. These pre-term children present significantly lower expressive vocabulary and phrasal extension than children of the same age born at full-term in all semantic categories. Family income proved to be positively associated to phrasal extension, as well as to gestational age and weight at birth; thus indicating the effect of these adverse conditions still during the third year of age. The audiological status was associated to word utterances in the PTG. children born prematurely and underweight are at risk in terms of vocabulary development; this determines the need for speech-therapy intervention programs.

  10. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet......, Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...... to use by staff and well accepted by parents. The mean score in the preterm group was 14.9+/-3.9 vs 17.7+/-2.7 in the term group (pchildren had developmental scores below-2 SD. The R-PDQ score was associated with the ASQ score 2 y later. CONCLUSION: A structured questionnaire administrated...

  11. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

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    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  12. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  13. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review

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    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in

  14. Dysphonia in extremely preterm children: A longitudinal observation.

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    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2016-12-01

    Dysphonia is a potential long-term complication of preterm birth. Childhood voice disorders caused by vocal hyperfunction resolve with pubertal changes to the vocal mechanism in many cases. In extremely preterm children, whose voice quality is affected by supraglottic hyperfunction adapted secondary to underlying structural laryngeal pathology sustained during neonatal intubation, the prognosis is unknown. A pilot study was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of dysphonia in children born at dysphonia severity scores were significantly lower on repeat assessment, but no differences were observed in objective or quality of life scores. Individual variation was observed: the difference in CAPE-V scores ranged from -36 to + 1. No participant presented with normal voice quality on repeat assessment. Analysis of group data masked individual variability in this series. Mechanisms underlying such individual variation are currently unknown. These data suggest that dysphonia is persistent in extremely preterm children. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the progression of voice disorders in extremely preterm children, to inform prognostic predictors and treatment decisions.

  15. Quality of life in preschool children born preterm

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    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Veen, S.; Fekkes, M.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Brugman, E.; Wit, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of preterm birth to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was examined for children aged 1 to 4 years. Three gestational age groups with a NICU history were selected, <32 weeks (n=65), 32 to 36 weeks (n=41),≥37 weeks (n=54), and a reference group from the open population (n=50).

  16. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  17. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  18. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

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    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  19. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

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    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  20. Visuospatial perception in children born preterm with no major neurological disorders.

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    Butcher, Phillipa R; Bouma, Anke; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F; Bos, Arend F; Smithson, Michael; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A

    2012-11-01

    Many investigations have found deficits in visuospatial perception in children born preterm, however, it is not clear whether the deficits are specific to visuospatial perception or the consequences of deficits in other functional areas, which often accompany preterm birth. This study investigated whether children born preterm show a specific deficit in visuospatial perception. Fifty-six 7- to 11-year-old preterm born children (gestational age children completed four computerized tasks tapping different levels and types of visuospatial perception. Accuracy and speed of responses were recorded. Task formats were designed to reduce demands on attentional deployment. Measures of intelligence and parental education were included in the analysis. Children born preterm performed less accurately and/or less rapidly on all tasks. Their poorer performance did not reflect differences in speed-accuracy trade-off. Parental education and IQ, both significantly lower in the preterm children, contributed positively to performance on all tasks. IQ mediated the association between preterm birth and visuospatial performance on the most cognitively demanding task. Children born preterm performed more poorly than full-term controls on four visuospatial perceptual tasks. Although intelligence and parental education were also associated with performance, preterm birth contributed independently of these factors on three of four tasks. Many children born preterm are thus multiply disadvantaged on visuospatial tasks: the lower IQ scores and parental educational levels frequently found in this group increase the deficit associated with preterm birth. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Behavior Problems in Relation to Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Moderately Preterm Children

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    Bul, Kim C. M.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention skills may form an important developmental mechanism. A mediation model was examined in which behavioral problems of moderately preterm and term children at school age are explained by attention performance. Parents and teachers completed behavioral assessments of 348 moderately preterm children and 182 term children at 8 years of age. Children were administered a test of sustained selective attention. Preterm birth was associated with more behavioral and attention difficulties. Ges...

  2. Nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children: a different etiology than developmental dyscalculia.

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    Simms, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Clayton, Sarah; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2015-02-01

    Children born very preterm (mathematics learning difficulties that are out of proportion to other academic and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children is unknown. We sought to identify the nature and origins of preterm children's mathematics difficulties. One hundred and fifteen very preterm children aged 8-10 y were assessed in school with a control group of 77 term-born classmates. Achievement in mathematics, working memory, visuospatial processing, inhibition, and processing speed were assessed using standardized tests. Numerical representations and specific mathematics skills were assessed using experimental tests. Very preterm children had significantly poorer mathematics achievement, working memory, and visuospatial skills than term-born controls. Although preterm children had poorer performance in specific mathematics skills, there was no evidence of imprecise numerical representations. Difficulties in mathematics were associated with deficits in visuospatial processing and working memory. Mathematics difficulties in very preterm children are associated with deficits in working memory and visuospatial processing not numerical representations. Thus, very preterm children's mathematics difficulties are different in nature from those of children with developmental dyscalculia. Interventions targeting general cognitive problems, rather than numerical representations, may improve very preterm children's mathematics achievement.

  3. Delayed development of neural language organization in very preterm born children.

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    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Steinlin, Maja; Kiefer, Claus; Weisstanner, Christian; Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Everts, Regula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates neural language organization in very preterm born children compared to control children and examines the relationship between language organization, age, and language performance. Fifty-six preterms and 38 controls (7-12 y) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging language task. Lateralization and signal change were computed for language-relevant brain regions. Younger preterms showed a bilateral language network whereas older preterms revealed left-sided language organization. No age-related differences in language organization were observed in controls. Results indicate that preterms maintain atypical bilateral language organization longer than term born controls. This might reflect a delay of neural language organization due to very premature birth.

  4. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

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    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysphonia in preterm children: assessing incidence and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel P

    2014-03-01

    Mild dysphonia in childhood is surprisingly common, yet moderate to severe dysphonia is rare. The latter has been associated with complex medical conditions and congenital abnormalities. Intubation injury has also been documented as a cause of childhood dysphonia. Children born very preterm may be intubated as part of the intensive care administered in the perinatal and neonatal periods, yet there are few studies investigating dysphonia in this population. This study will be the first to: use an objective acoustic voice assessment in a paediatric study, document the incidence of dysphonia in very preterm children at school age, and conduct a controlled trial of behavioural voice therapy in this population. This study will consist of three phases: assessment of voice quality and its impact on quality of life in up to 200 children born at less than 32 weeks' gestation: assessment of the nature and extent of laryngeal pathology in children with moderate to severe dysphonia; and a non-blinded, randomised controlled trial of behavioural voice therapy in children with moderate to severe dysphonia. This study will be the first to use clinical assessment to examine the voice quality of very preterm children, and to use fibre optic endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function to determine the nature and extent of any laryngeal pathology in such children. Those participants with significant voice difficulties will be randomised to receive treatment immediately or after the eight week assessment. This study is registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613001015730/ACTRN12613001012763). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  7. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  8. Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

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    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sh; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-08-28

    Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children. To study academic performance in preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era and possible moderating effects of perinatal and demographic factors. PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Cohort studies with a full-term control group reporting standardised academic performance scores of preterm children (Academic test scores and special educational needs of preterm and full-term children were analysed using random effects meta-analysis. Random effects meta-regressions were performed to explore the predictive role of perinatal and demographic factors for between-study variance in effect sizes. The 17 eligible studies included 2390 preterm children and 1549 controls. Preterm children scored 0.71 SD below full-term peers on arithmetic (pacademic performance (p=0.006). Preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era show considerable academic difficulties. Preterm children with bronchopulmonarydysplasia are at particular risk for poor academic outcome. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions

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    Michela Gatta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05 and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10. Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  10. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Peraro, Chiara; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children ( M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05) and 39 families with full-term children ( M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10). Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  11. Communicative and Linguistic Development in Preterm Children: A Longitudinal Study from 12 to 24 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Bonifacio, Serena; Fertz, Mariacristina; Iverson, Jana M.; Zocconi, Elisabetta; Caselli, M. Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research conducted on preterm children's linguistic skills has provided varying pictures, and the question of whether and to what extent preterm children are delayed in early language acquisition remains largely unresolved. Aims: To examine communicative and linguistic development during the second year in a group of Italian children…

  12. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years. Study design: Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born

  13. Pathways to School Achievement in Very Preterm and Full Term Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Wolke, Dieter; Schlagmuller, Matthias; Meyer, Renate

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in academic success were investigated in a geographically defined whole-population sample of very preterm children with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks or a birth weight of less than 1500 gm. The sample consisted of 264 very preterm children (75.6% of German-speaking survivors) and 264 controls matched for gender,…

  14. Assessment of the global intelligence and selective cognitive capacities in preterm 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begega, Azucena; Méndez López, Magdalena; de Iscar, María Jesús; Cuesta-Izquierdo, Marcelino; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Álvarez, Luis; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess various cognitive abilities such as attention, IQ, reasoning, and memory related to academic achievement in 8- and 9-year-old preterm children. A total of 141 children were assessed. The preterm group (=37 weeks) comprised 63 children and was compared to 78 full-term children. Attention was evaluated using the d2 Selective Attention test, and the IQ by the L-M form of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, establishing a profile of abilities: perception, memory, comprehension, reasoning, and verbal fluency. Significant differences in IQ were found between the preterm and full-term children. Of the cognitive abilities assessed, the only significant differences were found in verbal fluency, with preterm boys showing lower verbal fluency scores than full-term children. In conclusion, all preterm groups have attention ability similar to that of full-term children. However, preterm children obtain lower scores in intelligence measures. In addition, preterm boys have verbal fluency difficulties. Taking into account the increase in preterm births, suitable intervention programs must be planned to attend the difficulties found.

  15. Drawings of very preterm-born children at 5 years of age: a first impression of cognitive and motor development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Sasja; Deković, Maja; Feltzer, Max; de Kleine, Martin; van Baar, Anneloes

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine differences in drawing skills between very preterm and term children, and to determine whether very preterm children's cognitive and motor development is reflected in the draw-a-person test (DAP) at age 5. Seventy-two very preterm children (birth

  16. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems.

  17. Preterm Versus Term Children: Analysis of Sedation/Anesthesia Adverse Events and Longitudinal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havidich, Jeana E; Beach, Michael; Dierdorf, Stephen F; Onega, Tracy; Suresh, Gautham; Cravero, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Preterm and former preterm children frequently require sedation/anesthesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Our objective was to determine the age at which children who are born risk for sedation/anesthesia adverse events. Our secondary objective was to describe the nature and incidence of adverse events. This is a prospective observational study of children receiving sedation/anesthesia for diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures outside of the operating room by the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. A total of 57,227 patients 0 to 22 years of age were eligible for this study. All adverse events and descriptive terms were predefined. Logistic regression and locally weighted scatterplot regression were used for analysis. Preterm and former preterm children had higher adverse event rates (14.7% vs 8.5%) compared with children born at term. Our analysis revealed a biphasic pattern for the development of adverse sedation/anesthesia events. Airway and respiratory adverse events were most commonly reported. MRI scans were the most commonly performed procedures in both categories of patients. Patients born preterm are nearly twice as likely to develop sedation/anesthesia adverse events, and this risk continues up to 23 years of age. We recommend obtaining birth history during the formulation of an anesthetic/sedation plan, with heightened awareness that preterm and former preterm children may be at increased risk. Further prospective studies focusing on the etiology and prevention of adverse events in former preterm patients are warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlweiler Lygia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-controlled, prognostic cohort study was performed with the aim of establishing markers of neurological development and defining a clinical and epidemiological profile of preterm newborns at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of gestation-corrected age in terms of parachute and lateral propping reactions. Newborns with gestational age of up to 36 weeks and 6 days, weighing 2,000 g or less at birth, were included in the study At 6 months of age, parachute and lateral propping reactions were present in 8.1% of the patients. At 9 months, the parachute reaction was present in 87.5%, and the lateral propping reaction was present in 90% of the children. It was possible to assess parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children in the first year of life. Alterations in trunk-limb coordination may be evidenced in the 1st year of life through postural reactions, which are maintained as prematurity markers until school age.

  19. Behavior Problems in Relation to Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Moderately Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bul, Kim C M; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2012-04-01

    Attention skills may form an important developmental mechanism. A mediation model was examined in which behavioral problems of moderately preterm and term children at school age are explained by attention performance. Parents and teachers completed behavioral assessments of 348 moderately preterm children and 182 term children at 8 years of age. Children were administered a test of sustained selective attention. Preterm birth was associated with more behavioral and attention difficulties. Gestational age, prenatal maternal smoking, and gender were associated with mothers', fathers', and teachers' reports of children's problem behavior. Sustained selective attention partially mediated the relationship between birth status and problem behavior. Development of attention skills should be an important focus for future research in moderately preterm children.

  20. Bayley-III Cognitive and Language Scales in Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan M; Spittle, Alicia J; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III), Cognitive and Language scales at 24 months for predicting cognitive impairments in preterm children at 4 years. Children born cognitive functioning. Test norms and local term-born reference data were used to classify delay on the Bayley-III Cognitive and Language scales. Impairment on the DAS-II Global Conceptual Ability, Verbal, and Nonverbal Reasoning indices was classified relative to test norms. Scores cognitive delay on the Bayley-III for predicting impairment on DAS-II indices ranged from 29.4% to 38.5% and specificity ranged from 92.3% to 95.5%. The sensitivity of mild/moderate language delay on the Bayley-III for predicting impairment on DAS-II indices ranged from 40% to 46.7% and specificity ranged from 81.1% to 85.7%. The use of local reference data at 24 months to classify delay increased sensitivity but reduced specificity. Receiver operating curve analysis identified optimum cut-point scores for the Bayley-III that were more consistent with using local reference data than Bayley-III normative data. In our cohort of very preterm children, delay on the Bayley-III Cognitive and Language scales was not strongly predictive of future impairments. More children destined for later cognitive impairment were identified by using cut-points based on local reference data than Bayley-III norms. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  2. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  3. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  4. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Language functions in preterm-born children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort-van der Spek, Inge L; Franken, Marie-Christine J P; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2012-04-01

    Preterm-born children (language function problems compared with term-born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the developmental course of language functions in preterm-born children from 3 to 12 years of age. Computerized databases Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between January 1995 and March 2011 reporting language functions in preterm-born children. Outcome measures were simple language function assessed by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and complex language function assessed by using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Pooled effect sizes (in terms of Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for simple and complex language functions were calculated by using random-effects models. Meta-regression was conducted with mean difference of effect size as the outcome variable and assessment age as the explanatory variable. Preterm-born children scored significantly lower compared with term-born children on simple (d = -0.45 [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.30]; P language function tests, even in the absence of major disabilities and independent of social economic status. For complex language function (but not for simple language function), group differences between preterm- and term-born children increased significantly from 3 to 12 years of age (slope = -0.05; P = .03). While growing up, preterm-born children have increasing difficulties with complex language function.

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Methods: Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. Results: The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend < 0.001. Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  7. Increased risk of neuropsychological disorders in children born preterm without major disabilities: a neurodevelopmental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipasquale Filippo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, preterm births have drastically increased and today represent 12.5% of total births. About 1.2% of preterm births characterize very preterm births (GA<32weeks that, with very low birth weight (BW<1500grams, are constantly found as risk factors of unfavourable neurological outcomes in longitudinal follow up studies. Actually, also “late preterm” children (preterm born from 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age, normally considered at low risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities, are supposed to represent a population of children to be monitored. Previous findings of a general cognitive impairment in children born preterm have gradually addressed the assessment of more specific neuropsychological skills and pointed out the importance to follow these children up to adolescent age. The neuroanatomical prerequisite of an abnormality in frontal lobe development and the correlation with various neuropsychological dysfunctions (fine and gross motor disabilities, executive function and working memory deficits, visual-constructional and attentional dysfunctions underline the interference of preterm birth with normal brain maturational phases. Though showing more demanding neurodevelopmental pathways than term peers, a large number of preterm children tend to functionally normalize in adolescence. The review supports the hypothesis of a neurodevelopmental model that can be at risk to influence dysfunctional neuropsychological outcome.

  8. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  10. Drawings of very preterm-born children at 5 years of age: a first impression of cognitive and motor development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Sasja; Deković, Maja; Feltzer, Max; de Kleine, Martin; van Baar, Anneloes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in drawing skills between very preterm and term children, and to determine whether very preterm children's cognitive and motor development is reflected in the draw-a-person test (DAP) at age 5. Seventy-two very preterm children (birth weight children at 5 years of age were compared on the DAP. Cognitive and motor skills of the very preterm children had been assessed four times, at 1/2, 1, 2, and 5 years of age. Very preterm children showed a developmental delay in drawing ability. Structural equation modeling revealed a positive relation between both cognitive as well as motor development and the DAP. The DAP could be a crude parameter for evaluating cognitive and motor deficits of very preterm children. A worrisome result should be followed by more standardized tests measuring cognitive and motor skills.

  11. Diffuse periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey matter changes by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarouchi, L.C.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.K.; Papastefanaki, M.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S.; Astrakas, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm children may have cognitive deficits and behavioural disorders suggestive of grey matter (GM) injury. The prevalence is higher in preterm children with diffuse periventricular leukomalacia (dPVL). Evaluate changes in the volume of 116 GM areas in preterm children with dPVL. Eleven preterm children with dPVL, gestational age 32.8 ± 2.6 weeks, examined at corrected age 22.0 ± 18.2 months and 33 matched preterm controls with normal brain MRI were studied. Volumes of 116 individual GM areas, and white matter/cerebrospinal fluid (WM/CSF) ratio were calculated on T1-weighted high-resolution images after segmentation. Relative to controls, children with dPVL had decreased GM volume of the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes and temporal middle gyrus (P < 0.05); increased GM volume of the putamen, thalamus, globus pallidum, superior temporal gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes (P < 0.05) and lower WM volume/higher CSF volume (P < 0.05). WM/CSF ratios also differed (P < 0.05). Preterm children with dPVL have increased regional GM volume in some areas probably related with a process of brain plasticity-regeneration and reduced GM volume in areas associated with cognition and memory. (orig.)

  12. Diffuse periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey matter changes by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, L.C.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.K.; Papastefanaki, M.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S. [University of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, L.G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Preterm children may have cognitive deficits and behavioural disorders suggestive of grey matter (GM) injury. The prevalence is higher in preterm children with diffuse periventricular leukomalacia (dPVL). Evaluate changes in the volume of 116 GM areas in preterm children with dPVL. Eleven preterm children with dPVL, gestational age 32.8 {+-} 2.6 weeks, examined at corrected age 22.0 {+-} 18.2 months and 33 matched preterm controls with normal brain MRI were studied. Volumes of 116 individual GM areas, and white matter/cerebrospinal fluid (WM/CSF) ratio were calculated on T1-weighted high-resolution images after segmentation. Relative to controls, children with dPVL had decreased GM volume of the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes and temporal middle gyrus (P < 0.05); increased GM volume of the putamen, thalamus, globus pallidum, superior temporal gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes (P < 0.05) and lower WM volume/higher CSF volume (P < 0.05). WM/CSF ratios also differed (P < 0.05). Preterm children with dPVL have increased regional GM volume in some areas probably related with a process of brain plasticity-regeneration and reduced GM volume in areas associated with cognition and memory. (orig.)

  13. Altered Network Oscillations and Functional Connectivity Dynamics in Children Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Doesburg, Sam M; Herdman, Anthony T; Ribary, Urs; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-09-01

    Structural brain connections develop atypically in very preterm children, and altered functional connectivity is also evident in fMRI studies. Such alterations in brain network connectivity are associated with cognitive difficulties in this population. Little is known, however, about electrophysiological interactions among specific brain networks in children born very preterm. In the present study, we recorded magnetoencephalography while very preterm children and full-term controls performed a visual short-term memory task. Regions expressing task-dependent activity changes were identified using beamformer analysis, and inter-regional phase synchrony was calculated. Very preterm children expressed altered regional recruitment in distributed networks of brain areas, across standard physiological frequency ranges including the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Reduced oscillatory synchrony was observed among task-activated brain regions in very preterm children, particularly for connections involving areas critical for executive abilities, including middle frontal gyrus. These findings suggest that inability to recruit neurophysiological activity and interactions in distributed networks including frontal regions may contribute to difficulties in cognitive development in children born very preterm.

  14. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  16. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  17. Bullying of preterm children and emotional problems at school age: cross-culturally invariant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Strauss, Victoria; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether adolescents who were born extremely preterm (weight (bullied, and whether this contributes to higher emotional problem scores. We used 2 whole population samples: the German Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS) (287 very preterm/very low birth weight and 293 term comparison children) and the UK EPICure Study (183 extremely preterm and 102 term comparison children). Peer bullying was assessed by parent report in both cohorts at school years 2 and 6/7. The primary outcome was emotional problems in year 6/7. The effects of prematurity and bullying on emotional problems were investigated with regression analysis and controlled for sex, socioeconomic status, disability, and preexisting emotional problems. Preterm-born children were more often bullied in both cohorts than term comparisons (BLS: relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50; EPICure: relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.41). Both preterm birth and being bullied predicted emotional problems, but after controlling for confounders, only being bullied at both ages remained a significant predictor of emotional problem scores in both cohorts (BLS: B, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.28-1.27; P bullied at just a single time point also predicted emotional problems. Preterm-born children are more vulnerable to being bullied by peers. Those children who experience bullying over years are more likely to develop emotional problems. Health professionals should routinely ask about peer relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal white matter abnormalities an important predictor of neurocognitive outcome for very preterm children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne J Woodward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation infants born from 1998-2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. RESULTS: At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white

  19. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  20. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trendinequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  2. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  3. Psychiatric Outcomes at Age Seven for Very Preterm Children: Rates and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…

  4. Differential effects of parenting in preterm and full-term children on developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between preterm birth, parenting behavior during early childhood, cognitive development, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and to determine whether parenting behavior differentially influences this developing system in children born preterm compared to children born full-term. The nationally representative sample comprised 3600 full-term and 1300 preterm children born in the US in the year 2001. All children who entered Kindergarten and who participated in data collection at 9 months, 24 months, and Kindergarten entry were included in the study. Measures of parenting behavior were collected at 9 and 24 months and cognitive development at 24 months via home visits. Social-emotional outcomes were assessed at Kindergarten entry via parent and teacher report. Multiple-sample Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze group differences in a model whereby early childhood parenting behavior predicted cognitive outcomes, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and indirectly predicted social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive processes. The full sample developmental model indicated excellent fit to the data. Preterm birth status indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry via its effect on early childhood parenting behavior and cognitive development. The multi-sample model revealed significant differences in the way in which early parenting behavior exerted its influence on outcomes at Kindergarten entry in preterm children compared to full-term children. For preterm children, parenting indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive functioning. Findings highlight the importance of early identification and targeted parenting programs to support early cognitive development in preterm children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  6. Commentary: Supporting preterm children's parents matters - a reflection on Treyvaud et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia

    2016-07-01

    Children born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW) grow up with an increased risk for a range of neurodevelopmental, cognitive, socioemotional, and academic problems. While long-term effects of preterm and LBW birth have traditionally been studied from a deficit perspective, Treyvaud et al. correctly state that the increased risk for impairments in this population urgently requires identification of protective factors. Their new findings add to empirical evidence from observational studies showing that sensitive parenting can protect preterm children from negative developmental outcomes. In order to identify strategies that support preterm children's life chances, well-designed longitudinal studies, such as the one by Treyvaud et al., are indispensable. Next, we will need large randomized trials to test the causality between intervention-induced parenting changes and preterm children's long-term outcomes. We need interdisciplinary and international collaboration to study preterm parent-child dyads within multimethod frameworks and uncover the highly complex mechanisms that shape individual developmental trajectories. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  8. Opinions of Brazilian resuscitation instructors regarding resuscitation in the delivery room of extremely preterm newborns

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    Cristiane Ribeiro Ambrósio

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Difficulty can be observed regarding the decision to not resuscitate a preterm infant with 23 weeks of gestational age. At the same time, a small percentage of pediatricians would not resuscitate neonates of unquestionable viability at 26 weeks of gestational age in the delivery room.

  9. The relationship between sleep problems and working memory in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Marie; Bayliss, Donna M; Anderson, Mike; Campbell, Catherine; French, Noel; McMichael, Judy; Reid, Corinne; Bucks, Romola S

    2018-01-01

    In two studies, the relationship between sleep and working memory performance was investigated in children born very preterm (i.e., gestation less than 32 weeks) and the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. In Study 1, parent-reported measures of snoring, night-time sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were collected on 89 children born very preterm aged 6 to 7 years. The children completed a verbal working memory task, as well as measures of processing speed and verbal storage capacity. Night-time sleep quality was found to be associated with verbal working memory performance over and above the variance associated with individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity, suggesting that poor sleep may have an impact on the executive component of working memory. Snoring and daytime sleepiness were not found to be associated with working memory performance. Study 2 introduced a direct measure of executive functioning and examined whether sleep problems would differentially impact the executive functioning of children born very preterm relative to children born to term. Parent-reported sleep problems were collected on 43 children born very preterm and 48 children born to term (aged 6 to 9 years). Problematic sleep was found to adversely impact executive functioning in the very preterm group, while no effect of sleep was found in the control group. These findings implicate executive dysfunction as a possible mechanism by which problematic sleep adversely impacts upon cognition in children born very preterm, and suggest that sleep problems can increase the cognitive vulnerability already experienced by many of these children.

  10. Neonatal Brain Abnormalities and Memory and Learning Outcomes at 7 Years in Children Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children, especially global, white-matter, grey-matter and cerebellar abnormalities. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function. PMID:23805915

  11. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Methods: Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. Results: The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend < 0.001. Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar a iniquidade econômica (absoluta e relativa decorrente da renda familiar na ocorrência de prematuros no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foram realizados quatro estudos do tipo coorte de nascimentos nos anos de 1982, 1993, 2004 e 2011. A exposição principal foi a renda familiar mensal e o desfecho foi nascer prematuro. Foram calculadas as iniquidades através do slope index of inequality e o relative index of

  12. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  13. Regional Cerebral Development at Term Relates to School-Age Social-Emotional Development in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Peter J.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Wallendorf, Michael; Treyvaud, Karli; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at risk for social-emotional difficulties, including autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We assessed the relationship of regional brain development in preterm children, evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent postmenstrual age (TEA), to later social-emotional difficulties.…

  14. Social Cognition in Children Born Preterm: A Perspective on Future Research Directions

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    Norbert Zmyj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for children’s development. It affects children’s cognitive and intellectual development and is related to impairments in IQ, executive functions, and well-being, with these problems persisting into adulthood. While preterm children’s intellectual and cognitive development has been studied in detail, their social development and social-cognitive competencies have received less attention. Namely, preterm children show problems in interactions with others. These interaction problems are present in relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Parents’ behavior has been identified as a possible mediator of children’s social behavior. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness as well as absence of mental disorders foster children’s social development. In this article, we will report on the social side of impairments that preterm children face. The review of the literature revealed that preterm infants’ joint attention abilities are impaired: They are less likely to initiate joint attention with others and to respond to others’ efforts to engage in joint attention. These deficits in joint attention might contribute to later impairments in social cognition, which in turn might affect social interaction skills. Based on these three domains (i.e., problems in social interaction, parental behavior, and impairments in joint attention, we suggest that preterm children’s social cognitive abilities should be investigated more intensively.

  15. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2012-04-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has never been reviewed. The goal of this review was to provide an overview of motor learning, visual working memory and the role of working memory on motor learning in preterm children. A systematic review conducted in four databases identified 38 relevant articles, which were evaluated for methodological quality. Only 4 of 38 articles discussed motor learning in preterm children. Thirty-four studies reported on visual working memory; preterm birth affected performance on visual working memory tests. Information regarding motor learning and the role of working memory on the different components of motor learning was not available. Future research should address this issue. Insight in the relation between motor learning and visual working memory may contribute to the development of evidence based intervention programs for children born preterm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventilatory Efficiency in Children and Adolescents Born Extremely Preterm

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    Julie Hestnes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP−born compared to term−born individuals.Methods: Two area−based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982−85 (n = 46 and 1991–92 (n = 35 were compared with individually matched controls born at term. Mean ages were 18 and 10 years, respectively. The participants performed an incremental treadmill exercise test to peak oxygen uptake with data averaged over 20 s intervals. For each participant, the relationship between exhaled minute ventilation (V˙E and carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2 was described by a linear model, and the relationship between tidal volume (VT and V˙E by a quadratic model. Multivariate regression analyses were done with curve parameters as dependent variables, and the categories EP vs. term−born, sex, age, height, weight and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 as independent variables.Results: In adjusted analyses, the slope of the V˙E−V˙CO2 relationship was significantly steeper in the EP than the term-born group, whereas no group difference was observed for the breathing pattern, which was related to FEV1 only.Conclusion: EP-born participants breathed with higher V˙E for any given CO2 output, indicating lower ventilatory efficiency, possibly contributing to lower aerobic capacity. The breathing patterns did not differ between the EP and term−born groups when adjusted for FEV1.

  17. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) wh...... the corrected age of their child was 9-15 mo. RESULTS: We found that doxapram treatment was associated with a deficit in age-adjusted R-PDQ score. CONCLUSION: Doxapram may have a negative effect on neurodevelopmental outcome....

  18. Early parenting, represented family relationships, and externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2014-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children's representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children's represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children's represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.

  19. Learning disabilities among extremely preterm children without neurosensory impairment: Comorbidity, neuropsychological profiles and scholastic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preterm children quality of life evaluation: a qualitative study to approach physicians’ perception

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    Einaudi Marie-Ange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While data for preterm children health-related quality of life are available, there are little data on the perception of health-related quality of life evaluation by physicians who manage preterm children, or its use in real life and decision making. The aim of this qualitative study is to highlight among physicians, themes of reflection about health-related quality of life in extremely preterm children (less than 28 weeks’ gestation. Methods Focus groups at a French University Hospital with physicians who manage extremely preterm children: obstetricians, intensive care physicians, neonatal physicians and paediatric neurologists. The focus groups allowed the participants to discuss (drawing on their personal experience, three principal topics regarding the health-related quality of life of preterm children: representation, expectations in daily practice and evaluation method. Results We included fourteen participants in the three focus groups. Many themes emerged from the focus groups: approaches for defining health-related quality of life and difficulties of utilization, the role that health-related quality of life should have in the system of care, the problem of standards and evidence-based decision making. Physicians had difficulties with taking positions regarding this concept. There were no differences by gender, age or seniority, but points of view varied by specialty and type of practice. Physicians who had longer specialized care for extremely preterm children were more sensitive to the impact of preterm complications on health-related quality of life. Conclusions This study provides preliminary results about physicians’ perspective on the health-related quality of life of extremely preterm children. The themes emerged from the focus groups are classically described in other domains but not all in so clear a way (definition, interests and limits, ethical reflection. This approach was never developed in the field

  1. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  2. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  3. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9–17 years, included 26 preterms (born <36 weeks' gestation and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF, arcuate fasciculus (Arc, corticospinal tract (CST, uncinate fasciculus (UF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF. Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers.

  4. Axon density and axon orientation dispersion in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Claire E.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Chen, Jian; Leemans, Alexander; Adamson, Christopher L.; Inder, Terrie E.; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Very preterm birth (VPT, <32 weeks' gestation) is associated with altered white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), the biological basis of which is uncertain but may relate to changes in axon density and/or dispersion, which can be measured using Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density

  5. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  6. Prevalence of motor-skill impairment in preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children.

  7. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Meltzer, Lisa J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Methods: Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5–12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Results: Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. Conclusions: This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. Citation: Biggs SN, Meltzer LJ, Tapia IE, Traylor J, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Mindell JA, Marcus CL. Sleep/wake patterns and parental perceptions of sleep in children born preterm. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):711–717

  8. Are former late-preterm children at risk for child vulnerability and overprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Haifa A; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Wey, Howard

    2010-09-01

    Parent perception of child vulnerability (PPCV) and parent overprotection (POP) are believed to have serious implications for age appropriate cognitive and psychosocial development in very low birth weight preterm children. With recent concerns about suboptimal developmental outcomes in late-preterm children, this study was aimed at examining the relationship between history of late-preterm birth (34-36 6/7 weeks gestation), and PPCV, POP, and healthcare utilization (HCU). This was a cross-sectional observational design. Study participants were mothers of 54 healthy singleton children recruited from community centers including Women and Children Clinics (WIC), primary care clinics and daycare centers in the upper Midwest region. Outcome measures included Forsyth Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS), Thomasgard Parent Protection Scale (PPS) scores, and healthcare utilization (HCU). Potential covariates included history of life-threatening illness, child and maternal demographics, and maternal stress and depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). HCU (p=0.02) and the PPS subscales of supervision (p=0.003) and separation (p=0.03) were significant predictors of PPCV in mothers of 3-8 years old children with late-preterm history. Age of the child (p=0.008) and CVS scores (p=0.005) were significant predictors of POP. Maternal age (p=0.04), stress (p=0.04), and CVS scores (p=0.003) were significant predictors of HCU. Dependence, a subscale of the PPS, correlated with the child's age and gender even after controlling for age. History of late-preterm did not predict MPCV, MOP, or HCU in healthy children. Future research is needed in larger more diverse samples to better understand causal relationships and develop strategies to lessen risks of MPCV and MOP. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  10. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  11. Very preterm born children at early school age: Healthcare therapies and educational provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, S.; Aarnoudse-Moens, C. S. H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Van Sonderen, L.; de Haan, T. R.; van Kaam, A. H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    To explore changes in motor and cognitive outcomes in very preterm (VP; gestational age <30weeks) born children between ages five and six years, and to determine whether changes in these outcomes were associated with the use of healthcare therapies and educational provisions. Single-center

  12. Perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive impairments in preschool children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Livesey, David; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare a broad array of neurocognitive functions (processing speed, aspects of attention, executive functioning, visual-motor coordination, and both face and emotion recognition) in very preterm and term-born children and to identify perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive

  13. Perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive impairments in preschool very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; van Wassenaer, A.G.; Houtzager, B.A.; Kok, J.H.; Last, P.F.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare a broad array of neurocognitive functions (processing speed, aspects of attention, executive functioning, visual-motor coordination, and both face and emotion recognition) in very preterm and term-born children and to identify perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive

  14. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor

  15. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective

  16. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Kašparová, M.; Marková, D.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Feb (2014), s. 277-282 ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorder * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S57057

  17. Feasibility of a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Very Preterm Children at 18 Months Corrected Age: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flierman, Monique; Koldewijn, Karen; Meijssen, Dominique; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke; van Schie, Petra; Jeukens-Visser, Martine

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an age-appropriate additional parenting intervention for very preterm born toddlers. In a randomized controlled pilot study, 60 of 94 eligible very preterm born children who had received a responsive parenting intervention in their first year

  18. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Hennessy, E; Smith, R; Trikic, R; Wolke, D; Marlow, N

    2009-07-01

    To assess academic attainment and special educational needs (SEN) in extremely preterm children in middle childhood. Of 307 extremely preterm (special school. In mainstream schools, 105 (57%) extremely preterm children had SEN (OR 10; 6 to 18) and 103 (55%) required SEN resource provision (OR 10; 6 to 18). Teachers rated 50% of extremely preterm children as having below average attainment compared with 5% of classmates (OR 18; 8 to 41). Extremely preterm children who entered compulsory education an academic year early due to preterm birth had similar academic attainment but required more SEN support (OR 2; 1.0 to 3.6). Extremely preterm survivors remain at high risk for learning impairments and poor academic attainment in middle childhood. A significant proportion require full-time specialist education and over half of those attending mainstream schools require additional health or educational resources to access the national curriculum. The prevalence and impact of SEN are likely to increase as these children approach the transition to secondary school.

  19. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Marková, D.; Kašparová, M.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2014), s. 2201-2208 ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorders * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013

  20. Differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children underline the importance of new neuropsychological detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V; Fuiko, R; Leiss, U; Brandstetter, S; Hayde, M; Bartha-Doering, E; Klebermaß-Schrehof, K; Weiler, L J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate specific attentional components in preterm born children who had not yet started school. Between January and December 2011, we assessed 52 preterm and 52 full-term children aged between five years five months and six years two months, of comparable age and gender, at the Medical University of Vienna. Different attentional components were evaluated through selected subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance and the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Each child's behaviour was also evaluated using parental ratings and descriptive item-based evaluation during neuropsychological assessment. Children born preterm showed poor attentional performance in sustained attention, focused attention and distractibility, as well as reductions in processing speed in divided attention and flexibility tasks. Children born preterm also showed decreased volitional attention compared with automatic attention. No problems were detected in alertness or inhibition. In addition, a higher rate of aborted tests, decreased motivation and poorer parental ratings were detected among the preterm population compared with full-term born children. Our results highlighted differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children, indicating the importance of new neuropsychological techniques for the detection of specific attentional disorders. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Do healthy preterm children need neuropsychological follow-up? Preschool outcomes compared with term peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'oglio, Anna M; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F; Bultrini, Massimiliano; DE Marchis, Chiara; Ravà, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-10-01

    the aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. a total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33 weeks' gestational age and who were free from major neurosensory disability (16 males, 19 females; mean gestational age 29.4wk, SD 2.2wk; mean birthweight 1257g, SD 327g) and 50 term-born comparison children (25 males, 25 females; mean birthweight 3459g, SD 585g) were assessed at 4 years of age. Cognition was measured using the Griffiths Mental Development scales while neuropsychological abilities (language, short-term memory, visual-motor and constructive spatial abilities, and visual processing) were assessed using standardized tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore the effects of preterm birth and sociodemographic factors on cognition, and to adjust neuropsychological scores for cognitive level and maternal education. the mean total Griffiths score was significantly lower in preterm than in term children (97.4 vs 103.4; psiblings or a twin (β=4.0; 95% CI 0.5-7.6). At neuropsychological assessment, preterm children scored significantly lower than term comparison children in all tests except lexical production (Boston Naming Test) and visual-processing accuracy. After adjustment for cognitive level and maternal education, differences remained statistically significant for verbal fluency (pchildren to identify strengths and challenges before school entry, and to plan interventions aimed at maximizing academic success.

  2. Executive Function Computerized Training in Very Preterm-Born Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S H; Twilhaar, E Sabrina; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Veen, Heske G; Prins, Pier J M; van Kaam, Anton H L C; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2018-06-01

    Attention problems are one of the most pronounced and documented consequences of very preterm birth (gestational age ≤32 weeks). However, up to now, there is no research published on suitable interventions at school age aimed to overcome these problems. Research in this population did show that executive functions (EFs) are strongly associated with inattention. BrainGame Brian is a newly developed computerized training, in which, in 25 training sessions, the core EFs, including working memory, impulse control, and cognitive flexibility, are trained. This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of studying BrainGame Brian in very preterm-born children with attention problems. Pilot feasibility intervention study with one baseline and one follow-up assessment. Feasibility was measured by the participation rate, dropout rate, and user experiences with regard to effort, training characteristics, and recommendation to others. From a larger cohort study, 15 very preterm-born children at age 10 years with parent-reported attention problems on the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 years were invited to participate in this pilot study. BrainGame Brian was performed for a period of 6 weeks. Training outcome measures included visual working memory, impulse control, cognitive flexibility, speed variability, and parent-rated attention, for which pre- and post-training differences were examined at the group level by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test as well as for each individual child separately by the reliable change index. Twelve of 15 children and their parents agreed to participate and 11 children successfully completed BrainGame Brian in the 6-week period. Parents were positive about training characteristics and lack of interference with schooling, but scored the effort as high. We found clinically significant changes in visual working memory and speed variability in post-training assessments. BrainGame Brian is a feasible intervention for very preterm-born children with

  3. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L

    2016-05-15

    To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  4. Altered long-range alpha-band synchronization during visual short-term memory retention in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Moiseev, Alexander; Whitfield, Michael F; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2011-02-01

    Children born very preterm, even when intelligence is broadly normal, often experience selective difficulties in executive function and visual-spatial processing. Development of structural cortical connectivity is known to be altered in this group, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicates that very preterm children recruit different patterns of functional connectivity between cortical regions during cognition. Synchronization of neural oscillations across brain areas has been proposed as a mechanism for dynamically assigning functional coupling to support perceptual and cognitive processing, but little is known about what role oscillatory synchronization may play in the altered neurocognitive development of very preterm children. To investigate this, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) activity while 7-8 year old children born very preterm and age-matched full-term controls performed a visual short-term memory task. Very preterm children exhibited reduced long-range synchronization in the alpha-band during visual short-term memory retention, indicating that cortical alpha rhythms may play a critical role in altered patterns functional connectivity expressed by this population during cognitive and perceptual processing. Long-range alpha-band synchronization was also correlated with task performance and visual-perceptual ability within the very preterm group, indicating that altered alpha oscillatory mechanisms mediating transient functional integration between cortical regions may be relevant to selective problems in neurocognitive development in this vulnerable population at school age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Brazilian children 2011 - 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Brazilian children 2011 - 2015 ... such as smoking3, alcohol, maternal and paternal .... Children with low .... Parental age is related to the occurrence of ... order and interpregnancy interval evaluation ...

  6. Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Born Preterm Are Associated with White Matter Properties on Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Heidi M.; Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Yeom, Kristen W.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks…

  7. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    Background Very preterm born infants receive nutrition that ensures optimal growth during the neonatal period. New research has shown that the type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Aim • To evaluate...... if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...

  8. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Maria Avanise Yumi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociated motor development (DMD is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hypotonia neither did they start independent walking late. The means of the ages at the begining of atypical crawling and independent walking acquisitions, 7.40mo (SD 1.4 and 12.76mo (SD 2.5 respectively, did not differ from the group with crossed crawling pattern. Thus, in this sample of Brazilian healthy children we did not find cases with DMD.

  9. Hot and cool executive functions in very and extremely preterm preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zofia Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In most countries, premature deliveries constitute 5% to 18% of births. Some preterm children, especially those born before 32 weeks of pregnancy, experience serious medical complications, which can affect their subsequent development and functioning. Even those who have an IQ within the normal range can be at risk of worse functioning. This study aimed to investigate the differences in development of hot and cool aspects of executive functions in children born prematurely in comparison to those born on time. It is also focused on evaluating relationships between executive functions in premature children and their socio-emotional competences. Participants and procedure All children participating in the study were preschoolers. The sample consisted of 20 children born before 32 weeks of gestation and 28 term controls (children born on time. Hot and cool aspects of executive functions were examined in both groups using tasks extracted from the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA. Parents of children born prematurely also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, which is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire that consists of five scales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior. Results Premature children scored lower for both hot and cool executive functions in comparison to the children born at term in two of the five tasks. In addition, an association between worse executive functioning and more severe problems was found in the preterm group. This link applies to both general and specific problems, such as hyperactivity/inattention and behavioral problems. Conclusions Prematurely born children may have larger deficits both in hot and cool aspects of executive functions compared to their peers born at term. Deficits in hot aspect may be reflected in hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and conduct problems, whereas difficulties in

  10. Preschool abilities of children born preterm and low weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Martínez-Espiet

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development among a group of pre-school children born premature and with low weight. We evaluated a group of four years old children; 20 children born prematurely and 20 children born after a full gestation and desired weight, using the Beery-Buktenica visual-motor integration test. We also administered the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3 development test to all 40 mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using student t test for independent groups. The group of children born prematurely scored significantly lower on tests measuring visual perception skills (µ1 83.65 ; µ2 93.7 (p = 0.0001, visual-motor integration (µ1 93.6 ; µ2 104.8 (p = 0.001 and fine motor (µ1 36.00 ; µ2 44.25 (p=0.033 (p = 0.033, when compared to the group of children born after a full term. This study suggests that premature low weight born children have lower performance in the sensory-motor development during the preschool years. These disadvantages go unnoticed and may represent future delays on school tasks that require these skills. It is important to promote an early assessment and environmental stimulation among this population even in the absence of risk indicators.

  11. Cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performances of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and systematic review involving 64 061 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, J; Zamora, J; Cheong-See, F; Kalidindi, M; Arroyo-Manzano, D; Asztalos, E; van der Post, Jam; Mol, B W; Moore, D; Birtles, D; Khan, K S; Thangaratinam, S

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth may leave the brain vulnerable to dysfunction. Knowledge of future neurodevelopmental delay in children born with various degrees of prematurity is needed to inform practice and policy. To quantify the long-term cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performance of children born with different degrees of prematurity compared with term-born children. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1980 to December 2016 without language restrictions. Observational studies that reported neurodevelopmental outcomes from 2 years of age in children born preterm compared with a term-born cohort. We pooled individual estimates of standardised mean differences (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We included 74 studies (64 061 children). Preterm children had lower cognitive scores for FSIQ (SMD: -0.70; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.66), PIQ (SMD: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.60) and VIQ (SMD: -0.53; 95% CI: -0.60 to -0.47). Lower scores for preterm children in motor skills, behaviour, reading, mathematics and spelling were observed at primary school age, and this persisted to secondary school age, except for mathematics. Gestational age at birth accounted for 38-48% of the observed IQ variance. ADHD was diagnosed twice as often in preterm children (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), with a differential effect observed according to the severity of prematurity (I 2 = 49.4%, P = 0.03). Prematurity of any degree affects the cognitive performance of children born preterm. The poor neurodevelopment persists at various ages of follow up. Parents, educators, healthcare professionals and policy makers need to take into account the additional academic, emotional and behavioural needs of these children. Adverse effect of preterm birth on a child's neurodevelopment persists up to adulthood. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess indicators of fetal growth and risk of preterm birth in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Through linkage of Danish national registries, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008. We used general linear regression models...... to estimate mean differences in indicators of fetal growth among children with a parent with RA compared to unexposed children. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of preterm birth were calculated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 1,917,723 children included, a total...... of 13,556 children were exposed to maternal RA or maternal preclinical RA. Children exposed to maternal RA (n = 2,101) had approximately similar length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference at birth compared with children of mothers without RA. Birth weight was 87 gm lower (mean difference...

  13. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Celeste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks,

  14. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Céleste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  16. Social attribution skills of children born preterm at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2014-11-01

    Children born prematurely at very low birth weight (social functioning, including autism spectrum disorders (e.g., Johnson et al., 2010). In the current study, we used the Happé-Frith animated triangles task (Abell, Happé, & Frith, 2000) to study social attribution skills in this population. In this task, typical viewers attribute intentionality and mental states to shapes, based on characteristics of their movements. Participants included 34 preterm children and 36 full-term controls, aged 8-11 years. Groups were comparable in terms of age at test, gender, handedness, and socioeconomic status; they also performed similarly on tests of selective attention/processing speed and verbal intelligence. Relative to full-term peers, preterm children's descriptions of the animations were less appropriate overall; they also overattributed intentionality/mental states to randomly moving shapes and underattributed intentionality/mental states to shapes that seemed to be interacting socially. Impairments in the ability to infer the putative mental states of triangles from movement cues alone were most evident in children displaying more "autistic-like" traits, and this may reflect atypical development of and/or functioning in, or atypical connections between, parts of the social brain.

  17. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.

  18. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. METHODS Preterm children (n=102; 44males; 58 females) with a gestational

  19. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Sonderen, L.; Tamminga, P.; Kok, J.H.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age

  20. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  1. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

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    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  2. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN AND ASSOCIATED VARIABLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniela Braga; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2018-03-29

    To analyze the variables associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Brazilian children aged 6 to 59 months, considering a hierarchical model of determination. This is part of the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children, held in 2006. Data analysis included 3,417 children aged from six to 59 months with retinol data. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Poisson regression analysis were performed, with significance level set at 5%, using a hierarchical model of determination that considered three conglomerates of variables: those linked to the structural processes of community (socioeconomic-demographic variables); to the immediate environment of the child (maternal variables, safety and food consumption); and individual features (biological characteristics of the child). Data were expressed in prevalence ratio (PR). After adjustment for confounding variables, the following remained associated with VAD: living in the Southeast [PR=1,59; 95%CI 1,19-2,17] and Northeast [PR=1,56; 95%CI 1,16-2,15]; in urban area [RP=1,31; 95%CI 1,02-1,72]; and mother aged ≥36 years [RP=2,28; 95%CI 1,37-3,98], the consumption of meat at least once in the last seven days was a protective factor [PR=0,24; 95%CI 0,13-0,42]. The main variables associated with VAD in the country are related to structural processes of society and to the immediate, but not individual, environment of the child.

  3. Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness

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    Boruchovitch Evely

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: At a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. For these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. METHODS: Ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky. The relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "Taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "Viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. Analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. Finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.

  4. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

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    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. Methods: this was a cross‐sectional study of 124 four‐year‐old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC‐2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. Results: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC‐2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Resumo: Objetivo: comparar o desenvolvimento da coordenação motora, o desenvolvimento cognitivo e o desempenho funcional de crianças nascidas pré‐termo e a termo, aos quatro anos de idade. Métodos: estudo transversal com 124 crianças de quatro anos de idade, distribuídas em dois grupos distintos, de acordo com a idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, pareadas com relação ao sexo, idade e nível socioeconômico. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas pelos testes Movement Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (MABC‐2, Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade (PEDI e Escala de Maturidade Mental Colúmbia (EMMC. Resultados: as crianças pr

  5. Aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children.

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    Souza, J F; Jeremias, F; Costa-Silva, C M; Santos-Pinto, L; Zuanon, A C C; Cordeiro, R C L

    2013-06-25

    To determine the potential aetiological factors related to molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children. A total of 1,151 children aged 7-12 years (mean 8.86 ± 1.28), born and living in the urban area of Araraquara, Brazil, were examined by two examiners evaluating the presence of MIH according to criteria suggested by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (2003). Their mothers completed a structured questionnaire about medical history, from pregnancy to the first 3 years of the children's life. Descriptive analyses of data and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % test-based confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between groups. The prevalence of MIH in the children was 12.3 %. The interviewing response rate was 90.4 %. The prevalence of miscarriage history (25 vs. 15.4 %; OR = 1.21; 95 % CI 0.30-4.92) and occurrence of anaemia (23 vs. 12.4 %; OR = 2.07; 95 % CI 0.50-8.63) were higher in mothers from MIH group than those from non-MIH group. However, these associations were not statically significant. In the children's medical history, rhinitis, bronchitis (56.5 vs. 52.5 %; OR = 1.17; 95 % CI 0.82-1.68), and high fever (20.4 vs. 18.2 %; OR = 1.14; 0.73-1.76) were more prevalent in MIH group, but there were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). No possible aetiological factor investigated was associated with MIH. Prospective studies are needed to define the aetiological factors involved with MIH.

  6. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  7. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea M. Iannelli; Simone Gonçalves Assis; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children an...

  8. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  9. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

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    Carolina Santos Mello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source: This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary: The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions: The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers. Resumo: Objetivo: Verificar o perfil alimentar do lactente e do pré-escolar brasileiro, na faixa etária de 6 meses aos 6 anos, a partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa do consumo de alimentos e nutrientes. Fontes de dados: Nesta revisão foram analisados estudos realizados no Brasil que apresentavam dados de inquéritos alimentares de lactentes e pré-escolares. A busca foi limitada às publica

  10. High prevalence/low severity language delay in preschool children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H; Friesen, Myron D; Champion, Patricia R; Woodward, Lianne J

    2010-10-01

    To examine the language development at corrected age 4 years of a regionally representative cohort of children born very preterm (VPT). Of particular interest was the identification of biological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors that influence VPT children's early language development. Data were collected as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 110 VPT (VPT: ≤ 33 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term children (full term: 37-41 weeks gestation) born in Canterbury, New Zealand from 1998 to 2000. At corrected age 4 years, all children were assessed with the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Extensive information was also collected about children's family social background, perinatal health, childrearing environment, education/intervention exposures, and neurodevelopmental progress from birth to age 4. At the age of 4 years, VPT children were characterized by poorer receptive and expressive language development than full-term children. These differences persisted after exclusion of children with neurosensory impairment as well as statistical adjustment for the effects of social risk. Within the VPT group, the key predictors of children's overall language development were family social risk at birth (p =.05), severity of white matter abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (p =.49), observed parent-child synchrony (p =.001), and concurrent child cognitive ability (p =.001). Together, these factors accounted for 45% of the variance in children's total Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool scores. By preschool age, children born VPT show early emerging mild to moderate language delays that are likely to affect their school success and longer-term developmental progress. Findings highlight the importance of potentially modifiable factors such as early brain injury and parenting quality in predicting the language outcomes of children born VPT.

  11. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of CVI. One-hundred-five VP/VLBW children and 67 controls participated. CVI was defined after comprehensive oculomotor, visual sensory and perceptive assessment, and validated against vision problems in daily life and in terms of intellectual, behavioral, emotional and social functioning, as well as use of therapeutic services. Twenty-four per cent of the VP/VLBW children met criteria for CVI, compared to 7% of controls (P = 0.006, OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.40-10.70). VP/VLBW children with CVI had lower performance IQ, but not verbal IQ, than those without CVI. Visual problems in daily life were confirmed in VP/VLBW children classified with CVI. Additionally, difficulties in behavioral and social functioning were most prominent among VP/VLBW children with CVI. In VP/VLBW children, CVI defined in terms of visual function deficits is accompanied by intellectual, behavioral, and social impairments, validating our operational definition of CVI. CVI might act as a marker for developmental problems in VP/VLBW children.

  12. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pregional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  13. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

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    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  15. Attention problems in very preterm children from childhood to adulthood: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born individuals from birth to adulthood. Data on attention were collected at 6, 8, and 26 years of age, using parent reports, expert behavior observations, and clinical ADHD diagnoses. At each assessment, VP/VLBW individuals had significantly more attention problems, shorter attention span, and were more frequently diagnosed with ADHD than term-born comparisons. In both VP/VLBW and term-born individuals, overall, attention span increased and attention problems decreased from childhood to adulthood. Attention problems and attention span were more stable over time for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals. Similarly, ADHD diagnoses showed moderate stability from childhood to adulthood in VP/VLBW, but not in term-born individuals. However, when those with severe disabilities were excluded, differences between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals reduced. Despite improvement in attention regulation from childhood to adulthood, children born very preterm remained at increased risk for attention problems in adulthood. In contrast, term-born children with clinical attention problems outgrew these by adulthood. As inattentive behavior of VP/VLBW children may be overlooked by teachers, it may be necessary to raise awareness for school intervention programs that reduce attention problems in VP/VLBW children. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Long-term follow up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine for the management of preterm labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, B. A.; Hogendoorn, S. M.; Papatsonis, D. N. M.; Samsom, J. F.; van Geijn, H. P.; Bleker, O. P.; van Wassenaer, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term psychosocial and motor effects on children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine for the management of preterm labour. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Multicentre study in two university and one primary hospital in the Netherlands. POPULATION:

  17. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however,

  18. Functioning of very preterm born children at preschool age: Follow-up of an early intervention programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, G.J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the effects of the multicentre RCT on the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in children born preterm, with a gestation of less than 32 weeks and/or a birth weight below 1500 grams (VLBW), at the age of school entry. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background: Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. Aim: To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age

  20. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the

  1. Evaluation of early childhood social-communication difficulties in children born preterm using the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilary S; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Cowan, Frances M; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    To characterize early childhood social-communication skills and autistic traits in children born very preterm using the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) and explore neonatal and sociodemographic factors associated with Q-CHAT scores. Parents of children born before 30 weeks gestation and enrolled in a study evaluating routinely collected neurodevelopmental data between the post-menstrual ages of 20 and 28 months were invited to complete the Q-CHAT questionnaire. Children with severe neurosensory disabilities and cerebral palsy were excluded. Participants received neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Q-CHAT scores of this preterm cohort were compared with published general population scores. The association between Bayley-III cognitive and language scores and neonatal and sociodemographic factors with Q-CHAT scores were examined. Q-CHAT questionnaires were completed from 141 participants. At a mean post-menstrual age of 24 months, the Q-CHAT scores of the preterm cohort (mean 33.7, SD 8.3) were significantly higher than published general population scores (mean 26.7; SD 7.8), indicating greater social-communication difficulty and autistic behavior. Preterm children received higher scores, particularly in the categories of restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behavior, communication, and sensory abnormalities. Lower Bayley-III language scores and non-white ethnicity were associated with higher Q-CHAT scores. Preterm children display greater social-communication difficulty and autistic behavior than the general population in early childhood as assessed by the Q-CHAT. The implications for longer-term outcome will be important to assess. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

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    Manon Ranger

    Full Text Available Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age, including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age.42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure, was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling.After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014, predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes.In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress appears to be associated with thinner cortex

  3. Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Manon; Chau, Cecil M Y; Garg, Amanmeet; Woodward, Todd S; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Synnes, Anne R; Miller, Steven P; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Altered brain development is evident in children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age), including reduction in gray and white matter volumes, and thinner cortex, from infancy to adolescence compared to term-born peers. However, many questions remain regarding the etiology. Infants born very preterm are exposed to repeated procedural pain-related stress during a period of very rapid brain development. In this vulnerable population, we have previously found that neonatal pain-related stress is associated with atypical brain development from birth to term-equivalent age. Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity) is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age. 42 right-handed children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestational age) followed longitudinally from birth underwent 3-D T1 MRI neuroimaging at mean age 7.9 yrs. Children with severe brain injury and major motor/sensory/cognitive impairment were excluded. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using custom developed software utilizing FreeSurfer segmentation data. The association between neonatal pain-related stress (defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures) accounting for clinical confounders (gestational age, illness severity, infection, mechanical ventilation, surgeries, and morphine exposure), was examined in relation to cortical thickness using constrained principal component analysis followed by generalized linear modeling. After correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting for neonatal clinical factors, greater neonatal pain-related stress was associated with significantly thinner cortex in 21/66 cerebral regions (p-values ranged from 0.00001 to 0.014), predominately in the frontal and parietal lobes. In very preterm children without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments, neonatal pain-related stress appears to be associated with thinner cortex in multiple

  4. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes

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    Salt Alison

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. Methods The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. Discussion This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. Trial registration The ORACLE Trial and Children

  5. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  6. Along the Rio Negro: Rural and Urban Brazilian Children's Environmental Views and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated how urban and rural children who lived along a major river in Brazil understand and value their relationship with the natural environment. Forty-four Brazilian children in fifth grade were interviewed, and background of the city and village they lived in was ascertained. Each child was individually administered a…

  7. Neural correlates of "Theory of Mind" in very preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sarah I; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J

    2017-11-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth (Theory of Mind (ToM); the ability to attribute mental states to others and understand that those beliefs can differ from one's own or reality. The neural bases for ToM deficits in VPT born children have not been examined. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) for its excellent spatial and temporal resolution to determine the neural underpinnings of ToM in 24 VPT and 24 full-term born (FT) children (7-13 years). VPT children performed more poorly on neuropsychological measures of ToM but not inhibition. In the MEG task, both FT children and VPT children recruited regions involved in false belief processing such as the rIFG (VPT: 275-350 ms, FT: 250-375 ms) and left inferior temporal gyrus (VPT: 375-450 ms, FT: 325-375 ms) and right fusiform gyrus (VPT: 150-200 ms, FT: 175-250 ms). The rIPL (included in the temporal-parietal junction) was recruited in FT children (475-575 ms) and the lTPJ in VPT children (500-575 ms). However, activations in all regions were reduced in the VPT compared to the FT group. We suggest that with increasing social-cognitive demands such as varying the type of scenarios in the standardized measure of ToM, reduced activations in the rIFG and TPJ in the VPT group may reflect the decreased performance. With access to both spatial and temporal information, we discuss the role of domain general and specific regions of the ToM network in both groups. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5577-5589, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

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    Dudova I

    2014-02-01

    diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in eight of the 19 children. ASD prevalence, calculated from those 19 children and those with negative screening results (43 children, yielded a prevalence of 12.9% in the sample. The difference in frequency of positive screens between the tests was significant (P=0.011. In pair comparisons, ITSP was found to be significantly less positive than CSBS-DP-ITC (P=0.032. No significant differences were found between the M-CHAT and CSBS-DP-ITC or between the M-CHAT and ITSP. Conclusion: The results strongly support the hypothesis of an increased prevalence of autism in children with a birth weight less than 1,500 g. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preterm children, screening, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, prevalence

  9. Comparisons of foot anthropometry and plantar arch indices between German and Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Isabel C N; Onodera, Andrea N; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2015-02-12

    Nowadays, trades and research have become closely related between different countries and anthropometric data are important for the development in global markets. The appropriate use of anthropometry may improve wellbeing, health, comfort and safety especially for footwear design. For children a proper fit of footwear is very important, not constraining foot growth and allowing a normal development. The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics of German and Brazilian children's feet from 3 to 10 years of age. We compared five indirect measures of two databases of children's feet. Forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot widths were measured in static footprints and the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices of the longitudinal arch were calculated. Brazilian children showed a significantly narrower forefoot from 5 to 10 years, wider rearfoot from 3 to 4 years, wider midfoot for 4 year-olds and narrower midfoot for 10 year-old children. Nevertheless, the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices showed no group differences. The only exception was for 4 year-old Brazilian children who showed a higher Chippaux-Smirak index compared to German children (48.4 ± 17.7%; 42.1 ± 13.8%). Our study revealed anthropometric differences in absolute forefoot and rearfoot widths of German and Brazilian children, but a similar longitudinal arch development. At 4 years of age, Brazilian children present a foot anthropometry similar to the 3 year-olds and develop the plantar longitudinal arch from 4 to 5 years more rapidly when compared to German children.

  10. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A.; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

  11. Cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performances of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and systematic review involving 64 061 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allotey, J.; Zamora, J.; Cheong-See, F.; Kalidindi, M.; Arroyo-Manzano, D.; Asztalos, E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, B. W.; Moore, D.; Birtles, D.; Khan, K. S.; Thangaratinam, S.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPreterm birth may leave the brain vulnerable to dysfunction. Knowledge of future neurodevelopmental delay in children born with various degrees of prematurity is needed to inform practice and policy. ObjectiveTo quantify the long-term cognitive, motor, behavioural and academic performance

  12. Pulmonary outcome in former preterm, very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control follow-up at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Hove, Maike; Prenzel, Freerk; Uhlig, Holm H; Robel-Tillig, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare long-term pulmonary outcomes in former preterm-born, very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) born in the surfactant era. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry, body plethysmography, and gas transfer testing) were performed in children with a history of VLBW and BPD (n = 28) and compared with a matched preterm-born VLBW control group (n = 28). Medical history was evaluated by questionnaire. At time of follow-up (mean age, 9.5 years), respiratory symptoms (36% vs 8%) and receipt of asthma medication (21% vs 0%) were significantly more frequent in the preterm-born children with previous BPD than in those with no history of BPD. The children with a history of BPD had significantly lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (z-score -1.27 vs -0.4; P = .008), forced vital capacity (z-score -1.39 vs -0.71 z-score; P = .022), and forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of forced vital capacity (z-score -2.21 vs -1.04; P = .048) compared with the preterm control group. Preterm-born children with a history of BPD are significantly more likely to have lung function abnormalities, such as airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms, at school age compared with preterm-born children without BPD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid changes by MRI

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    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Xydis, Vassilios; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    Brain plasticity in patients with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) may suggest grey matter (GM) changes. To assess the volume of 116 GM areas and total volume of GM, white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in preterm children with PVL, using the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) and the Individual Brain Atlases Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) toolboxes. Ten preterm children (gestational age 31.7{+-}4.2 weeks, corrected age 27.8{+-}21.7 months) with PVL and 46 matched, preterm control subjects were studied using a three-dimensional T1-weighted sequence. Volumes were calculated using SPM5 and IBASPM. GM volume in frontal superior orbital, posterior cingulum and lingual gyrus, the putamen and thalamus was significantly higher in children with PVL (3.6{+-}0.6 cm{sup 3}, 2.0{+-}0.5 cm{sup 3}, 9.7{+-}1.7 cm{sup 3}, 2.5{+-}0.6 cm{sup 3}, 2.6{+-}0.9 cm{sup 3}, respectively) than in controls (3.1{+-}0.7 cm{sup 3}, 1.5{+-}0.2 cm{sup 3}, 8.2{+-}1.3 cm{sup 3}, 1.7{+-}1.4 cm{sup 3}, 1.8{+-}0.4 cm{sup 3}, respectively). White matter volume was lower (182.1{+-}40.5 cm{sup 3}) and CSF volume was higher (300.8{+-}56.2 cm{sup 3}) in children with PVL than in controls (222.9{+-}67.2 cm{sup 3}, 219.0{+-}61.8 cm{sup 3}, respectively), P<0.05. No significant difference was found in the total GM volume and the volume of neocortex. Preterm children with PVL show regional GM volume increase, possibly explained by axonal sprouting, neuronal hypertrophy and neurogenesis, which in turn may reflect brain plasticity. (orig.)

  14. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study: outcomes in children at 5 years of age (MACS-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Murphy, Kellie E; Willan, Andrew R; Matthews, Stephen G; Ohlsson, Arne; Saigal, Saroj; Armson, B Anthony; Kelly, Edmond N; Delisle, Marie-France; Gafni, Amiram; Lee, Shoo K; Sananes, Renee; Rovet, Joanne; Guselle, Patricia; Amankwah, Kofi; Saleem, Mariam; Sanchez, Johanna

    2013-12-01

    A single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy is recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age. However, 50% of women remain pregnant 7 to 14 days later, leading to the question of whether additional courses should be given to women remaining at risk for preterm birth. The Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study (MACS) was an international randomized clinical trial that compared multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids with a single course in women at risk of preterm birth. To determine the effects of single vs multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy on death or neurodevelopmental disability (neuromotor, neurosensory, or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function) at 5 years of age in children whose mothers participated in MACS. Our secondary aims were to determine the effect on height, weight, head circumference, blood pressure, intelligence, and specific cognitive (visual, spatial, and language) skills. Cohort follow-up study of children seen between June 2006 and May 2012 at 55 centers. In total, 1724 women (2141 children) were eligible for the study, of whom 1728 children (80.7% of the 2141 eligible children) participated and 1719 children contributed to the primary outcome. Single and multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary outcome was death or survival with a neurodevelopmental disability in 1 of the following domains: neuromotor (nonambulatory cerebral palsy), neurosensory (blindness, deafness, or need for visual/hearing aids), or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function (abnormal attention, memory, or behavior). There was no significant difference between the groups in the risk of death or neurodevelopmental disability: 217 of 871 children (24.9%) in the multiple-courses group vs 210 of 848 children (24.8%) in the single-course group (odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29]; P = .84). Multiple courses, compared with a single

  15. Stress in parents of children born very preterm is predicted by child externalising behaviour and parent coping at age 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-06-01

    To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  17. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six dyslexic and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme and syllable blending and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy. Results show that Brazilian Portuguese dyslexic children are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese dyslexic population. Two subsets of dyslexic children were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in dyslexic children whatever their language orthography transparency.

  18. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  19. The link between motor and cognitive development in children born preterm and/or with low birth weight : A review of current evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Mulder, Hanna; Jongmans, Marian J.; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children

  20. Preventing academic difficulties in preterm children: a randomised controlled trial of an adaptive working memory training intervention - IMPRINT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Leona; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Thompson, Deanne K; Seal, Marc L; Josev, Elisha K; Nosarti, Chiara; Gathercole, Susan; Anderson, Peter J

    2013-09-16

    Very preterm children exhibit difficulties in working memory, a key cognitive ability vital to learning information and the development of academic skills. Previous research suggests that an adaptive working memory training intervention (Cogmed) may improve working memory and other cognitive and behavioural domains, although further randomised controlled trials employing long-term outcomes are needed, and with populations at risk for working memory deficits, such as children born preterm.In a cohort of extremely preterm (memory and attention 2 weeks', 12 months' and 24 months' post-intervention, and to investigate training related neuroplasticity in working memory neural networks 2 weeks' post-intervention. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 126 extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight 7-year-old children. Children attending mainstream school without major intellectual, sensory or physical impairments will be eligible. Participating children will undergo an extensive baseline cognitive assessment before being randomised to either an adaptive or placebo (non-adaptive) version of Cogmed. Cogmed is a computerised working memory training program consisting of 25 sessions completed over a 5 to 7 week period. Each training session takes approximately 35 minutes and will be completed in the child's home. Structural, diffusion and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which is optional for participants, will be completed prior to and 2 weeks following the training period. Follow-up assessments focusing on academic skills (primary outcome), working memory and attention (secondary outcomes) will be conducted at 2 weeks', 12 months' and 24 months' post-intervention. To our knowledge, this study will be the first randomised controlled trial to (a) assess the effectiveness of Cogmed in school-aged extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight children, while incorporating advanced imaging techniques to investigate neural changes

  1. QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF POSTNATAL GROWTH IN PRETERM CHILDREN PART 2. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kiosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the

  2. Late preterm birth is a strong predictor of maternal stress later in life: Retrospective cohort study in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polic, Branka; Bubic, Andreja; Mestrovic, Julije; Markic, Josko; Kovacevic, Tanja; Juric, Milan; Tesija, Roberta Andrea; Susnjar, Helena; Kolcic, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the level of stress in mothers of school-aged children born late preterm and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the level of maternal stress if a child was born late preterm and not admitted to the ICU as well as if a full-term child was admitted to the ICU. In this retrospective cohort study the data were gathered via telephone interview with mothers. The Parenting Stress Index/Short Form was used to determine the level of stress in mothers. Background demographic characteristics, medically relevant variables, and the level of stress were tested using the chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Logistic regression was used in order to identify predictors of significant level of stress. Mothers of late preterm born children who were admitted to the ICU, as well as mothers of late preterm children who were not admitted had higher level of stress compared to mothers of full-term children. Namely, mothers of late preterm born children admitted to the ICU had 18-fold increase in risk for significant level of total stress (OR = 18.09; 95% CI 8.55 to 38.26) while 24-fold greater risk was observed in mothers of late preterm children who were not admitted to the ICU (OR = 24.05; 95% CI 10.66 to 54.26) in comparison to mothers of full-term born children. Results indicate that preterm birth and its complications are associated with a higher level of stress in mothers, that persists to school age. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Brain injury in very preterm children and neurosensory and cognitive disabilities during childhood: the EPIPAGE cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Marret

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT children and their relations to gestational age (GA and brain lesions. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks' gestation (WG in 9 French regions in 1997-1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies in three GA groups (24-26, 27-28, and 29-32WG and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: VPT had high rates of motor (14% and cognitive (31% deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI, deficiency rates reached 71% at 24-26WG, 88% at 27-28WG, and 80% at 29-32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis

  4. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Fan, Guoguang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Ci

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL

  5. Potential of diffusion tensor MR imaging in the assessment of cognitive impairments in children with periventricular leukomalacia born preterm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fan, Guoguang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, #155, Nanjing North St., Heping Dist., Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) in the assessment of altered major white matter fibers correlated with cognitive functions in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), to explore the neural foundation for PVL children's cognitive impairments. Materials and methods: Forty six preterm infants (16 ± 4.7 months) suffered from PVL and 16 age-matched normal controls were recruited. Developmental quotient (DQ) was recorded to evaluate PVL children's cognitive functions. According to the DQ scores, patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe cognitive impairment groups. DTI scan was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of major white matter fibers were measured and their correlation with cognitive levels was evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, the PVL group showed a significant mean FA reduction in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), anterior/posterior limb of internal capsule (ICAL/ICPL), arcuate fasciculus (AF), corona radiate (CR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) (p < 0.05) and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) (p < 0.01). The FA values of left CST, bilateral AF, anterior cingulum (ACG), SLF, ICAL, ICPL, PTR, CR, genu of corpus callosum (GCC), SCC and middle cerebellar peduncle showed significant negative correlations with the cognitive levels. Conclusions: DTI can provide more information for understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in preterm infants with PVL.

  6. [Examination of psychomotor development in relation to social-environmental factors in preterm children at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyhercz, Flóra; Nagy, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    The development of children born prematurely is an important aspect in public health, because preterm birth rates are not decreasing with the development of medical sciences. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children related to potentially influencing environmental factors. Children born below 2.500 grams at the age of two (n = 75). Psychomotor development, quality of home environment, socio-demographic background were measured. Lower birth weight was associated with lower development quotients. Psychomotor development was also negatively affected by child deprivation, low levels of cognitive stimulation and maternal empathy, regardless of birth weight. Increased performance loss was found related to lower sociodemographic variables, such as low maternal education or ethnicity. Psychomotor development of 2-year-old premature children is affected by the examined social-environmental factors. We recommend the screening and developmental interventions for premature children as early as possible, thus preventing difficulties in mental and motor development in the future. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 31-38.

  7. Preschool language assessment instrument, second edition, in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2014-01-01

    To present a brief report on the initial results of the application of Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, second edition, in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children. The study included 300 children with typical language development, from both genders, aged from 3 to 5 years and 11 months, as proposed by the original test version. After translation, back-translation, and adaptation of the second edition of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, the instrument was administered to investigate the receptive and expressive language skills. There was a significant difference between the average gross scores of the three groups for both "receptive" and "expressive" language skills, and a growing tendency of scores according to age. After analysis, we found that versions translated and adapted for Brazilian Portuguese speakers allow one to evaluate and discriminate the performance of children in receptive and expressive language skills, according to age group, as well as the original version.

  8. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the

  9. Associations between parental psychological well-being and socio-emotional development in 5-year-old preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtala, Mira; Korja, Riikka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-03-01

    Preterm children are at risk for developing behavioral and emotional problems, as well as being less socially competent. Premature birth causes chronic distress in the parents. The aim of the paper is to discover whether parental psychological well-being is associated with the social, behavioral, and functional development of very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) children at 5years of age. A longitudinal prospective cohort study. A cohort of 201 VLBW infants (≤1500g, parents independently completed validated questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Parenting Stress Index and Sense of Coherence Scale). At 5years, parents and day-care providers evaluated the development of the child by completing the Five to Fifteen questionnaire. The parents of VLBW children reported significantly more problems in child development compared to the Finnish normative data. Depressive symptoms and weaker sense of coherence in mothers, but not in fathers, were associated with more problems in child development. Parenting stress, for both mothers and fathers, was associated with developmental problems in their child at 5years of age. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting stress of both parents may be risk factors for the social, behavioral, and functional development of 5-year-old preterm children. On the other hand, stronger maternal sense of coherence may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-cultural differences for three visual memory tasks in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F H; Mello, C B; Bueno, O F A; Dellatolas, G

    2005-10-01

    Norms for three visual memory tasks, including Corsi's block tapping test and the BEM 144 complex figures and visual recognition, were developed for neuropsychological assessment in Brazilian children. The tasks were measured in 127 children ages 7 to 10 years from rural and urban areas of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Analysis indicated age-related but not sex-related differences. A cross-cultural effect was observed in relation to copying and recall of Complex pictures. Different performances between rural and urban children were noted.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Silvia T; Santos, Florenza E; Brandt, Katia Galeão; Martinez, Marina B; Taddei, Carla R

    2017-03-01

    Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.

  12. Asthma in children in relation to pre-term birth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Gibby; Akrouf, Kafya A S; Kelly, Yvonne; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J

    2013-08-01

    To assess the impact of parental asthma on risk of pre-term birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction, and their subsequent association with childhood asthma. Three sequential cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1993 (3,746), 1998 (1,964) and 2006 (1,074) in the same 15 schools among 5-11 year old children in Merseyside using the same respiratory health questionnaire completed by parents (sample size in brackets). Between 1993 and 2006, prevalence of PTB varied between 12.4 and 15.2 %, and of small for gestational age (SGA or growth restricted) babies between 2.1 and 4.6 %, and maternal asthma prevalence between 8.1 and 13.4 %. For the combined surveys mothers with asthma were more likely to have a PTB than non-asthmatic mothers (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.10-1.95, p PTBs of asthmatic mothers developed doctor diagnosed asthma compared to 34.3 % for term babies (adjusted OR 1.65, 1.34-2.04, p < 0.001). The corresponding estimates for the symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were 19.4 and 17.6 % (adjusted OR 1.78, 0.79-3.98). Conversely SGA babies were less likely to develop doctor diagnosed asthma (adjusted OR 0.49, 0.27-0.90, p < 0.021), or the symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness (adjusted OR 0.22, 0.05-0.97, p < 0.043), whether or not the mother was asthmatic. Maternal asthma is an independent risk factor for PTB which predisposes to childhood asthma. Intrauterine growth restriction was protective against childhood asthma.

  13. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  14. Otitis media in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus infected children undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, I D; Weber, R; Araújo Filho, B Cunha; Pinheiro Neto, C Diógenes

    2007-11-01

    To assess changes in the prevalence of otitis media, associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Division of otorhinolaryngology, Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Brazil. A cohort of 459 HIV-infected children aged below 13 years. The prevalence of otitis media and the serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count were compared for children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (with protease inhibitors) and those receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (without protease inhibitors). Otitis media was present in 33.1 per cent of the children. Children aged from zero years to five years 11 months receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a higher prevalence of acute otitis media (p=0.02) and a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). Children who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a mean serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count greater than that of those who were receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (pBrazilian HIV-infected children was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media.

  15. Effect of dental pain and caries on the quality of life of Brazilian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2018-04-09

    To investigate the impact of dental pain on daily performances among five-year-old Brazilian children. The study used data of 7,280 five-year-old children participating in the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010 Project). Children were clinically examined and their parents or carers were interviewed at their homes. The outcome was the prevalence of the oral impacts on daily performance, and the explanatory variable was dental pain in the last six months. Other independent variables were children's gender and skin color/race, family income, household overcrowding, and caries experience (dmft). Rao-Scott test and Poisson regression for complex samples were carried out. The prevalence of impacts on daily performances was 26.1% (95%CI 22.3-30.2). Significant associations were found between the outcome and pain, caries experience, and sociodemographic variables. After adjusting for the independent variables, only pain and caries remained significant. Impacts on daily performances were more frequent among children with pain (PR = 1.14, 95%CI 1.06-1.23) compared to those without pain. Children with low dmft (PR = 1.90, 95%CI 1.39-2.60) and those with high dmft (PR = 3.53, 95%CI 2.78-4.49) had a higher prevalence of impact than those with no caries experience. Dental pain and caries had strong negative impacts on the five-year-old children's daily performances regardless of their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

  16. Refraction and visual acuity in a national Danish cohort of 4-year-old children of extremely preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Slidsborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: A recent threefold increase in laser treatment for advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) triggered a nationwide preschool ophthalmic and developmental status among extremely preterm survivors. Here, we discuss refraction and visual acuity. METHODS: Survivors (n = 178) from a national...... was 0.1 in FT and 0.2 in PT, in Snellen equivalents 0.8 and 0.63. Snellen acuity ≤0.5 occurred across the ROP subgroups, but mainly in those with at least ROP stage 3. Two children had low vision. CONCLUSIONS: The overall fair outcome for refraction and function is in accordance with other recent...

  17. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante,Denise Petrucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. METHODS: The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the...

  19. Trichosporon inkin: an uncommon agent of scalp white piedra. Report of four cases in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Olga; Bezerra, Fabiane Castilho; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; da Silva, Flávia Cristina; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Petri, Valéria

    2014-08-01

    We report four cases of scalp white piedra (SWP) in Brazilian female children. Morphological and physiological approaches gave inconsistent results for identifying Trichosporon to species level, while the sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 region of ribosomal DNA accurately identified the agent of SWP as T. inkin. These cases emphasize the occurrence of this species causing this type of infection. The molecular identification of the suspected agent is needed for appropriate epidemiological surveillance of superficial mycoses caused by Trichosporon species.

  20. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  1. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  2. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: a meta-analysis of 147,000 European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, S Hasan; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Bisgaard, Hans; Chatzi, Leda; Corpeleijn, Eva; Correia, Sofia; Craig, Leone C; Devereux, Graham; Dogaru, Cristian; Dostal, Miroslav; Duchen, Karel; Eggesbø, Merete; van der Ent, C Kors; Fantini, Maria P; Forastiere, Francesco; Frey, Urs; Gehring, Ulrike; Gori, Davide; van der Gugten, Anne C; Hanke, Wojciech; Henderson, A John; Heude, Barbara; Iñiguez, Carmen; Inskip, Hazel M; Keil, Thomas; Kelleher, Cecily C; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kuehni, Claudia E; Küpers, Leanne K; Lancz, Kinga; Larsen, Pernille S; Lau, Susanne; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Mommers, Monique; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Palkovicova, Lubica; Pike, Katharine C; Pizzi, Costanza; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Roberts, Graham; Schmidt, Anne; Sram, Radim J; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Torrent, Maties; Viljoen, Karien; Wijga, Alet H; Vrijheid, Martine; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2014-05-01

    Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31 birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.43) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67) independent of birth weight. Weaker effect estimates were observed for the associations of low birth weight adjusted for gestational age at birth with preschool wheezing (pOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27). Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were associated with childhood asthma outcomes. The associations of lower birth weight with childhood asthma were largely explained by gestational age at birth. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  3. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M.M.; Arends, Lidia R.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, S. Hasan; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Bisgaard, Hans; Chatzi, Leda; Corpeleijn, Eva; Correia, Sofia; Craig, Leone C.; Devereux, Graham; Dogaru, Cristian; Dostal, Miroslav; Duchen, Karel; Eggesbø, Merete; van der Ent, C. Kors; Fantini, Maria P.; Forastiere, Francesco; Frey, Urs; Gehring, Ulrike; Gori, Davide; van der Gugten, Anne C.; Hanke, Wojciech; Henderson, A. John; Heude, Barbara; Iñiguez, Carmen; Inskip, Hazel M.; Keil, Thomas; Kelleher, Cecily C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Küpers, Leanne K.; Lancz, Kinga; Larsen, Pernille S.; Lau, Susanne; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Mommers, Monique; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Palkovicova, Lubica; Pike, Katharine C.; Pizzi, Costanza; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Roberts, Graham; Schmidt, Anne; Sram, Radim J.; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Torrent, Maties; Viljoen, Karien; Wijga, Alet H.; Vrijheid, Martine; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. Objectives We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31 birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). Methods First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. Results Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.43) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67) independent of birth weight. Weaker effect estimates were observed for the associations of low birth weight adjusted for gestational age at birth with preschool wheezing (pOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27). Conclusion Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were associated with childhood asthma outcomes. The associations of lower birth weight with childhood asthma were largely explained by gestational age at birth. PMID:24529685

  4. ADHD and mental health status in Brazilian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Marco A; Querido, Cícero Nardini; Bigal, Marcelo E; Polanczyk, Guilherme V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of ADHD, mental health status, and risk factors in a sample of Brazilian children. Target sample consisted of all children from 5 to 13 years registered in the public elementary school. Children with ADHD were compared with those without ADHD for sociodemographic, risk factors, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) symptom dimensions. Multivariate models estimated determinants of ADHD diagnosis. Of the target sample, consents and complete information were obtained from 1,830 children (91.8%). The prevalence rate of ADHD was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 6.2]). In contrast to controls, children with ADHD presented higher levels of symptoms in the CBCL dimensions. In multivariate analyses, the diagnosis of ADHD was significantly influenced by maternal educational status (p = .019), income class (p = .012), and prenatal exposure to tobacco (p = .032). Prevalence and demographic features of ADHD in Brazil are similar to what has been reported worldwide. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  5. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  6. Deficits in vision and visual attention associated with motor performance of very preterm/very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; van Hus, Janeline W P; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2016-01-01

    To extend understanding of impaired motor functioning of very preterm (VP)/very low birth weight (VLBW) children by investigating its relationship with visual attention, visual and visual-motor functioning. Motor functioning (Movement Assessment Battery for Children, MABC-2; Manual Dexterity, Aiming & Catching, and Balance component), as well as visual attention (attention network and visual search tests), vision (oculomotor, visual sensory and perceptive functioning), visual-motor integration (Beery Visual Motor Integration), and neurological status (Touwen examination) were comprehensively assessed in a sample of 106 5.5-year-old VP/VLBW children. Stepwise linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate multivariate associations between deficits in visual attention, oculomotor, visual sensory, perceptive and visual-motor integration functioning, abnormal neurological status, neonatal risk factors, and MABC-2 scores. Abnormal MABC-2 Total or component scores occurred in 23-36% of VP/VLBW children. Visual and visual-motor functioning accounted for 9-11% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores. Visual perceptive deficits only were associated with Aiming & Catching. Abnormal neurological status accounted for an additional 19-30% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores, and 5% of variance in Aiming & Catching, and neonatal risk factors for 3-6% of variance in MABC-2 Total, Manual Dexterity and Balance scores. Motor functioning is weakly associated with visual and visual-motor integration deficits and moderately associated with abnormal neurological status, indicating that motor performance reflects long term vulnerability following very preterm birth, and that visual deficits are of minor importance in understanding motor functioning of VP/VLBW children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  8. Effects of Spectral Overlays on Reading Performance of Brazilian Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Carla Oliveira; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Vilhena, Douglas de Araújo

    2018-03-20

    To investigate the effects of spectral overlays on reading performance of Brazilian elementary school children. Sixty-eight children (aged 9-12 years) enrolled in the 5th and 6th grade were included in the study. The Rate of Reading Test (RRT - Brazilian Portuguese version) was used to evaluate reading speed and the Irlen Reading Perceptual Scale was used to allocate the sample according to reading difficulty/discomfort symptoms and to define the optimal spectral overlays. A total of 13% of the children presented an improvement of at least 15% in reading speed with the use of spectral overlays. Pupils with severe reading difficulties tended to have more improvement in RRT with spectral overlays. Children with severe reading discomfort obtained the highest gains in RRT, with an average of 9.6% improvement with intervention, compared to a decrease of -8.2% in the control group. Participants with severe discomfort had an odds ratio of 3.36 to improve reading speed with intervention compared to the control group. The use of spectral overlays can improve reading performance, particularly in those children with severe visual discomfort. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  10. Asthma in children in relation to pre-term birth and fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Akrouf, Kafya A. S.; Kelly, Yvonne; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact of parental asthma on risk of pre-term birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction, and their subsequent association with childhood asthma. Three sequential cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1993 (3,746), 1998 (1,964) and 2006 (1,074) in the same 15 schools among

  11. The present challenges of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester

    2013-01-01

    The goal of pediatricians involved in the nutritional management of preterm infants is to mimic intrauterine growth and to obtain a functional outcome comparable to that for infants born at term. Appropriate administration of nutrients in the first few days to weeks of life will reduce the growth

  12. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, C.J.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Dik, M.; Kok, J.H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional

  13. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, Christiaan J. A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of

  14. Executive Function Computerized Training in Very Preterm-Born Children: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Twilhaar, E.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Veen, H.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; van Kaam, A.H.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Attention problems are one of the most pronounced and documented consequences of very preterm birth (gestational age ≤32 weeks). However, up to now, there is no research published on suitable interventions at school age aimed to overcome these problems. Research in this population did

  15. Cognitive Outcomes of Children Born Extremely or Very Preterm Since the 1990s and Associated Risk Factors : A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; Wade, Rebecca M; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Importance: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. Objective: To examine the cognitive abilities of

  16. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of

  17. A randomised trial of enteral glutamine supplementation for very preterm children showed no beneficial or adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E.S.; de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes of a Dutch cohort of very preterm children at 13 years of age. Methods The cohort was enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial between 2001 and 2003 in which infants received

  18. A randomised trial of enteral glutamine supplementation for very preterm children showed no beneficial or adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E. Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes of a Dutch cohort of very preterm children at 13 years of age. The cohort was enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial between 2001-2003 in which infants received glutamine- or

  19. [The situation of Brazilian children and adolescents with regard to mental health and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Ximenes, Liana Furtado

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects about the situation of mental health and violence against Brazilian children and adolescents, proposing a discussion about the need for public health policies including these extremely relevant issues in their priority agenda. In Brazil, the debate about this problem has occurred in a fragmented and not very consistent way. This article presents a non-systematic selection of epidemiological investigations on this subject conducted in Brazilian schools and communities. The great variety and prevalence of familiar and community violence and of mental health problems is pointed out and the methodological differences between the studies and the concentration of studies in the South and Southeastern regions of the country are emphasized. The article still highlights to the scarce service network for dealing with this kind of problem and the lack of concern with the prevention of mental disorders and promotion of mental health.

  20. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; Lima, Tatiana Araújo de; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher economic status, golden orthodontic brackets and

  2. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; de Lima, Tatiana Araújo; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher

  3. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Maria Avanise Yumi; Funayama, Carolina A.R.; Daneluzzi, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Dissociated motor development (DMD) is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hyp...

  4. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Caldas Kuhlman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276 was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those

  5. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the World Health Organization reference curves. Food insecurity was defined by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Averages of three indices according to the presence of food insecurity were analyzed, including other variables. Linear regression evaluated the effect of food insecurity on the Z-score of the three nutritional indices. The sample included 4,817 children, out of whom 7% had deficit in height, 7% were overweight and 47% had food insecurity. It was found that the average of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were -0.31, 0.12 and 0.40, respectively, being lower among children with food insecurity. The regression analysis showed that children living with some level of food insecurity have worse rates of height-for-age, even controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors.

  6. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  7. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Truffa Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years. Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.

  8. Behavior problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms among Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Caroline A; Santos, Darci N; Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Letícia M; Teles, Carlos A S; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2011-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America. It is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems. 19.26% (n=212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10-1.85). These results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal brain structure on MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, sex, and neurodevelopment in very-low-birthweight preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Butler, Erin E; Lamont, Lauren E; Barnes, Patrick D; Atlas, Scott W; Stevenson, David K

    2009-07-01

    The neurological basis of an increased incidence of cerebral palsy (CP) in preterm males is unknown. This study examined neonatal brain structure on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at term-equivalent age, sex, and neurodevelopment at 1 year 6 months on the basis of the Amiel-Tison neurological examination, Gross Motor Function Classification System, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 78 very-low-birthweight preterm children (41 males, 37 females; mean gestational age 27.6 wks, SD 2.5; mean birthweight 1021 g, SD 339). Brain abnormalities on MRI and DTI were not different between males and females except in the splenium of the corpus callosum, where males had lower DTI fractional anisotropy (p=0.025) and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient (p=0.013), indicating delayed splenium development. In the 26 infants who were at higher risk on the basis of DTI, males had more abnormalities on MRI (p=0.034) and had lower fractional anisotropy and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium (p=0.049; p=0.025) and right posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC; p=0.003; p=0.033). Abnormal neurodevelopment was more common in males (n=9) than in females (n=2; p=0.036). Children with abnormal neurodevelopment had more abnormalities on MRI (p=0.014) and reduced splenium and right PLIC fractional anisotropy (p=0.001; p=0.035). In children with abnormal neurodevelopment, right PLIC fractional anisotropy was lower than left (p=0.035), whereas in those with normal neurodevelopment right PLIC fractional anisotropy was higher than left (p=0.001). Right PLIC fractional anisotropy correlated to neurodevelopment (rho=0.371, p=0.002). Logistic regression predicted neurodevelopment with 94% accuracy; only right PLIC fractional anisotropy was a significant logistic coefficient. Results indicate that the higher incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in preterm males relates to greater incidence and severity of brain abnormalities

  10. Motor abilities, activities, and participation of institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To assess motor abilities and functioning of institutionalized children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP within a contextual model of development. Methods: Eleven institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents aged 2-19 (14 ± 5 years, 5 males and 6 females, were evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and 66 and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and classified according to the ICF core set. Results: The evaluated individuals have severe impairments as indicated by their GMFM scores and confirmed by their need for full assistance in basic activities of daily living according to the FIM assessment. The difficulties manifested reflected on the ICF body functions and activities and participation domains. Conclusion: Most institutionalized children and adolescents with CP had GMFM-66 scores comparable to those indicated in literature. The ICF-based assessment identified environmental barriers that might be considered for improvement in order to facilitate activities and participation.

  11. Nonverbal learning disabilities and developmental dyscalculia: Differential diagnosis of two Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Solange Vanzo Pestun

    Full Text Available Nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD, a clinical condition still little reported in Brazil, are characterized by damages in the visual spatial domains, visual motor integration, fine motor skills, math skills and social and emotional difficulties. Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects basic arithmetic skills acquisition, including storage and recovery of arithmetic facts, calculation fluency and precision and number sense domain. Although both are persistent Math learning disorder/disability, they cause different damages. The objective of this case report is to describe, compare and analyze the neuropsychological profile of two Brazilian children with similar complaints but distinct diagnosis.

  12. Attitudes and intentions to smoke: a study of young Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, P P; Ribas, R C; Borzekowski, D L G

    2015-11-01

    Children at earlier stages tend to be more susceptible towards different types of tobacco messages. These are able to influence attitudes and behaviours around smoking. This study examined how these messages are able to influence 5- and 6-year olds' attitudes about smokers and their smoking intentions. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5- and 6-year olds (n = 398) in Brazil. Children could attribute positive and negative characteristics to two different persons in photos as smoker/non-smoker. Children could indicate the attribute as of a smoker, a non-smoker, both or none. Children were asked also about their smoking intentions. Analysis considered parental smoking, sex, age, cigarette and alcohol brand logos, children's location and media characters from cartoons. We conducted a path analysis for a multivariate model of children's attitudes and intentions about smoking. Overall, children had negative attitudes about smokers (M = -4.58, SD = 4.08) and a total of 32 (8.0%) of them reported intentions to smoke. The resulting multivariate model indicates that parental smoking is a source for a positive image of smokers, while being 6 years old, living in rural areas, being aware of alcohol brands and recognizing educational cartoons tended to be negatively correlated to children's attitudes. Further, 6 year olds were found to be less likely to have smoking intentions, while attitude about smokers was positively related with intentions. One's attitudes served as a mediator for all of the variables in the model towards smoking intentions. The path models differed for each sex. Shaped by social and environmental influences, very young children have opinions about smokers. In turn, these attitudes significantly predict children's smoking intentions. To corroborate this research, we recommend that longitudinal designs be employed to help model why Brazilian children become smokers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Visual search and attention in five-year-old very preterm/very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to establish visual search performance and attention functioning in very preterm/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) children using novel and well established measures, and to study their contribution to intellectual functioning. Visual search and attention network efficiency were assessed in 108 VP/VLBW children and 72 age matched term controls at 5.5 years corrected age. Visual search performance was investigated with a newly developed paradigm manipulating stimulus density and stimulus organization. Attention functioning was studied using the Attention Network Test (ANT). Intellectual functioning was measured by a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Data were analyzed using ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses. Visual search was less efficient in VP/VLBW children as compared to term controls, as indicated by increased search time (0.31 SD, p = .04) and increased error rate (0.36 SD, p = .02). In addition, VP/VLBW children demonstrated poorer executive attention as indicated by lower accuracy for the executive attention measure of the ANT (0.61 SD, p attention measures (0.13 SD, p = .42). Visual search time and error rate, and executive attention, collectively, accounted for 14% explained variance in full scale IQ (R(2) = .14, p attention. Visual attention dysfunctions contributed to intelligence, suggesting the opportunity to improve intellectual functioning by using interventions programs that may enhance attention capacities. © 2013.

  14. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  15. Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment

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    Marina Leite Puglisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”, the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 % demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension.

  16. Inequalities in dental services utilization among Brazilian low-income children: the role of individual determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Marcia Helena; Mendes, Yasmine Bittencourt Emílio; Lawder, Juliana Aparecida de Campos; de Lara, Ana Paula Ingles; Rodrigues, Michelli Marta Azevedo da Silva; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    To assess the role of the individual determinants on the inequalities of dental services utilization among low-income children living in the working area of Brazilian's federal Primary Health Care program, which is called Family Health Program (FHP), in a big city in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed. The sample included 350 children, ages 0 to 14 years, whose parents answered a questionnaire about their socioeconomic conditions, perceived needs, oral hygiene habits, and access to dental services. The data analysis was performed according to a conceptual framework based on Andersen's behavioral model of health services use. Multivariate models of logistic regression analysis instructed the hypothesis on covariates for never having had a dental visit. Thirty one percent of the surveyed children had never had a dental visit. In the bivariate analysis, higher proportion of children who had never had a dental visit was found among the very young, those with inadequate oral hygiene habits, those without perceived need of dental care, and those whose family homes were under absent ownership. The mechanisms of social support showed to be important enabling factors: children attending schools/kindergartens and being regularly monitored by the FHP teams had higher odds of having gone to the dentist, even after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and need variables. The conceptual framework has confirmed the presence of social and psychosocial inequalities on the utilization pattern of dental services for low-income children. The individual determinants seem to be important predictors of access.

  17. Preterm birth and dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the risk for dyscalculia in preterm children increases the lower the gestational age (GA) and whether small-for-gestational age birth is associated with dyscalculia. A total of 922 children ranging from 23 to 41 weeks' GA were studied as part of a prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany. At 8 years of age, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and with a standardized mathematics test. Dyscalculia diagnoses were evaluated with discrepancy-based residuals of a linear regression predicting children's math scores by IQ and with fixed cut-off scores. We investigated each GA group's ORs for general cognitive impairment, general mathematic impairment, and dyscalculia by using binary logistic regressions. The risk for general cognitive and mathematic impairment increased with lower GA. In contrast, preterm children were not at increased risk of dyscalculia after statistically adjusting for child sex, family socioeconomic status, and small-for-gestational age birth. The risk of general cognitive and mathematic impairments increases with lower GA but preterm children are not at increased risk of dyscalculia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brazilian Guidelines for transcranial doppler in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease

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    Clarisse Lopes de Castro Lobo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary disease in Brazil. Although strokes are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, the use of transcranial Doppler to identify children at risk is not universally used. OBJECTIVE: To develop Brazilian guidelines for the use of transcranial Doppler in sickle cell disease children and adolescents, so that related health policies can be expanded, and thus contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The guidelines were formulated in a consensus meeting of experts in transcranial Doppler and sickle cell disease. The issues discussed were previously formulated and scientific articles in databases (MEDLINE, SciELO and Cochrane were carefully analyzed. The consensus for each question was obtained by a vote of experts on the specific theme. RESULTS: Recommendations were made, including indications for the use of transcranial Doppler according to the sickle cell disease genotype and patients age; the necessary conditions to perform the exam and its periodicity depending on exam results; the criteria for the indication of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy; the indication of hydroxyurea; and the therapeutic approach in cases of conditional transcranial Doppler. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian guidelines on the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease patients may reduce the risk of strokes, and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients.

  19. [Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istria, Jacques; Gazin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%), defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (children and of a special bad status in their group.

  20. Preschool self regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lianne J; Lu, Zhigang; Morris, Alyssa R; Healey, Dione M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the extent to which preschool emotional and behavioral regulatory difficulties were associated with an increased risk of later mental health and educational problems. Of particular interest was whether early regulatory abilities contributed to later risk once baseline child behavioral adjustment and cognitive function were taken into account. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 223 children born very preterm (VPT; Regulation Checklist, and (3) tester ratings of child behavior during neuropsychological testing. At age 9 years, mental health and educational achievement were assessed using the Development and Well-being Assessment interview and the Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. VPT-born children had poorer emotional and behavioral regulation across all measures and time points. They also had higher rates of DSM-IV mental health disorder and educational delay at age 9. Across both study groups, poorer self regulation was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and any disorder net of preschool child behavior problems and social risk. In contrast, only associations between early regulation and later language and any educational delay remained significant after adjustment for preschool cognitive functioning and family social risk. Early assessment of regulation in addition to behavioral screening may improve the early identification of preschool children at mental health risk.

  1. Reliability of the Brazilian version of the Physical Activity Checklist Interview in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Fernando; Cruciani, Fernanda; Douek, Michelle; Sewell, Carolina Dumit; Mariath, Aline Brandão; Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Freaza, Silvia Rafaela Mascarenhas; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    To assess the reliability of the Lista de Atividades Físicas (Brazilian version of the Physical Activity Checklist Interview) in children. The study is part of a cross-cultural adaptation of the Physical Activity Checklist Interview, conducted with 83 school children aged between seven and ten years, enrolled between the 2nd and 5th grades of primary education in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2008. The questionnaire was responded by children through individual interviews. It is comprised of a list of 21 moderate to vigorous physical activities performed on the previous day, it is divided into periods (before, during and after school) and it has a section for interview assessment. This questionnaire enables the quantification of time spent in physical and sedentary activities and the total and weighed metabolic costs. Reliability was assessed by comparing two interviews conducted with a mean interval of three hours. For the interview assessment, data from the first interview and those from an external evaluator were compared. Bland-Altman's proposal, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient were used to assess reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient lower limits for the outcomes analyzed varied from 0.84 to 0.96. Precision and agreement varied between 0.83 and 0.97 and between 0.99 and 1, respectively. The line estimated from the pairs of values obtained in both interviews indicates high data precision. The interview item showing the poorest result was the ability to estimate time (fair in 27.7% of interviews). Interview assessment items showed intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70, except for level of cooperation (0.46). The Brazilian version of the Physical Activity Checklist Interview shows high reliability to assess physical and sedentary activity on the previous day in children.

  2. Respiratory Phenotypes for Preterm Infants, Children, and Adults: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980s have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood, and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions. These misconceptions include that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is rare, that bronchopulmonary dysplasia resolves within the first few years of life, and that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not impact respiratory health in adult life. This focused review describes a spectrum of respiratory conditions that individuals born prematurely may experience throughout their lifespan. Specifically, this review provides quantitative estimates of the number of individuals with alveolar, airway, and vascular phenotypes associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as non-bronchopulmonary dysplasia respiratory phenotypes such as airway malacia, obstructive sleep apnea, and control of breathing issues. Furthermore, this review illustrates what is known about the potential for progression and/or lack of resolution of these respiratory phenotypes in childhood and adult life. Recognizing the spectrum of respiratory phenotypes associated with individuals born preterm and providing comprehensive and personalized care to these individuals may help to modulate adverse respiratory outcomes in later life.

  3. Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

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    Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

  4. Antecedents of Screening Positive for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Ten-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hooper, Stephen R; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Allred, Elizabeth N; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. The risk profile of screening positive for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on a parent's report differed from the risk profile based on the teacher's report, whereas the risk profile according to a physician and according to any two observers closely resembled the parent-reported profile. Among the statistically significant risk factors were young maternal age (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal obesity (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal smoking (parent, physician, and two observers), magnesium given at delivery for seizure prophylaxis (parent and two observers), recovery of Mycoplasma sp. from the placenta (teacher and two observers), low gestational age (parent and two observers), low birth weight (teacher and physician), singleton (parent, physician, and two observers), male (parent, teacher, physician, and two observers), mechanical ventilation on postnatal day seven (physician), receipt of a sedative (parent and two observers), retinopathy of prematurity (parent), necrotizing enterocolitis (physician), antibiotic receipt (physician and two observers), and ventriculomegaly on brain scan (parent and two observers). The multiplicity of risk factors identified can be subsumed as components of four broad themes: low socioeconomic state, immaturity or vulnerability, inflammation, and epigenetic phenomena. Copyright © 2017

  5. Greater brain response to emotional expressions of their own children in mothers of preterm infants: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, R; Arrigoni, F; Casini, E; Nordio, A; De Carli, P; Di Salle, F; Moriconi, S; Re, M; Reni, G; Borgatti, R

    2017-06-01

    The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral response of 10 first-time mothers of preterm infants (gestational age mothers of full-term infants, viewing happy-, neutral- and distress-face images of their own infant, along with a matched unknown infant. While viewing own infant's face preterm mothers showed increased activation in emotional processing area (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus) and social cognition (i.e., supramarginal gyrus) and affiliative behavior (i.e., insula). Differential brain activation patterns in mothers appears to be a function of the atypical parenthood transition related to prematurity.

  6. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls) completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results Fifty-six children (35.7%) screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033) and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042). The screening tool with the most positive results was CSBS-DP-ITC (42 positive screens [PS]), followed by M-CHAT (28 PS), and ITSP (22 PS). Differences in the frequency of PS among the tests were significant (P=0.008). CSBS-DP-ITC had the highest sensitivity (0.846), followed by M-CHAT (0.692) and ITSP (0.462). Conclusion Our results indicate a higher prevalence of autism in children with birth weights <1,500 g at 2 years of age compared to the general population prevalence. The ASD diagnosis was associated with shorter gestation times and longer hospital stays. Our findings support the simultaneous use of more than one screening tests in order to increase screening sensitivity. PMID:25484588

  7. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  8. Profile of language and cognitive functions in children with dyslexia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Thais; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Toledo-Piza, Carolina Mattar; Navas, Ana Luiza Gomes Pinto; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeu

    2015-01-01

    To verify the language and cognitive profile of children with dyslexia, contributing to the diagnosis of this condition in readers of a regular orthography, such as Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, 47 children with dyslexia (GD) and two controlled groups, one composed of 41 age controls (GCI) and the other with 31 reading controls (GCL), participated. All children were submitted to a battery involving the above-mentioned abilities. GD demonstrated predominant deficits in phonological processing, which were not compatible with a delay in the development of such abilities, indicating an atypical development. The GD also obtained lower scores in both basic and more complex reading and writing skills (i.e., letters, words, pseudowords, and texts, respectively), as well as in other domains, such as language (syntactic processing and oral sentence comprehension), which may be a result of a deficit in phonological skills, that interfered with higher complexity linguistic skills. Phonological abilities demonstrated to be the main difficulty observed in children with dyslexia investigated in this study, corroborating previous studies in other languages. This demonstrates that, independently of the language regularity, phonological skills are fundamental to the diagnosis of developmental dyslexia.

  9. Language, motor and cognitive development of extremely preterm children: modeling individual growth trajectories over the first three years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Survival rate of extremely low gestational age (ELGA) newborns has increased over 80% in the last 15 years, but its consequences on the short- and longer-term developmental competencies may be severe. The aim of this study was to describe growth trajectories of linguistic, motor and cognitive skills among ELGA children, compared to full-term (FT) peers, from the first to the third year of life, a crucial period for development. Growth curve analysis was used to examine individual and group differences in terms of initial status at 12 months and rate of growth through the second and the third year of life with five points of assessment. Twenty-eight monolingual Italian children, of whom 17 were ELGA (mean GA 25.7 weeks) and 11 were FT children, were assessed through the BSID-III at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months for language skills and at 12, 24 and 30 months for motor and cognitive skills. ELGA children presented significantly lower scores than FT peers in language, motor and cognitive skills and they did not overcome their disadvantage by 3 years, even if their corrected age was taken into account. Concerning growth curves, in motor development a significant increasing divergence was found showing a Matthew effect with the preterm sample falling further behind the FT sample. In linguistic and cognitive development, instead, a stable gap between the two samples was found. In addition, great inter-individual differences in rate of change were observed for language development in both samples. Our findings highlight the theoretical and clinical relevance of analyzing, through growth curve analyses, the developmental trajectories of ELGA children in language skills taking into account their inter-individual variability also across motor and cognitive domains. After reading this article, the reader will interpret: (a) characteristics and growth trajectories of ELGA children from the first to the third year of life with respect to FT children in language, motor and

  10. Motor development in very preterm and very low-birth-weight children from birth to adolescence: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Piek, J.P.; Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Infants who are very preterm (born ≤32 weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight (VLBW) (weighing ≤1500 g) are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. There is increasing evidence that very preterm birth and VLBW have a considerable effect on motor development, although findings are

  11. Do young children spell words syllabically? Evidence from learners of Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pollo, Tatiana Cury; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Kessler, Brett

    2013-12-01

    The theory that learners of alphabetic writing systems go through a period during which they treat writing as representing syllables is highly influential, especially as applied to learners of Romance languages. The results of Study 1, a 2-year longitudinal study of 76 Portuguese speakers in Brazil from 4 to 6 years of age, did not support this theory. Although most children produced some spellings of words in which the number of letters matched the number of syllables, few children produced significantly more such spellings than expected on the basis of chance. When such spellings did occur, they appeared to reflect partially successful attempts to represent phonemes rather than attempts to represent syllables. Study 2, with 68 Brazilian 4- and 5-year-olds, found similar results even when children spelled words that contained three or four syllables in which all vowels are letter names--conditions that have been thought to favor syllabic spelling. The influential theory that learners of Romance languages go through a period during which they use writing to represent the level of syllables appears to lack a solid empirical foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Methods of a posteriori identification of food patterns in Brazilian children: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Abreu de; Fonsêca, Poliana Cristina de Almeida; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance for identifying dietary patterns using the a posteriori approach, and analyze the methodological aspects of the studies conducted in Brazil that identified the dietary patterns of children. Articles were selected from the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, Scientific Electronic Library Online and Pubmed databases. The key words were: Dietary pattern; Food pattern; Principal Components Analysis; Factor analysis; Cluster analysis; Reduced rank regression. We included studies that identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach. Seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 were selected, six of which were cross-sectional and one cohort, Five studies used the food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment; one used a 24-hour dietary recall and the other a food list. The method of exploratory approach used in most publications was principal components factor analysis, followed by cluster analysis. The sample size of the studies ranged from 232 to 4231, the values of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test from 0.524 to 0.873, and Cronbach's alpha from 0.51 to 0.69. Few Brazilian studies identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach and principal components factor analysis was the technique most used.

  13. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

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    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  14. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudova, Iva; Kasparova, Martina; Markova, Daniela; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g) indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity) agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls) completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results Thirty-two children (42.7%) screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens), followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens) and the ITSP (11 positive screens). Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in eight of the 19 children. ASD prevalence, calculated from those 19 children and those with negative screening results (43 children), yielded a prevalence of 12.9% in the sample. The difference in frequency of positive screens between the tests was significant (P=0.011). In pair comparisons, ITSP was found to be significantly less positive than CSBS-DP-ITC (P=0.032). No significant differences were found between the M-CHAT and CSBS-DP-ITC or between the M-CHAT and ITSP. Conclusion The results strongly support the hypothesis of an increased prevalence of autism in children with a birth weight less than 1,500 g. PMID:24627633

  15. Do pediatricians recognize cognitive developmental problems in preterm children at age 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondaar, M.; Kessel, B.J.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Briët, J.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Baar, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Often developmental psychologists see children only after referral from physicians. Do pediatricians recognize which children in a known risk group are in need of a cognitive evaluation? A judgment by pediatricians, based on an assessment using a parent questionnaire, the Denver Developmental

  16. Visual function of preterm children: a review from a primary eye care centre

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    Bariah Mohd-Ali

    2011-07-01

    Conclusions: This study concludes that children with ROP developed myopia with age and those without ROP became more hyperopic. Degree of myopia is associated with severity of ROP and birth weight. These factors should be considered during screening of vision and refractive error in children.

  17. Early working memory as a racially and ethnically neutral measure of outcome in extremely preterm children at 18-22 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean R; Duncan, Andrea Freeman; Bann, Carla M; Fuller, Janell; Hintz, Susan R; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Watterberg, Kristi L

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with executive function have been found in preterm children, resulting in difficulties with learning and school performance. This study evaluated the relationship of early working memory as measured by object permanence items to the cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales-III in a cohort of children born extremely preterm. Logistic regression models were conducted to compare object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Scales-III by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. Extremely preterm toddlers (526), who were part of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's multi-center study, were evaluated at 18-22 months corrected age. Object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Developmental Scales were compared by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. There were no significant differences in object permanence mastery and scores among the treatment groups after controlling for medical and social variables, including maternal education and race/ethnicity. Males and children with intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were less likely to demonstrate object permanence mastery and had lower object permanence scores. Children who attained object permanence mastery had significantly higher Bayley Scales-III cognitive and language scores after controlling for medical and socio-economic factors. Our measure of object permanence is free of influence from race, ethnic and socio-economic factors. Adding this simple task to current clinical practice could help detect early executive function difficulties in young children. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  19. Training for the challenges of sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    This article analyzes the training offered to municipal public employees to confront sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals. Based on a multiple case study, it focuses on the training programs offered in the 2010-2011 biennium by the municipal government for professionals and managers in the public health network. We analyzed 66 semi-structured interviews and written documents pertaining to the training actions. We observed an unequal investment among the capitals and a lack of specificity in the treatment of the themes. There is a considerable lack of institutional memory which complicates the analysis of professional training strategies. Healthcare was the field which trained their professionals the most, including the subject of notification in training content. We noted little investment in training oriented toward the prevention of violence and the promotion of protective relationships and links. We emphasized the inductive role of federal and state programs in the areas of Tourism and Education. Few initiatives included the participation of more than one public sector. We suggest the creation of a training plan about violence and the sexual rights of children and adolescents, and in particular about sexual violence.

  20. Screening Protocol for Early Identification of Brazilian Children at Risk for Dyslexia

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    Giseli D. Germano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria. The screening protocol was composed of seven cognitive-linguistic skills: Letter naming; Phonological Awareness (which comprises the following subtests: Rhyme production, Rhyme identification, Syllabic segmentation, Production of words from a given phoneme, Phonemic Synthesis, and Phonemic analysis; Phonological Working memory, Rapid naming Speed; Silent reading; Reading of words and non-words; and Auditory Comprehension of sentences from pictures. A total of 149 children, aged from 6 years to 6 and 11, of both genders who were enrolled in the 1st grade of elementary public schools were submitted to the screening protocol. Principal Component Analysis revealed four factors, accounting for 64.45% of the variance of the Protocol variables: first factor (“pre-reading”, second factor (“decoding”, third factor (“Reading”, and fourth factor “Auditory processing.” The factors found corroborate those reported in the National and International literature and have been described as early signs of dyslexia and reading problems.

  1. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

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    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  2. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa A; Zachrisson, Henrik D; Schjolberg, Synnve; Aase, Heidi; Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Magnus, Per

    2011-06-29

    Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010). Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  3. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  4. The mental health care gap among children and adolescents: data from an epidemiological survey from four Brazilian regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S Paula

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy.To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU.Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721. Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1 children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1 Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL-psychiatric disorders; (1.2 Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3 two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4 Academic Performance Test-school performance], (2 factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression, (3 family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES.Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems.Only a small proportion of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorders had been seen by a mental

  5. A randomised trial of enteral glutamine supplementation for very preterm children showed no beneficial or adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes of a Dutch cohort of very preterm children at 13 years of age. The cohort was enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial between 2001 and 2003 in which infants received glutamine- or alanine-supplemented enteral nutrition during the first month of life. Participants were invited for follow-up at a mean age of 13.30 years. Motor, neurocognitive, academic and behavioural outcomes were assessed in 61 children. No differences were found between the groups regarding motor, intellectual, academic and behavioural functioning. Forward span visuospatial working memory performance was better in the controls (crude/adjusted model: d = 0.67/0.64, p = 0.02/0.02), but no difference was found for backward span. After the data were adjusted for confounders, the groups differed regarding parent-rated attention (crude/adjusted model: d = 0.47/0.73, p = 0.07/0.003), but both groups scored within the normal range. This was the first study on the long-term effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm children. Our study provided no evidence that enteral glutamine supplementation had any beneficial or adverse effects on the children's motor, neurocognitive, academic and behavioural outcomes at 13 years of age. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative study of anthropometric values between brazilian and portuguese school children

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    Francisco Sobral

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a comparison of anthropometric values (weight, height and percentage of fat from Brazilian school children with those from Portuguese school children of similar socioeconomic status. 1,010 children of both sexes were enrolled on this study. Measurements were made of weight, height and skinfold (triceps and subescapular. The equation proposed by Slaughter et al. (1988 was applied. The minimum level of signifi cance was set at p RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo fazer uma comparação nos valores antropométricos (peso, estatura e percentual de gordura, entre escolares brasileiros e portugueses de nível sócio-econômico semelhantes. Foram avaliados 1010 colegiais dos 7 aos 16 anos de ambos os sexos. Foram realizadas medidas de peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas das regiões triciptal e subescapular. Foi utilizada a equação proposta por Slaughter et al. (1988. O nível de significância mínimo estabelecido foi de p< 0.05. Foi possível verificar que não ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas variáveis peso e percentual de gordura. Já na estatura ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas ora a favor dos sujeitos brasileiros, ora a favor dos sujeitos portugueses. Quando realizada a comparação entre o sexo masculino com o feminino, no percentual de gordura, foi possível verificar diferenças estatisticamente significativas a favor do sexo feminino.

  7. Respiratory morbidity through the first decade of life in a national cohort of children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skromme, Kaia; Vollsæter, Maria; Øymar, Knut; Markestad, Trond; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2018-03-07

    Advances in perinatal care have markedly increased the prospects of survival for infants born extremely preterm (EP). The aim of this study was to investigate hospitalisation rates and respiratory morbidity from five to 11 years of age in a prospective national cohort of EP children born in the surfactant era. This was a national prospective cohort study of all children born in Norway during 1999 and 2000 with gestational age (GA) respiratory symptoms, and use of asthma medication was obtained by parental questionnaires at 11 years of age. Questionnaires were returned for 232/372 (62%) EP-born and 57/61 (93%) regional term-born controls. Throughout the study period, 67 (29%) EP-born and seven (13%) term-born controls were admitted to hospital (odds ratio (OR) 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 6.72). Admissions were mainly due to surgical procedures, with only 12% due to respiratory causes, and were not influenced by neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or low GA(≤ 25 weeks). Respiratory symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication tended to be more common for EP-born, significantly so for medication use and wheeze on exercise. Neonatal BPD was a risk factor for medication use, but not for current wheeze. In multivariate regression models, home oxygen after discharge (OR 4.84, 95% CI: 1.38, 17.06) and parental asthma (OR 4.38, 95% CI: 1.69, 11.38) predicted current asthma, but neither BPD nor low GA were associated with respiratory symptoms at 11 years of age. Hospitalisation rates five to 11 years after EP birth were low, but twice those of term-born controls, and unrelated to neonatal BPD and low GA. Respiratory causes were rare. Respiratory complaints were more common in children born EP, but the burden of symptoms had declined since early childhood.

  8. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school‐age children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school‐age children. Sources: this was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target‐population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. Summary of findings: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. Conclusion: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions. Resumo: Objetivos: examinar e sintetizar o conhecimento da literatura sobre os efeitos do nascimento prematuro no desenvolvimento de crianças em idade escolar. Fontes de dados: revisão sistemática de estudos dos últimos 10 anos indexados nas bases de dados Medline/Pubmed; Medline/BVS; Lilacs/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS; Cinahl

  9. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  10. Food Insecurity and the Negative Impact on Brazilian Children's Health-Why Does Food Security Matter for Our Future Prosperity? Brazilian National Survey (PNDS 2006/07).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblacion, Ana Paula; Cook, John T; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas A C; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2016-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling. Participants were 3923 children Insecurity Scale were dichotomized as food secure (food security/mild FI) or food insecure (moderate FI/severe FI). Poisson regression was used to test for associations between FI and various health indicators. Models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic variables showed that children hospitalized for pneumonia or diarrhea were 30% more prevalent in FI households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3; 1.1-1.6). Underweight children were 40% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.4; 1.1-1.7). Children who didn't eat meat and fruits and vegetables every day were 20% and 70% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.2; 1.1-1.4 and aPR: 1.7; 1.3-2.3), respectively. Children who grow up in food-insecure households have been shown to have worse health conditions than those in food-secure households. Consequently, their human capital accumulation and work-life productivity are likely to be reduced in the future, leading them into adulthood less capable of generating sufficient income, resulting in a cycle of intergenerational poverty and FI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  12. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

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    Roseli B. D. Toffano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies.

  13. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  15. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K

    2017-08-01

    To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the prospective multicenter Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns cohort study who were products of singleton pregnancies. Soon after delivery, mothers provided information about prepregnancy weight. Prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of weight gain were characterized based on this information. Children underwent a neurocognitive evaluation at 10 years of age. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased odds of a lower score for Differential Ability Scales-II Verbal IQ, for Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment-II measures of processing speed and visual fine motor control, and for Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III Spelling. Children born to mothers who gained an excessive amount of weight were at increased odds of a low score on the Oral and Written Language Scales Oral Expression assessment. Conversely, children whose mother did not gain an adequate amount of weight were at increased odds of a lower score on the Oral and Written Language Scales Oral Expression and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III Word Reading assessments. In this cohort of infants born extremely preterm, maternal obesity was associated with poorer performance on some assessments of neurocognitive function. Our findings are consistent with the observational and experimental literature and suggest that opportunities may exist to mitigate risk through education and behavioral intervention before pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting Self-Regulation in Health Among Vulnerable Brazilian Children: Protocol Study

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    Luciana B. Mattos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Health and Education Ministries of Brazil launched the Health in School Program (Programa Saúde na Escola - PSE in 2007. The purpose of the PSE is two-fold: articulate the actions of the education and health systems to identify risk factors and prevent them; and promote health education in the public elementary school system. In the health field, the self-regulation (SR construct can contribute to the understanding of life habits which can affect the improvement of individuals' health. This research aims to present a program that promotes SR in health (SRH. This program (PSRH includes topics on healthy eating and oral health from the PSE; it is grounded on the social cognitive framework and uses story tools to train 5th grade Brazilian students in SRH. The study consists of two phases. In Phase 1, teachers and health professionals participated in a training program on SRH, and in Phase 2, they will be expected to conduct an intervention in class to promote SRH. The participants were randomly assigned into three groups: the Condition I group followed the PSE program, the Condition II group followed the PSRH (i.e., PSE plus the SRH program, and the control group (CG did not enroll in either of the health promotion programs. For the baseline of the study, the following measures and instruments were applied: Body Mass Index (BMI, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, Previous Day Food Questionnaire (PFDQ, and Declarative Knowledge for Health Instrument. Data indicated that the majority are eutrophic children, but preliminary outcomes showed high percentages of children that are overweight, obese and severely obese. Moreover, participants in all groups reported high consumption of ultraprocessed foods (e.g., soft drinks, artificial juices, and candies. Oral health data from the CI and CII groups showed a prevalence of regular oral hygiene, while the CG presented good oral hygiene. The implementation of both PSE and PSRH are expected to help

  17. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  18. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Brazilian children: clinical, histological and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Veloso Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    were the most characteristic signs in sarcoglycanopathies. In LGMD2I calf hypertrophy is also observed. Atrophy of posterior compartment of thighs is frequent in children with LGMD2B and could suggest the diagnosis. In LGMD2A winging of scapulae and contractures in Achilles tendons were important findings. Muscle biopsy showed a dystrophic pattern in all cases, more intense in sarcoglycanopathies and LGMD2I. Differently from adult’s patients, inflammation changes in dysferlinopaties were uncommon. Lobuled fibers were characteristic changes in calpainopathies in children. Conclusions: A definitive diagnosis among various subtypes of LGMD in children is challenging. Our series was a large study on LGMD in Brazilian children and showed high frequency of sarcoglycanopathies followed by LGMD2A, LGMD2B, LGMD2I, LGMD1B and LGMD1C.

  19. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...

  20. Brain development of very preterm and very low‐birthweight children in childhood and adolescence: a meta‐analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Zoetebier, L.; van Elburg, R.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,

  1. Brain development of very preterm and very low-birthweight children in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. METHOD The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,

  2. Cerebral oxygenation is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm children at age 2 to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Elise A.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; van der Veere, Christa N.; Groen, Henk; Dijk, Peter H.; Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM: The aim of the study was to determine whether regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rc SO2 ) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), using near-infrared spectroscopy, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants. METHOD: We measured rc SO2 on days 1, 2, 3, 4,

  3. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazilian children and adolescents: data analysis from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Eduardo; Romero, Sebastián; da Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes; Santos, Fred Luciano Neves

    2017-11-03

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevail in conditions of poverty and contribute to the maintenance of social inequality. Out of the NTDs prioritized by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, four parasitic infections require mandatory notification: acute Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, and schistosomiasis. Data on the behaviour of these NTDs in the young population are currently limited. This study seeks to analyse the epidemiological aspects of these parasitic infections in children and adolescents in Brazil. A retrospective exploratory ecological study was conducted. A spatial analysis of the cases reported between 2009 and 2013 in individuals aged between 0 and 19 years that were notified through the Health Notification Aggravation Information System (SINAN) was performed. In total, 64,567 cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and acute Chagas disease were recorded in the SINAN database, representing a rate of 20.15 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The average age of the cases was 12.2 years and 62.32% were male. Four hundred and three deaths related to these obligatorily reported parasites were recorded, indicating a case fatality rate of 0.62%. Visceral leishmaniasis and acute Chagas disease had the highest rates of lethality. A heterogeneous spatial distribution of the studied parasites was observed. The number of cases and the lethality rate described in this study show that these diseases still represent a serious problem for public health in Brazil. This points to the need to encourage new research and the reformulation of social, economic, and public health policies aimed at ensuring better health and living conditions for all individuals, especially those among the populations considered vulnerable, as is the case of the young.

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2014-12-29

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.

  5. [Use of a monitoring tool for growth and development in Brazilian children - systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Larissa da Costa; Sad, Izabela Rocha; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques

    2016-01-01

    To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were "growth and development", "child development", "child health record", "child health handbook", "health record and child" and "child handbook", as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of a monitoring tool for growth and development in Brazilian children – systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. Data source: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were “growth and development”, “child development”, “child health record”, “child health handbook”, “health record and child” and “child handbook”, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Data synthesis: Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. Conclusions: The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document.

  7. Parenting behavior at 2 years predicts school-age performance at 7 years in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E; Hunt, Rod W; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born parent-child interaction was assessed, and at 7 years CA, general intelligence (IQ), language, executive function, academic skills, and social-emotional functioning were assessed. Higher levels of parent-child synchrony, and parent facilitation, sensitivity and positive affect at 2 years were associated with better child outcomes at 7 years, while higher levels of intrusiveness and negative affect were associated with poorer outcomes. Many of these relationships remained after controlling for early child cognitive development. Interactions between child medical risk (higher/lower) and parenting were limited to child reading, math, and executive functioning outcomes, with stronger relationships for lower medical risk children. The contribution of early parenting to VPT children's school-age performance is significant, with stronger effects for lower medical risk children in some outcomes. These findings support the premise that parenting strategies should be included in the NICU and early interventions programs for VPT infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment related to 1H-MRS of the hippocampus and short-term memory at school age in preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Karin J; Rijpert, Maarten; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Lieftink, Arno F; van Bel, Frank; Grobbee, Diederick E; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris

    2006-02-01

    Animal studies have shown that corticosteroids (dexamethasone) cause neuronal loss in the hippocampus and deficits in short term memory. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can measure brain metabolites in vivo and give an indication of neuronal integrity. We investigated whether prolonged administration of hydrocortisone during the neonatal period for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm born children changes the metabolism in the hippocampus, measured at school age. Secondly, we investigated whether hippocampal metabolism and short-term memory and neurodevelopmental outcome are related. In this observational study 37 preterm born children (children were treated with hydrocortisone for BPD (starting dose 5 mg/kg/d tapered over a minimum period of 22 d, median duration 28 d) and 19 never received corticosteroids during the perinatal period. N-acetyl aspartate/ Choline + Creatine/phosphocreatine (NAA/(Cho + Cr)) ratios were determined. A 15-word recall memory test and an IQ measurement were obtained on the same day. Hydrocortisone treated children were younger, lighter and sicker than their nonsteroid treated counterparts. Mean NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios in the hippocampus were not significantly different in the hydrocortisone group compared with the non-steroid group. Performance on the 15-word memory test and IQ were similar in the two groups. There was no relation between NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios and memory nor between NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios and IQ. We conclude that hydrocortisone in the mentioned dose, administered in the neonatal period for BPD, does not appear to have any long-term effects on memory and/or hippocampal metabolism.

  9. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  10. Proposition of decision limits for serum lipids in Brazilian children aged one to 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slhessarenko, Natasha; Fontes, Cor J F; Slhessarenko, Maria Eduarda; Azevedo, Raymundo S; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2018-03-09

    To determine decision limits for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in healthy children and adolescents from Cuiabá, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 1866 healthy children and adolescents randomly selected from daycare centers and public schools in Cuiabá. The desirable levels of serum lipids were defined using the classic criteria, i.e., total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels below the P75 percentile, and HDL-c above the P10 percentile. For CT, P75 was: 160mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <3 years, 170mg/dL for ≥3 to <9 years, and 176mg/dL for ≥9 to <13 years. For non-HDL cholesterol, it was 122mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <13 years. For LDL-c, it was 104mg/dL at the age range of 1 to <9 years and 106mg/dL from ≥9 to <13 years. For TG, it was 127mg/dL from 1 to <2 years; 98mg/dL from ≥2 to <6 years; and 92mg/dL from ≥6 to <13 years. As for HDL-cholesterol, P10 was 24mg/dL, 28mg/dL, 32mg/dL, and 36mg/dL, for the age ranges of 1 to <2 years, ≥2 to <3 years, ≥3 to <4 years, and ≥4 to <13 years, respectively. The decision limits for the serum lipid levels defined in this study differed from those observed in the current Brazilian and North-American guidelines, especially because it differentiates between the age ranges. Using these decision limits in clinical practice will certainly contribute to improve the diagnostic accuracy for dyslipidemia in this population group. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual performance in preterm infants with brain injuries compared with low-risk preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Merçè; Forns, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Reinoso, Marta; Gargallo, Estrella

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal brain injuries are the main cause of visual deficit produced by damage to posterior visual pathways. While there are several studies of visual function in low-risk preterm infants or older children with brain injuries, research in children of early age is lacking. To assess several aspects of visual function in preterm infants with brain injuries and to compare them with another group of low-risk preterm infants of the same age. Forty-eight preterm infants with brain injuries and 56 low-risk preterm infants. The ML Leonhardt Battery of Optotypes was used to assess visual functions. This test was previously validated at a post-menstrual age of 40 weeks in newborns and at 30-plus weeks in preterm infants. The group of preterm infants with brain lesions showed a delayed pattern of visual functions in alertness, fixation, visual attention and tracking behavior compared to infants in the healthy preterm group. The differences between both groups, in the visual behaviors analyzed were around 30%. These visual functions could be identified from the first weeks of life. Our results confirm the importance of using a straightforward screening test with preterm infants in order to assess altered visual function, especially in infants with brain injuries. The findings also highlight the need to provide visual stimulation very early on in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of motor co-ordination and attention with motor-perceptual development in 3-year-old preterm and full-term children who needed neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemgren, E; Persson, K

    2007-01-01

    Children who have needed neonatal intensive care (NIC) are considered to be at risk for deficits such as developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. By assessing motor-perceptual development, motor co-ordination and attention already at 3 years of age, it might be possible to identify such deficits earlier than they are today. To investigate the motor-perceptual development in a group of 202 NIC children but had no major impairments, to describe associations of deficits in co-ordination and attention with motor-perceptual delays, and to estimate the prevalence of NIC children with combined deficits together with a motor-perceptual delay. Co-ordination and attention in children born very preterm (n = 57), moderately preterm (n = 75) and full-term (n = 70) were observed according to a model for Combined Assessment of Motor Performance and Behaviour while they were assessed using a developmental scale, Motor-Perceptual Development, 0-7 years, MPU. In two out of 14 MPU areas, a larger proportion of very preterm than of moderately preterm and full-term children had marked developmental delay. Overall, the proportion of NIC children having a motor-perceptual delay increased with increasing incoordination and especially increasing lack of attention. Twenty-one (11%) of the NIC children had different motor-perceptual delays combined with pronounced incoordination and pronounced lack of attention. Deficits in co-ordination and attention were associated with motor-perceptual delays in areas important for daily living and development of academic skills. Therefore, to find children at risk for developmental co-ordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, assessments of co-ordination and attention should be added to assessments of motor-perceptual development in 3-year-old NIC children.

  13. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

    OpenAIRE

    BRITTO,Soraya da Rocha; VIEBIG,Renata Furlan; MORIMOTO,Juliana Masami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and...

  14. Poorer divided attention in children born very preterm can be explained by difficulty with each component task, not the executive requirement to dual-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delane, Louise; Campbell, Catherine; Bayliss, Donna M; Reid, Corinne; Stephens, Amelia; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2017-07-01

    Children born very preterm (VP, ≤ 32 weeks) exhibit poor performance on tasks of executive functioning. However, it is largely unknown whether this reflects the cumulative impact of non-executive deficits or a separable impairment in executive-level abilities. A dual-task paradigm was used in the current study to differentiate the executive processes involved in performing two simple attention tasks simultaneously. The executive-level contribution to performance was indexed by the within-subject cost incurred to single-task performance under dual-task conditions, termed dual-task cost. The participants included 77 VP children (mean age: 7.17 years) and 74 peer controls (mean age: 7.16 years) who completed Sky Search (selective attention), Score (sustained attention) and Sky Search DT (divided attention) from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. The divided-attention task requires the simultaneous performance of the selective- and sustained-attention tasks. The VP group exhibited poorer performance on the selective- and divided-attention tasks, and showed a strong trend toward poorer performance on the sustained-attention task. However, there were no significant group differences in dual-task cost. These results suggest a cumulative impact of vulnerable lower-level cognitive processes on dual-tasking or divided attention in VP children, and fail to support the hypothesis that VP children show a separable impairment in executive-level abilities.

  15. Birth weight and postnatal growth in preterm born children are associated with cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Charlotte A; van der Voorn, Bibian; Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-08-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity as well as cardiometabolic diseases and neurodevelopmental impairments later in life. We assessed cortisol from term age to age 8 y in children born preterm, to explore the development of HPA-axis activity in association with intrauterine and early-postnatal growth until 6 mo. corrected age. In 152 children born at a gestational age ≤32 wks. and/or with a birth weight ≤1,500g, random serum cortisol was assessed at term age (n=150), 3 mo. (n=145) and 6 mo. corrected age (n=144), and age 8 y (n=59). Salivary cortisol was assessed at age 8 y (n=75): prior to bedtime, at awakening, 15min after awakening, and before lunch. Cortisol was analyzed in association with birth weight-standard deviation score (SDS), being born small for gestational age (SGA), and combinations of intrauterine and postnatal growth: appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with or without growth restriction (AGA GR+ or AGA GR-) at 6 mo. corrected age, and SGA with or without catch-up growth (SGA CUG+ or SGA CUG-) at 6 mo. corrected age. Cross-sectional associations at all time points were analyzed using linear regression, and longitudinal associations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinally, birth weight-SDS was associated with cortisol (β [95%CI]): lower cortisol over time was seen in infants with a birth weight ≤-2 SDS (-50.69 [-94.27; -7.11], p=0.02), infants born SGA (-29.70 [-60.58; 1.19], p=0.06), AGA GR+ infants (-55.10 [-106.02; -4.17], p=0.03) and SGA CUG- infants (-61.91 [-104.73; -19.10], p=0.01). In cross-sectional analyses at age 8 y, no associations were found between either serum or salivary cortisol and birth weight-SDS, SGA-status, or growth from birth to 6 mo. corrected age. In children born preterm, poor intrauterine and postnatal growth were associated with lower cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 y. Even though HPA-axis activity no longer

  16. Estimated number of preterm births and low birth weight children born in the United States due to maternal binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Reifsnider, Odette S; Mayorga, Maria E; Spitler, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. To estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. A simulation model was developed to estimate the number of PTB and LBW cases due to maternal binge drinking. Data inputs for the model included number of births and rates of preterm and LBW from the National Center for Health Statistics; female population by childbearing age groups from the U.S. Census; increased relative risks of preterm and LBW deliveries due to maternal binge drinking extracted from the literature; and adjusted prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The most conservative estimates attributed maternal binge drinking to 8,701 (95% CI: 7,804-9,598) PTBs (1.75% of all PTBs) and 5,627 (95% CI 5,121-6,133) LBW deliveries in 2008, with 3,708 (95% CI: 3,375-4,041) cases of both PTB and LBW. The estimated rate of PTB due to maternal binge drinking was 1.57% among all PTBs to White women, 0.69% among Black women, 3.31% among Hispanic women, and 2.35% among other races. Compared to other age groups, women ages 40-44 had the highest adjusted binge drinking rate and highest PTB rate due to maternal binge drinking (4.33%). Maternal binge drinking contributed significantly to PTB and LBW differentially across sociodemographic groups.

  17. Speed of Language Comprehension at 18 Months Old Predicts School-Relevant Outcomes at 54 Months Old in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Adams, Katherine A; Ashland, Melanie; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2018-04-01

    Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old. Here, we explore the extent to which speed of language comprehension at 1.5 years old predicts both verbal and nonverbal outcomes at 4.5 years old in children born PT. Participants were children born PT (n = 47; ≤32 weeks gestation). Children were tested in the "looking-while-listening" task at 18 months old, adjusted for prematurity, to generate a measure of speed of language comprehension. Parent report and direct assessments of language were also administered. Children were later retested on a test battery of school-relevant skills at 4.5 years old. Speed of language comprehension at 18 months old predicted significant unique variance (12%-31%) in receptive vocabulary, global language abilities, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) at 4.5 years, controlling for socioeconomic status, gestational age, and medical complications of PT birth. Speed of language comprehension remained uniquely predictive (5%-12%) when also controlling for children's language skills at 18 months old. Individual differences in speed of spoken language comprehension may serve as a marker for neuropsychological processes that are critical for the development of school-relevant linguistic skills and nonverbal IQ in children born PT.

  18. [Demographic, socioeconomic, and health profile of working and non-working Brazilian children and adolescents: an analysis of inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Marín-León, Leticia; Luz, Verônica Gronau; La-Rotta, Ehideé Isabel Gómez; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the work done by Brazilian children and adolescents and compare the socioeconomic and health profile of those that worked (or were looking for work) versus non-working youngsters. Based on the 2008 Brazilian National Sample Household Survey (PNAD/2008), we selected children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age, divided into two analytical categories: "workers" (working or looking for employment) and "non-workers". We calculated prevalence rates for the characteristics of their main work, as well as socioeconomic and health variables comparing the two categories. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios, adjusted by health characteristics, with "non-workers" as the reference category. Compared to "non-workers", the "workers" category was associated with a higher proportion of boys; age 14 to 17 years; black or brown skin color; lower school attendance; and worse housing conditions. Child labor was associated with worse self-rated health; chronic backache; arthritis or rheumatism; and depression. Effective policies to support families need to be strengthened to effectively fight child labor.

  19. Desempenho de crianças pré-termo com muito baixo peso e extremo baixo peso segundo o teste Denver-II The performance of pre-term children with very and extreme low weight according to the Denver-II test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de crianças da região metropolitana Belo Horizonte/MG nascidas pré-termo com muito e extremo baixo peso nos itens do teste Denver II. MÉTODOS: as crianças foram selecionadas em um programa de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento de crianças de risco. A amostra incluiu 177 crianças, nas quais o Teste de Denver II foi aplicado nas idades corrigidas de 4, 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses. As respostas foram comparadas (χ2 aos dados da amostra normativa do instrumento. RESULTADOS: crianças pré-termo de muito e extremo baixo peso apresentaram desempenho superior no primeiro ano de vida com desvantagem a partir dos 12 meses em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II. O grupo de extremo baixo peso foi o que apresentou pior desempenho. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferenças no padrão de respostas das crianças examinadas em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II, sendo importante fazer mais estudos acerca da validade do teste para a população brasileira.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the performance on the Denver II test of preterm children with very and extreme low weight from the Belo Horizonte/MG metropolitan region. METHODS: the children were selected as part of a program to monitor the development of children at risk. The sample included 177 children, to whom the Denver II Test was applied at corrected ages of 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The responses were compared (χ2 to data from a normative sample. RESULTS: preterm children with very or extremely low weight showed improved performance in the first year of life, although disadvantages began to emerge after twelve months in relation to the normative Denver II sample. The extremely low weight group performed the worst. CONCLUSIONS: there were differences in the pattern of children's responses compared to those of the normative Denver II sample, and it is important to carry out further studies of the validity of this test for the Brazilian population.

  20. The FAS fluency test in Brazilian children and teenagers: executive demands and the effects of age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martins Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The FAS Verbal Fluency Test is widely used in neuropsychological clinical services and research. This study investigated the contributions of different executive functions, age and gender to FAS test performance in a sample of children and teenagers divided into two groups: G1 comprised 263 children aged 6-10 years, and G2 comprised 150 teenagers aged 10-14 years. All participants were assessed using the Cancellation Attention Test, the Auditory Working Memory Test, the Visual Working Memory Test, the Semantic Generation Test, and the Trail Making Test, in addition to the FAS test. For G1, age, auditory working memory and shifting were predictors of FAS performance. For G2, gender, auditory working memory, shifting and inhibition comprised the FAS explanatory model. The study contributed to our understanding of which are the best predictor variables for the FAS test in a Brazilian sample and how executive demands change with age.

  1. Math Anxiety Questionnaire: Similar Latent Structure in Brazilian and German School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a relatively frequent phenomenon often related to low mathematics achievement and dyscalculia. In the present study, the German and the Brazilian versions of the Mathematics Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ were examined. The two-dimensional structure originally reported for the German MAQ, that includes both affective and cognitive components of math anxiety was reproduced in the Brazilian version. Moreover, mathematics anxiety also was found to increase with age in both populations and was particularly associated with basic numeric competencies and more complex arithmetics. The present results suggest that mathematics anxiety as measured by the MAQ presents the same internal structure in culturally very different populations.

  2. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeši-Drljan Čila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size was 206 children with CP. The data were obtained from medical records and included gestational age at birth, clinical characteristics of CP and associated conditions. Clinical CP type was determined according to Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE and topographically. Gross motor function abilities were evaluated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Results. More than half of the children with CP were born prematurely (54.4%. Statistically significant difference was noted with respect to the distribution of various clinical types of CP in relation to gestational age (p < 0.001. In the group with spastic bilateral CP type, there is a greater proportion of children born preterm. Statistically significant difference was noted in the functional classification based on GMFCS in terms of gestational age (p = 0.049, children born at earlier gestational age are classified at a higher GMFCS level of functional limitation. The greatest percentage of children (70.0% affected by two or more associated conditions was found in the group that had extremely preterm birth, and that number declined with increasing maturity at birth. Epilepsy was more prevalent in children born at greater gestational age, and this difference in distribution was statistically significant (p = 0.032. Conclusion. The application of antenatal and postnatal protection of preterm children should be a significant component of the CP prevention strategy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  3. Systemic Inflammation during the First Postnatal Month and the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Characteristics among 10 year-old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Elizabeth N; Dammann, Olaf; Fichorova, Raina N; Hooper, Stephen R; Hunter, Scott J; Joseph, Robert M; Kuban, Karl; Leviton, Alan; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Scott, Megan N

    2017-09-01

    Although multiple sources link inflammation with attention difficulties, the only human study that evaluated the relationship between systemic inflammation and attention problems assessed attention at age 2 years. Parent and/or teacher completion of the Childhood Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) provided information about characteristics that screen for attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) among 793 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation who had an IQ ≥ 70. The concentrations of 27 proteins in blood spots obtained during the first postnatal month were measured. 151 children with ADHD behaviors were identified by parent report, while 128 children were identified by teacher report. Top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF, VEFG-R1, and VEGF-R2 on multiple days were associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms as assessed by a teacher. Some of this increased risk was modulated by top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, RANTES, EPO, NT-4, BDNF, bFGF, IGF-1, PIGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2. Systemic inflammation during the first postnatal month among children born extremely preterm appears to increase the risk of teacher-identified ADHD characteristics, and high concentrations of proteins with neurotrophic properties appear capable of modulating this increased risk.

  4. Neonatal Brain Pathology Predicts Adverse Attention and Processing Speed Outcomes in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrea L; Scratch, Shannon E; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Jacqueline F. I.; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine attention and processing speed outcomes in very preterm (VPT; deep gray matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Attention and processing speed were assessed at 7 years using standardized neuropsychological tests. Group differences were tested in attention and processing speed, and the relationships between these cognitive domains and brain abnormalities at birth were investigated. Results At 7 years of age, the VPT/VLBW group performed significantly poorer than term controls on all attention and processing speed outcomes. Associations between adverse attention and processing speed performances at 7 years and higher neonatal brain abnormality scores were found; in particular, white matter and deep gray matter abnormalities were reasonable predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Attention and processing speed are significant areas of concern in VPT/VLBW children. This is the first study to show that adverse attention and processing speed outcomes at 7 years are associated with neonatal brain pathology. PMID:24708047

  5. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: : The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates.

  6. A critical comparison between the World Health Organization list of essential medicines for children and the Brazilian list of essential medicines (Rename

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    Helena Lutéscia L. Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The lack of age-appropriate formulations of essential medicines for children in Brazil includes important therapeutic groups and indispensable drugs for severe clinical conditions. Some of these products exist in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, but not in public facilities; others could be produced by national laboratories with commercial interest or stimulated by a specific governmental policy, as in other countries.

  7. Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure in Preterm Infants Is Associated with Allergic Diseases and the Mental Development Index in Children

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    Wan-Ning Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system, and mental development index (MDI. Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24 had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001 when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16, especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003 and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013, but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05. However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009, and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043 while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal

  8. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

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    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  9. Impact of Bolsa Família Program on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from two Brazilian regions

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    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (Family Allowance on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from the Brazilian Northeastern and Southeastern regions. Methods: The study used data from a database derived from a subsample of the Family Budget Survey conducted from 2008 to 2009. The ratios of underweight, stunted, and overweight children were calculated. Impact measurement analysis was preceded by propensity score matching, which matches beneficiary and non-beneficiary families in relation to a set of socioeconomic features. The nearest-neighbor matching algorithm estimated the program impact. Results: The ratio of underweight children and adolescents was, on average, 1.1% smaller in the beneficiary families than in the non-beneficiary families in the Northeastern region. As for the Southeastern region, the ratio of overweight children and adolescents was, on average, 4.2% smaller in the beneficiary families. The program did not affect stunting in either region. Conclusion: The results showed the positive impact and good focus of the program. Thus, once linked to structural actions, the program may help to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of its beneficiaries.

  10. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleski, Nicole; Almeida, Lucas Malta; Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de; Pratesi, Claudia Beatriz; Nóbrega, Yanna Karla de Medeiros; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100) and non-celiac children (n=110). All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5), DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2). Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78%) were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 %) were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6%) were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9%) samples, in 2 (1.8 %) was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6%) was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  11. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. METHODS: HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100 and non-celiac children (n=110. All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5, DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8 and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2. Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78% were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 % were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6% were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9% samples, in 2 (1.8 % was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6% was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. CONCLUSION: The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  12. Intraclass reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in the Brazilian version

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    Larissa Paiva Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective to analyze the intraclass reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS, in the Brazilian version, in preterm and term infants. It was a methodological study, conducted from November 2009 to April 2010, with 50 children receiving care in two public institutions in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Children were grouped according to gestational age as preterm and term, and evaluated by three evaluators in the communication laboratory of a public institution or at home. The intraclass correlation indices for the categories prone, supine, sitting and standing ranged from 0.553 to 0.952; most remained above 0.800, except for the standing category of the third evaluator, in which the index was 0.553. As for the total score and percentile, rates ranged from 0.843 to 0.954. The scale proved to be a reliable instrument for assessing gross motor performance of Brazilian children, particularly in Ceará, regardless of gestational age at birth.

  13. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

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    Dudova I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova,1 Daniela Markova,2 Martina Kasparova,3 Jana Zemankova,4 Stepanka Beranova,1 Tomas Urbanek,5 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 5Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Methods: Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC, and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP. Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results: Fifty-six children (35.7% screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033 and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042. The

  14. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  15. Preterm dietary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Fenger-Gron, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition.......To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition....

  16. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  17. Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context

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    Maria Letícia Santos Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers’ role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV. Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors.

  18. Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Cardoso, Claudete A. Araújo; Darmont, Mariana Q.; Dickstein, Paulo; Bastos, Francisco I.; Souza, Edvaldo; Andrade, Solange D.; Fabbro, Marcia D’All; Fonseca, Rosana; Monteiro, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers’ role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV). Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors. PMID:27338431

  19. Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Cardoso, Claudete A Araújo; Darmont, Mariana Q; Dickstein, Paulo; Bastos, Francisco I; Souza, Edvaldo; Andrade, Solange D; Fabbro, Marcia D'All; Fonseca, Rosana; Monteiro, Simone

    2016-06-21

    Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers' role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV). Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors.

  20. The Val66Met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Variant Interacts with Early Pain Exposure to Predict Cortisol Dysregulation in 7-year-old Children Born Very Preterm: Implications for Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L; Devlin, Angela M.; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early stress in the form of repetitive neonatal pain, in infants born very preterm, is associated with long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with poorer cognitive performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is important in synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions is reduced by stress. Therefore the BDNF Val66Met variant, which affects secretion of BDNF, may interact with early exposure to pain-related stress in children born very prete...

  1. The "choking game": a new craze among Brazilian children and young people. Psychophysiological, behavioral and epidemiological characteristics of 'asphyxial games'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilheri, Juliana; Andronikof, Anne; Yazigi, Latife

    2017-03-01

    The 'choking game' is a risk-taking behavior that has spread quickly among children and young people, causing dependence, accidents and even death, including in Brazil. These activities are performed in order to experience fleeting euphoric sensations, attracting numerous participants through the thousands of videos posted on YouTube. The problem of 'asphyxial games' can be observed in the Brazilian digital media, although there is a lack of scientific studies. Through a systematic review of the literature and complementary material, this paper aims to address the 'asphyxial games', warning about the psychophysiological and behavioral effects of these practices, while also presenting international epidemiological data. Sharing this information in academic circles is extremely important given the need to acquire more knowledge on the topic, train professionals and propose preventive measures that raise awareness among children and young people of the potential danger of voluntary fainting. It is equally important to raise awareness among parents and teachers so they can identify the warning signs that children may be engaging in these practices. And finally, it is also necessary to request government support to control exposure to videos that encourage the behavior.

  2. Is avoidant disorder part of the social phobia spectrum in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents?

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    Denardin D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of avoidant disorder was deleted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders - fourth edition (DSM-IV based on a `committee decision' suggesting that avoidant disorder is part of the social phobia spectrum. The objective of the present study was to examine the nature of this clinical association in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. We assessed a referred sample of 375 youths using semi-structured diagnostic interview methodology. Demographic (age at admission to the study and sex and clinical (level of impairment, age at onset of symptoms and pattern of comorbidity data were assessed in subsamples of children with avoidant disorder (N = 7, social phobia (N = 26, and comorbidity between both disorders (N = 24. Although a significant difference in the male/female ratio was detected among groups (P = 0.03, none of the other clinical variables differed significantly among subjects that presented each condition separately or in combination. Most of the children with avoidant disorder fulfilled criteria for social phobia. Thus, our findings support the validity of the conceptualization of avoidant disorder as part of the social phobia spectrum in a clinical sample.

  3. Is avoidant disorder part of the social phobia spectrum in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Denardin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of avoidant disorder was deleted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders - fourth edition (DSM-IV based on a `committee decision' suggesting that avoidant disorder is part of the social phobia spectrum. The objective of the present study was to examine the nature of this clinical association in a referred sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. We assessed a referred sample of 375 youths using semi-structured diagnostic interview methodology. Demographic (age at admission to the study and sex and clinical (level of impairment, age at onset of symptoms and pattern of comorbidity data were assessed in subsamples of children with avoidant disorder (N = 7, social phobia (N = 26, and comorbidity between both disorders (N = 24. Although a significant difference in the male/female ratio was detected among groups (P = 0.03, none of the other clinical variables differed significantly among subjects that presented each condition separately or in combination. Most of the children with avoidant disorder fulfilled criteria for social phobia. Thus, our findings support the validity of the conceptualization of avoidant disorder as part of the social phobia spectrum in a clinical sample.

  4. Neonatal systemic inflammation and the risk of low scores on measures of reading and mathematics achievement at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth N; Joseph, Robert M; Fichorova, Raina N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K

    2018-05-01

    Difficulties with reading and math occur more commonly among children born extremely preterm than among children born at term. Reasons for this are unclear. We measured the concentrations of 27 inflammatory-related and neurotrophic/angiogenic proteins (angio-neurotrophic proteins) in multiple blood specimens collected a week apart during the first postnatal month from 660 children born before the 28th week of gestation who at age 10 years had an IQ ≥ 70 and a Wechsler Individual Achievement Test 3rd edition (WIAT-III) assessment. We identified four groups of children, those who had a Z-score ≤ -1 on the Word Reading assessment only, on the Numerical Operations assessment only, on both of these assessments, and on neither, which served as the referent group. We then modeled the risk of each learning limitation associated with a top quartile concentration of each protein, and with high and lower concentrations of multiple proteins. The protein profile of low reading scores was confined to the third and fourth postnatal weeks when increased risks were associated with high concentrations of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the presence of low concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins. The profile of low math scores was very similar, except it did not include ICAM-1. In contrast, the profile of low scores on both assessments was present in each of the first four postnatal weeks. The increased risks associated with high concentrations of TNF-α in the first two weeks and of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the next two weeks were modulated down by high concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins. High concentrations of angio-neurotrophic proteins appear to reduce/moderate the risk of each learning limitation associated with systemic inflammation. The three categories of limitations have protein profiles with some similarities, and yet some differences, too. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does perinatal asphyxia contribute to neurological dysfunction in preterm infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Children born preterm are known to be at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The role of perinatal asphyxia in this increased risk is still a matter of debate. Aim: To analyze the contribution of perinatal asphyxia in a population of preterm infants admitted to a secondary paediatric

  6. Bilingualism as a potential strategy to improve executive function in preterm infants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lauren M; Baralt, Melissa; Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. Using the model of brain plasticity as a theoretical framework, it is possible that preterm infants' neurodevelopmental sequelae can be altered. Evidence suggests that bilingualism confers cognitive advantages on executive functioning, so it is possible that bilingualism may improve preterm infants' neurodevelopment. However, bilingualism has only been studied in term children. This review examined literature that compared the performance of preterm-born children to term children and bilingual children to monolingual children on executive function tasks. To address cognitive disparities in preterm-born children, studies investigating the effect of bilingualism on preterm infants' executive functioning is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age and gender changes in children and adolescent patients of a Brazilian eating disorder program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background International studies have demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of boys and a decrease of patients’ age at the beginning of outpatient treatment for eating disorders (ED. Objective To evaluate if these changes are also present in the Brazilian population participating in the PROTAD, a Brazilian ED program, and to discuss its clinical implication for treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 150 medical records of patients under 18 years diagnosed with ED (DSM IV-TR. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 (2001-2007 (n = 77 and G2 (2008-2014 (n = 73. The girl/boy proportion and the mean age of patients were compared. Results In G1, six boys (7.8% were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 11.8:1, while in G2, 16 (22% boys were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 3.5:1 (p 0.05. Discussion The increase in the number of boys treated for EDs reported in international studies was also found at the PROTAD. Contrary to what has been reported in international studies, the mean age of patients at the PROTAD did not decrease significantly. Gender and sexual orientation issues, clinical presentation, prior overweight history and culture/media impact on boys should be addressed by the healthcare team to increase the therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Executive Functioning and Reading Achievement in School: A study of Brazilian Children Assessed by Their Teachers as Poor Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. J. Engel de Abreu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were carefully matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (Private or Public, domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP, and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptually tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition, and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, Interference Suppression, Selective Attention, and Response Inhibition. Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that the struggling readers presented limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers which might have important implications for interventions for children at risk of school failure.

  10. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shanshan, E-mail: jelly_66@126.com; Fan, Guo Guang, E-mail: cjr.fanguoguang@vip.163.com; Xu, Ke, E-mail: cjr.xuke@vip.163.com; Wang, Ci, E-mail: xiangxuehai19850224@yahoo.cn

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL.

  11. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior and middle cerebellar peduncles are related to motor dysfunction in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia born preterm: A DTI tractography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Fan, Guo Guang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Ci

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the microstructural integrity of superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) by using DTI tractography method, and further to detect whether the microstructural integrity of these major cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with diffuse periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) born preterm. Materials and methods: 46 children with diffuse PVL (30 males and 16 females; age range 3–48 months; mean age 22.4 ± 6.7 months; mean gestational age 30.5 ± 2.2 weeks) and 40 healthy controls (27 males and 13 females; age range 3.5–48 months; mean age 22.1 ± 5.8 months) were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, fractional anisotropy (FA), for the SCP, MCP and cortical spinal tract (CST) were calculated. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) was used for assessing motor functions. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with diffuse PVL had a significantly lower FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST. There was a significant negative correlation between GMFCS levels and FA in bilateral SCP, MCP and CST in the patients group. In addition, significant inverse correlation of FA value was found between not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral CST and SCP/MCP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the injury of SCP and MCP may contribute to the motor dysfunction of diffuse PVL. Moreover, the correlations we found between supratentorial and subtentorial injured white matter extend our knowledge about the cerebro-cerebellar white matter interaction in children with diffuse PVL

  12. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births...... to estimate the effect of exposure on preterm birth, very preterm birth and extremely preterm birth. RESULTS: There were 58 626 (4.34%) preterm births (births and 3288 (0.24%) extremely preterm births in the study cohort. Severe life events in close relatives in the 6...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59...

  13. Assessment of the diet of 0- to 6-year-old children in municipal schools in a Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, C A S; Arcieri, R M; Ferreira, N F; Luvizuto, E R; Alle, C F

    2005-09-01

    Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP). For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results showed that all schools serve school meal, which is composed mainly of sugar, carbohydrates, and proteins. The students enjoy the meal very much because for most of them, the meal served at school is the only source of food. It was observed that 90% of the schools offer other kinds of food besides the main school meal. The snacks served such as cakes, white hominy, and milk fudge are composed of sweet and highly cariogenic foods. It was also verified that in 13.30% of the schools, the daily supervised dental hygiene, an important procedure that should not be neglected, is not carried out. This procedure introduces the children to healthy habits that are added to those acquired in the family environment. It was concluded that the school diet is potentially cariogenic and, in association with the lack of daily dental hygiene, this potential may become even higher.

  14. Assessment of the diet of 0- to 6-year-old children in municipal schools in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbin Clea

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP. For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results showed that all schools serve school meal, which is composed mainly of sugar, carbohydrates, and proteins. The students enjoy the meal very much because for most of them, the meal served at school is the only source of food. It was observed that 90% of the schools offer other kinds of food besides the main school meal. The snacks served such as cakes, white hominy, and milk fudge are composed of sweet and highly cariogenic foods. It was also verified that in 13.30% of the schools, the daily supervised dental hygiene, an important procedure that should not be neglected, is not carried out. This procedure introduces the children to healthy habits that are added to those acquired in the family environment. It was concluded that the school diet is potentially cariogenic and, in association with the lack of daily dental hygiene, this potential may become even higher.

  15. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  16. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  17. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  18. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  19. Concepts of Plants Held by Young Brazilian Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Cosmo, Claudete Rosa; da Silva, Bernadete Rocha; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2015-01-01

    Children from southern and northern Brazil have a basic knowledge of plants, which they observe during their everyday life. Children ages between 3 to 10 years old (kindergarten & primary school), but the majority of them in the age group of 4-5 (total 145) were asked to draw what they think is a plant (total sample = 332). Afterwards, a equal…

  20. Brazilian Children's Behavioural Differentiation between the Mother, Unfamiliar Adults and Professional Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    This study took place in two organisations with opposite socio-economic characteristics which gather children (one to four years), their mothers (or nannies), unfamiliar adults and professional caregivers. Pursuant to attachment theory, the children clearly differentiated their mothers from unfamiliar adults according to proximity indicators and…

  1. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children—Impact of age and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mürner-Lavanchy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7–12 years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  2. Predictors of dental anxiety in Brazilian 5-7 years old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fernanda Cunha; Lima, R. A.; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the predictors of dental anxiety in 5 to 7-year-old children in a two years follow-up. Materials and methods: This is a longitudinal study conducted with 784 children with 5 to 7 years old. A face-to-face interview was conducted with the parents....... The Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ) answers were categorized as presence or absence of dental anxiety. The possible predictor factors analyzed were: related to the children (age, sex, parentage, childbirth, physical activity, body satisfaction, psychological well-being, physical well-being, dentist visit......); and related to the parents or guardians (excessive alcohol consumption, smoke, family income, number of children). Forward stepwise logistic binary regression was performed for the multivariate analysis. The analysis was controlled by gender. Results: The prevalence of dental anxiety was 17.4%. Children...

  3. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças pré-termo moderadas aos sete e oito anos de idade Motor development of moderate preterm children at seven and eight years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Resende Camargos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Crianças pré-termo podem apresentar distúrbios leves do desenvolvimento motor, que podem ser imperceptíveis até a idade pré-escolar ou escolar. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças pré-termo moderadas com crianças a termo aos sete e oito anos de idade. Foram coletados dados de 13 crianças pré-termo e 13 crianças a termo de uma escola da rede municipal de Betim. Foi utilizada a Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor para avaliar motricidade fina, motricidade global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e organização temporal, bem como a idade motora geral e o quociente motor geral. O teste Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparar as idades motoras e os quocientes motores entre os grupos. Foi encontrada diferença significativa somente nos valores da motricidade fina entre os grupos (p=0,01, sendo que o grupo pré-termo apresentou desempenho inferior. Dessa forma, crianças pré-termo moderadas que não apresentam características de alto risco biológico ao nascimento também podem necessitar de acompanhamento ambulatorial até a idade escolar.Preterm children may have light motor developmental impairments, which may be imperceptible until pre-school age or even school age. The aim of this study was to compare the motor development of moderate preterm children with full-term ones at seven and eight years of age. Data from 13 preterm and 13 full-term children were collected from a public school in Betim-MG. The Motor Development Scale was used to access fine and global motricity, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, time organization, as well as general motor age and general motor quotient. The Mann-Whitney's Test was used to compare the motor ages and motor quotients between the groups. A significant difference was only found in the fine motricity values between the groups (p=0.01, the preterm group having shown a poorer performance. Therefore, moderate preterm children who do not

  4. The Val66Met brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene variant interacts with early pain exposure to predict cortisol dysregulation in 7-year-old children born very preterm: Implications for cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, C M Y; Cepeda, I L; Devlin, A M; Weinberg, J; Grunau, R E

    2017-02-07

    Early stress in the form of repetitive neonatal pain, in infants born very preterm, is associated with long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with poorer cognitive performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is important in synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions is reduced by stress. Therefore the BDNF Val66Met variant, which affects secretion of BDNF, may interact with early exposure to pain-related stress in children born very preterm, to differentially affect HPA regulation that in turn may be associated with altered cognitive performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether in children born very preterm, the BDNF Val66Met variant modulates the association between neonatal pain-related stress and cortisol levels at age 7years, and if cortisol levels were related to cognitive function. Furthermore, we examined whether these relationships were sex-specific. Using a longitudinal cohort design, N=90 children born very preterm (24-32weeks gestation) were followed from birth to age 7years. Cortisol was assayed from hair as an index of cumulative stress and from saliva to measure reactivity to a cognitive challenge. BDNF Val66Met variant was genotyped at 7years using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using generalized linear modeling, in boys with the Met allele, greater neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical risk factors) predicted lower hair cortisol (p=0.006) and higher reactivity salivary cortisol (p=0.002). In both boys and girls with the Met allele, higher salivary cortisol reactivity was correlated with lower IQ (r=-0.60; p=0.001) and poorer visual-motor integration (r=-0.48; p=0.008). Our findings show associations between lower BDNF availability (presence of the Met allele) and vulnerability to neonatal pain/stress in boys, but not girls. This exploratory study suggests new directions for research into possible mechanisms underlying how neonatal pain/stress is

  5. Translation of the Children Helping Out--Responsibilities, Expectations and Supports (CHORES) questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese: semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalences and application in normal children and adolescents and in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maíra; Paula, Rebeca L; Drummond, Adriana; Dunn, Louise; Mancini, Marisa C

    2012-01-01

    The participation of children with disabilities in daily chores in different environments has been a therapeutic goal shared by both parents and rehabilitation professionals, leading to increased demand for instrument development. The Children Helping Out: Responsibilities, Expectations and Supports (CHORES) questionnaire was created with the objective of measuring child and teenager participation in daily household tasks. To translate the CHORES questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, evaluate semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalences, apply the questionnaire to children and teenagers with and without disabilities, and test its test-retest reliability. Methodological study developed through the following stages: (1) translation of the questionnaire by two different translators; (2) synthesis of translations; (3) back-translation into English; (4) analysis by an expert committee to develop the pre-final version; (5) test-retest reliability; (6) administration to a sample of 50 parents of children with and without disabilities. The CHORES translation was validated in all stages. The implemented adaptations aimed to improve the understanding of the instrument's content by families of different socioeconomic and educational levels. The questionnaire showed strong consistency within a 7 to 14-day interval (ICCs=0.93 a 0.97; p=0.0001). After application, there was no need to change any items in the questionnaire. The translation of the CHORES questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese offers a unique instrument for health professionals in Brazil, enabling the documentation of child and teenager participation in daily household tasks and making it possible to develop scientific investigation on the topic.

  6. MRI measurements of the pons and cerebellum in children born preterm; associations with the severity of periventricular leukomalacia and perinatal risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Argyropoulou, P.I.; Efremidis, S.C.; Drougia, A.; Andronikou, S.; Tzoufi, M.; Bassounas, A.

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to measure the size of the pons and cerebellum in preterm babies with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and to study their relationship with the severity of PVL and with perinatal risk factors. We examined 33 premature children, mean gestational age 31 weeks, range 26-36 weeks with PVL on MRI, and 27 full-term controls. On MRI at 0.4-5.5 years (mean 1.4 years) we measured the area of the corpus callosum and vermis, the anteroposterior diameter of the pons and the volume of the cerebellum. The area of the corpus callosum was used as a marker of white matter loss and PVL severity. All regional brain measurements except that of the vermis were significantly lower in patients than controls: corpus callosum (mm 2 ): 239.6±92.5 vs 434.8±126.8, P 3 ): 68.2±31.6 vs 100.6±28.3, P 2 ): 808.1±292.2 vs 942.2±246.2, NS. Significant reduction in the area of the vermis: 411.3±203.3 vs 935±252.6 mm 2 ; cerebellar volume: 16.3±12.5 vs 96.6±20.2 mm 3 ; and the diameter of the pons: 10.1±2.2 vs 17.5±1.3 mm (P <0.01) were observed in seven children with gestational age ≤28 weeks, severe hypotension and large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). There was a significant correlation between the duration of mechanical ventilation and the size of the vermis, pons and cerebellum (R=-0.65, -0.57 and -0.73, respectively, P <0.01). (orig.)

  7. Delayed Development of Feeding Skills in Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia C. Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelays in gross motor development, sensory processing issues, and organic and behavioral problems are known to interfere in the development of feeding skills (FS; and—therefore—in the success of the process of feeding a child. Children with feeding difficulties (FD commonly present inadequacy of FS.ObjectivesAssessment of five FS in Brazilian children with FD, and search of associations with types of FD.MethodsCross-sectional study with 70 children below 10 years old. Data were obtained from medical records: age, gender, age at texture transitions, feeding phase (breastfeeding, weaning to solids or full solids at first complaint; characteristics of the meal (duration, environment, and shared meals with adults, self-feeding practices, use of feeding equipment and bottle, mouthing, feeding position and FD diagnosis. Skills were categorized according to standards for age. Chi-Square, Anova Test (or non-parametric equivalent and Multinomial logistic regression tests were used, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsThere was no difference in FS (p > 0.05 or in the number of FS inadequateness (p = 0.84 according to FD diagnosis. The majority (94% of children presented at least one delayed development of FS; 1/3 presented delays in more than half of the FS. The most prevalent inadequacies in FS were inadequate feeding position (73.5%, prolonged bottle feeding (56.9%, and inadequate self-feeding practices (37.9%. Feeding complaints first appeared at 10.9 ± 11.4 months, and picky eating was the most prevalent type of FD (37.1%. Most children were fed in inadequate environments (55.2%, without the company of adults (78%. Transition to solid foods occurred at 16 ± 5.6 months. Multinomial logistic regression showed no difference in likelihood of presenting any type of FD compared to picky eating, according to FS. Age at texture transition both from breastfeeding to complementary feeding (p = 0.95, and from

  8. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines, and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines. 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65, and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72 and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75 education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75 and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74. Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines.

  9. The use of other tobacco products among Brazilian school children (PeNSE 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Ana Luiza de Lima Curi; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de; Prado, Rogério Ruscitto do; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-09-21

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence and to identify factors related to the use of other tobacco products among schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of high school students enrolled in the 9th grade. A total of 109,104 students were interviewed, and 4.8% of them had used other tobacco products in the previous 30 days. The factors that increased the likelihood of using other tobacco products were: male gender, being administratively dependent on the school, having a job, living with mother and/or father, perception that the parents or guardians would not care if they smoked, having difficulties sleeping, not having close friends, having experienced domestic violence, skipping classes, having used tobacco and alcohol within the past 30 days, having experimented drugs, having smoking parents or guardians, having seen people smoking. The prevalence of using other tobacco products is high among Brazilian students, and is associated with higher socioeconomic conditions, presence of risk behavior, and living in an environment permissible to tobacco use.

  10. Associations Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Overweight With Academic Performance in 12-Year-Old Brazilian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Santana, Carla Caroliny; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Azevedo, Liane Beretta; Hill, James O; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Botero, João Paulo; do Prado, Edna Cristina; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2017-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor academic achievement, while cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been linked to academic success. To investigate whether CRF is associated with academic performance in Brazilian students, independently of body mass index (BMI), fatness and socioeconomic status (SES). 392 5th and 6th grade students (193 girls) (12.11 ± 0.75 years old) were evaluated in 2012. Skinfold thickness measures were performed, and students were classified according to BMI-percentile. CRF was estimated by a 20-meter shuttle run test, and academic achievement by standardized math and Portuguese tests. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between academic performance and CRF, adjusted for SES, skinfold thickness or BMI-percentile. Among girls CRF was associated with higher academic achievement in math (β = 0.146;p = .003) and Portuguese (β = 0.129;p = .004) in crude and adjusted analyses. No significant association was found among boys. BMI was not associated with overall academic performance. There was a weak negative association between skinfold thickness and performance in mathematics in boys (β =- 0.030;p = .04), but not in girls. The results highlight the importance of maintaining high fitness levels in girls throughout adolescence a period commonly associated with reductions in physical activity levels and CRF.

  11. ENT care of children and adolescents in the Brazilian public healthy system in three different municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-Ping, Cheng; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice

    2008-01-01

    The data base of ENT care in the Brazilian public health system (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) will help organize public health programs. The following items were investigated in patients aged up to 17 years attended in public health system outpatient units in the city of Mariana, in the ENT screening unit, UNIFESP-EPM, and in CISMISEL: 1) The main otorhinolaryngological diagnoses; 2) The most frequently required exams, drugs, and surgical procedures and their indications; 3) The jobs of parents; the number of siblings; and 4) A statistical analysis and comparison of data in each location. We undertook a prospective study and a statistical analysis of variables that were gathered during the first visit. The age, the parents' salary, the number of siblings aged below 18 years, the presence of rhinitis, ears diseases, the exams, drugs and otological surgeries that were indicated were all statistically significant. The most common diagnosis was mouth breathing. The most common surgery was adenotonsillectomy. The most frequently requested exam was a lateral cranial radiograph. The number of unemployed parents, their poor salaries, and the number of siblings make it difficult for these patients to be treated in any facility other than the public heath system.

  12. HAART impact on prevalence of chronic otitis media in Brazilian HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Raimar; Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diógenes; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Araújo Filho, Bernardo Cunha

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new antiretroviral drugs such as protease inhibitors has generated sensible changes in morbity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the prevalence of chronic otitis media in HIV-infected pediatric population. We analyzed medical charts of 471 children aged zero to 12 years and 11 months with HIV infection from an Ambulatory of ENT and AIDS. Children were divided according to the age: 0 to 5 years and 11 months and 6 to 12 years and 11 months and classified as having chronic otitis media based on history, physical examination, audiologic and tympanometric data. Prevalence of chronic otitis media, as well as CD4+ lymphocyte count were compared between groups in use of HAART and the group without HAART. Out of 459 children, 65 (14.2%) had chronic otitis media. We observed that in children aged 0 to 5 years and 11 months who were taking HAART there was significant lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). The use of HAART was associated to higher mean CD4+ lymphocyte count (pmedia in HIV infected children, probably due to increase in mean CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  13. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

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    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  14. Factors associated with violence against children in sentinel urgent and emergency care centers in Brazilian capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Teixeira, Barbara de Sá Menezes; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the association between demographic characteristics (age and sex) and other variables related to violence committed against children (form of violence perpetrator, place of occurrence, and nature of injury) using a sample of 404 children taken from the 2014 Violence and Accident Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes, VIVA) survey. Correspondence analysis was used to identify variables associated with the outcome violence against children. Victims were predominantly male. The most common form of violence was neglect/abandonment, followed by physical violence and sexual violence. The most common perpetrators were parents (ages zero to one and two to five years), followed by friends (ages six to nine years). The most common place of occurrence was the home. Notable levels of violence were observed at school, particularly among children aged between six and nine years. Neglect was most common in the age group zero to one year and two to five years, while physical violence was most common between children aged between six and nine years.

  15. Prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents in a city in the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonia Maria; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque de

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in students of two distinct age brackets residing in the city of Tangará da Serra, Brazil. Cross-sectional, population-based study of the prevalence of asthma in children from 6 to 7 years of age and adolescents from 13 to 14, using the standardized International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase 1 questionnaire, validated for use in Brazil. Students who responded affirmatively to question 2 (presence of wheezing in the preceding 12 months) were classified as suffering from asthma. The study comprised 3,362 students, of whom 1,634 (48.6%) were children and 1,728 (51.4%) were adolescents. Of the 1,634 children, 816 (49.9%) were male, and 818 (50.1%) were female. Of the 1,728 adolescents, 773 (45.0%) were male, and 955 (55.0%) were female. The prevalence of asthma among the children was 25.2%, whereas that among the adolescents was 15.9% (chi2 = 8.34; p = 0.00). The children presented higher prevalences of the following symptoms of asthma than did the adolescents: wheezing ever (54.3%), nocturnal dry cough (43.9%), wheezing in the preceding 12 months (25.2%), and from 1 to 3 attacks of wheezing in the preceding 12 months (19.1%). There were no differences between the two groups regarding physician-diagnosed asthma (approximately 4.5%). There were no statistical differences regarding the prevalence of asthma by gender in the two groups. Tangará da Serra has a high prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents, and this result is compatible with other studies carried out in Brazil and Latin America using the same methodology.

  16. Family functioning, burden and parenting stress 2 years after very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Examining rates of difficulties in family functioning following very preterm birth has been a relatively neglected area of research. To examine family functioning, burden and parenting stress in families with very preterm compared with term born children, and investigate influences of parental mental health problems and child neurodevelopmental disability on family outcomes in families with preterm children. Participants were 184 very preterm and 71 term children and their parents. Parents completed the Family Assessment Device, Parenting Stress Index and Impact on Family questionnaires when their children were 2 years old (corrected for prematurity). Parental mental health and social risk information were also collected. Children were assessed for neurodevelopmental disability. Families with very preterm children reported poorer family functioning (p=.03) compared with families with term born children, with less evidence for differences between families with very preterm and term born children in parenting stress and family burden. Within very preterm families, parental mental health problems were associated with higher levels of parenting stress (p=.001), and parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disability were more likely to report higher family burden (p=.04). For families with very preterm children, parental mental health symptoms and child neurodevelopmental disability may identify families at risk of greater stress and burden who may benefit from additional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropsychological profiles correlated with clinical and behavioral impairments in a sample of Brazilian children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Sueli eRizzutti

    2015-11-01

    symptomatic externalized behavior and emotional regulation problems. Therefore, profiles based on clinical and behavioral findings can help clinicians select better strategies for detecting neuropsychological impairment in Brazilian children with ADHD.

  18. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Relationship between health services, socioeconomic variables and inadequate weight gain among Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A C; Peterson, K E; Cufino, E; Gardner, J; Craveiro, M V; Ascherio, A

    1999-01-01

    This ecological analysis assessed the relative contribution of behavioural, health services and socioeconomic variables to inadequate weight gain in infants (0-11 months) and children (12-23 months) in 140 municipalities in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. To assess the total effect of selected variables, we fitted three unique sets of multivariate linear regression models to the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and in children. The final predictive models included variables from the three sets. Findings showed that participation in growth monitoring and urbanization were inversely and significantly associated with the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants, accounting for 38.3% of the variation. Female illiteracy rate, participation in growth monitoring and degree of urbanization were all positively associated with prevalence of inadequate weight gain in children. Together, these factors explained 25.6% of the variation. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the average municipality-specific female illiteracy rate, in combination with participation in growth monitoring, may be effective in reducing municipality-level prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and children in Ceara.

  20. Teaching Facts of Addition to Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Adriana Corrêa; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Dorneles, Beatriz Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Storage and/or automatic retrieval of the basic facts of addition from the long-term memory seems to be impaired in children with ADHD presenting arithmetical difficulties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention model designed to teach basic facts of addition as a means of advancing from…

  1. ApoE polymorphisms and diarrheal outcomes in Brazilian shanty town children

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    R.B. Oriá

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have shown that the heavy burdens of diarrheal diseases in the first 2 formative years of life in children living in urban shanty towns have negative effects on physical and cognitive development lasting into later childhood. We have shown that APOE4 is relatively common in shanty town children living in Brazil (13.4% and suggest that APOE4 has a protective role in cognitive development as well as weight-for-height in children with heavy burdens of diarrhea in early childhood (64/123; 52%, despite being a marker for cognitive decline with Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases later in life. APOE2 frequency was higher among children with heaviest diarrhea burdens during the first 2 years of life, as detected by PCR using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method, raising the possibility that ApoE-cholesterol balance might be critical for growth and cognitive development under the stress of heavy diarrhea burdens and when an enriched fat diet is insufficient. These findings provide a potential explanation for the survival advantage in evolution of genes, which might raise cholesterol levels during heavy stress of diarrhea burdens and malnutrition early in life.

  2. Poverty, dirt, infections and non-atopic wheezing in children from a Brazilian urban center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Esquivel, Renata; Amorim, Leila D; Alvim, Sheila; Prado, Matildes; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cooper, Philip J; Santos, Darci N; Strina, Agostino; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2010-12-01

    The causation of asthma is poorly understood. Risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma may be different. This study aimed to analyze the associations between markers of poverty, dirt and infections and wheezing in atopic and non-atopic children. 1445 children were recruited from a population-based cohort in Salvador, Brazil. Wheezing was assessed using the ISAAC questionnaire and atopy defined as allergen-specific IgE ≥ 0.70 kU/L. Relevant social factors, environmental exposures and serological markers for childhood infections were investigated as risk factors using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Common risk factors for wheezing in atopic and non-atopic children, respectively, were parental asthma and respiratory infection in early childhood. No other factor was associated with wheezing in atopic children. Factors associated with wheezing in non-atopics were low maternal educational level (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.98-2.38), low frequency of room cleaning (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27-4.90), presence of rodents in the house (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.09), and day care attendance (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.29). Non-atopic wheezing was associated with risk factors indicative of poverty, dirt and infections. Further research is required to more precisely define the mediating exposures and the mechanisms by which they may cause non-atopic wheeze.

  3. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro ® Software for nutritional analysis. Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 ( P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m 2 . Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers' nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk ( P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily ( P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). Analyzed children showed high rates of physical inactivity, high

  4. cagA positive Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian children related to chronic gastritis

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    Luciano Lobo Gatti

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. It colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and persists for decades if not treated. Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population and invariably results in chronic gastritis. The cagA gene is present in about 60 to 70% of H. pylori strains; it encodes a high-molecular-weight protein (120 to 140 kDa and several investigators have noted a correlation between strains that possess cagA and the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation. We examined the relation between cagA status in H. pylori strains and chronic gastritis with inflammatory processes in children from Marília, São Paulo, Brazil. One-hundred-twenty-one children were analyzed histopathologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect H. pylori and cagA. We then looked for an association between cagA presence and inflammatory infiltration. Using histology and PCR, we found 47% H. pylori positive infection; 29 children were diagnosed with chronic gastritis, while 28 showed normal mucosa by histopathological analysis. CagA presence was genotyped in both groups, and an inflammatory infiltrate was studied in all infected children with chronic gastritis. We found cagA strains in 20 of 29 (69% children with chronic gastritis and 18 of 28 (64% with normal mucosa, demonstrating a strong relationship between the strains and the inflammatory process. We found a positive association between an inflammatory process associated with H. pylori of cagA+ strains and chronic gastritis development.

  5. A community study of factors related to poorly controlled asthma among Brazilian urban children.

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    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    Full Text Available Asthma constitutes a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including the city of Salvador, State of Bahia-Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors associated with poor asthma control.Two definitions were used for asthma: 1 wheezing in the last 12 months; 2 wheezing in the last 12 months plus other asthma symptoms or asthma diagnosis ever. The definition of poorly controlled asthma was: at least one reported hospitalisation due to asthma and/or high frequency of symptoms, in the last year. Children with poorly controlled asthma (N = 187/374 were compared with wheezing children with controlled asthma regarding age, gender, atopy, parental asthma, rhinitis, eczema, exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, presence of moulds, pets and pests in the house, helminth infections and body mass index. Crude and logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. There was a higher proportion of poorly controlled asthma among children with eczema (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02; 2.37. The strength of the association was greater among children with eczema and rhinitis (42.6%, 53.4% and 57.7%, respectively, in children who had no rhinitis nor eczema, had only one of those, and had both (p = 0.02 for trend test. The presence of mould in the houses was inversely associated with poorly controlled asthma (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.34; 0.87.Our results indicate an association between eczema and poor asthma control in this environment, but emphasize the role of various other individual and environmental factors as determinants of poor control.

  6. A Brazilian version of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes" (ChIPS A versão brasileira do "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes" (ChIPS

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    Isabella G. S. de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The advance of research in child and adolescent psychiatry in Brazil heavily depends on the existence of instruments for the investigation of psychiatric syndromes adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: This article describes a careful process of translation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes for the purpose of use in research in Brazil. The Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes has a version for parents (P-ChIPs and a version for children (ChIPS. In this article, the sections of P-ChIPS referring to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mania/hypomania, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and psychotic disorders were translated to Brazilian Portuguese. The sections of the ChIPS referring to substance use disorders, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disoder, separation anxiety disorder, post-traumatic disorders and depression/dysthimia were also adapted. Each section was translated by two independent translators and later discussed in a committee composed of experts in the field of Psychiatry and a professional of the field of linguistics. RESULT: A final version containing an interview for the main psychiatric syndromes was defined. CONCLUSION: The translated P-ChIPS is a helpful instrument in children and adolescent clinical evaluation.OBJETIVO: O avanço em pesquisa em psiquiatria da infância e adolescência no Brasil depende da existência de instrumentos para a investigação de síndromes psiquiátricas adaptadas à Língua Portuguesa. Este artigo descreve um cuidadoso processo de tradução do Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes para o uso em pesquisa no Brasil. MÉTODOS: O Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes tem uma versão para pais (P-ChIPs e uma versão para as crianças (ChIPs. Nesse artigo, as seções do P-ChIPs referentes ao transtorno do déficit de aten

  7. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A in Brazilian children

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    Marco Antônio Veloso de Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calpainopathy is an autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A caused by mutations in CAPN3 gene. Objective To present clinical and histological findings in six children with a molecular diagnosis of LGMD2A and additionally the MRI findings in two of them. Method We retrospectively assessed medical records of 6 patients with mutation on CAPN3 gene. Results All patients were female (three to 12 years. The mean of age of disease onset was 9 years. All of them showed progressive weakness with predominance in lower limbs. Other findings were scapular winging, joint contractures and calf hypertrophy. One female had a more severe phenotype than her dizygotic twin sister that was confirmed by muscle MRI. Muscle biopsies showed a dystrophic pattern in all patients. Conclusion In this cohort of children with LGMD2A, the clinical aspects were similar to adults with the same disorder.

  8. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample

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    Thomé,Ursula; Alves,Sandra Regina da Paixão; Guerreiro,Sabrina Mendonça; Costa,Célia Regina Carvalho Machado da; Moreira,Fernanda de Souza; Lima,Andrea Bandeira; Tavares,Maria Rita Ferreira; Maia Filho,Heber Souza

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling ex...

  9. Environmental manganese exposure and associations with memory, executive functions, and hyperactivity in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Chrissie Ferreira de; Oulhote, Youssef; Martorelli, Marina; Carvalho, Carla Oliveira de; Menezes-Filho, José Antônio; Argollo, Nayara; Abreu, Neander

    2018-02-09

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, however high levels of Mn have been associated with lower neuropsychological performance and behavioral problems in children. We investigated the associations between hair Mn concentrations and neuropsychological and behavioral performances among children with long-term exposure to airborne Mn aged between 7 and 12 years. Neuropsychological performance included tests of: verbal memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and motor function. We used the Conners Abbreviated Rating Scale for teachers to assess students' behaviors of hyperactivity. Hair manganese (MnH) concentrations in children and exposure to airborne manganese from a ferro-manganese alloy plant were analyzed and correlated with tests scores. Multivariable linear models adjusting for potential confounders showed that elevated levels of MnH were associated with lower performance in verbal memory, as measured by the free recall after interference (β = - 1.8; 95% CI: - 3.4, - 0.2), which indicates susceptibility to interference, and Delayed Effect (β = -2.0; 95% CI: -3.7, - 0.2), representing a loss of information over time. Additionally, we found patterns of effect modification by sex in three subtests measuring verbal memory: the free recall after interference score, Interference Effect, and Delayed Effect (all at p < 0.10). Overall, the results suggest that long-term airborne Mn exposure may be associated with lower performance in verbal memory, and hyperactivity behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of oral manifestations in soft tissues during early childhood in Brazilian children

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    Maria Cristina Ramos Lima PADOVANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of soft tissue oral manifestations in children during early childhood, according to age group, gender, and site in the oral cavity, and at correlating these oral manifestations with systemic alterations. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 586 children from 0 to 3 years of age (12.4 ± 11.8 months, 316 (53.9% male and 270 (46.1% female, in the city of Mauá, SP, Brazil. Examination was performed by a single examiner (Kappa Index = 0.90 according to World Health Organization criteria (WHO, 1997.The prevalence of oral manifestations in the soft tissues of children during early childhood was 34.8%. The age group showing statistical significance was 0-1 months old (56.4%. Epstein’s pearls were significantly present (43.2% in 0-1-month-old babies, and gingivitis in 12-24-month-olds (15.9%. The palate was the most affected region (16.7%. Infectious alterations were the most prevalent systemic alteration (20%. An association was observed between the presence of systemic alterations and the occurrence of oral manifestations. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 34.8%, regardless of gender, and was manifested mostly in 0-1-month-old babies. The palate was the most prevalent region, and the majority of oral manifestations were associated with systemic alterations.

  11. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

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    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  12. An outbreak of scalp white piedra in a Brazilian children day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselino, Ana Maria; Seixas, Ana Beatriz; Thomazini, José A; Maffei, Claudia M L

    2008-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichosporon spp. that affects the hair shaft of any part of the body. It is presented an outbreak of scalp white piedra seen in 5.8% of the children frequenting a day care in Northeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. Mycological exam and culture identified T. cutaneum in all five cases, and scanning electron microscopy of nodules around hair shaft infected by Trichosporon spp. is demonstrated comparing them with those of black piedra and with nits of Pediculous capitis.

  13. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    OBJECTIVE: Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born

  14. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  15. Association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness in prepubertal Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazolla, Fernanda Mussi; Neves Bordallo, Maria Alice; Madeira, Isabel Rey; de Miranda Carvalho, Cecilia Noronha; Vieira Monteiro, Alexandra Maria; Pinheiro Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina; Borges, Marcos Antonio; Collett-Solberg, Paulo Ferrez; Muniz, Bruna Moreira; de Oliveira, Cecilia Lacroix; Pinheiro, Suellen Martins; de Queiroz Ribeiro, Rebeca Mathias

    2015-05-01

    Early exposure to cardiovascular risk factors creates a chronic inflammatory state that could damage the endothelium followed by thickening of the carotid intima-media. To investigate the association of cardiovascular risk factors and thickening of the carotid intima. Media in prepubertal children. In this cross-sectional study, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 129 prepubertal children aged from 5 to 10 year. Association was assessed by simple and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In simple logistic regression analyses, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were positively associated with increased left, right, and average cIMT, whereas diastolic blood pressure was positively associated only with increased left and average cIMT (p<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses increased left cIMT was positively associated to BMI z-score and SBP, and increased average cIMT was only positively associated to SBP (p<0.05). BMI z-score and SBP were the strongest risk factors for increased cIMT.

  16. Prevalence of epilepsy in children from a Brazilian area of high deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Letícia P B; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Kuramoto, Karina; Reche, Angela; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Manreza, Maria Luiza G

    2010-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rate of epilepsy and its causes in children and adolescents in one area of high deprivation in São Paulo, São Paulo, in Southeast Brazil. Between July 2005 and June 2006, 4947 families from a population of 22,013 inhabitants (including 10,405 children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 16 years) living in the shantytown of Paraisópolis, were interviewed. In the first phase, a validated questionnaire was administered, to identify the occurrence of seizures. In the second phase, clinical history, neurologic examination, electroencephalography, and structural neuroimaging were performed. The diagnosis of epilepsy, including etiology, seizure types, and epileptic syndrome classification, was according to criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy. The screening phase identified 353 presumptive cases. In the second phase, 101 of these cases (33.8%) received the diagnosis of epilepsy. Crude prevalence of epilepsy was 9.7/1000 and prevalence of active epilepsy was 8.7/1000. Partial seizures were the most frequent seizure type (62/101). Symptomatic focal epilepsy was the most common form, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy the most common etiology, reflecting the socioeconomic conditions of this specific population. Adequate public policies regarding perinatal assistance could help reduce the prevalence of epilepsy.

  17. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

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    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  18. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Ursula; Paixão Alves, Sandra Regina da; Guerreiro, Sabrina Mendonça; Machado da Costa, Célia Regina Carvalho; Souza Moreira, Fernanda de; Bandeira Lima, Andrea; Ferreira Tavares, Maria Rita; Souza Maia Filho, Heber

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  19. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample

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    Ursula Thomé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling expectations in a higher frequency than expected. There were no significant differences in mathematical performance among groups divided by number of antiepileptic drugs used, duration of disease and types and frequency of seizures. There was a positive correlation with intelligence quotient and attentional and reading level. These results suggest the existence not only of dyscalculia, but the concurrence of attentional and reading problems for the poor mathematical performance in this population.

  20. The Brazilian contribution to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder molecular genetics in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Roman, Tatiana; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition of children worldwide. This disorder is defined by a combination of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Diagnosis is based on a sufficient number of symptoms causing impairment in these two domains determining several problems in personal and academic life. Although genetic and environmental factors are important in ADHD etiology, how these factors influence the brain and consequently behavior is still under debate. It seems to be consensus that a frontosubcortical dysfunction is responsible, at least in part, for the ADHD phenotype spectrum. The main results from association and pharmacogenetic studies performed in Brazil are discussed. The investigations performed so far on ADHD genetics in Brazil and elsewhere are far from conclusive. New plausible biological hypotheses linked to neurotransmission and neurodevelopment, as well as new analytic approaches are needed to fully disclose the genetic component of the disorder. PMID:23411749

  1. Observer variability identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-old children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Hooper, Stephen R; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl

    2017-08-01

    A DSM-5 diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) requires that symptoms be present in two settings. We wanted to see how teachers and parents compare on their assessments. We evaluated how well Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) reports from 871 parents and 634 teachers of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation provided information about indicators of school dysfunction. Kappa values for parent and teacher agreement of any ADHD were at best fair to poor (<0.41). Nevertheless, ADHD identified by each alone provided a moderate amount of information about such indicators of school dysfunction as grade repetition. Only occasionally did agreement provide more information than provided by only one reporter. Mother's social class and intelligence level did not discriminate between parents who did and did not agree with the teacher. ADHD identified by a single observer can provide appreciable information about a range of the child's functions needed for success in school and, therefore, should not be discounted when another observer does not consider the child to have ADHD symptoms. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Spontaneous resolution rates of vesicoureteral reflux in Brazilian children: a 30-year experience

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    Miguel Zerati Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated clinical characteristics of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in infants in a 30-year period in Brazil with special reference to the relation of renal parenchymal damage to urinary tract infection and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1975 through 2005, 417 girls (81.6% and 94 boys (18.4% with all grades of reflux were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized by the worst grade of reflux, maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis and underwent yearly voiding cystourethrography until the reflux was resolved. VUR was considered resolved when a follow-up cystogram demonstrated no reflux. Surgical correction was recommended for those who fail medical therapy, severe renal scarring or persistent VUR. RESULTS: Grades I to V VUR resolved in 87.5%, 77.6%, 52.8%, 12.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Renal scars were present at presentation in 98 patients (19.2%. Neither gender nor bilaterality versus unilaterality was a helpful predictor of resolution. The significant difference was found among the curves using the log rank (p < 0.001 or Wilcoxon (p < 0.001 test. CONCLUSION: Despite the current use of screening prenatal ultrasound, many infants are still diagnosed as having vesicoureteral reflux only after the occurrence of urinary tract infection in our country. Scarring may be associated to any reflux grade and it may be initially diagnosed at any age but half of the scars are noted with higher grades of reflux (IV and V. The incidence of reflux related morbidity in children has significantly diminished over the last three decades.

  3. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  4. First Clinical Consensus and National Recommendations on Tracheostomized Children of the Brazilian Academy of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology (ABOPe) and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics (SBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Melissa A G; Maunsell, Rebecca; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Lubianca Neto, José Faibes; Schweiger, Cláudia; Miura, Carolina Sponchiado; Chen, Vitor Guo; Manrique, Dayse; Oliveira, Raquel; Gavazzoni, Fabiano; Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça; Bittencourt, Paulo; Camargos, Paulo; Peixoto, Fernanda; Brandão, Marcelo Barciela; Sih, Tania Maria; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    Tracheostomy is a procedure that can be performed in any age group, including children under 1year of age. Unfortunately health professionals in Brazil have great difficulty dealing with this condition due to the lack of standard care orientation. This clinical consensus by Academia Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica (ABOPe) and Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) aims to generate national recommendations on the care concerning tracheostomized children. A group of experts experienced in pediatric tracheostomy (otorhinolaryngologists, intensive care pediatricians, endoscopists, and pediatric pulmonologists) were selected, taking into account the different regions of Brazil and following inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results generated from this document were based on the agreement of the majority of participants regarding the indications, type of cannula, surgical techniques, care, and general guidelines and decannulation. These guidelines can be used as directives for a wide range of health professionals across the country that deal with tracheostomized children. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot study of brain morphometry in a sample of Brazilian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: influence of clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otavio; Mattos, Paulo; Prüfer Araújo, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rests on clinical criteria. Nonetheless, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that children with ADHD have different cortical thickness and volume measures to typically developing children (TDC). In general, studies do not evaluate the influence of clinical presentation in the brain morphometry of ADHD children. Our objective was to perform a pilot study in order to evaluate cortical thickness and brain volume in a sample of Brazilian ADHD children and compare these to those of TDC, taking into account the influence of clinical presentation. We performed an analytic study comparing 17 drug-naïve ADHD children of both genders, aged between 7 and 10, and 16 TDC. ADHD subjects were first considered as one group and further separated based on clinical presentation. The brain volume did not differ between patients and TDC. Smaller cortical thicknesses were identified on the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex. When compared to TDC, combined and inattentive ADHD presentations depicted smaller cortical thickness with high significance and power. The same magnitude of results was not observed when comparing inattentive ADHD and TDC. In this pilot study, ADHD is associated with abnormalities involving the cortical thickness of the posterior attentional system. The cortical thickness in the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex may differ according to ADHD presentations.

  6. Relation between sleep status of preterm infants aged 1-2 years and mothers' parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare infants' sleep measures through an actigraph and maternal parenting stress among preterm and full-term mothers, and to explore the factors affecting maternal parenting stress in relation to infants' sleep. The subjects were 44 pairs of mothers and children. Twenty-one were in the preterm group, and 23 were in the full-term group. Inclusion criteria for preterm infants were born at less than 36 weeks and birthweight of less than 2500 g. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form assesses maternal perception of the degree of parenting stress: the children's domain, and the parent's domain. An actigraph was applied to assess the infants' sleep measures. The PSI showed significant differences, with high scores in parenting stress in the preterm group. Also, the number of mothers who complained about their infant's sleep issues was significantly higher in the preterm group. Most of the sleep measures showed improvement by their age in both preterm and full-term infants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sleep efficiency, longest sleep duration at nighttime accounted for 71% of stress in the children's domain of the PSI of the preterm group. The parenting stress among mothers of preterm infants was significantly higher than that of mothers of full-term infants. The mothers of preterm infants were concerned about their infant's nocturnal sleep quality. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  8. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

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    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  9. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Brazilian children: follow-up at school age of two Brazilian birth cohorts of the 1990's

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    Loureiro Sônia R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few cohort studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries to investigate non-communicable diseases among school-aged children. This article aims to describe the methodology of two birth cohorts, started in 1994 in Ribeirão Preto (RP, a more developed city, and in 1997/98 in São Luís (SL, a less developed town. Methods Prevalences of some non-communicable diseases during the first follow-up of these cohorts were estimated and compared. Data on singleton live births were obtained at birth (2858 in RP and 2443 in SL. The follow-up at school age was conducted in RP in 2004/05, when the children were 9-11 years old and in SL in 2005/06, when the children were 7-9 years old. Follow-up rates were 68.7% in RP (790 included and 72.7% in SL (673 participants. The groups of low ( Results In the more developed city there was a higher percentage of non-nutritive sucking habits (69.1% vs 47.9%, lifetime bottle use (89.6% vs 68.3%, higher prevalence of primary headache in the last 15 days (27.9% vs 13.0%, higher positive skin tests for allergens (44.3% vs 25.3% and higher prevalence of overweight (18.2% vs 3.6%, obesity (9.5% vs 1.8% and hypertension (10.9% vs 4.6%. In the less developed city there was a larger percentage of children with below average cognitive function (28.9% vs 12.2%, mental health problems (47.4% vs 38.4%, depression (21.6% vs 6.0% and underweight (5.8% vs 3.6%. There was no difference in the prevalence of bruxism, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between cities. Conclusions Some non-communicable diseases were highly prevalent, especially in the more developed city. Some high rates suggest that the burden of non-communicable diseases will be high in the future, especially mental health problems.

  10. Mental health assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children born extremely preterm without severe disabilities at 11 years of age: a Norwegian, national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevang, Silje Katrine Elgen; Hysing, Mari; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    The aims were to investigate mental health problems with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children born extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EP/ELBW) without severe disabilities compared to controls, and to identify peri-, or neonatal factors possibly predicting later mental health problems. A national Norwegian cohort of 11-year-old EP/ELBW children, excluding those with intellectual disabilities, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness, was assessed. Parents and teachers completed the SDQ. Mean scores and scores ≥90th percentile for the control group, combined (parent and/or teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile), and pervasive ratings (both parent and teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile) were presented. The controls consisted of an unselected population of all 11-year-old children born in 1995 who attended public or private schools in Bergen. Of the eligible children, 216 (64%) EP/ELBW and 1882 (61%) control children participated. The EP/ELBW children had significantly higher scores and/or increased risk of parent, teacher, combined, and pervasive rated hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems (OR 2.1-6.3). Only parents reported the EP/ELBW children to be at an increased risk of conduct problems (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Only low maternal education at birth was significantly associated with mental health problems at 11 years of age (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4). EP/ELBW children without severe disabilities had increased risk of symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems. None of the peri- or neonatal factors were significantly associated with later mental health problems, except for low maternal education.

  11. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  12. Prediction of preterm deliveries from EHG signals using machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fergus

    Full Text Available There has been some improvement in the treatment of preterm infants, which has helped to increase their chance of survival. However, the rate of premature births is still globally increasing. As a result, this group of infants are most at risk of developing severe medical conditions that can affect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, immune, central nervous, auditory and visual systems. In extreme cases, this can also lead to long-term conditions, such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, learning difficulties, including poor health and growth. In the US alone, the societal and economic cost of preterm births, in 2005, was estimated to be $26.2 billion, per annum. In the UK, this value was close to £2.95 billion, in 2009. Many believe that a better understanding of why preterm births occur, and a strategic focus on prevention, will help to improve the health of children and reduce healthcare costs. At present, most methods of preterm birth prediction are subjective. However, a strong body of evidence suggests the analysis of uterine electrical signals (Electrohysterography, could provide a viable way of diagnosing true labour and predict preterm deliveries. Most Electrohysterography studies focus on true labour detection during the final seven days, before labour. The challenge is to utilise Electrohysterography techniques to predict preterm delivery earlier in the pregnancy. This paper explores this idea further and presents a supervised machine learning approach that classifies term and preterm records, using an open source dataset containing 300 records (38 preterm and 262 term. The synthetic minority oversampling technique is used to oversample the minority preterm class, and cross validation techniques, are used to evaluate the dataset against other similar studies. Our approach shows an improvement on existing studies with 96% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and a 95% area under the curve value with 8% global error using the polynomial

  13. Melatonin prevents experimental preterm labor and increases offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Sordelli, Micaela S; Salazar, Ana I; Aisemberg, Julieta; Bariani, María V; Cella, Maximiliano; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Franchi, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that intra-amniotic infections may be a significant and potentially preventable cause of preterm birth. This work assessed the effect of melatonin in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery which mimics central features of preterm infection in humans. For this purpose, preterm labor was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10.00 hr (10 μg LPS) and 13.00 hr (20 μg LPS) on day 15 of pregnancy. On day 14 of pregnancy, a pellet of melatonin (25 mg) had been subcutaneously implanted into a group of animals. In the absence of melatonin, a 100% incidence of preterm birth was observed in LPS-treated animals, and the fetuses showed widespread damage. By comparison, treatment with melatonin prevented preterm birth in 50% of the cases, and all pups from melatonin-treated females were born alive and their body weight did not differ from control animals. Melatonin significantly prevented the LPS-induced rises in uterine prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGF2α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. In addition, melatonin prevented the LPS-induced increase in uterine nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin could be a new therapeutic tool to prevent preterm labor and to increase offspring survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

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    Soraya da Rocha BRITTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and Adolescents' Rights Resolution nº 163 of 2014 about food advertising. The advertisements were recorded in July 2015, at different times and days of the week. Results: One hundred and sixty-two hours were recorded, registering 3,468 commercials: 1,850 were related to internal programming and 1,618 advertised toys (22.15%, food and beverages (5.61%, applications for electronic devices (5.58%, and entertainment/events (5.56%. The Fisher exact test showed fewer number of food commercials compared to other types of commercials (p<0.001. The main food items advertised by all television stations were ultraprocessed foods and no advertisements of fresh food were observed (p<0.001. Most of the food commercials (64.30% used children's language and characters; 43.00% used songs in children's voices, and 21.40% linked gift distribution to food. Conclusion: The number of food commercials observed was lower than in previous national studies. However, the advertisements did not follow current legislation, indicating the abuse of marketing communication to children. More effective public policies and the respect and enforcement of legislation on child advertising could protect children from high consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

  15. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  16. Improved Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants with Shared Book Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.

  17. Preterm birth rates in Japan from 1979 to 2014: Analysis of national vital statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Soyoko; Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Watanabe, Chiho

    2018-03-01

    Secular trends of preterm birth in Japan between 1979 and 2014 were examined to determine whether changes could be explained by a shift in the distribution of maternal age at delivery and parity and/or by changes in age-specific preterm birth rates. Live birth data for 1979 to 2014 were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Analyses were limited to singleton children born in Japan (n = 43 632 786). Preterm birth was defined using two cut-offs at rates of preterm birth were calculated for firstborn and later-born singletons by maternal age at delivery for specific time periods. Throughout the study period, the rates of preterm birth (both at rates of preterm birth at rates of preterm birth showed a secular increase for preterm births at rates of preterm birth among mothers aged in their 20s and early 30s increased between 1979 and 2014, which contributed to the secular increase in rates of preterm birth at < 37 weeks. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Mental health in low-to-moderate risk preterm, low birth weight, and small for gestational age children at 4 to 5 years: the role of early maternal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Mensah, Fiona K; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M

    2012-03-01

    The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal parenting is in determining these outcomes. Longitudinal data were from a large nationally representative Australian cohort of 5,000 children, aged 0 to 1, 2 to 3, and 4 to 5 years of age. Participants were 354 children with LTM perinatal risk born at 33 to 36 weeks, with birth weight 1,501 to 2,499 grams, or born between the first and 10th percentiles for gestational age; and 2,461 children in the normal birth weight, term comparison group. Child mental health was measured by mother-report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parenting irritability, warmth, self-efficacy, maternal separation anxiety, and overprotective parenting were measured when children were 0 to 1 and 2 to 3 years of age. Parents in the LTM perinatal risk group were more likely to experience parenting difficulties on one of eight parenting measures (irritable parenting at age 0-1 year) when adjusting for socio-demographic differences (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.95, p parenting, pathway to psychological risk in children born with LTM perinatal risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Difference in mother-child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Schuengel, Carlo; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.; Houtzager, Bregje A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of motherchild interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of motherchild interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks

  20. Difference in mother–child interaction between preterm- and term-born preschoolers with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of mother-child interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of mother-child interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks'

  1. Fatores perinatais associados ao óbito precoce em prematuros nascidos nos centros da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais Perinatal factors associated with early deaths of preterm infants born in Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores perinatais associados ao óbito neonatal precoce em prematuros com peso ao nascer entre 400 e 1.500 g. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva e multicêntrica dos nascidos vivos com idade gestacional de 23 a 33 semanas e peso de 400-1.500 g, sem malformações em oito maternidades públicas terciárias universitárias entre junho de 2004 e maio de 2005. As características maternas e neonatais e a morbidade nas primeiras 72 horas de vida foram comparadas entre os prematuros que morreram ou sobreviveram até o sexto dia de vida. As variáveis perinatais associadas ao óbito neonatal precoce foram determinadas por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: No período, 579 recém-nascidos preencheram os critérios de inclusão. O óbito precoce ocorreu em 92 (16% neonatos, variando entre as unidades de 5 a 31%, e tal diferença persistiu controlando-se por um escore de gravidade clínica (SNAPPE-II. A análise multivariada para o desfecho óbito neonatal intra-hospitalar precoce mostrou associação com: idade gestacional de 23-27 semanas (odds ratio - OR = 5,0; IC95% 2,7-9,4, ausência de hipertensão materna (OR = 1,9; IC95% 1,0-3,7, Apgar 0-6 no 5º minuto (OR = 2,8; IC95% 1,4-5,4, presença de síndrome do desconforto respiratório (OR = 3,1; IC95% 1,4-6,6 e centro em que o paciente nasceu. CONCLUSÃO: Importantes fatores associados ao óbito neonatal precoce em prematuros de muito baixo peso são passíveis de intervenção, como a melhora da vitalidade fetal ao nascer e a diminuição da incidência e gravidade da síndrome do desconforto respiratório. As diferenças de mortalidade encontradas entre os centros apontam para a necessidade de identificar as melhores práticas e adotá-las de maneira uniforme em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate perinatal factors associated with early neonatal death in preterm infants with birth weights (BW of 400-1,500 g. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study of all infants with BW of 400

  2. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizán, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-11-15

    Premature birth is the world's leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the 'omics' approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence and increase survival rates of preterm babies. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement entitled Born Too Soon which addresses factors in the preconception and pregnancy period which may increase the risk of preterm birth and also outlines potential interventions which may reduce preterm birth rates and improve survival of preterm babies by as much as 84% annually. This is critical in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) for child survival by 2015 and beyond.

  3. Radiologic differences in white matter maturation between preterm and full-term infants: TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jo, Hae Min; Son, Su Min [Yeungnam University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunsil [Yeungnam University, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Widespread white matter (WM) pathology in preterm children has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturational differences of WM between preterm infants with thinning of the corpus callosum and full-term infants. A total of 18 preterm children and 18 full-term children were divided into three subgroups according to the corrected age at the time of diffusion tensor imaging scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics was used for assessing differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between preterm and full-term children, and between each age-related subgroup in preterm and in full-term children. In the preterm group, FA values of overall WM showed an increase with age. This trend indicates that WM maturation is a gradual occurrence during a child's first 2 years. In the full-term group, most WM structures had reached maturation at around 1 year of age; however, centrum semiovale level showed sustained maturation during the first 2 years. Results of our study demonstrate radiologic maturational differences of WM and provide evidence of the need for therapeutic intervention within 2 years of birth to prevent specific functional impairment and to improve clinical outcome in preterm children. (orig.)

  4. Relationship between Tasks Performed, Personality Traits, and Sleep Bruxism in Brazilian School Children - A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Background Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children’s tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. Methods And Findings A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female), aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%), whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4%) and some artistic activity (51.3%) while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%). The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. Conclusion Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism. PMID:24244614

  5. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection.Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth.No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks.Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  7. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  8. Avaliação do desenvolvimento inicial de crianças nascidas pré-termo Evaluación del desarrollo inicial de niños nacidos prematuramente Assessment of preterm children's early development

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    Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto Formiga

    2009-06-01

    , el sexo masculino del bebé, las lesiones cerebrales y los movimientos espontáneos anormales en las primeras semanas, fueron factores indicadores del desarrollo de los niños prematuros a los dos años de edad.Preterm birth is an event that affects the child's healthy development. Several studies have addressed the evaluation of children born preterm and the influence that multiple risk factors have on the course of their development. This study performed a systematic review of the literature from 2000 to 2005 about the evaluation of the development of children born preterm until the age of 24 months. The biological risk factors were present in every study, with highlights on intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic pulmonary disease, and retardation of intrauterine development as the most studied risks. The child's motor development was the most studied area. In terms of age, the first evaluations focused on the first six months of life. Neonatal risk, low birth weight, baby boys, cerebral injuries, and first-week abnormal spontaneous movements were predicting factors of preterm child development at the age of two years.

  9. Visual-motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolk, Jenny; Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-02-17

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Out of 107 children born at gestational age skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=-0.38, P=0.04). Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The comprehension of numerical relationships in the learning of fractions: a comparative study with Brazilian and Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Peregrina Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract: The understanding of rational numbers is one of the major conceptual challenges faced by students in mathematics learning in basic education. Regarding fractions, to establish the inverse relationship between the numerator and the denominator becomes a key issue in concept formation. The main goals of this study were: to understand if the inverse relationship between smaller quantities than the unit in quotient and part-whole situations influences the learning of fractions; and to compare Brazilian and Portuguese students’ comprehension of the inverse relationship between quantities in fraction problems, using quotient and part-whole situations. The results indicate that students have a better grasp of the inverse relationship between the quantities in the quotient situation and also showed that Portuguese students performed significantly better than Brazilian students in the both types of situations. The discrepancy in student performance can be explained by differences in the curricula of mathematics in grade four in these countries. Implications for the teaching of mathematics in these two countries were also discussed.

  11. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  12. Zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine supplementation in Brazilian shantytown children at risk for diarrhea results in sex-specific improvements in verbal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo A. M. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine, alone or in combination, on long-term cognitive outcomes among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged three months to nine years old from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for cognitive testing (total of 167 children were: (1 placebo, n = 25; (2 glutamine, n = 23; (3 zinc, n = 18; (4 vitamin A, n = 19; (5 glutamine+zinc, n = 20; (6 glutamine+vitamin A, n = 21; (7 zinc+vitamin A, n = 23; and (8 glutamine+zinc+vitamin A, n = 18. Neuropsychological tests were administered for the cognitive domains of non-verbal intelligence and abstraction, psychomotor speed, verbal memory and recall ability, and semantic and phonetic verbal fluency. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Girls receiving a combination of glutamine, zinc, and vitamin A had higher mean age-adjusted verbal learning scores than girls receiving only placebo (9.5 versus 6.4, p = 0.007 and girls receiving zinc+vitamin A (9.5 versus 6.5, p = 0.006. Similar group differences were not found between male study children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that combination therapy offers a sex-specific advantage on tests of verbal learning, similar to that seen among female patients following traumatic brain injury.

  13. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as “poor readers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C.; Puglisi, Marina L.; Tourinho, Carlos J.; Miranda, Mônica C.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled “Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility,” “Interference Suppression,” “Selective Attention,” and “Response Inhibition.” Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155

  14. Neonatal brain microstructure correlates of neurodevelopment and gait in preterm children 18-22 mo of age: an MRI and DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Vassar, Rachel; Yeom, Kristen W; Stecher, Ximena; Stevenson, David K; Hintz, Susan R; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2015-12-01

    Near-term brain structure was examined in preterm infants in relation to neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that near-term macrostructural brain abnormalities identified using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and white matter (WM) microstructure detected using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), would correlate with lower cognitive and motor development and slower, less-stable gait at 18-22 mo of age. One hundred and two very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (≤1,500 g birth weight; ≤32 wk gestational age) were recruited prior to routine near-term brain MRI at 36.6 ± 1.8 wk postmenstrual age. Cerebellar and WM macrostructure was assessed on conventional structural MRI. DTI was obtained in 66 out of 102 and WM microstructure was assessed using fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) in six subcortical brain regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal atlas. Neurodevelopment was assessed with Bayley-Scales-of-Infant-Toddler-Development, 3rd-Edition (BSID-III); gait was assessed using an instrumented mat. Neonates with cerebellar abnormalities identified using MRI demonstrated lower mean BSID-III cognitive composite scores (89.0 ± 10.1 vs. 97.8 ± 12.4; P = 0.002) at 18-22 mo. Neonates with higher DTI-derived left posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) MD demonstrated lower cognitive and motor composite scores (r = -0.368; P = 0.004; r = -0.354; P = 0.006) at 18-22 mo; neonates with higher genu MD demonstrated slower gait velocity (r = -0.374; P = 0.007). Multivariate linear regression significantly predicted cognitive (adjusted r(2) = 0.247; P = 0.002) and motor score (adjusted r(2) = 0.131; P = 0.017). Near-term cerebellar macrostructure and PLIC and genu microstructure were predictive of early neurodevelopment and gait.

  15. Visual–motor integration and fine motor skills at 6½ years of age and associations with neonatal brain volumes in children born extremely preterm in Sweden: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Forsman, Lea; Broström, Lina; Hellgren, Kerstin; Åden, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual–motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. Setting Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. Participants All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004–2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age. Main outcome measures Brain volumes were calculated using morphometric analyses in regions known to be involved in VMI and fine motor functions. VMI was assessed with The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration—sixth edition and fine motor skills were assessed with the manual dexterity subtest from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—second edition, at 6½ years. Associations between the brain volumes and VMI and fine motor skills were evaluated using partial correlation, adjusted for total cerebral parenchyma and sex. Results Out of 107 children born at gestational age motor skills (r=0.54, P=0.01). Associations were also seen between fine motor skills and the volume of the cerebellum (r=0.42, P=0.02), brainstem (r=0.47, P=0.008) and grey matter (r=−0.38, P=0.04). Conclusions Neonatal brain volumes in areas known to be involved in VMI and fine motor skills were associated with scores for these two functions when children born EPT without major brain lesions or cerebral palsy were evaluated at 6½ years of age. Establishing clear associations between early brain volume alterations and later VMI and/or fine motor skills could make early interventions possible. PMID:29455171

  16. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  17. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  18. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  19. Vitamin D Levels and myocardial function in preterm infants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, K

    2013-08-20

    Bakground Low Vitamin D levels have been linked to cardiac failure in the adults and children. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is evolving as a superior measure of subtle changes in myocardial contractility in preterm infants. We aimed to correlate Vitamin D levels at birth with TDI measures of systolic and diastolic function. \\r\

  20. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  1. Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes be treated with antibiotics? AP Macdonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ogf.v19i2.43719 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  3. Brazilian children performance on Rey’s auditory verbal learning paradigm Desempenho de crianças brasileiras no paradigma de aprendizagem auditivo-verbal de Rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinda Martins Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning paradigm is worldwide used in clinical and research settings. There is consensus about its psychometric robustessness and that its various scores provide relevant information about different aspects of memory and learning. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil employing this paradigm and none of them with children. This paper describes the performance of 119 Brazilian children in a version of Rey´s paradigm. The correlations between scores showed the internal consistency of this version. Also, the pattern of results observed was very similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. There was correlation between age in months and recall scores, showing that age affects the rhythm of learning. These results were discussed based on the information processing theory.O paradigma de aprendizagem auditivo-verbal de Rey é utilizado em todo o mundo, tanto em pesquisa quanto na clínica. Há consenso sobre sua robustez psicométrica e de que seus vários escores fornecem informações relevantes sobre diferentes aspectos da memória e da aprendizagem. No entanto, existem apenas alguns poucos estudos no Brasil envolvendo este paradigma e nenhum deles com crianças. Este artigo descreve o desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras em uma versão do paradigma de Rey. As correlações entre escores mostraram a consistência interna desta versão. Além disso, o padrão de resultados encontrado foi muito similar àquele observado em estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Verificou-se correlação entre idade em meses e os escores de evocação, mostrando que a idade afeta o ritmo de aprendizagem. Estes resultados foram discutidos a partir da teoria do processamento da informação.

  4. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  5. Individualized Approaches Have Profitable Clinical Value for Strengthening Fathers' Confidence in the Care of Preterm Infants. Commentary on: "Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Buchheim states that she recognizes that infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infants' socioemotional development, and that preterm children have been reported to be at higher risk of developing attachment insecurity and disorganized attachment. In the feature paper on attachment…

  6. Respiratory management of the preterm newborn in the delivery room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hesham Abdel-Hady, Nehad NasefNeonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, EgyptAbstract: The survival of preterm infants has improved significantly during the past several decades. However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major morbidity. Preterm infants have both structural and functional lung immaturity compared with term infants, making them more likely to require resuscitation and more vulnerable to developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Interventions in the delivery room may affect short-term and long-term outcomes for preterm infants. The paradigm of resuscitation of preterm infants has been changing over the past decade from being interventional and invasive to be observational and gentle. Recent developments in respiratory management of preterm infants in the delivery room include oxygen supplementation and monitoring, alveolar recruitment techniques, noninvasive ventilation, new surfactant preparations, and new techniques for administration of surfactant. Providing nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP rather than intubating has been identified as a potentially better practice. Experimental studies have demonstrated that early application of nasal CPAP is protective for the preterm lung and brain compared with mechanical ventilation. Several observational studies have suggested that early nasal CPAP and avoiding intubation leads to reduced oxygen requirements, intubation rates, duration of mechanical ventilation, and may decrease rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials support the use of nasal CPAP as a primary strategy in preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome. This approach leads to a reduction in the number of infants who are intubated and given surfactant without an impact on bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates. On the other hand, half of the infants enrolled in these studies failed nasal CPAP treatment. New techniques for surfactant

  7. Executive and Memory Function in Adolescents Born Very Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen; Vohr, Betty R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many preterm children display school difficulties, which may be mediated by impairment in executive function and memory. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate executive and memory function among adolescents born preterm compared with term controls at 16 years. METHODS: A total of 337 of 437 (77%) adolescents born in 1989 to 1992 with a birth weight executive function and memory tasks. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare groups and to identify associations between selected factors and outcomes among preterm subjects. RESULTS: Adolescents born preterm, compared with term controls, showed deficits in executive function in the order of 0.4 to 0.6 SD on tasks of verbal fluency, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, planning/organization, and working memory as well as verbal and visuospatial memory. After exclusion of adolescents with neurosensory disabilities and full-scale IQ executive dysfunction, as measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, on the Metacognition Index (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–5.1]) and the Global Executive Composite (OR: 4.2 [95% CI: 1.6–10.9]), but not on the Behavioral Regulation index (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 0.7–3.5]). Among adolescents born preterm, severe brain injury on neonatal ultrasound and lower maternal education were the most consistent factors associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Even after exclusion of preterm subjects with significant disabilities, adolescents born preterm in the early 1990s were at increased risk of deficits in executive function and memory. PMID:21300680

  8. Rethinking Stress in Parents of Preterm Infants: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica M. A. T.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background With improved medical outcome in preterm infants, the psychosocial situation of their families is receiving increasing attention. For parents, the birth of a preterm infant is generally regarded as a stressful experience, and therefore many interventions are based on reducing parental stress. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether parents of children born preterm experience more stress than parents of term-born children, which would justify these interventions. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of parental stress in parents of preterm infants, from birth of the infant through to their adolescence. Mean levels of stress in specific domains of family functioning were investigated, and stress levels in parents of preterm and term infants, and fathers and mothers of preterm infants, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated moderators of parental stress. Methods and Findings A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted including 38 studies describing 3025 parents of preterm (stress was measured with two parent-reported questionnaires, the Parenting Stress Index and the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The results indicate that parents of preterm-born children experience only slightly more stress than parents of term-born children, with small effect sizes. Furthermore, mothers have slightly more stress than fathers, but these effect sizes are also small. Parents report more stress for infants with lower gestational ages and lower birth weights. There is a strong effect for infant birth year, with decreasing parental stress from the 1980s onward, probably due to increased quality of care for preterm infants. Conclusions Based on our findings we argue that prematurity can best be regarded as one of the possible complications of birth, and not as a source of stress in itself. PMID:23405105

  9. Anthropometric evaluation of indigenous Brazilian children under 60 months of age using NCHS/1977 and WHO/2005 growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jesem D Y; Santos, Ricardo V; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Leite, Maurício S

    2009-01-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of anthropometric data from Suruí, Xavánte and Wari' indigenous children under 60 months of age using the NCHS/1977 and the WHO/2005 growth curves. Anthropometric measurements followed standard procedures and the data obtained were converted into z scores using the Epi-Info (Version 3.4) and WHO-Anthro (Version Beta) softwares. The indices height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) were descriptors of nutritional status for all children under 60 months of age, as well as the body mass index (BMI) for children 24-59 months old. The frequencies of Suruí children Wari' 61.7 and 68.3%. The frequencies of Suruí children Wari' 51.7 and 45.0%. None of the Suruí children were Wari' 1.7 and 0.0%. The frequencies of Suruí children > 2 z scores for W/H were 3.9 (NCHS/1977) and 3.9% (WHO/2005); Xavánte 0.0 and 0.8%; Wari' 0.0 and 0.0%. The frequency of Suruí children aged 24-59 months > 2 z scores for BMI was 5.4% (WHO/2005); Xavánte 9.5%; and Wari' 0.0%. Our findings revealed important differences in the results from nutritional assessment, according to the set of growth curves used; however, the use of both growth curves revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition. Therefore, future studies with indigenous populations should present their results using two sets of growth curves to allow consistent comparison.

  10. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Rachel H. V.; Tosatti, Abykeyla M.; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C.; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Background Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. Objectives To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile. Methods Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with comp...

  11. Consumo alimentar entre crianças brasileiras com idade de 6 a 59 meses Food consumption Brazilian children by 6 to 59 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Ane Bortolini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o consumo alimentar em crianças brasileiras de 6-59 meses de idade, por região e zona de residência. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal com 4.322 crianças investigadas na Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde (2006/2007. Observou-se baixo consumo diário de verduras (12,7%, legumes (21,8%, carnes (24,6% e elevado consumo de refrigerantes (40,5%, alimentos fritos (39,4%, salgadinhos (39,4%, doces (37,8%, na frequência de uma a três vezes na semana. Comparando-se as regiões, as crianças residentes no Sul, Sudeste e Centro-oeste consumiram com mais frequência arroz, pão, batata, feijão, verdura de folha, legumes e carne, mas também consumiram, mais frequentemente, alimentos não recomendados para a idade, como doces e refrigerantes. Crianças da zona rural apresentaram menor consumo dos alimentos recomendados para a idade e, também, dos não recomendados, quando comparadas às crianças da zona urbana. O consumo alimentar evidenciado neste estudo não está de acordo com recomendações de alimentação saudável para crianças.The aim of this study was to assess food consumption in Brazilian children 6 to 59 months of age by region of the country and area of residence. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 4,322 children in the National Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007. The data showed low daily consumption of leafy vegetables (12.7%, vegetables (21.8%, and meat (24.6% and high consumption (1-3 times a week of soft drinks (40.5%, fried foods (39.4%, salty snacks (39.4%, and sweets (37.8%. Comparing the regions of Brazil, children in the South, Southeast, and Central-West consumed more rice, bread, potatoes, beans, greens, vegetables, and meat, but they also ate more foods not recommended for their age, like sweets and soft drinks (soda. Rural children showed lower consumption of foods recommended for their age and also those not recommended for their age, as compared to their urban

  12. Hot Executive Function Following Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: Altered Delay Discounting at 4 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Morris, Alyssa R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm…

  13. Fundamental motor skills, nutritional status, perceived competence, and school performance of Brazilian children in social vulnerability: Gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Glauber Carvalho; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Nobre, Francisco Salviano Sales

    2018-06-01

    Being at risk or in social vulnerability situations can affect important aspects of child development. The aim of this study was to investigate fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) and school (writing, arithmetic, reading) performances, the perceived competence and the nutritional status of girls and boys living in social vulnerability in the poorest regions of Brazil. Two hundred eleven (211) children (87 girls, 41%), 7-10-year-old (M = 8.3, SD = 0.9), from public schools in Ceará (Brazil), living in social vulnerability, participated in the study. Children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and the School Performance Test. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), adjusted for age, did not show any significant effect for locomotion. There was an effect of gender on the object control. Boys showed higher scores in striking, kicking, throwing, and rolling a ball. Quade's nonparametric analysis showed no difference in BMI between the genders. Most children presented healthy weight. The MANCOVA showed no effect of gender on children's scores on perceived competence on the subscales; moderate scores were found for most children. There were no gender effects on school performance; both boys and girls demonstrated inferior performance. Boys and girls in social vulnerability showed inferior performance in most motor skills, moderate perceived competence and inferior school performance. These results reveal that the appropriate development of these children is at risk and that intervention strategies should be implemented to compensate the difficulties presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preterm newborns show slower repair of oxidative damage and paternal smoking associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Ciardelli, Roberta; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2012-09-01

    Newborns have to cope with hypoxia during delivery and a sudden increase in oxygen at birth. Oxygen will partly be released as reactive oxygen species having the potential to cause damage to DNA and proteins. In utero, increase of most (non)-enzymatic antioxidants occurs during last weeks of gestation, making preterm neonates probably more sensitive to oxidative stress. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress might be the common etiological factor for certain neonatal diseases in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess background DNA damage; in vitro H(2)O(2) induced oxidative DNA damage and repair capacity (residual DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononucleated cells from 25 preterm newborns and their mothers. In addition, demographic data were taken into account and repair capacity of preterm was compared with full-term newborns. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that preterm infants from smoking fathers have higher background DNA damage levels than those from non-smoking fathers, emphasizing the risk of paternal smoking behaviour for the progeny. Significantly higher residual DNA damage found after 15-min repair in preterm children compared to their mothers and higher residual DNA damage after 2 h compared to full-term newborns suggest a slower DNA repair capacity in preterm children. In comparison with preterm infants born by caesarean delivery, preterm infants born by vaginal delivery do repair more slowly the in vitro induced oxidative DNA damage. Final impact of passive smoking and of the slower DNA repair activity of preterm infants need to be confirmed in a larger study population combining transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic effects, antioxidant levels, genotypes, repair enzyme efficiency/levels and infant morbidity.

  15. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  16. Sleep Bruxism and Anxiety Impacts in Quality of Life Related to Oral Health of Brazilian Children and their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Nashalie Andrade; Leão, Cecília Sued; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    This study aimed to assess the impact of parent reported sleep bruxism, trait anxiety and sociodemographic/socioeconomic features on quality of life related to oral health (OHRQoL) of children and their families. Healthy children aged 3-7 years, with (n=34) and without (n=32) bruxism were select for this study. Data was collected by applying the following instruments: The Early Childhood Oral Health Scale (B-ECOHIS) and Trait-anxiety Scale (TAS). The sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics were obtained by interviews with parents. Multiple logistic regression tests were performed to observe the influence of sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics, bruxism and trait-anxiety on the children's OHRQoL. No association between sleep bruxism and all evaluated sociodemographic/socioeconomic conditions, with exception of being the only child (p=0.029), were observed. Mean B-ECOHIS and TAS scores were different (pbruxism. Although an association between bruxism and OHRQoL (p=0.015) was observed, it was dropped (p=0.336; OR=1.77) in the logistic regression model. Trait anxiety was the variable responsible for the impact on the OHRQoL of children (p=0.012; OR=1.05). Our results indicated anxiety as the main factor that interfered in the OHRQoL of children with sleep bruxism.

  17. Association between neurological assessment and developmental outcome in preterm toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kodrič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in prevalence of low severity dysfunctions such as minor neurological dysfunction and cognitive deficits which consequently lead to school and behavior problems. The study presents the outcomes of a small group of preterm children with different medical complications at birth on follow-up at toddler age. In the neonatal period and at three months corrected age the neurological examination by the Amiel-Tison neurological assessment and the assessment of general movements was done. Both measures were compared with the criterion measure Bayley Scales of Infant Development - II. Results of the preterm group were compared with results of the normative group. According to results for both methods of neurological examination, children were classified into different categories meaning optimal or different degrees of non-optimal neurological results. The results of the children from different categories of neurological functioning were compared with the criterion measure. Children from the preterm group attained lower results on the developmental test compared to normative data. Children from groups with the lowest birth weight and gestational age attained the lowest results. These findings suggest that children from less optimal or non-optimal categories according to both methods of neurological examination attained lower developmental scores. The difference between groups was higher on the mental scale than on the motor scale of the developmental test.

  18. Assessing the role of appropriate primary health care on the use of dental services by Brazilian low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Rocha, Juliana Schaia; Fadel, Cristina Berger; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2017-11-21

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between the quality of primary health care (PHC) and the use of dental services by preschoolers served by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), controlling for socio-demographic determinants and perceived need. The sample encompassed 438 children aged 3-5 years, enrolled in 19 FHS facilities in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. Individual level variables were collected by interviewing parents or caregivers at home. They answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, oral hygiene habits and use of dental services. Parental perception of child's oral health related quality of life, as perceived need, was assessed by the Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Normative need was assessed by oral examinations, according to guidelines standardized by the World Health Organization. The contextual level factor was defined as the extent of implementation of PHC in the facilities. Managers responded to PCATool-Brazil, a validated questionnaire which measures the extent of PHC. Dentists answered to a version of PCATool, which was adapted and pretested for dental services. Multilevel analysis, based on Andersen's behavioral model, fitted the adjustment of "having ever consulted a dentist" to contextual and individual covariates. We observed high prevalence of dental caries. Almost half of the sample had had dental appointments in life. Social gradients were observed for the use of dental services. Although it was not able to eliminate the impact of adverse social conditions, higher levels of PHC attributes in dental services favored the effective use of such services by low-income children.

  19. Procedures and compliance of a video modeling applied behavior analysis intervention for Brazilian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiolo, Leila F; Mari, Jair de J; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Martone, Maria Carolina C; Caetano, Sheila C; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S

    2017-07-01

    Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum disorder children, (2) to describe a low-cost parental training intervention, and (3) to assess participant's compliance. This is a descriptive study of a clinical trial for autism spectrum disorder children. The parental training intervention was delivered over 22 weeks based on video modeling. Parents with at least 8 years of schooling with an autism spectrum disorder child between 3 and 6 years old with an IQ lower than 70 were invited to participate. A total of 67 parents fulfilled the study criteria and were randomized into two groups: 34 as the intervention and 33 as controls. In all, 14 videos were recorded covering management of disruptive behaviors, prompting hierarchy, preference assessment, and acquisition of better eye contact and joint attention. Compliance varied as follows: good 32.4%, reasonable 38.2%, low 5.9%, and 23.5% with no compliance. Video modeling parental training seems a promising, feasible, and low-cost way to deliver care for children with autism spectrum disorder, particularly for populations with scarce treatment resources.

  20. Procedures and Compliance of a Video Modeling Applied Behavior Analysis Intervention for Brazilian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiolo, Leila F.; Mari, Jair de J.; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C.; Martone, Maria Carolina C.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S.

    2017-01-01

    Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum…

  1. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties-Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rachel H V; Tosatti, Abykeyla M; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers' profile. Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education), caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%. The non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent-39.7%). The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children's hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers' profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88). Both Authoritarian ( p  = 0.000) and indulgent mothers ( p  = 0.007) breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in "responsive" parental style (OR 0.056; p  = 0.01) compared to other feeding styles. Results highlight the need for educational

  2. High blood lead levels are associated with lead concentrations in households and day care centers attended by Brazilian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Silva, Júlia Prestes; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Leroux, Isabelle Nogueira; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Assunção, Nilson Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Sayuri Sato, Ana Paula; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-08-01

    A previous study observed high blood lead levels (BLL) in preschool children attending 50 day care centers (DCC) in São Paulo, Brazil. To identify whether lead levels found in both homes and DCC environments are associated with high blood lead levels. Children attending 4 DCCs, quoted here as NR, VA, PS and PF, were divided into two groups according to BLL: high exposure (HE: ≥13.9 μg/dL; 97.5 percentile of the 2013 year sample) and low exposure (LE: 600 μg/g, whereas such levels were observed in 77.1% of NR playground measurements. In VA DCC, 22% and 23% of the measurements in the building and in the playgrounds had levels higher than 600 μg/g, respectively. The percentage of high lead levels in the children's houses of the LE group was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3-7.6%) and 13.2 (95% CI: 8.3-18.0%) in the HE group. Moreover, a significant association was found between high BLLs and lead levels found both in households and DCCs (p < 0.001). Most of the high lead measurements were found in tiles and playground equipment. Lead exposure estimated from the DCCs, where children spend about 10 h/day, can be as relevant as their household exposure. Therefore, public authorities should render efforts to provide a rigorous surveillance for lead-free painting supplies and for all objects offered to children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-05-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Language acquisition in preterm infants during the first year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, T; Nishibayashi, L L; Berdasco-Muñoz, E; Baud, O; Biran, V; Gonzalez-Gomez, N

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that preterm children are at a higher risk for cognitive and language delays than full-term children. Most of these studies have concentrated on the effects of prematurity during the preschool or school years, while the effect of preterm birth on the early development of language, much of which occurs during the first year of life, remains very little explored. This article focuses on this crucial period and reviews the studies that have explored early phonological and lexical development in preterm infants. The results of these studies show uneven proficiency in different language subdomains in preterm infants. This raises the possibility that different constraints apply to the acquisition of different linguistic subcomponents in this population, in part as a result of a complex interaction between maturation, experience, and language subdomains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Data on prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara spp infection, atopy and asthma development in Northeast Brazilian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small town and semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil” (M.B. Silva, A.L. Amor, L.N. Santos, A.A. Galvão, A.V. Oviedo Vera, E.S. Silva et al., 2016 [1].

  7. Assessment of quality of life, anxiety, socio-economic factors and caries experience in Brazilian children with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, D S; Marquezin, McS; Barbosa, T S; Fonseca, Fla; Fegadolli, C; Castelo, P M

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the association between excess weight and quality of life (QoL), symptoms of anxiety, caries experience and socio-economic factors in a representative sample of 8- to 10-year-old children from three public schools of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil). The Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Image was applied to explore family and social relations, activities, health, body functions and separation domains, and, by means of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, symptoms of anxiety were screened. Clinical examination was performed using DMFT/dmft indexes to assess oral health and caries experience. Medical and nutritional history, parents' schooling, monthly income and ownership of household goods and services were also evaluated. Of the 313 subjects included, four subjects were underweight, 188 normal weight, 67 overweight and 54 presented obesity (38.7% with excess weight). Measures of QoL, anxiety scores and caries experience did not differ between groups. The regression model showed a significant association between excess weight and the ownership of household goods and services (OR = 5.4/CI = 1.6-18.3). High prevalence of excess weight was observed among prepubertal children, emphasizing the need for continued health programmes to limit risk factors for obesity. QoL, anxiety scores and caries experience did not differ between subjects with different body weights, although children from public schools with higher ownership of goods and services were more likely to present excess weight. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development scores). Two authors...

  9. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  10. Secular trends and factors associated with overweight among Brazilian preschool children: PNSN-1989, PNDS-1996, and 2006/07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio B; Cocetti, Monize; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2014-01-01

    to describe the secular trends in overweight among preschool children in the years 1989, 1996, and 2006, and to identify risk factors associated with this condition in 2006. anthropometric data from three surveys (1989, 1996, and 2006) with a representative sample of the population were analyzed. Overweight was defined as the weight-for-height Z-score. The multivariable models of overweight association with risk factors were generated by Poisson regression, and the estimates were shown as prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (PR [95% CI]). throughout the 17-year period studied, the relative prevalence of overweight in preschoolers increased by 160% in Brazil, representing an increase of 9.4% per year. Based on data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006/07, four multivariable models were created (macro-environmental, maternal, individual, and final model) assuming hierarchy among the risk factors. In the final model, only the following remained associated with overweight: regions South/Southeast (1.55 [1.17 to 2.06]), middle-class (1.35 [1.02 to 1.77]), maternal obesity (1.66 [1.22 to 2.27]), birth weight ≥ 3.9kg (1.87 [1.31 to 2.67]), and being an only child or having only one sibling (1.81 [1.31 to 2.49]). the prevalence of overweight among preschool children in Brazil has increased dramatically over the past 17 years, and it was higher in the 1996-2006 period. Future strategies for prevention and control of overweight in public health should focus or intensify actions in communities that are characterized by the presence of the risks identified in the present study. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Secular trends and factors associated with overweight among Brazilian preschool children: PNSN-1989, PNDS-1996, and 2006/07

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    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the secular trends in overweight among preschool children in the years 1989, 1996, and 2006, and to identify risk factors associated with this condition in 2006. METHODS: anthropometric data from three surveys (1989, 1996, and 2006 with a representative sample of the population were analyzed. Overweight was defined as the weight-for-height Z-score. The multivariable models of overweight association with risk factors were generated by Poisson regression, and the estimates were shown as prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (PR [95% CI]. RESULTS: throughout the 17-year period studied, the relative prevalence of overweight in preschoolers increased by 160% in Brazil, representing an increase of 9.4% per year. Based on data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006/07, four multivariable models were created (macro-environmental, maternal, individual, and final model assuming hierarchy among the risk factors. In the final model, only the following remained associated with overweight: regions South/Southeast (1.55 [1.17 to 2.06], middle-class (1.35 [1.02 to 1.77], maternal obesity (1.66 [1.22 to 2.27], birth weight > 3.9 kg (1.87 [1.31 to 2.67], and being an only child or having only one sibling (1.81 [1.31 to 2.49]. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of overweight among preschool children in Brazil has increased dramatically over the past 17 years, and it was higher in the 1996-2006 period. Future strategies for prevention and control of overweight in public health should focus or intensify actions in communities that are characterized by the presence of the risks identified in the present study.

  12. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

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    Rachel H. V. Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGiven the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding.ObjectivesTo identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile.MethodsCross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education, caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%.ResultsThe non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent—39.7%. The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children’s hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers’ profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06–0.88. Both Authoritarian (p = 0.000 and indulgent mothers (p = 0.007 breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in “responsive” parental style (OR 0.056; p = 0.01 compared to other feeding styles

  13. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  14. Desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo em comparação com crianças nascidas a termo Psychological development of school-age children born preterm in comparison with children born full-term

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    Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar indicadores do desenvolvimento psicológico na fase escolar de crianças nascidas pré-termo com muito baixo peso e compará-los aos de crianças nascidas a termo, quanto às áreas intelectual, emocional e comportamental. A amostra foi composta por 40 crianças de 8 a 10 anos, subdivididas em 2 grupos: Pré-termo (PT, 20 crianças nascidas 2.500g. Foram utilizados o Raven, o Desenho da Figura Humana e a Escala Comportamental Infantil. As crianças PT apresentaram mais freqüentemente nível intelectual inferior à média e problemas comportamentais em comparação às AT. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto aos aspectos emocionais. Os problemas de enurese, medo, tiques, impaciência e dificuldade de permanência nas atividades foram significativamente mais freqüentes no PT do que no AT. Verificou-se que, no grupo PT, quanto menor o nível intelectual das crianças, mais problemas de comportamento elas apresentavam.The present study aims to assess psychological development in terms of behavioral, intellectual and emotional indicators of preterm and very low birthweight children at school age in comparison with full-term children. The sample in this study consisted of forty children aged from 8 to 10 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Preterm (PT consisting of 20 children born 2.500g birthweight. Raven's Special Scale, Draw-a-Person and Child Behavior Scale were used in the psychological assessment. PT group presented more behavioral problems and lower intellectual level when compared to the FT group. Enuresis, fear, tics, impatience and lack of focus on activities were significantly more frequent in the PT group than in the FT group. In the PT group the lower the intellectual level of the children the more behavior problems they presented.

  15. Clinical Profile and Sex Differences in Brazilian Children and Adolescents Receiving Psychiatric Services in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezer, Jordana; Muller, Thomaz; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Recondo, Rogéria; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Spanemberg, Lucas

    2015-06-27

    We present a survey of sex differences and socio-demographic and clinical variables in children and adolescents receiving a psychiatric consultation service in an emergency department (ED). This observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study included all records of patients (age, services in an ED in a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). Two hundred fifty-nine records of children and adolescents were located. The mean age of the participants was 14.19 years, and most subjects were female (59.5%) and had private health insurance (83.7%). Most participants (87.4%) were accompanied by their parents. The main complaints were suicide attempts (21.8%) and psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness (21.8%). Unipolar depression (37.8%) and adjustment, reactive, and anxiety disorders (13.7%) were the most prevalent diagnoses. Most patients received an indication of psychiatric hospitalization (51.7%). Females had more suicide attempts than males (28.3% vs 12.4%) and less psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness than males (15.5% vs 31.4%). Females also exhibited more unipolar depression (47.6% vs 23.5%), fewer psychotic disorders (4.2% vs 16.3%), and substance use/misuse (1.4% vs 13.3%) than males. Males needed more psychiatric medication during evaluation (37.9% vs 19.2%). This survey of the profile of pediatric patients evaluated by a psychiatric service in an ED in Brazil was the first of its kind. The large percentage of patients referred for hospitalization highlights the importance of specialized psychiatry care for this age group in this facility, which is a common entry point for mental health care.

  16. Usefulness of pharmacy dispensing records in the evaluation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, Aline Santarem; Lemos, Renata Muller Banzato Pinto de; Huehara, Maria Ivone; Morcillo, André Moreno; Dos Santos Vilela, Maria Marluce; Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da

    2012-01-01

    Adherence, which is crucial to the success of antiretroviral therapy (HAART), is currently a major challenge in the care of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. To evaluate the prevalence of nonadherence to HAART using complementary instruments in a cohort of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference service in Campinas, Brazil. The level of adherence of 108 patients and caregivers was evaluated by an adapted standardized questionnaire and pharmacy dispensing records (PDR). Non-adherence was defined as a drug intake lower than 95% (on 24-hour or seven-day questionnaires), or as an interval of 38 days or more for pharmacy refills. The association between adherence and clinical, immunological, virological, and psychosocial characteristics was assessed by multivariate analysis. Non-adherence prevalence varied from 11.1% (non-adherent in three instruments), 15.8% (24-hour self-report), 27.8% (seven-day self-report), 45.4% (PDR), and 56.3% (at least one of the outcomes). 24-hour and seven-day self-reports, when compared to PDR, showed low sensitivity (29% and 43%, respectively) but high specificity (95% and 85%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, medication intolerance, difficulty of administration by caregiver, HAART intake by the patient, lower socioeconomical class, lack of virological control, missed appointments in the past six months, and lack of religious practice by caregiver were significantly associated with non-adherence. A high prevalence of HAART non-adherence was observed in the study population, and PDR was the most sensitive of the tested instruments. The instruments employed were complementary in the identification of non-adherence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Usefulness of pharmacy dispensing records in the evaluation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Santarem Ernesto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adherence, which is crucial to the success of antiretroviral therapy (HAART, is currently a major challenge in the care of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of nonadherence to HAART using complementary instruments in a cohort of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference service in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: The level of adherence of 108 patients and caregivers was evaluated by an adapted standardized questionnaire and pharmacy dispensing records (PDR. Non-adherence was defined as a drug intake lower than 95% (on 24-hour or seven-day questionnaires, or as an interval of 38 days or more for pharmacy refills. The association between adherence and clinical, immunological, virological, and psychosocial characteristics was assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Non-adherence prevalence varied from 11.1% (non-adherent in three instruments, 15.8% (24-hour self-report, 27.8% (seven-day self-report, 45.4% (PDR, and 56.3% (at least one of the outcomes. 24-hour and seven-day self-reports, when compared to PDR, showed low sensitivity (29% and 43%, respectively but high specificity (95% and 85%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, medication intolerance, difficulty of administration by caregiver, HAART intake by the patient, lower socioeconomical class, lack of virological control, missed appointments in the past six months, and lack of religious practice by caregiver were significantly associated with non-adherence. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of HAART non-adherence was observed in the study population, and PDR was the most sensitive of the tested instruments. The instruments employed were complementary in the identification of non-adherence.

  18. Relationship of intrauterine infection and preterm children brain damage with head CT%宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉凤; 蔡江云; 史春; 郑肖瑾; 张莉

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship of intrauterine infection and preterm children brain damage with head CT ,so as to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment .METHODS A total of 170 premature ba‐bies in department of obstetrics in our hospital from Jan .2014 to Feb .2015 were selected ,and the maternal chori‐oamnionitis were detected to determine the presence of intrauterine infection .Preterm children were divided into brain injury group (52 cases) and the non‐brain injury group (118 cases) .Various indicators of cord blood were detected by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay ,neonatal CRP were also detected ,and the differences of bio‐chemical indexes were compared .RESULTS The maternal intrauterine infection rate of perinatal brain injury group (61 .5% ) was significantly higher than that of non‐brain injury group (30 .5% ) (P 0 .05 ) .The IL‐1β(6 .52 ± 2 .39)ρ·μg · L‐1 ,IL‐6 (7 .96 ± 4 .29)ρ·μg · L‐1 , and TNF‐α(5 .46 ± 1 .28)ρ·μg · L‐1 levels of brain injury group were significantly higher than those of non‐brain injury group ,which were (1 .52 ± 1 .28)ρ·μg · L‐1 ,(1 .62 ± 0 .27)ρ· μg · L‐1 ,and (3 .26 ± 0 .74)ρ·μg · L‐1 (P<0 .05) .The IL‐10 level of brain injury group (1 .20 ± 0 .26)ρ·μg · L‐1 was significantly higher than that of non‐brain injury group (1 .59 ± 0 .28)ρ· μg · L‐1 (P< 0 .05) .CONCLUSION Intrauterine infection in preterm children are more prone to brain damage ,so the mothers need to do regular check‐ups during pregnancy to avoid the emergence of intrauterine infection .%目的:分析宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤相关性,为早期诊断治疗提供参考。方法选取产科2015年1月-12月分娩早产儿170例为研究对象,对早产儿孕母检测绒毛膜羊膜炎,判断是否存在宫内感染。早产儿行头颅C T检查确定是否存在脑损伤,分为脑损伤组52例和非脑损伤组118例,采用酶联免疫吸附

  19. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  20. Estudo do desenvolvimento da função motora aos 8 e 12 meses de idade em crianças pré-termo e a termo Study of motor function at 8 and 12 months of age in preterm and at term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C. Mancini

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento da função motora de crianças nascidas pré-termo com crianças nascidas a termo, aos 8 e 12 meses de idade. Investigar a relação entre a qualidade motora aos 8 meses e a habilidade motora aos 12 meses. MÉTODO: Trinta e duas crianças participaram deste estudo: 16 nascidas pré-termo (grupo de risco e 16 nascidas a termo (grupo controle. A movimentação espontânea das crianças foi avaliada aos 8 meses e as habilidades e independência em mobilidade foram avaliadas aos 12 meses de idade (idades corrigidas para grupo pré-termo, utilizando-se testes infantis padronizados (AIMS e PEDI, respectivamente. Os dados foram analisados através dos textes t de Student para grupos independentes (comparação entre grupos e de correlação de Pearson (comparação intra grupo. RESULTADOS: Não foi evidenciada diferença significativa na comparação de crianças nascidas a termo com as pré-termo nem aos 8 nem aos 12 meses de idade. No grupo controle, foi observada relação significativa (r=0,67; p=0,004 entre movimentação aos 8 meses e habilidade de mobilidade aos 12 meses. No grupo de risco, houve relação significativa entre habilidade e independência em mobilidade aos 12 meses de idade corrigida (r=0,80; p=0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: Na ausência de outros distúrbios e com correção da idade em pré-termos, o desenvolvimento motor pode ser semelhante ao de crianças nascidas a termo. A forma pela qual as crianças nascidas pré-termo adquirem suas habilidades funcionais parece ocorrer de modo diferente da observada em crianças a termo.OBJECTIVE: To compare the development of motor function in children born preterm with those born at term, at 8 and 12 months of age. To investigate the relation of motor function quality at the age of 8 months with motor ability at 12 months. METHOD: Thirty-two children participated in this study: 16 were born preterm (risk group and 16 were born at term (control group. The

  1. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....

  2. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwes, M; Souza de Carvalho, T F; Cipolotti, R; Gurgel, R Q; Ferrão, T O; Peters, M; Agyemang, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 27 patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 7-28 years. Clinical history, calcium and calorie intake, laboratory measurements, anthropometrics and pubertal development were assessed, and X-rays were obtained. Z-scores and T-scores for weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMD were calculated using age and gender matched reference data. Mean lumbar spine BMD Z-scores and T-scores were -1.81 SD in boys and -0.80 SD in girls. BMD Z-scores were below -2 SD in 33.3% of girls and in 46.7% of boys. Low BMD (developing low BMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mother and Child Behaviour in Very Preterm and Term Dyads at 6 and 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter; Chernova, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Mothers of very preterm children have been reported to behave less sensitively and to be more controlling. It is unknown whether this is the result of maternal factors or due to maternal adaptation to children's cognitive problems. Method: We investigated a geographically defined prospective whole-population sample of very low birthweight (…

  4. Lower mortality but higher neonatal morbidity over a decade in very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, M.J.K. de; Ouden, A.L. den; Kollée, L.A.A.; Ilsen, A.; Wassenaer, A.G. van; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Better perinatal care has led to better survival of very preterm children, but may or may not have increased the number of children with cerebral and pulmonary morbidity. We therefore investigated the relationship between changes in perinatal care during one decade, and short-term outcome in very

  5. Brain lesions in preterms: origin, consequences and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krageloh-Mann, I; Toft, P; Lunding, J

    1999-01-01

    of motor tracts), mental retardation (bilateral extensive white matter reduction or cerebellar atrophy) and severe visual impairment (severe optic radiation involvement). A morphological correlate for minor disabilities, i.e. functional variations in motor performance or intelligence, was not found...... (n = 19), especially periventricular leucomalacia (PVL, n = 17). Three of the very preterm children had severe cerebellar atrophy in addition to relatively mild periventricular abnormalities. MRI showed specific morphological correlates for the major disabilities, e.g. spastic CP (involvement...

  6. Development of a computerised version of the Children's Gambling Task for the evaluation of affective decision-making in Brazilian preschool children Desenvolvimento de uma versão computadorizada da Children's Gambling Task para avaliação da tomada de decisão afetiva em crianças pré-escolares brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of instruments developed to assess the more purely cognitive executive functions in Brazilian children, few studies have developed instruments for the assessment of the most motivational components of these functions. The primary aim of this study was to develop a computerised version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT to assess affective decision-making in preschoolers. The present study also aimed to investigate whether this version of the task is sensitive to developmental changes across the preschool period and to examine gender differences in decision-making. We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of three and five years old. Age differences between three-and four-year-olds, but not between four-and five-year-olds were found. Gender differences were not found. From this preliminary study, the computerised version of the CGT for Brazilian child population proved to be suitable for Brazilian child population.Apesar do grande número de instrumentos desenvolvidos para avaliação das funções executivas mais puramente cognitivas em crianças brasileiras, há poucos estudos que desenvolveram medidas para avaliação dos componentes mais motivacionais dessas funções. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma versão computadorizada da Children's Gambling Task (CGT para avaliação da tomada de decisão afetiva em crianças pré-escolares. Também se buscou avaliar se a versão desenvolvida é capaz de discriminar grupos etários e examinar as diferenças entre gêneros na tomada de decisão. A versão brasileira da CGT e a Escala de Maturidade Mental Colúmbia foram aplicadas em 137 crianças de três a cinco anos. Observou-se que crianças de quatro e cinco anos obtiveram desempenho superior às de três, entretanto não houve diferença entre o desempenho das crianças de quatro e cinco anos, nem entre meninos e meninas. A partir

  7. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  8. Cerebral oxygenation in the preterm neonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dix, L.M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although survival rates of preterm infants are improving, preterm birth is still associated with significant morbidity.The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs in preterm infants. Neonatal brain injury can have a large impact on the quality of life. Monitoring the immature brain is therefore

  9. Validity of the language development survey in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Poulin, Camille; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Babakissa, Hélène; Lefebvre, Francine; Luu, Thuy Mai

    2016-07-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of language delay. Early identification of language delay is essential to improve functional outcome in these children. To examine the concurrent validity of Rescorla's Language Development Survey and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 18months corrected age in preterm infants. Test accuracy study. 189 preterm infants born Language Development Survey, a parent-reported screening instrument, was administered in French concurrently with the Language Scales of the Bayley-III. Receiver-Operating-Characteristics curves were used to determine optimal cut-off score on the Language Development Survey to identify Bayley-III score language delay as per the Bayley-III. The optimal threshold was ≤10 words for both boys and girls. In girls, lowering the cut-off score decreased sensitivity (79%), but improved specificity (82%), thus lowering the number of false-positives. Our findings support using the Language Development Survey as an expressive language screener in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. VISUAL OUTCOME IN PRETERM INFANTS ANALYSIS OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN IN LJUBLJANA 1990–1999

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    Branka Stirn-Kranjc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improved perinatal care has increased the survival rate of prematurely born infants. An epidemiological fact that 6–18% and more visually impaired children were prematurely born, emphasises the effect of premature birth on both visual function and development. Despite better knowledge on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP it is stressed not to underestimate refractive errors, strabismus and visual impairment after brain lesions, being more common in preterm babies.Methods. Over 1300 preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500 g or less and gestational age of 30 weeks or less, born in Maternity Hospital of Ljubljana, Slovenia in the period 1990– 1999 were examined according to contemporary paediatricophthalmologic recommendations. At least one year ophthalmologic follow-up (average 3.5 years of 594 prematurely born infants with high neonatal risk factors for ROP and with general health problems, was performed. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, artificial ventilation, exchange blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnoea, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia were analysed for correlation with ROP and visual impairment.Results. The survival rate of the studied preterm infants was 65–87% (mean 77.3%. ROP stage 1, 2 has developed in 33 children with a birth weight under 900 g and in 10 with a birth weight 900–1200 g (altogether in 8%. ROP stage 3–5 has been registered (with or without plus disease in 7 children (below 6%. In 6 children cryo or argon laser photocoagulation has been performed and vitreoretinal surgery in 1 child (without functional results. In the studied group altogether 4 children (below 1% became blind (visual acuity < 0.05, all of them have had septicaemia. Squint has been registered in 6.9% of children, and has correlated with higher refractive error, mostly myopia. Severe optic nerve atrophy has been noticed already in the first year of follow

  11. Lung function after extremely preterm birth-A population-based cohort study (EXPRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, Per; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Winberg, Anna; Fellman, Vineta; Domellöf, Magnus; Melén, Erik; Norman, Mikael; Hallberg, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. Associations to gestational age, smallness for gestational age (SGA), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were assessed. Children born extremely preterm had lower forced vital capacity (FVC, z-score: -0.7, 95%CI: -1.0;-0.4), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , z-score: -1.1, 95%CI: -1.4; -0.8), higher frequency-dependence of resistance (R 5-20 , 0.09, 95%CI: 0.05; 0.12 kPa · L -1  · s -1 ) and larger area under the reactance curve (AX, 0.78, 95%CI: 0.49; 1.07 kPa · L -1 ) than controls. In children born at 22-24 weeks of gestation, 24% had FVC and 44% had FEV 1 below the lower limit of normal. SGA and severe BPD only marginally contributed to pulmonary outcomes. Asthma-like disease was reported in 40% of extremely preterm children and 15% of controls. Many children born extremely preterm have altered airway mechanics and significant obstructive reduction in lung function. This warrants consideration for treatment and continued follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [The connection between maltreatment and preterm birth - in the light of psychomotor development at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szele, Anna Szabina; Nagy, Beáta Erika

    2017-06-01

    Preterm children' development and harmful affecting factors to development are important aspects of public health, because in our country the number of preterm birth is very high. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children (Brunet-Lézine; Bayley-III) and connection between psychomotor development and maternal abuse history (own questionnaire). Extremely (psychomotor development quotients and higher development risk. Strong associations were found between maternal history of childhood abuse and the development quotients. We would like to draw attention to the importance of assessing preterm children, as well as to the importance of maltreatment and the severity of its consequences. With the early recognition of necessity for developmental interventions we can prevent problems in the future. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(25): 976-983.

  13. Maternal bereavement and the risk of preterm delivery: the importance of gestational age and of the precursor of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, K D; Li, J; Olsen, J; Vestergaard, M; Obel, C; Cnattingius, S

    2016-04-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm delivery (PD), but the associations between stress and subtypes of PD are not clear. We investigated maternal loss of a close relative and risks of very and moderately PD (information on death of women's family members (children, partner, siblings, parents), birth outcomes and maternal characteristics from nationwide registries. Overall, the death of a close family member the year before pregnancy or in the first 36 weeks of pregnancy was associated with a 7% increased risk of PD [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.10]. The highest hazard ratios (HR) for PD were found for death of an older child [HR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.10-1.31)] and for death of a partner [HR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.03-1.66)]. These losses were associated with higher risks of very preterm [HR (95% CI) 1.61 (1.29-2.01) and 2.07 (1.15-3.74), respectively] than of moderately preterm [HR (95% CI) 1.14 (1.03-1.26) and 1.22 (0.94-1.58), respectively] delivery. There were no substantial differences in the association between death of a child or partner and the risk of spontaneous v. medically indicated PD. Death of a close family member the year before or during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PD, especially very PD. Possible mechanisms include both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm birth.

  14. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking....... The goals for research include testing the benefit and harms of cerebral oximetry in large-scale randomized trials, improved definition of the hypoxic threshold, better understanding the effects of intensive care on cerebral oxygenation, as well as improved precision of oximeters and calibration among...

  15. Desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças prematuras de muito baixo peso na idade pré-escolar Pre-school cognitive development of very low birth weight preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. B. B. Méio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo na idade pré-escolar de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de prematuros nascidos entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993, com peso igual ou menor que 1.500 g, egressos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal pública, foi avaliada na idade pré-escolar pelo teste WPPSI-R, aplicado por psicólogas. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações, síndromes genéticas ou infecção congênita, transferidas de outra instituição, nascidas de parto domiciliar e com condições que impedissem a aplicação do teste. Avaliaram-se crianças pré-escolares de uma escola na mesma cidade, nascidas a termo, para comparação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79/129 crianças, com peso de nascimento médio de 1.219,6 g (±168,9; 44/61 delas (72,1% estavam na escola. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (estudo e perda. As médias dos escores obtidos pelas crianças do estudo foram: total - 75,6±11,9; executivo - 77±12,9; e verbal - 78,6±11,1. Nas crianças da escola, as médias foram: total - 85,1±13,2; executivo - 85,3±13,8; e verbal - 87,7±13,9. Essa diferença foi significativa tanto para os escores total (p OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive development of school-aged children born preterm and with very low birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of premature infants born between January, 1991, and September, 1993 was examined at pre-school age. All fo them were born in a public Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with birth weight less than 1,500g. The WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and applied by psychologists. Babies with malformations, genetic syndromes, congenital infections, transferred from other institutions or born at home, and those with conditions which precluded the application of the test, were excluded. A group of pre-school children in the same city, born at term, were tested for comparison. RESULTS: 79 children were

  16. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Iannone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of children aged 6—12 years, 86 twins and 86 singletons, submitted to paediatric, neurological, psychological, and ophthalmological examinations. Inclusion criteria were twin pregnancy and gestational age 27—36 weeks for index group; same gestational age, but single pregnancy, for the comparison group. All children underwent paediatric and neuropsychiatric examinations, cognitive assessment, and psychological evaluation by standardized tests for screening of learning specific disorders and language difficulties, and finally, ophthalmological examination. In order to study their role in predicting neuropsychological outcome, we examined some perinatal prognostic factors by statistical analysis. Unfavourable neuropsychological outcome was observed in 55/172 (32% children, with different prevalence in the two groups, 42/172 (24% in twins and 13/172 (8% in singletons. Statistical analysis performed for examined prognostic factors showed significant differences in neuropsychological outcome with regard only to gestational age < 32 weeks, low birth weight, intraventricular haemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. The incidence of neuropsychological diseases in the two groups showed significant difference about language and learning difficulties. Our data suggest that preterm twins represent a particular high-risk category of premature babies, mostly regarding the risk of so-called “minimal brain dysfunction”, so a careful follow-up is recommended.

  17. Establishing a reference range for triiodothyronine levels in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki Won; Koo, Mi Sung; Park, Hye Won; Chung, Mi Lim; Kim, Min-ho; Lim, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects clinical complications in preterm infants and older children. However, thyroid hormone replacement in preterm infants has no proven benefits, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate reference range for thyroid hormone levels. We aimed to establish a reference range for triiodothyronine (T3) levels at 1-month postnatal age (PNA) in preterm infants. This retrospective study included preterm infants born at a tertiary referral neonatal center at gestational age (GA)<35 weeks with no apparent thyroid dysfunction, for 6 consecutive years, with follow-up from PNA 2 weeks to 16 weeks. Using thyroid function tests (TFT), the relationships between T3 levels and thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, birth weight, GA, postmenstrual age (PMA), and PNA were examined. The conversion trend for fT4 to T3 was analyzed using the T3/fT4 ratio. Overall, 464 TFTs from 266 infants were analyzed, after excluding 65 infants with thyroid dysfunction. T3 levels increased with fT4 levels, birth weight, GA, PMA, and PNA but not with TSH levels. The T3/fT4 ratio also increased with GA, PNA, and PMA. The average T3 level at 1 month PNA was 72.56 ± 27.83 ng/dL, with significant stratifications by GA. Relatively low T3 and fT4 levels in preterm infants were considered normal, with T3 levels and conversion trends increasing with GA, PMA, and PNA. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the present reference range in thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability-free survival. The power of parent's voices has been important in high-income countries in bringing attention to preterm newborns, but is still missing from the most affected countries. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children

  19. Official monitoring of the Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers, and Nursing Bottles - NBCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Silva Bartolini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate advertisement of baby food, rubber nipples, pacifiers and nursing bottles through newspapers as well as on TV, radio, and the internet, in order to check whether the 'Brazilian Norm for Commercialization of Food for Nursling and Children of First Infancy, Rubber Nipples, Pacifiers and Nursing Bottles' (Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância, Bicos, Chupetas e Mamadeiras - NBCAL has been complied. Samples of all the items above were acquired at discount and department stores to check whether labeling was in compliance with the NBCAL. The development of this research as well as the analyses of commercial promotion were carried out in Juiz de Fora - state of Minas Gerais, from May to July 2006, using convenient, non-representative sampling composed of 680 pieces of advertisement. The results obtained through descriptive statistics showed that 564 of the 680 samples analyzed, or 83.0%, did not meet the NBCAL. Irregularities were detected in 100% of the samples advertised on the media and found in hospitals and drugstores; in 70.1% of the samples purchased at supermarkets, in 37% of those from medical clinics and in 86.6% of those found on the internet. The evidences showed that monitoring must be carried out continuously and educational campaigns on the importance of breast-feeding for the full development of children must be addressed to mothers, the food industry and commercial establishments.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar propagandas e publicidades impressas de alimentos infantis, bicos, chupetas e mamadeiras, além das veiculadas em rádio, TV e internet, para verificar o cumprimento da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância (NBCAL. Também foi realizada a aquisição de bicos, mamadeiras e chupetas em "lojas de 1,99" e de departamento, para a verificação de rotulagem de acordo

  20. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  1. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  2. Comparison of Intravitreal Bevacizumab, Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Laser Photocoagulation for Treatment of Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity in Turkish Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Altıaylık Özer, Pınar; Kabataş, Naciye

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of treatment modalities, major complications and refractive errors in children who were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB), intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) or laser photocoagulation (LP) for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Premature infants who underwent IVB monotherapy (Group 1), IVR monotherapy (Group 2) or LP (Group 3) for type 1 ROP and infants with spontaneously regressed ROP (Group 4) were included for the study. Major complications, recurrence rate, recurrence time, total retinal vascularization time and refractive errors at 18 months of corrected age (CA) were determined. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 24 eyes of 12 patients, 12 eyes of six patients, 72 eyes of 36 patients and 148 eyes of 74 patients, respectively. Recurrence of the disease occurred in two eyes of one patient in Group 1 at 52 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and two eyes of one patient at 48 weeks of PMA in Group 2. In Group 3, disease did not regress after the first treatment in 10 eyes of five patients. The mean vascularization time in Group 1 was 73 ± 10.1 weeks of PMA and 61.8 ± 6.6 weeks of PMA in Group 2 (p = 0.027). Macular ectopia was seen in two eyes of one patient and exudative retinal detachment (ERD) occurred in two eyes of one patient in Group 3. Mean spherical equivalent was 1.49 ± 3.04 diopters (D) in Group 1, -1.79 ± 2.87D in Group 2, -1.27 ± 2.8 D in Group 3 and 1.52 ± 1.07 D in Group 4 at 18 months of CA. There was no significant difference in astigmatism values in all groups. IVB, IVR and LP are options that can successfully treat ROP. Myopia was observed to be the main refractive error in all treatment groups. Vascularization of the retina was completed later in the IVB group than in the IVR group.

  3. História de desenvolvimento e comportamento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e baixo peso (< 1.500 g Developmental history and behavior of pre-term and low birth-weight children (<1.500g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emilia Vita Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou a história de desenvolvimento, aprendizagem e comportamento de 20 crianças de 8 a 10 anos nascidas pré-termo The aim of this study is to compare the developmental history, learning and behavior of 20 pre-term and very low birth-weight children (VLB and 20 full- term children at eight- ten years old. Data collection included interviews and the Child Behavioral Scale administered to the mothers and the Raven test to the children. Signs of delay in psychomotor behaviors acquisitions and predominance of the left hand use in the VLB compared to the control group were detected. In the school phase, most of the children of both groups presented average intellectual level and were attending regular schools. In the VLB group there was a significantly higher proportion of school failure than in the control group and there were 20% of children with hearing impairment. Authough both groups had signs of behavior problems, the VLB group showed more respiratory problems, enuresis, school-refuse, agitation, impatience and attachment to the mother than school children from Ribeirão Preto.

  4. Parenting stress trajectories in mothers of very preterm infants to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. SENSORY PROCESSING DURING CHILDHOOD IN PRETERM INFANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; Oliveira, Suelen Rosa de; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included only original indexed studies with a quantitative approach, which were available in full text on digital media, published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish between 2005 and 2015, involving children aged 0-9years. 581 articles were identified and eight were included. Six studies (75%) found high frequency of dysfunction in sensory processing in preterm infants. The association of sensory processing with developmental outcomes was observed in three studies (37.5%). The association of sensory processing with neonatal characteristics was observed in five studies (62.5%), and the sensory processing results are often associated with gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions. The current literature suggests that preterm birth affects the sensory processing, negatively. Gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions appear as risk factors for sensoryprocessing disorders in preterm infants. The impairment in the ability to receivesensory inputs, to integrateand to adapt to them seems to have a negative effect on motor, cognitive, and language development of these children. We highlight the feasibility of identifying sensory processing disorders early in life, favoring early clinical interventions.

  6. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  7. Comparação do crescimento de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros com curvas de referência para crescimento físico: dados do Projeto Esporte Brasil Comparison between the growth of Brazilian children and adolescents and the reference growth charts: data from a Brazilian project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar crianças e adolescentes brasileiros com curvas de referência para crescimento físico. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base escolar, conduzido em 41.654 estudantes (23.328 do sexo masculino e 18.326 do sexo feminino de 7 a 17 anos. Foram mensuradas variáveis antropométricas (estatura, peso corporal e calculado o índice de massa corporal (IMC. A estatura, percentil 50, e o IMC, percentil 85, foram comparados com tabelas normativas da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS, e o peso corporal, percentil 50, com as curvas do Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. RESULTADOS: Ao comparar os valores de estatura e peso corporal de ambos os sexos com os valores de referência da OMS e do CDC foi identificado que os jovens brasileiros atingiram e ultrapassaram os pontos de referência na maioria das idades. Os IMC dos escolares brasileiros foram inferiores aos valores de sobrepeso da OMS para todas as idades. CONCLUSÃO: A magnitude de crescimento em peso corporal, estatura e IMC de crianças e adolescentes da zona urbana do Brasil está cada vez mais semelhante à reportada em países desenvolvidos. Sugere-se que estudos prospectivos no Brasil sejam realizados e comparados com curvas internacionais de crescimento físico a fim de poder realizar inferências mais precisas.OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth of Brazilian children and adolescents with reference growth charts. METHODS: School-based cross-sectional study involving 41,654 students (23,328 boys and 18,326 girls aged 7 to 17 years. Physical growth variables (body weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured. Height, 50th percentile, and BMI, 85th percentile, were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO reference values, and weight, 50th percentile, was compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC growth charts. RESULTS: Mean height and body weight of Brazilian schoolchildren were generally higher than the WHO and CDC reference

  8. Readmission of Preterm Infants Less Than 32 Weeks Gestation Into Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralser Elisabeth MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of and the predictors for rehospitalization in preterm infants into early childhood, focusing on gender differences. All preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation in North Tyrol between January 2003 and December 2005 were enrolled in this survey. About one fifth of all children were readmitted, showing an inverse downward trend with increasing age. The most common reason for readmission in the third (36.5% and fourth (42.9% years of life was respiratory infection, but changed to miscellaneous surgeries in the fifth (52.1%. Male sex showed significantly higher readmission rates and more miscellaneous surgeries. Additionally, male sex and chronic lung disease were risk conditions for rehospitalization in the multivariate analysis. Readmission rates and respiratory infections in preterm-born children showed an inverse downward trend with increasing age. In early childhood, gender difference still plays a role with regard to rehospitalization.

  9. Pivôs utilizados nas brincadeiras de faz-de-conta de crianças brasileiras de cinco grupos culturais Pivots used in make-believe play by Brazilian children from five different cultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Gosso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou os pivôs utilizados nas transformações simbólicas de brincadeiras imaginativas de crianças de cinco grupos culturais brasileiros (41 meninas e 35 meninos, de quatro a seis anos de idade: de uma pequena comunidade praiana, de uma aldeia indígena e de três grupos de níveis socioeconômicos diferentes (alto, baixo e misto de uma metrópole. Os pivôs foram classificados como elementos naturais, utensílios e brinquedos. Constatou-se que: (i a escolha de pivôs relacionou-se com os objetos disponíveis: as crianças indígenas e da comunidade praiana usaram mais elementos naturais; as indígenas, mais utensílios e as da metrópole, mais brinquedos manufaturados; (ii objetos pouco estruturados prestaram-se a um grande número de transformações simbólicas; (iii meninas usaram mais reproduções de seres vivos e meninos, de veículos e armas. Em suma, os resultados indicam que as crianças, através dos pivôs, refletem nas brincadeiras sua individualidade e os valores de sua cultura.In the present study, the pivots used for symbolic transformations in imaginative play by children from 5 cultural groups were compared. The participants were 76 children (41 girls and 35 boys, four to six years old from five Brazilian cultural groups: a small seashore community, a village of Brazilian Indians, and three urban groups of different socioeconomic status (SES from a metropolis (low SES, high SES, and mixed SES. The pivots were classified as natural elements, utensils, and toys. The results showed that: (i the choice of pivots was associated with the available objects: Indian and seashore children used more natural elements; Indian children used more utensils and urban children, more toys; (ii objects that were low structured suited a large variety of symbolic transformations; (iii girls used more models of living beings, and boys, models of vehicles and weapons. In brief, the results indicate that the children, through

  10. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. M.; Hof, M. H. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Ravelli, A. C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Schaaf J, Hof M, Mol B, Abu-Hanna A, Ravelli A. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery.BJOG 2012;119:16241629. Objective To determine the risk of preterm birth in a subsequent twin pregnancy after previous singleton

  11. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    : High levels of sCD163 or CRP are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery in women with symptoms of delivery. Good prediction of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation was obtained by a combination of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), overweight, relaxin, CRP and s...

  12. Economic costs associated with moderate and late preterm birth: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K A; Petrou, S; Dritsaki, M; Johnson, S J; Manktelow, B; Draper, E S; Smith, L K; Seaton, S E; Marlow, N; Dorling, J; Field, D J; Boyle, E M

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine the economic costs associated with moderate and late preterm birth. An economic study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Infants born between 32(+0) and 36(+6)  weeks of gestation in the East Midlands of England. A sample of infants born at ≥37 weeks of gestation acted as controls. Data on resource use, estimated from a National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective, and separately from a societal perspective, were collected between birth and 24 months corrected age (or death), and valued in pounds sterling, at 2010-11 prices. Descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses were used to estimate the relationship between gestational age at birth and economic costs. Cumulative resource use and economic costs over the first two years of life. Of all eligible births, 1146 (83%) preterm and 1258 (79%) term infants were recruited. Mean (standard error) total societal costs from birth to 24 months were £12 037 (£1114) and £5823 (£1232) for children born moderately preterm (32(+0) -33(+6)  weeks of gestation) and late preterm (34(+0) -36(+6)  weeks of gestation), respectively, compared with £2056 (£132) for children born at term. The mean societal cost difference between moderate and late preterm and term infants was £4657 (bootstrap 95% confidence interval, 95% CI £2513-6803; P economic costs over the first 2 years of life. Our economic estimates can be used to inform budgetary and service planning by clinical decision-makers, and economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing moderate and late preterm birth or alleviating its adverse consequences. Moderate and late preterm birth is associated with increased economic costs over the first 2 years of life. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P

    2010-08-04

    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 April 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6800 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated th