Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.
The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…
This paper briefly reports on a series of studies that explore the relationship between symbolic or pretend modes of reasoning and cognitive processes which underlie conservation of quantity. It is hypothesized that the mental transformations which the child makes while playing a game of make-believe, namely, the transformation from his original…
Discusses processes in the development of shared pretend representations: adoption of shared pretend focus; metacommunication defining the activity as pretend play; and communication within pretend play. Examines claims that children's play becomes intersubjective only after three years of age. Concludes that intersubjectivity in peer pretend play…
Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen
Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…
Cohen, Lynn E.
This inquiry applied Bakhtin's dialogic process to the pretend play of preschool children using an interpretive approach. It used vignettes from videotaped data and Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and heteroglossia to provide an understanding of how children appropriate social roles and rules in pretend play and use a variety of "voices"…
Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence. Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and Review
This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…
Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon
A study of 22 children with autism and 19 children with mental retardation found that, when prompted, school-age and adolescent subjects with autism did not differ from children with mental retardation in production of functional play acts and situationally appropriate object substitution, but did produce fewer novel pretend play acts. (CR)
Russ, Sandra W
This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature in the area of pretend play as a predictor of adult creativity. There is strong evidence that processes expressed in pretend play are associated with measures of creativity, especially with divergent thinking. There is some evidence from longitudinal studies that this association is stable over time. Converging evidence suggests that cognitive and affective processes in pretend play are involved in adult creative production. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to whether engaging in pretend play actually facilitates creative thinking. In addition, many other variables (opportunity, tolerance for failure, motivation, work ethic, etc.) determine whether children with creative potential are actually creative in adulthood. In spite of the many methodological challenges in conducting research in the play area, it is important to continue investigating specific processes expressed in play and their developmental trajectories. Large samples in multisite studies would be ideal in investigating the ability of specific play processes to predict these creative processes and creative productivity in adulthood. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kasari, Connie; Chang, Ya-Chih; Patterson, Stephanie
An article by Angeline S. Lillard and others published in the January 2013 issue of "Psychological Bulletin" about the impact of pretend play on child development raised a number of issues about play studies and child psychology. The article claimed that, contrary to current theories on the subject, the evidence of many studies does not…
Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…
Children begin to engage in pretend play, develop receptive and expressive language, and use mental representation at approximately the same time in their development. The researchers set out to investigate whether boys and girls have different fantasy worlds. The study thus explores gender differences in pretend play ...
Douglas, Susan; Stirling, Lesley
This article investigates processes of engagement in social pretend play between children with autism (age range 3.6 to 7.2 years) and adult play partners, using a large corpus of conversational data. We take a qualitative discourse analytic approach to investigate the metacommunicative strategies used by the children. Our initial framework for…
Worthington, Maulfry; van Oers, Bert
The aim of this study is to uncover the emergence of cultural mathematical understandings and communications in young children's spontaneous pretend play. It is based on Vygotskian cultural-historical perspectives and social-semiotic theory, informed by research into "funds of knowledge" and considers how children's informal knowledge of…
Worthington, M.; van Oers, B.
The aim of this study is to uncover the emergence of cultural mathematical understandings and communications in young children's spontaneous pretend play. It is based on Vygotskian cultural-historical perspectives and social-semiotic theory, informed by research into ‘funds of knowledge' and
Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.
Piaget (1962) asserted that children stop engaging in pretend play when they enter the concrete operational stage because they become able to accommodate reality and no longer need to assimilate it to their wishes. Consistent also with the views of Vygotsky, discussion of pretend play in developmental psychology is typically confined to early…
Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.
It is often claimed that theory of mind is facilitated by pretend play. This perspective piece challenges that view, proposing instead that theory of mind might be useful for driving social pretend play, rather than the reverse. There is a fundamental similarity between pretend play and theory of mind. Pretend play involves projecting a different…
Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.
As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…
Lillard, Angeline S.; Lerner, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Emily J.; Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Palmquist, Carolyn M.
Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For…
Dender, Alma; Stagnitti, Karen
There is a need for culturally appropriate assessments for Australian Indigenous children. This article reports the selection of culturally appropriate and gender-neutral play materials, and changes in administration identified to develop further the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (I-ChIPPA). Twenty-three typically developing children aged four to six years from the Pilbara region in Western Australia participated in the study. Children were presented with four sets of play materials and frequency counts were recorded for each time the child used one of the play materials in a pretend play action. Twelve of the 23 children came to play in pairs. Both boys and girls used the Pilbara toy set including the dark coloured dolls and Pilbara region animals, more frequently than the standardised play materials from the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This study reports the first steps in the development of the I-ChIPPA. Future development will include the refinement of the administration and scoring with pairs of children, and then validity testing the assessment. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.
Conclusion: The findings support the idea that children with ASD who have better ToM might be able to develop better pretend play, but not better playfulness, which might be more strongly related to their autistic severity.
Lillard, Angeline S; Lerner, Matthew D; Hopkins, Emily J; Dore, Rebecca A; Smith, Eric D; Palmquist, Carolyn M
Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For language, narrative, and emotion regulation, the research conducted to date is consistent with all 3 positions but insufficient to draw conclusions. For executive function and social skills, existing research leans against the crucial causal position but is insufficient to differentiate the other 2. For reasoning, equifinality is definitely supported, ruling out a crucially causal position but still leaving open the possibility that pretend play is epiphenomenal. For problem solving, there is no compelling evidence that pretend play helps or is even a correlate. For creativity, intelligence, conservation, and theory of mind, inconsistent correlational results from sound studies and nonreplication with masked experimenters are problematic for a causal position, and some good studies favor an epiphenomenon position in which child, adult, and environment characteristics that go along with play are the true causal agents. We end by considering epiphenomenalism more deeply and discussing implications for preschool settings and further research in this domain. Our take-away message is that existing evidence does not support strong causal claims about the unique importance of pretend play for development and that much more and better research is essential for clarifying its possible role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Jing, Mengguo; Li, Hui
This study examined the developmental trend of pretend play behaviour and the effect of partner's gender in Singaporean preschoolers. Peer dyadic play among 70 children, ranging in age from three to five years, was observed in a standardised toy play context. Videotaped recordings of the play were analysed using two scales--the Smilansky Scale for…
Goldstein, Thalia R; Lerner, Matthew D
Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills, particularly emotional control, are critically important for social development, as well as academic performance and later life success. However, the study of such approaches has been criticized for potential bias and lack of rigor, precluding the ability to make strong causal claims. We conducted a randomized, component control (dismantling) trial of dramatic pretend play games with a low-SES group of 4-year-old children (N = 97) to test whether such practice yields generalized improvements in multiple social and emotional outcomes. We found specific effects of dramatic play games only on emotional self-control. Results suggest that dramatic pretend play games involving physicalizing emotional states and traits, pretending to be animals and human characters, and engaging in pretend scenarios in a small group may improve children's emotional control. These findings have implications for the function of pretense and design of interventions to improve emotional control in typical and atypical populations. Further, they provide support for the unique role of dramatic pretend play games for young children, particularly those from low-income backgrounds. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/2GVNcWKRHPk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…
Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a literacy-based intervention on the conventional pretend play skills of preschool children who are visually impaired. The intervention involved experience books, real objects, story-reading, and role-play, which are common strategies used to teach children with visual impairments. A…
MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H
The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child, and a multiple-probe design across three play sets was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedure. Results indicated that both children with autism and the typically developing peers acquired the sequences of scripted verbalizations and play actions quickly and maintained this performance during follow-up probes. In addition, probes indicated an increase in the mean number of unscripted verbalizations as well as reciprocal verbal interactions and cooperative play. These findings are discussed as they relate to the development of reciprocal pretend-play repertoires in young children with autism. PMID:19721729
Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul
The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social–emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood
Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul P. M.
The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social--emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood curriculum, is hypothesized to support…
Zyga, Olena; Russ, Sandra; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia
Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including pervasive social deficits. While play impairments in ASD are well documented, play abilities in PWS have not been evaluated. Fourteen children with PWS and ten children with ASD were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) (Lord et al. in Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2006) as part of a larger project. A modified Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ in Play in child development and psychotherapy: toward empirically supported practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, 2004; Pretend play in childhood: foundation of adult creativity. APA Books, Washington, 2014) was used to score ADOS play activities. Results indicate both groups scored below normative data on measures of imagination, organization, and affective expression during individual play. In addition, the inclusion of a play partner in both groups increased all scaled scores on the APS. These findings suggest children with PWS show impaired pretend play abilities similar to ASD. Further research is warranted and should focus on constructing and validating programs aimed at improving symbolic and functional play abilities within these populations.
Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…
Fung, Wing-kai; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi
This study investigated the moderating effect of gender on the causal relationships between different school play activities (pretend and non-pretend play) and social competence in peer interactions among a sample of Hong Kong children. Participants were 60 Hong Kong preschoolers (mean age = 5.44, 36.67% female). Children with matched home pretend…
Buchsbaum, Daphna; Bridgers, Sophie; Skolnick Weisberg, Deena; Gopnik, Alison
We argue for a theoretical link between the development of an extended period of immaturity in human evolution and the emergence of powerful and wide-ranging causal learning mechanisms, specifically the use of causal models and Bayesian learning. We suggest that exploratory childhood learning, childhood play in particular, and causal cognition are closely connected. We report an empirical study demonstrating one such connection--a link between pretend play and counterfactual causal reasoning. Preschool children given new information about a causal system made very similar inferences both when they considered counterfactuals about the system and when they engaged in pretend play about it. Counterfactual cognition and causally coherent pretence were also significantly correlated even when age, general cognitive development and executive function were controlled for. These findings link a distinctive human form of childhood play and an equally distinctive human form of causal inference. We speculate that, during human evolution, computations that were initially reserved for solving particularly important ecological problems came to be used much more widely and extensively during the long period of protected immaturity.
Nwokah, Evangeline E.; Graves, Kelly N.
This article examines the creation of novel words by two English-speaking male siblings, ages five- and six-years-old, during a fourteen-month period of weekly play sessions. The questions the article addresses are: Did the boys produce novel words? What types of words? Why were these words created? and Did they become a permanent part of the…
Pfeifer, Luzia I; Queiroz, Mirella A; Santos, Jair L F; Stagnitti, Karen E
Play is an indication of a children's development. Purpose. Organize a culturally adapt the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment to Brazilian population. Translation and cultural adaptation procedures consisted of translation, synthesis, back translation, author's approval, and pretest of the assessment. For the pretest, 14 typically developing children were assessed. Was evaluated the use of play materials, duration of the assessment, and reliability. Play materials and duration of the assessment were appropriate for Brazilian children. Analysis of intra-rater reliability showed good agreement ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Inter-rater reliability showed good to moderate agreement for five items ranging from 0.76 to 0.59. Four items showed chance to poor agreement (rho = -0.13 to 0.50). Results of the pretest indicate the Brazilian version of the ChlPPA is potentially useful for Brazilian children. ChlPPA training in Portuguese in Brazil with play observation feedback is recommended to improve inter-rater reliability.
Lin, Shu-Kai; Tsai, Ching-Hong; Li, Hsing-Jung; Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study aimed to clarify the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder, using refined assessments of theory of mind and pretend play while controlling for autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension. A total of 92 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-10 years were enrolled. In two visits, the children were assessed with the Theory of Mind Task Battery, the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Verbal Comprehension Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively, for their theory of mind, pretend play performance, autistic behaviors, and verbal comprehension. The hierarchical regression models showed that in addition to the contributions of the autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension scores, the theory of mind scores positively predicted (p autism spectrum disorder, when the children's autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension are considered. This study fills a gap in the previous literature and provides information useful for clinicians and researchers on the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder.
Stagnitti, Karen; Lewis, Fiona M
This study investigated if the quality of pre-school children's pretend play predicted their semantic organization and narrative re-telling ability when they were in early primary school. It was hypothesized that the elaborateness of a child's play and the child's use of symbols in play were predictors of their semantic organization and narrative re-tell scores of the School Age Oral Language Assessment. Forty-eight children were assessed using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment when they were aged 4-5 years. Three-to-five years after this assessment their semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills were assessed. Results indicate that the elaborateness of a child's play and their ability to use symbols was predictive of semantic organization skills. Use of symbols in play was the strongest play predictor of narrative re-telling skills. The quality of a pre-school child's ability to elaborate complex sequences in pretend play and use symbols predicted up to 20% of a child's semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills up to 5 years later. The study provides evidence that the quality of pretend play in 4-5 year olds is important for semantic organization and narrative re-telling abilities in the school-aged child.
Although pretend play has long been part of the early childhood curriculum, recent emphasis on accountability in education seems to have led to a decline in the general understanding of the contribution that high-quality play can make to children's cognitive development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest defines the cluster of…
Melzer, Dawn K.; Palermo, Cori A.
The present study investigated the relationship between complexity of pretend play, initiation of pretense activities, and mental state utterances used during play. Children 3 to 4 years of age were videotaped while engaging in pretend play with a parent. The videotapes were coded according to mental state utterances (i.e. desire, emotion,…
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas
This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
There is much controversy over what is needed for culture to flourish and what has led human culture to be different from "cultural" characteristics of other animals. Here I argue that the emergence of childhood as a step in the life cycle was critical to the evolution of the human cultural mind. My line of reasoning is built around two complementary features of childhood: imitation and play. When children imitate adults they routinely copy unnecessary and arbitrary actions. They will persistently replicate how an object is used, even when doing so interferes with their ability to produce the very outcome those actions are intended to bring about. Though seemingly maladaptive, this behavior provides for the faithful transmission of cultural ideas across generations. When children play together they commonly construct rules and meanings that exist purely because the players agree they "exist." Play thus provides the building blocks with which children rehearse the kinds of institutional realities that typify cultural practices. I argue that these forms of imitation and play represent a foundation upon which human culture flourished and that neither are prevalent in nonhuman animals. In light of these arguments evidence will be assessed suggesting that childhood emerged relatively late in human evolution.
Cohen, Lynn E.
Twentieth-century Russian literary critic and semiotician Mikhail Bakhtin developed an emology that linked carnival, authority, and laughter. Drawing on his work, the author investigates hidden parent-child interactions and children's discourse in early-childhood play. She argues that Bakhtin's ideas of carnival and its discourses apply to young…
visually impaired children during interactions in small groups. The project was developed with four children, aged 4-7 years, with a diagnosis of visual impairment (low vision or blindness, some of them with additional organic problems. Most of them were enrolled in preschool; some of them presented developmental alterations and/or school difficulties. The study comprised six sessions (about 25 minutes each session with two groups of children. The available toys were typical of pretend play activities (miniature kitchen and bedroom pieces, cars and dolls, etc. The sessions were taped, transcribed and analyzed. Episodes which were representative of children's abilities were selected. Analysis allowed for the identification of children's capacities such as: a recognition of objects and construction of scenes; b creation of narratives and episodes of pretend play; c exploration of objects by a child who usually refused any kind of contact; d joint construction of meanings. Pretend play situations allowed the recognition of abilities which would normally remain unnoticed in daily or guided activities. Peer interaction and a relatively free play situation, mediated by adults, promoted an environment that was favorable to multiple kinds of elaboration by the children. This proposal, which focused on the process of construction of knowledge and abilities, rather than characterizing the children as to their impairments, enabled the description and enhanced their development.
Esther Ofenste Phetlhu
Full Text Available The extensive empirical research inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories of make-believe play has been criticised for restricting data to western, urban, middle-class children. We seek to redress this bias by researching a traditional black South African Pedi children’s game Masekitlana. Our data relies on embodied memories enacted by Mapelo (one of the authors, and interviews of two other informants. The analytical framework draws upon ‘emergent methods’ in ethnography such as performance ethnography, autoethnography and memory elicitation through ‘bodynotes’ within a Vygotskyian orientation to play. The findings show that Masekitlana shares features common to all pretend play, but others unique to it including: i extended monologue, ii metacommunicative frames for realistic thinking, and iii a complex relation between social and solitary play. These findings support Vygotsky. However, ‘the long childhood’ of Masekitlana suggests that the stages theory of Piaget, as well as Vygotskyian ideas that have come down to us via Cole & Scribner and Valsiner, require revision in the light of Bruner’s two modes of cognition, and Veresov’s reinterpretation of the theatre movement, within which Vygotsky’s central ideas are embedded.
Walker, Caren M.; Gopnik, Alison
The review by Lillard et al. (2013) highlighted the need for additional research to better clarify the nature of the relationship between pretend play and development. However, the authors did not provide a proposal for how to structure the direction of this future work. Here, we provide a possible framework for generating additional research.…
Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina
Preschool boys' pretense and coconstruction of shared meanings during two play sessions (superhero and generic toys) were investigated with 58 middle-class boys ("M" age = 54.95 mos.). The frequency of dyadic pretense and the coconstruction of shared meanings in the play were coded. The frequency of pretense did not vary across the two…
Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.
Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…
Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda
Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…
Harris, Paul L.; Jalloul, Malak
In an article in the January 2013 "Psychological Review," Lillard, Lemer, Hopkins, Dore, Smith, and Palmquist set out to critique the customary claim that pretend play contributes to healthy child development. Following Peter Smith, they distinguished three possibilities for the impact of pretend play. Pretend play, they proposed, might…
Deunk, M.I.; Berenst, J.; de Glopper, C.M.
In this article we study the beginnings of sociodramatic play. We examine the pretend play interactions of a Dutch girl, Peggy, and focus on her transition into sociodramatic play. Initially, Peggy interprets only some elements of her play interactions at the pretend level. At age 2;9, Peggy shows
Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A.
The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women’s perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements (“Flirted with some one infront of my partner”) and Intrasexual Negative Inducements (“Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner”). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325
Surveyed Montessori preprimary teachers concerning attitudes toward pretend play in the classroom. Found mixed feelings among teachers toward pretend play. By a margin of 2 to 1, teachers were dissatisfied with the training they had received regarding the role of children's play in Montessori settings. (KB)
Conway, Martin A.
An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…
Fenson, Larry; Schell, Robert E.
Discusses developmental changes in visual exploration and manipulative investigation among children from birth to six months, six to 12 months, and 12 to 36 months of age. Also discusses pretend play in terms of decentration, decontextualization, and integration. (RH)
Con el desarrollo de internet se ha ido haciendo evidente la vinculación entre discapacidad y sexualidad, en la que las designaciones “devotees”, “pretedenders” y “wannabes” (DPW) juegan un rol central. Los devotees son individuos sanos que se sienten atraídos sexualmente hacia personas con discapacidad, generalmente con problemas de movilidad. Los pretenders son personas que actúan como si tuvieran una discapacidad imitando sus movimientos, usando muletas, sillas de ruedas, escayola...
Lillard, Angeline S.
Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…
DiSpezio, Michael A.
Explore claims of extraterrestrial life and our efforts to communicate with inhabitants of worlds outside our solar system. Even though there's no "proof positive" for extraterrestrial life-forms of any flavor, we've set the stage for applying a battery of critical-thinking skills to the valid analysis of scientific data. (Contains 3 figures and 5…
Delaney, Katherine K.
This study examines how acceptable play was framed for a class of pre-Kindergarten children by their teacher and classroom aide. Using comic subjectivity theory [Zupancic, A. (2008). "The odd one in: On comedy." Cambridge: MIT Press], the author explores how children's playing at pretend violence (bad guy and pretend gun play) is…
Full Text Available Con el desarrollo de internet se ha ido haciendo evidente la vinculación entre discapacidad y sexualidad, en la que las designaciones “devotees”, “pretedenders” y “wannabes” (DPW juegan un rol central. Los devotees son individuos sanos que se sienten atraídos sexualmente hacia personas con discapacidad, generalmente con problemas de movilidad. Los pretenders son personas que actúan como si tuvieran una discapacidad imitando sus movimientos, usando muletas, sillas de ruedas, escayolas, etc. Por último, los wannabes desean ser discapacitados, algunos de ellos han llegado al extremo de hacerse amputaciones caseras cuando la medicina tradicional se ha negado a dar respuesta a su necesidad. La presente investigación documental indaga sobre cada uno de los miembros de la taxonomía DPW, presentando: a las hipótesis existentes con relación a su etiología; b su vinculación con otras entidades diagnósticas presentes en el DSM V; c se describen algunos de los tratamientos que se han empleado en su abordaje terapéutico, y d se mencionan las interrelaciones entre estas 3 categorías, dado que los limites entre ellas son muy flexibles.
Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Burnstein, Corinna L.; Leslie, Alan M.
When young children observe pretend-play, do they interpret it simply as a type of behavior, or do they infer the underlying mental state that gives the behavior meaning? This is a long-standing question with deep implications for how "theory on mind" develops. The two leading accounts of shared pretense give opposing answers. The behavioral…
De-Souza, Desalyn; Radell, Jacqueline
Superhero play has long been thought of as violent, aggressive, and disruptive. Some argue that aggressive play should not be allowed because it exposes children to inappropriate concepts and attitudes and sends the message that the use of aggression can achieve a desired goal. However, educators know that pretend play is an avenue for healthy…
Timoteo Madaleno Vieira
Full Text Available We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.
In this paper, I study the narrative structure of comics as a means to describe the ways that indeterminate modes of representation can allow the reader to imagine that which in childhood can never be fully expressed. Analyzing a number of panels from Gilbert Hernandez's graphic novel, "Marble Season," I describe a conceptual link…
Gema eMartin Ordas
Full Text Available Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.
Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...
Nanni, Mirco; Rigotti, Christophe
Among the family of the local patterns, episodes are com- monly used when mining a single or multiple sequences of discrete events. An episode re?ects a qualitative relation is-followed-by over event types, and the re?nement of episodes to incorporate quantitative temporal in- formation is still an on going research, with many application opportu- nities. In this paper, focusing on serial episodes, we design such a re?ne- ment called quantitative episodes and give a corresponding extraction a...
Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L
Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.
Huang, Ying-Wen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu
Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses depend on the replicase complexes provided by their cognate helper viruses and host plants for replication, pretending that they are part of the viral genomes. Although satRNAs and satellite viruses do not share significant nucleotide sequence similarity with the helper viruses, the essential cis-acting elements recognized by the replicase complexes must reside on their genomes, acting as the mimicry for the molecular pretenders. By understanding how this molecular mimicry deceives the helper viruses into supporting the satellites, a significant amount of knowledge of the basic requirements and mechanisms for replication of viruses and satellites has been obtained. Here we review the recent advances in understanding the effects of the cis elements at the termini of satRNAs and satellite viruses on their accumulation. Several well-characterized satellite/helper virus systems, representing the non-coding short satRNAs, mRNA-type long satRNAs, circular satRNAs and satellite viruses, are compared and contrasted. It is concluded that different satellites may adopt different strategies to exploit the replication/transcription/translation machineries of their helper viruses, and different mimicries may be implemented by the same molecular pretender for different biological functions.
Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.
... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...
these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....
... 5 links) Consortium for Clinical Investigations of Neurological Channelopathies (CINCH) GeneReview: Episodic Ataxia Type 1 GeneReview: Episodic ... MG. Episodic ataxia type 1: a neuronal potassium channelopathy. Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Apr;4(2):258-66. Review. ...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk
are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...
Harris, Kathleen I.
Superhero play is a specialised form of fantasy play with considerable appeal to young children. During superhero play, children have opportunities to pretend and often to play different types of roles within a safe and caring environment. When guided appropriately in an early childhood classroom, superhero play gives young children opportunities…
Jahr, E; Eldevik, S; Eikeseth, S
This study investigated the acquisition, transfer, and maintenance of cooperative play in six children with autism. Two approaches were compared. In one approach, the participants observed two models engaging in cooperative play, before taking the place of one of the models while the play episode just observed was repeated. The second approach was identical to the first except that the participants were now required to verbally describe the modeled play episode before taking the place of one of the models. During training, modeled play episodes varied across play topics, and the criterion for mastery was first trial learning of novel play episodes. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants was applied. The results showed that the participants failed to acquire cooperative play until the verbal description was included in the training procedure. Following training with verbal description, all participants: a) could initiate episodes and sustain episodes initiated by their play partner; b) were able to take turns in episodes that were considerably longer than the episodes practiced during training; c) varied their play within and between play episodes; and, d) transferred those skills across play partners, settings, and time.
Using a phenomenological approach, the purpose of this research was to explore the meaning of young children's gender and identity play, and the experiences they take to form their identity in the early childhood setting. During the course of the study I drew meanings from the boys' pretend playing pregnancy and gender ...
these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....
The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...
Johansen, Stine Liv
Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...
Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision and u...
m o re likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than. c o n t rols. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls. Subjects with first-episode psychosis who abused substances presented at an earlier age than non-abusers. Substances affected symptoms at baseline pre s e n t a t i o n .
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M
to do in the present study. We designed a descriptive prospective study and included information from Danish population registers to study first-time ever and recurrent psychiatric episodes during the perinatal period, including treatment at psychiatric facilities and general practitioners (GPs...
Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva
In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... the future of public libraries, especially in relation to children as a particular user group. This paper explores play culture, and takes a stance especially in the project ‘Families at play in the library’, but also in experiences from related projects. The focus is on families playing together...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...
Wu, Shu-Chen; Rao, Nirmala
Commonalities and distinctions in Hong Kong-Chinese and German kindergarten teachers' conceptions of play and learning were examined. Six video clips of play episodes reflecting common play behavior and themes were selected from observations made during free play in two kindergartens in Hong Kong and two in Germany. Ten Chinese and seven German…
Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela
workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our......t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...
This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....
Bettina M Pause; Armin eZlomuzica; Kiyoka eKinugawa; Jean eMariani; Reinhard ePietrowsky; Ekrem eDere
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Further...
The thesis is part of a Scandinavian follow-up study, Early Intervention in Psychosis (the “TIPS” Project). The sample comprises first-episode non-affective patients (n=301), of which the Roskilde sub-sample (n=55) had separate investigations of personality trait/disorders. The study showed...... prodromal symptoms and the psychosis itself. Dimensional personality scores caught more variance than a categorical approach. Schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal traits were associated with poor premorbid social functioning and the schizoid traits were correlated with later development of negative symptoms....... Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...
Khemlani, Sangeet S; Harrison, Anthony M; Trafton, J Gregory
We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.
Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa
In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…
Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754
Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane
This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…
Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.
The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…
Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana
This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…
Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea
Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...
Bang, Jytte Susanne
The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities....... Those artefacts are recent examples of the history of mass-production, mass-distribution, and mass-consumption of music. Since children do get into touch with the mass-phenomenon of popular music and artists, concerns may be articulated that this can have problematic effects on children’s lives. By help...... of, among others, Marx Wartofsky’s artefact theory, the article tries to get beyond “black-or-white” prejudices concerning technologies and their limited insight; this is done by suggesting to focus on the children’s own perspectives and how music-play activities may be meaningful in relation...
Jern, Patrick; Hakala, Outi; Kärnä, Antti; Gunst, Annika
The aim of the present study was to investigate how women's tendency to pretend orgasm during intercourse is associated with orgasm function and intercourse-related pain, using a longitudinal design where temporal stability and possible causal relationships could be modeled. The study sample consisted of 1421 Finnish women who had participated in large-scale population-based data collections conducted at two time points 7 years apart. Pretending orgasm was assessed for the past 4 weeks, and orgasm function and pain were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index for the past 4 weeks. Associations were also computed separately in three groups of women based on relationship status. Pretending orgasm was considerably variable over time, with 34% of the women having pretended orgasm a few times or more at least at one time point, and 11% having done so at both time points. Initial bivariate correlations revealed associations between pretending orgasm and orgasm problems within and across time, whereas associations with pain were more ambiguous. However, we found no support in the path model for the leading hypotheses that pretending orgasms would predict pain or orgasm problems over a long period of time, or that pain or orgasm problems would predict pretending orgasm. The strongest predictor of future pretending in our model was previous pretending (R 2 = .14). Relationship status did not seem to affect pretending orgasm in any major way.
Molesworth, Mike; Watkins, Rebecca
Drawing from phenomenological interviews with 24 adult videogamers, we explore videogame consumption as a source of individualised, episodic progress. We first consider the relationship between play, progress, technology and the market. We then document adults’ accounts of progress through the acquisition of new consoles and software, in the accumulation of in-game resources, and in creative achievements within videogames. Alongside an understanding of technological improvements as representi...
Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Lillard et al. (2013) concluded that pretend play is not causally related to child outcomes and charged that the field is subject to a "play ethos", whereby research is tainted by a bias to find positive effects of play on child development. In this commentary, we embrace their call for a more solidly scientific approach to questions in this…
Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna
To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.
One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432
Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.
Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…
Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth
Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Thorup, Anne
The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support.......The families of patients with first-episode psychosis often play a major role in care and often experience lack of support....
Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark
Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks
Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich
AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy
Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.
Combining a scientific and a humanistic approach in a series of essays that draw on both clinical and literary data, this book examines how imaginative play begins and how it develops. From the infant's first smiles and peekaboo games to the toddler's exploration of objects and participation in symbolic and social pretend play, the book traces the…
Stein, Martin T; Heyneman, Ellen K; Stern, Eric J
Sarah is a 9 year old girl who was brought to her pediatrician with sleep difficulties and repetitive nightmares. Her mother reported that Sarah had problems falling asleep for several years with recurrent nightmares about her mother getting hurt. Sarah also had difficulties with separation from her mother and refused to sleep in her own bed. Sarah was described by her mother as "irritable with poor concentration," and easily startled. The mother denied any recent stressful events or changes in the home environment. The parents had been divorced for two years; there was a prior history of domestic violence. Sarah was otherwise in good health. Sarah's mother was in treatment for depression. Sarah's father had a history of alcohol abuse. In the pediatrician's office Sarah appeared irritable and clingy. While the pediatrician spoke with Sarah's mother, Sarah began playing with dolls, pretending that one was hitting the other repeatedly and then rushing the injured doll to the hospital. After Sarah appeared more comfortable, the pediatrician interviewed Sarah alone. Late in the interview, the pediatrician asked Sarah if she had ever seen anything that scared her. Sarah did not reply immediately. "Have you ever seen grownups be mean to each other and fight?" She replied, "My daddy hit my mommy and made her go to the hospital in an ambulance." Sarah's mother reported that Sarah had witnessed many episodes of domestic violence several years ago, including one fight that resulted in the mother's hospitalization and father's incarceration. The mother seemed surprised that Sarah could remember these episodes or found them traumatic since she had never spoken about them and no longer had any contact with her father. Sarah's mother asked the pediatrician if these episodes could relate to Sarah's current sleep difficulties and nightmares.
Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R
Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fancourt, Daisy; Burton, Thomas Mw; Williamon, Aaron
Over the past few decades there has been interest in the role of music in the operating theatre. However, despite many reported benefits, a number of potentially harmful effects of music have been identified. This study aimed to explore the effects of rock and classical music on surgical speed, accuracy and perceived distraction when performing multiorgan resection in the board game Operation. Single-blind, three-arm, randomised controlled trial. Imperial Festival, London, May 2016. Members of the public (n = 352) aged ≥ 16 years with no previous formal surgical training or hearing impairments. Participants were randomised to listen through noise-cancelling headphones to either the sound of an operating theatre, rock music or classical music. Participants were then invited to remove three organs from the board game patient, Cavity Sam, using surgical tweezers. Time taken (seconds) to remove three organs from Cavity Sam; the number of mistakes made in performing the surgery; and perceived distraction, rated on a five-point Likert-type scale from 1 (not at all distracting) to 5 (very distracting). Rock music impairs the performance of men but not women when undertaking complex surgical procedures in the board game Operation, increasing the time taken to operate and showing a trend towards more surgical mistakes. In addition, classical music was associated with lower perceived distraction during the game, but this effect was attenuated when factoring in how much people liked the music, with suggestions that only people who particularly liked the music of Mozart found it beneficial. Rock music (specifically Australian rock music) appears to have detrimental effects on surgical performance. Men are advised not to listen to rock music when either operating or playing board games.
Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O
The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep
Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179
Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene
Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....
In an examination of the way people store and retrieve information from advertising, this paper draws a distinction between "semantic" memory, which stores general knowledge about the world, and "episodic" memory, which stores information about specific events. It then argues that episodic memory plays a more significant role…
Love, Angela; Burns, M Susan
Sustaining attention and successfully engaging with others in collaborative play are important accomplishments focused on in preschool classrooms and childcare centers. In addition, music is frequently used in early childhood classrooms, and even recommended as an environmental feature to motivate and regulate children's behavior. Although pretend play provides appealing opportunities for developing these social abilities, no studies to date have explored the use of music as a tool to motivate and sustain constructive and social pretend play. Results from the current study indicate that within 1 preschool classroom, more sustained play (with fewer interruptions) occurred when music played as compared to when no music played in the background. In addition, significantly more dyadic play occurred when slower music played in the background, than when no music played.
Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
life script), and how these were affected by temporal distance (1 month, 1 year, 5+ years). The findings showed that the three types of events differed phenomenologically. First, episodic memories were remembered more easily, with more sensory details, and from a dominantly field perspective compared...... memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...
Giacomello, Karina Jorgino; Melo, Luciana de Lione
This qualitative research is based on the reference framework of Phenomenology--analysis of the structure of the situated phenomenon, and aims to understand institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play sessions. Participants were three sheltered children of preschool age, one boy and two goals. The therapeutic play sessions of the drama type were held in a reserved place and ranged from 30 to 50 minutes, using the following guiding proposal: "Let us play that we are children who live at the shelter?" Two broad theme categories could be captured: playing and pretending and playing and reality. When they are pretending while playing, sometimes calmly, sometimes violently, the children brought contents that evidenced situations in their daily family reality. When they expose their reality, the children addressed questions about the shelter institution and the bond with these professionals and with the relatives. It can be affirmed that therapeutic play allowed for the children's effective communication by expressing their feelings, desires, experiences, criticism against the environment they live in and family relations, besides permitting a moment of pleasure and relaxation.
Rabie, Mohammad E.; Al-Tayeb, Abdul-Rehman E.; Zafer, Mubarak H.; Seikha, Anwar A.
Hemophiliacs are subjected to develop episodes of spontaneous bleeding at different sites of the body, primarily the knees. On occasions such episodes affect the abdomen. The picture engendered in such cases may mimic that of an abdominal emergency requiring surgical intervention.Such ill advised and unwarranted intervention may end with the patient's death.With the proper emloyment of radiology, the correct diagonosis may be reached and consequently, conservative treatment, in which factor VIII plays the major role, instituted. Here we describe the clinical course of two patients with hemophilia A who suffered bleeding in the abdomen and were treated conservatively with a successfull outcome. (author)
Morrison, George S.; Rusher, Anne S.
Identifies the concepts and skills young children learn through play and describes ways to implement a successful play program in early-childhood settings. Includes discussions of planning for play activities, providing props and other materials, contextualizing play, assessing learning during play, and explaining the play curriculum to families…
Kukkonen, Tiina; Chang-Kredl, Sandra
The ability to construct shared meaning with peers is important for young children's social and linguistic development. Previous studies have mainly focused on shared meaning-making within cooperative pretend play with little mention of other childhood activities that might promote intersubjectivity. This study investigated the group play that…
Dolcos, Florin; Katsumi, Yuta; Weymar, Mathias; Moore, Matthew; Tsukiura, Takashi; Dolcos, Sanda
Building upon the existing literature on emotional memory, the present review examines emerging evidence from brain imaging investigations regarding four research directions: (1) Social Emotional Memory, (2) The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Impact of Emotion on Memory, (3) The Impact of Emotion on Associative or Relational Memory, and (4) The Role of Individual Differences in Emotional Memory. Across these four domains, available evidence demonstrates that emotion- and memory-related medial temporal lobe brain regions (amygdala and hippocampus, respectively), together with prefrontal cortical regions, play a pivotal role during both encoding and retrieval of emotional episodic memories. This evidence sheds light on the neural mechanisms of emotional memories in healthy functioning, and has important implications for understanding clinical conditions that are associated with negative affective biases in encoding and retrieving emotional memories. PMID:29255432
Y. Aboel Fetouh
Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.
Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... the range of play, the value of playful experiences, and explore the potential of design for play with the goal of generating a more playful world. With its participatory approach, Design for Play includes strong elements of making, engaging and co-creating with users, and thereby ways to learn from...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...
Mahr, Johannes B.; Csibra, Gergely
Short Abstract We propose a novel account of episodic memory function based on a conceptual and empirical analysis of its role in belief formation. We provide a critique of the view that episodic memory serves future-directed imagination, and argue that the central features of this capacity can instead be explained by the role it plays in human communication. On this view, episodic memory allows us to communicatively support our interpretations of the past by gauging when we can assert epistemic authority. This capacity is ineliminable in justification of, and negotiations about, social commitments established by past interactions. Long Abstract Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, ‘autonoetic’ character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past. Instead, empirical findings suggest that the contents of human episodic memory are often constructed in the service of the explicit justification of such beliefs. Existing accounts of episodic memory function that have focused on explaining its constructive character through its role in ‘future-oriented mental time travel’ neither do justice to its capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past nor to its representational format. We provide an account of the metarepresentational structure of episodic memory in terms of its role in communicative interaction. The generative nature of recollection allows us to represent and communicate the reasons for why we hold certain beliefs about the past. In this process, autonoesis corresponds to the capacity to
Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa Collins
Verbal play, or the playful manipulation of elements of language, is a pervasive component of social interaction, serving important interpersonal functions. We analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of ten healthy younger pairs and ten healthy older pairs as they completed a collaborative referencing task. A total of 1,893 verbal play episodes were coded. While there were no group differences in verbal play frequency, age-related differences in the quality and function of these episodes emerged. While older participants engaged in more complex, extended, and reciprocal episodes that supported the social nature of communicative interactions (e.g., teasing), younger participants were more likely to engage in verbal play episodes for the purpose of successful task completion. Despite these age-related variations in the deployment of verbal play, verbal play is a robust interactional discourse resource in healthy aging, highlighting an element of human cognition that does not appear to decline with age.
Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia
This paper focuses on an episode of play in a primary school playground in England, which featured a group of children re-enacting elements of the television talk show "The Jeremy Kyle Show". The episode is analysed in the light of work that has identified the key elements of the talk show genre and the children's play is examined in…
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....
Full Text Available Masatake Kurita1–3 1Koutokukai Wakamiya Hospital, Yoshihara, Yamagata, 2Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Although antidepressants may increase the risk of switching to mania in bipolar disorder (BD, clinicians have been using antidepressants to treat patients with bipolar depression. Appropriate treatments for bipolar depression remain controversial. In BD, antidepressants comprise a double-edged sword in terms of their efficacy in treating depression and the increased risk of switching. This review presents an important table outlining the benefit in terms of depression improvement and the risk of switching in the clinical setting. It also proposes strategies based on the characteristics of antidepressants such as their pharmacology, specifically the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD of the noradrenaline transporter. This table will be useful for clinicians while considering benefit and risk. Antidepressants augmenting noradrenaline may be effective in bipolar depression. However, it is easily presumed that such antidepressants may also have a risk of switching to mania. Therefore, antidepressants augmenting noradrenaline will be the recommended treatment in combination with an antimanic agent, or they may be used for short-term treatment and early discontinuation. The corresponding medical treatment guidelines probably need to be reevaluated and updated based on biological backgrounds. From previous studies, we understand that the stability of noradrenaline levels is important for BD amelioration, based on the pathophysiology of the disorder. It is hoped that researchers will reevaluate BD by conducting studies involving noradrenaline. Keywords: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, dopamine, homovanillic acid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, biomarker, antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, tricyclic antidepressant, mood disorder
Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.
An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…
Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M
principles for first-episode psychosis are to maximise benefit and minimise side effects because the first experience of medication may influence a patient's future attitudes of therapy of all types. Effective strategies which may reduce long-term morbidity and improve recovery are currently available but their implementation is too often delayed. The time lag between the onset of symptoms and the start of treatment can be many months or years and this delay can have serious consequences. The critical period of the first 2-5 years after the first psychotic episode is a time of maximum vulnerability and of maximum opportunity. Consequently, actions should be undertaken to promote early recognition and assistance in psychotic disorders: understanding of the factors that may cause delay in treatment can help minimise this problem and lead to the initiation of appropriate treatment at the earliest opportunity. Training the general practitioners who have an important part to play in the early recognition is also of crucial importance.
Gargoloff, Pedro Rafael
Mixed Episode is a complex syndrome with difficult in its recognition, the most prolonged duration of bipolar episodes, more frequent psychotic profile than Pure Manic Episode, with high suicidality and poor response to drugs. There are evidences of less efficacy with Lithium and Carbamazepine in Manic Episode than mixed states. Valproate improve both, manic and depressive symptoms, and it is proposed to be first choice. Olanzapine has been widely evaluated, showing robust response in acute Mania as well in depressive symptoms during Mixed episode. In the field of clinical practice, there are many patients receiving more than one drug, usually Valproate plus a second generation antipsychotic.
Chessa, Daphne; Di Riso, Daniela; Delvecchio, Elisa; Salcuni, Silvia; Lis, Adriana
The aim of this paper was to study the construct validity of the Affect in Play Scale, an empirically based measure of pretend play, in a group of 519 Italian children ages 6 to 10 years. In confirmatory factor analysis, a correlated two-factor structure with a cognitive and an affective factor was identified. Possible differences in factor scores by sex and age were investigated but no significant differences were found.
Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...
Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen
The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of intradialytic increases in blood pressure are not well defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of autonomic nervous system activation during intradialytic hypertensive episodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continuous interbeat intervals (IBI and systolic blood pressure (SBP were monitored during hemodialysis in 108 chronic patients. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes defined as a period of at least 10 mmHg increase in SBP between the beginning and the end of a dialysis session or hypertension resistant to ultrafiltration occurring during or immediately after the dialysis procedure, were detected in 62 out of 113 hemodialysis sessions. SBP variability, IBI variability and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS in the low (LF and high (HF frequency ranges were assessed using the complex demodulation technique (CDM. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes were associated with an increased (n = 45 or decreased (n = 17 heart rate. The maximal blood pressure was similar in both groups. In patients with increased heart rate the increase in blood pressure was associated with marked increases in SBP and IBI variability, with suppressed BRS indices and enhanced sympatho-vagal balance. In contrast, in those with decreased heart rate, there were no significant changes in the above parameters. End-of-dialysis blood pressure in all sessions associated with hypertensive episode was significantly higher than in those without such episodes. In logistic regression analysis, predialysis BRS in the low frequency range was found to be the main predictor of intradialytic hypertension. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data point to sympathetic overactivity with feed-forward blood pressure enhancement as an important mechanism of intradialytic hypertension in a significant proportion of patients. The triggers of increased sympathetic activity during hemodialysis remain to be determined. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes
Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel
This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play situations. After a detailed explanation of immediate play, we analyze the context of the immediate play situation, which is mostly characterized by an overlap between different realities of the exper...
Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma
Play has been recognized as an essential component to children′s healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist′s narration of the child′s play.
Tessier, V P; Normandin, L; Ensink, K; Fonagy, P
In Fonagy and Target's (1996, 2000) developmental model of mentalization, play is theorized as a precursor of later mentalization and reflective function (RF); however, the relationship between play and later mentalization and RF has yet to be empirically tested. These processes are particularly important in the context of trauma, but an empirical model of the relationships among mentalization, play, and trauma is currently lacking. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's capacity to engage in pretend play, to symbolize, and to make play narratives was associated with later RF in those children. Thirty-nine sexually abused children and 21 nonabused children (aged 3 to 8) participated in the study. The Children's Play Therapy Instrument was used to assess children's free play. Three years after the play assessment, children's RF was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview, coded with the Child and Adolescent Reflective Functioning Scale. Pretend play completion was associated with later other-understanding. Play was also found to mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and children's later mentalization regarding others. These findings are consistent with Fonagy and Target's emphasis on the role of pretend play in the development of a nuanced sense of the qualities of the mind and reality. In sum, the findings lend support to Fonagy and Target's account of playing with reality, and the development of mentalization suggests that it may be more than "fiction." Furthermore, these results suggest that children's ability to create meaningful and coherent play sequences after sexual abuse is associated with the development of a better understanding of their relationships with others. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin
Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped....... In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from international research in museums and interaction design. Specifically, we explore four aspects of play first proposed by Huizinga (2002) — the ‘free-choice’ aspect of play, play as distinct from ‘real life,’ play...... as an ordering structure, and the role of play in bridging communities. We argue that play provides museums with ready-made structures and concepts which help them plan for visitor learning....
Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger
In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....
Wang, Tong; Yue, Tong; Huang, Xi Ting
Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory's contribution to EFT.
Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.
Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)
Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne
Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....
Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre
The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....
Stan A. Kuczaj; Holli C. Eskelinen
Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play...
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...
van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus
Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how
Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner
This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individ...
International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel
that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related......In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...
Full Text Available During our aerosol measurement program at Syowa Station, Antarctica in 2004-2007, some low visibility (haze phenomena were observed under conditions with weak wind and without drifting snow and fog in winter-spring. In the "Antarctic haze" phenomenon, the number concentration of aerosol particles and black carbon concentration increased by one-two orders higher relative to background conditions at Syowa Station, while surface O_3 concentration simultaneously dropped especially after polar sunrise. Major aerosol constituents in the haze phenomenon were sea-salts (e.g., Na^+ and Cl^-. From the trajectory analysis and NAAPS model, the plumes from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa were transported to Syowa Station, Antarctic coast, during eastward (occasionally westward approach of cyclones in the Southern Ocean. Thus, poleward flow of the plume from mid-latitudes and injection of sea-salt particles during the transport may lead to the Antarctic haze phenomenon at Syowa Station. The difference of O_3 concentration between the background and the haze conditions tended to be larger in spring (polar sunrise relative to that in winter. Because enhancement of sea-salt particles can play an important role as an additional source of reactive halogen species, the haze episodes might make a significant contribution to surface O_3 depletion during the polar sunrise on the Antarctic coast.
Iwata, Saeko; Tsukiura, Takashi
Episodic memory is defined as memory for personally experienced events, and includes memory content and contextual information of time and space. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have demonstrated three possible roles of the temporal context in episodic memory. First, temporal information contributes to the arrangement of temporal order for sequential events in episodic memory, and this process is involved in the lateral prefrontal cortex. The second possible role of temporal information in episodic memory is the segregation between memories of multiple events, which are segregated by cues of different time information. The role of segregation is associated with the orbitofrontal regions including the orbitofrontal cortex and basal forebrain region. Third, temporal information in episodic memory plays an important role in the integration of multiple components into a coherent episodic memory, in which episodic components in the different modalities are combined by temporal information as an index. The role of integration is mediated by the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, temporal information in episodic memory could be represented in multiple stages, which are involved in a network of the lateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and medial temporal lobe regions.
Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Nadel, Lynn; Payne, Jessica; Ryan, Lee
The hippocampus, a region implicated in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory, is central to the debate concerning the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Studies of medial temporal lobe amnesic patients provide evidence that the hippocampus is critical for the retrieval of episodic but not semantic memory. On the other hand, recent neuroimaging studies of intact individuals report hippocampal activation during retrieval of both autobiographical memories and semantic information that includes historical facts, famous faces, and categorical information, suggesting that episodic and semantic memory may engage the hippocampus during memory retrieval in similar ways. Few studies have matched episodic and semantic tasks for the degree to which they include spatial content, even though spatial content may be what drives hippocampal activation during semantic retrieval. To examine this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which retrieval of spatial and nonspatial information was compared during an episodic and semantic recognition task. Results show that the hippocampus (1) participates preferentially in the retrieval of episodic memories; (2) is also engaged by retrieval of semantic memories, particularly those that include spatial information. These data suggest that sharp dissociations between episodic and semantic memory may be overly simplistic and that the hippocampus plays a role in the retrieval of spatial content whether drawn from a memory of one's own life experiences or real-world semantic knowledge. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lee, Joshua K; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ghetti, Simona
Episodic memory critically depends on the hippocampus to bind the features of an experience into memory. Episodic memory develops in childhood and adolescence, and hippocampal changes during this period may contribute to this development. Little is known, however, about how the hippocampus contributes to episodic memory development. The hippocampus is comprised of several cytoarchitectural subfields with functional significance for episodic memory. However, hippocampal subfields have not been assessed in vivo during child development, nor has their relation with episodic memory been assessed during this period. In the present study, high-resolution T2-weighted images of the hippocampus were acquired in 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 14 years (M=11.30, SD=2.38), and hippocampal subfields were segmented using a protocol previously validated in adult populations. We first validated the method in children and adolescents and examined age-related differences in hippocampal subfields and correlations between subfield volumes and episodic memory. Significant age-related increases in the subfield volume were observed into early adolescence in the right CA3/DG and CA1. The right CA3/DG subfield volumes were positively correlated with accurate episodic memory for item-color relations, and the right CA3/DG and subiculum were negatively correlated with item false alarm rates. Subfield development appears to follow a protracted developmental trajectory, and likely plays a pivotal role in episodic memory development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina
Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being…
Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...
Stan A. Kuczaj
Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.
Jornet, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Krange, Ingeborg
In this article we present an analytical framework for approaching transfer episodes--episodes in which participants declare or can be declared to bring prior experience to bear on the current task organization. We build on Dewey's writings about the continuity of experience, Vygotsky's ideas of unit analysis, as well as more recent developments…
Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…
Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl
We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.
Crystal, Jonathon D
Humans encounter a myriad of actions or events and later recall some of these events using episodic memory. New research suggests that dogs can imitate recently encountered actions using episodic memory. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel
This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....
In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…
Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.
Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.
Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…
Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva
What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...
Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard
An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...
This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.
Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik
This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...
Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio
Recent studies have suggested that the onset of sleepwalking episodes may be preceded by fluctuations in slow-wave sleep electroencephalographic characteristics. However, whether or not such fluctuations are specific to sleepwalking episodes or generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers remains unknown. The goal of this study was to compare spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) as well as slow oscillation density before the onset of somnambulistic episodes versus non-behavioral awakenings recorded from the same group of sleepwalkers. A secondary aim was to describe the time course of observed changes in slow-wave activity and slow oscillations during the 3 min immediately preceding the occurrence of somnambulistic episodes. Twelve adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically during the course of one night. Slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density were significantly greater prior to patients' somnambulistic episodes as compared with non-behavioral awakenings. However, there was no evidence for a gradual increase over the 3 min preceding the episodes. Increased slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density appear to be specific to sleepwalking episodes rather than generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Claudia P. Múnera
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.
Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...
Temmingh, Hendrik S; Oosthuizen, Piet P
In contrast to findings from the developed world where general practitioners and mental health professionals are central in first episode psychosis pathways, studies from Africa have found GPs to play a less prominent role with other help providers such as traditional healers being more important. We compared pathways to care, treatment delays and gender differences in patients with first versus multi episode psychosis. Private sector GPs were first contacts in first episode patients in as many as 38% of patients and were significantly more likely to be the first contact (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.38-14.67) and final referring agent (odds ratio = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.56-25.12) in first episode patients. Female multi episode patients were significantly more likely to make first contact with primary care practitioners whereas male multi episode patients were more likely to first come into contact with the police (P = 0.003) and be admitted compulsorily (P = 0.009). Only 5.6% (n = 4) of patients contacted traditional healers at some point in their pathway to care. Treatment delays and DUP in first episode patients were longer and reached a median of 4.5 versus 2.5 months in multi episode patients. Treatment discontinuation of antipsychotics occurred in 82% of multi episode patients. Despite significantly longer overall treatment delays in first episode patients the distribution of treatment delays in multi episode patients followed a similar pattern to DUP in first episode patients with a subgroup having very long delays. Pathways to care in this treatment setting correspond more to findings from first world and newly industrialized countries. A subgroup of multi episode patients had very long periods of untreated illness. Limitations include small sample size and the retrospective nature of data collection.
Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff
Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.
Over the past four decades, a “standard framework” has emerged to explain the neural mechanisms of episodic memory storage. This framework has been instrumental in driving hippocampal research forward and now dominates the design and interpretation of experimental and theoretical studies. It postulates that cortical inputs drive plasticity in the recurrent cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) synapses to rapidly imprint memories as attractor states in CA3. Here we review a range of experimental studies and argue that the evidence against the standard framework is mounting, notwithstanding the considerable evidence in its support. We propose CRISP as an alternative theory to the standard framework. CRISP is based on Context Reset by dentate gyrus (DG), Intrinsic Sequences in CA3, and Pattern completion in cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Compared to previous models, CRISP uses a radically different mechanism for storing episodic memories in the hippocampus. Neural sequences are intrinsic to CA3, and inputs are mapped onto these intrinsic sequences through synaptic plasticity in the feedforward projections of the hippocampus. Hence, CRISP does not require plasticity in the recurrent CA3 synapses during the storage process. Like in other theories DG and CA1 play supporting roles, however, their function in CRISP have distinct implications. For instance, CA1 performs pattern completion in the absence of CA3 and DG contributes to episodic memory retrieval, increasing the speed, precision, and robustness of retrieval. We propose the conceptual theory, discuss its implications for experimental results and suggest testable predictions. It appears that CRISP not only accounts for those experimental results that are consistent with the standard framework, but also for results that are at odds with the standard framework. We therefore suggest that CRISP is a viable, and perhaps superior, theory for the hippocampal function in episodic memory. PMID:23653597
Summerfield, Christopher; Greene, Matthew; Wager, Tor; Egner, Tobias; Hirsch, Joy; Mangels, Jennifer
During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals) are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses). Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.
Full Text Available During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses. Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.
Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry
Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....
Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J
This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview and differentiate correlates of "near homelessness" (i.e., doubling up) and "homeless episodes" (periods of actual homelessness). Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one-fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study.
Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan
The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.
Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.
Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops...... the critical argument against this academic technique by going back to the history of cultural anthropology of play. This history did not develop in a linear way, but by shifts between different periods of colonial and anticolonial positions, as well as between more positivistic and more relativist approaches....... The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild
The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.
Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and...
Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik
This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... related to open and distributed innovation models. From this experience, we induce that a game can be useful to teach certain open innovation concepts and practices. We also highlight some possible caveats of using the game and of actual open innovation practices alike, such as a tendency towards too much...
Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob
Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...
This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20th...... century, has a long history and was only recently applied to HCI (Nardi 1996) and games (P. Barr et al. 2007), where Barr succeeded in situating play in the Activity Theory framework. Based on his work to establish a framework for analysing systems of values in games, this paper maps different levels...
General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell
Kaufmann, Matthew L.; Bomer, Megan A.; Powell, Nancy Norem
Students enter the geometry classroom with a strong concept of fairness and a sense of what it means to "play by the rules," yet many students have difficulty understanding the postulates, or rules, of geometry and their implications. Although they may never have articulated the properties of an axiomatic system, they have gained a practical…
Knudsen, Hanne; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
. We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...
... of activity that carry through the rest of childhood. So an active toddler is likely to remain active later. Developing Skills Playing and learning are completely natural for toddlers, so mastering physical skills should be fun and games for them. Parents should give toddlers many opportunities ...
This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.
Vieyra, Rebecca; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi
Gaming is becoming an effective form of learning and assessment and shouldn't be overlooked in an increasingly technological world. The games described in this article ("Impulse," "Quantum Spectre," and "Ravenous"), entertaining enough to be played by the general public, are also appropriate and useful in a classroom…
Abstract. The objectives of the study are to know whether play therapy can facilitate the self- healing process, to improve the academic performance, increase the attentive level, and to ensure self-confidence and esteem of children under difficult circumstances. Data for this study were the case works of the researcher (for ...
Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo
participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...
-level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...
context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...
Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.
Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816
Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner
This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study. PMID:21656303
Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa
Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.
Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the...... visitors), challenged by ticketing and refreshed by coffee, are struggling towards the goal: the exhibition. By applying the game metaphor we hope to unearth a new understanding of the lobby. In the workshop we are going to make small simple boardgames of cardboard that resemble the game of the lobby....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...
Leino, Olli Tapio
Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...
Deborah Bird Rose
Full Text Available ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.
The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies...... with children and adults and from group analysis. Most of the examples are with hateful or resigned children and adults who have been exposed to extremely damaging or unhelpful environments, and who demonstrate convincingly some of the devastating consequences that abuse of power in the real world may have...
Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob
Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...
Delvecchio, Elisa; Li, Jian-Bin; Pazzagli, Chiara; Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia
Pretend play has a central role for children's development and psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of standardized and valid measures specifically devoted to assess the core domains involved in play activities in preschool and primary school children. The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool (4-5 years) and the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Extended Version (6-10 years) are semi-structured parallel tools designed to explore child's cognitive and affective processes using a standardized play task. The current study administered this 5-min play task to 538 Italian children aged 4-10. The purposes were to compare play abilities in boys vs. girls and in preschool vs. primary school children, to correlate pretend play with divergent thinking and to evaluate the structural validity of the measure along the considered age span. No differences, excepting for Organization, were found between boys and girls, whereas school age children reported higher play abilities then the younger ones. External validity was assessed using correlational analysis with the divergent thinking task (the Alternate Uses Test) for preschoolers and primary school-aged children, in line with findings from Manova. Construct validity, assessed through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, showed good fits for the two-factor model with cognitive and affective factor for both the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool and its Extended Version. A multi-group factor analysis suggested a partial invariance of the two-factor model across preschool (4-5 years old) and primary school-aged (6-10 years old) children. Results supported the use of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool and its Extended Version as adequate measures to assess the interplay of cognitive and affective skills in preschool and school age children. The discussion highlights clinical and research implications linked to the possibility to have a unique play task able to assess child's affective and cognitive abilities throughout a quite
Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie
Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... are intrinsically concerned with processes of social identities, both those that are anchored in the social reality as well as those anticipated and imagined...
Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie
Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....
Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen
In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…
Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W
We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P episodic memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P < .01). Impairment in executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M
Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.
Vatsal Priyadarshi Pandey
Full Text Available Context: Hypothyroidism affects cognitive functions especially memory. However, most of the previous studies have generally evaluated older hypothyroid patients and sample size of these studies varied in terms of age range. Aims: To see whether hypothyroidism affects memory in young patients. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 11 hypothyroid patients with an age of 18–49 and 8 healthy controls matched on age and education. Subjects and Methods: Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Hindi adaptation of Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistical Analysis Used: An independent t-test was used to see the difference between mean performance of the patient group and healthy control on memory measures. Results: Results indicated nonsignificant difference between verbal episodic memory of patient group and healthy controls. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that hypothyroidism may not affect younger patients in terms of episodic verbal memory the same way as it does in the older patients.
Fosse, Magdalena J; Fosse, Roar; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert J
The activity that takes place in memory systems during sleep is likely to be related to the role of sleep in memory consolidation and learning, as well as to the generation of dream hallucinations. This study addressed the often-stated hypothesis that replay of whole episodic memories contributes to the multimodal hallucinations of sleep. Over a period of 14 days, 29 subjects kept a log of daytime activities, events, and concerns, wrote down any recalled dreams, and scored the dreams for incorporation of any waking experiences. While 65% of a total of 299 sleep mentation reports were judged to reflect aspects of recent waking life experiences, the episodic replay of waking events was found in no more than 1-2% of the dream reports. This finding has implications for understanding the unique memory processing that takes place during the night and is consistent with evidence that sleep has no role in episodic memory consolidation.
Horzyk, Adrian; Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James
This paper describes the integration of semantic and episodic memory (EM) models and the benefits of such integration. Semantic memory (SM) is used as a foundation of knowledge and concept learning, and is needed for the operation of any cognitive system. EM retains personal experiences stored based on their significance-it is supported by the SM, and in return, it supports SM operations. Integrated declarative memories are critical for cognitive system development, yet very little research has been done to develop their computational models. We considered structural self-organization of both semantic and episodic memories with a symbolic representation of input events. Sequences of events are stored in EM and are used to build associations in SM. We demonstrated that integration of semantic and episodic memories improves the native operation of both types of memories. Experimental results are presented to illustrate how the two memories complement each other by improving recognition, prediction, and context-based generalization of individual memories.
Ekberg, O.; Feinberg, M.J.
Choking, or what is perceived as partial or complete airway obstruction, is a common occurrence. Videofluoroscopy was performed in 59 adults who experienced a choking episode that was relieved by a Heimlich maneuver or required removal of material from the airway. Eighteen had significant dysfunction during ingestion, processing, or transport of the bolus; three had structural abnormalities of the cervical esophagus; eight had structural and/or motility abnormalities of the thoracic esophagus; 11 had multiple dysfunctions; 19 had no abnormalities. Radiographic findings are detailed and related to pathologic, mechanical, and neuromuscular events that may lead to choking episodes
Heidemann, Sandra; Hewitt, Deborah
Play skills are vital to a child's overall healthy development. However, the training many caregivers receive may not include extensive information on play skills. This book presents a play checklist to help caregivers observe children's play skills, pinpoint play skills on which children need to work, and plan goals for improving those play…
This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According
Kessing, Lars Vedel
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. AIMS: To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. METHOD: Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric in......-patients and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. RESULTS: A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...
Background It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. Aims To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. Method Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric inpatients...... and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. Results A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...
Timoteo Madaleno Vieira
Full Text Available Investigamos a relação entre fatores de aprendizagem social, acessados via questionários, e os comportamentos agressivos e lúdicos de meninos pré-escolares, através de observação direta durante o recreio. Os participantes foram 15 meninos com idades entre quatro e seis anos, da cidade de Goiânia, GO, Brasil. Uma análise multivariada de variância indicou efeitos significativos de modelos de agressividade em casa nas taxas de agressão durante o brincar. Crianças expostas a punições físicas abusivas, brigas entre adultos e programas violentos de TV apresentaram mais agressões reais. Meninos que relataram brincar com armas de brinquedo em casa não apresentaram mais agressões reais do que os que relataram o contrário, mas apresentaram maior proporção de agressões de faz-de-conta. Os resultados também indicaram que quanto mais modelos agressivos em casa, maior a incidência de comportamentos agressivos.We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.
Akyürek, Elkan G.; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard
The relationship between attentional control and episodic representation was investigated in six experiments that employed a variant of the classic attentional blink paradigm. We introduced a task-irrelevant (unpredictive) color match between the first and second target stimulus in a three-stream
Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...
Dusseldorp, L. van; Goossens, P.J.J.; Achterberg, T. van
The purpose of this literature review is to identify mental health nursing's contribution to the care and treatment of patients with a first episode of psychosis; A systematic literature review was undertaken, with 27 articles selected for study. Five domains were identified: development of
Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.
Wiler, Jennifer L; Beck, Dennis; Asplin, Brent R; Granovsky, Michael; Moorhead, John; Pilgrim, Randy; Schuur, Jeremiah D
Optimizing resource use, eliminating waste, aligning provider incentives, reducing overall costs, and coordinating the delivery of quality care while improving outcomes have been major themes of health care reform initiatives. Recent legislation contains several provisions designed to move away from the current fee-for-service payment mechanism toward a model that reimburses providers for caring for a population of patients over time while shifting more financial risk to providers. In this article, we review current approaches to episode of care development and reimbursement. We describe the challenges of incorporating emergency medicine into the episode of care approach and the uncertain influence this delivery model will have on emergency medicine care, including quality outcomes. We discuss the limitations of the episode of care payment model for emergency services and advocate retention of the current fee-for-service payment model, as well as identify research gaps that, if addressed, could be used to inform future policy decisions of emergency medicine health policy leaders. We then describe a meaningful role for emergency medicine in an episode of care setting. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie
AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...
Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.
In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...
Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of fi rst-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-fi ve patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale...
Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.
Girish Baburao Kulkarni
Full Text Available Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1 gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation. Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes.
Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang
The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.
Trueblood, Jennifer S; Hemmer, Pernille
Recent evidence suggests that experienced events are often mapped to too many episodic states, including those that are logically or experimentally incompatible with one another. For example, episodic over-distribution patterns show that the probability of accepting an item under different mutually exclusive conditions violates the disjunction rule. A related example, called subadditivity, occurs when the probability of accepting an item under mutually exclusive and exhaustive instruction conditions sums to a number >1. Both the over-distribution effect and subadditivity have been widely observed in item and source-memory paradigms. These phenomena are difficult to explain using standard memory frameworks, such as signal-detection theory. A dual-trace model called the over-distribution (OD) model (Brainerd & Reyna, 2008) can explain the episodic over-distribution effect, but not subadditivity. Our goal is to develop a model that can explain both effects. In this paper, we propose the Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory (GQEM) model, which extends the Quantum Episodic Memory (QEM) model developed by Brainerd, Wang, and Reyna (2013). We test GQEM by comparing it to the OD model using data from a novel item-memory experiment and a previously published source-memory experiment (Kellen, Singmann, & Klauer, 2014) examining the over-distribution effect. Using the best-fit parameters from the over-distribution experiments, we conclude by showing that the GQEM model can also account for subadditivity. Overall these results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that quantum probability theory is a valuable tool in modeling recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel
Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hooft, G. ' t [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrech (Netherlands)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Witten, E. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (United States)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Dowker, F. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Davies, P. [Australian Centre for Astrobiology, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Einstein was one of the founders of quantum mechanics, yet he disliked the randomness that lies at the heart of the theory. God does not, he famously said, play dice. However, quantum theory has survived a century of experimental tests, although it has yet to be reconciled with another of Einstein's great discoveries - the general theory of relativity. Below four theorists - Gerard t'Hooft, Edward Witten, Fay Dowker and Paul Davies - outline their views on the current status of quantum theory and the way forward. Gerard 't Hooft argues that the problems we face in reconciling quantum mechanics with general relativity could force us to reconsider the basic principles of both theories. (U.K.)
as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years......, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function...
-political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future......This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio...... are discussed in the book, namely, Europe as a promise, a bogeyman, a contested ideal and an anachronism. The book features contributions by ten scholars representing six European countries and displays a careful blend of well established and junior academic writers in the field....
Cassidy, David C.
It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.
Technological advances open up creative avenues with which to explore, analyse, and challenge apparent human performance limitations. Possibilities are thus offered to optimise the involved learning potentials, and thereby improve children’s quality of life in different ways depending on their ne......Technological advances open up creative avenues with which to explore, analyse, and challenge apparent human performance limitations. Possibilities are thus offered to optimise the involved learning potentials, and thereby improve children’s quality of life in different ways depending...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...
Selmi, Ann M.; Rueda, Robert S.
This naturalistic study examined the classroom collaborative play activities of nine preschoolers with hearing impairments and language delays, but without sign-language skills. Findings indicated the children constructed collaborative play episodes which incorporated role, action, and object transformations using a nonverbal metacommunication…
Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.
Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…
Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?
Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…
Recent philosophy of science has seen a number of attempts to understand scientific models by looking to theories of fiction. In previous work, I have offered an account of models that draws on Kendall Walton's 'make-believe' theory of art. According to this account, models function as 'props' in games of make-believe, like children's dolls or toy trucks. In this paper, I assess the make-believe view through an empirical study of molecular models. I suggest that the view gains support when we look at the way that these models are used and the attitude that users take towards them. Users' interaction with molecular models suggests that they do imagine the models to be molecules, in much the same way that children imagine a doll to be a baby. Furthermore, I argue, users of molecular models imagine themselves viewing and manipulating molecules, just as children playing with a doll might imagine themselves looking at a baby or feeding it. Recognising this 'participation' in modelling, I suggest, points towards a new account of how models are used to learn about the world, and helps us to understand the value that scientists sometimes place on three-dimensional, physical models over other forms of representation.
Samuel Neal Lockhart
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.
Jelínková, J; Branis, M
Severe air pollution episodes were recorded during the 1980s and early 1990s in the Czech Republic as a result of widespread combustion of brown coal. A population-based retrospective study investigated the relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in six highly polluted areas of the Czech Republic during smog episodes in 1982, 1985, 1987, and 1993. Total daily mortality, mortality by gender and age, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, data on weekly incidence of acute respiratory diseases and daily mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter were used in the model. The effects of smog on daily mortality were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Significant increases in mortality were observed for the 1982 and 1987 episodes (6% and 9%). In 1982, mortality was significantly associated with mean concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) of the current and the preceding days and with the 4-day moving average. In the 1985 episode a significant increase in respiratory mortality in men and in both genders together, lagging by 2 and 3 days, was detected. During the 1987 episode significant associations of total daily mortality, mortality in persons over 65 years of age and mortality from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases with 4-day moving average of both pollutants were found. For the 1993 episode a significant association between mortality in women under 65, lagging by 3 days, and mean concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was observed. Most of the results are consistent with other studies aimed at episodic air pollution during the 1950s and 1960s in Western Europe and the USA, in which outdoor air pollution was shown to be a significant predictor of mortality. However, non-significant or opposite associations between air pollution and mortality indicate that other factors may also play an important role. A stronger effect on men under 65 years of age, suggested by a previous Czech study
Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E
Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications
Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G
Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J
The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.
Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.
White, E. C.; Watt-Meyer, O.; Kushner, P. J.; Jones, D. B. A.
Ozone concentrations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are positively correlated with surface air temperature due to shared influences including incident solar radiation and PBL stagnancy, as well as the temperature-sensitive emission of ozone precursor compounds. While previous studies have linked heat waves in North America to modes of subseasonal atmospheric variability, such analyses have not been applied to summertime ozone pollution episodes. This study investigates a possible link between subseasonal atmospheric variability in reanalysis data and summertime ozone pollution episodes identified in almost thirty years of in-situ measurements from the Air Quality System (AQS) network in the United States. AQS stations are grouped into regions likely to experience simultaneous extreme ozone concentrations using statistical clustering methods. Composite meteorological patterns are calculated for ozone episodes in each of these regions. The same analysis is applied to heat waves identified in AQS temperature records for comparison. Local meteorological features during typical ozone episodes include extreme temperatures and reduced cloud cover related to anomalous synoptic-scale anticyclonic circulation aloft. These anticyclonic anomalies are typically embedded in wave trains extending from the North Pacific to North Atlantic. Spectral analysis of these wave trains reveals that low-frequency standing waves play a prominent role. These long-lived circulation patterns may provide a means to increase air quality prediction lead-times and to estimate the frequency of ozone pollution episodes under climate change.
Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel
The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence.
Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Ahearn, William H
Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that included a substitutable loop that allowed various characters to perform the same actions and vocalizations. Three characters were modeled with the substitutable loop during training sessions, and 3 additional characters were present in the video but never modeled. Following video modeling, all the participants incorporated untrained characters into their play, but the extent to which they did so varied. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
D. T. Rodrigues
Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games
Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea
In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple construct...
Alexander S. Bobrov
Full Text Available Prodrome of paranoid schizophrenia with the episodic type of course (F20.1 and F20.2 according to ICD-10 and the schizoaffective structure of the episode was retrospectively studied. The pronounced and persistent affect, in particular depression in conjunction with hallucinations and/or delusions throughout the whole episode, served as the basis for an episode qualification as the schizoaffective structure. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by the extremely low socio-demographic indicators at the time of the manifest episode, by the presence of catatonic or catatono-oneiroid symptoms in more than half of the patients, as well as an incongruence of hallucination plot and/or delusions against the dominant affect. In most cases, the affective symptoms were detected in clinical presentation of a prodrome and significantly more often in the form of depression, in comparison with bipolar and mixed affective disorders. Different clinical manifestations of negative symptoms were revealed in significantly more than half of the patients. The study showed that there is a significant frequency of negative manifestations in conjugation with depression in the prodrome.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...
Solomon, David A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Boland, Robert J.; Keller, Martin B.
Objectives To describe the duration of bipolar I major and minor depressive episodes and factors associated with time to recovery. Method 219 participants with bipolar I disorder based on Research Diagnostic Criteria analogs to DSM-IV-TR criteria were recruited from 1978–1981 and followed for up to 25 years. Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive depressive episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including mixed-effects grouped-time survival models. Results The median duration of major depressive episodes was 14 weeks, and over 70% recovered within 12 months of onset of the episode. The median duration of minor depressive episodes was 8 weeks, and approximately 90% recovered within 6 months of onset of the episode. Aggregated data demonstrated similar durations of the first three major depressive episodes. However, for each participant with multiple episodes of major depression or minor depression, the duration of each episode was not consistent (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.07 and 0.25 for major and minor depression, respectively). The total number of years in episode over follow-up with major plus minor depression prior to onset of a major depressive episode was significantly associated with a decreased probability of recovery from that episode; with each additional year, the likelihood of recovery was reduced by 7% (hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98, p=0.002). Conclusions Bipolar I major depression generally lasts longer than minor depression, and the duration of multiple episodes within an individual varies. However, the probability of recovery over time from an episode of major depression appears to decline with each successive episode. PMID:23561241
Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.
Ashina, Messoud; Dodick, David; Goadsby, Peter J.
) study will receive erenumab 70 mg every 4 weeks for up to 5 years. This preplanned interim analysis, conducted after all participants had completed the 1-year open-label follow-up, evaluated changes in monthly migraine days (MMD), achievement of ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions, Headache Impact Test (HIT...... improvements and favorable safety and tolerability profiles, supports further investigation of erenumab as a preventive treatment in patients with EM. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01952574. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with episodic migraine, erenumab...... reduces long-term MMD and improves headache-related disability and migraine-specific quality of life....
Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe
Recalling the past and imagining the future is thought to employ very similar cognitive mechanisms. The strategic retrieval of specific past autobiographical events has been shown to depend on executive processes, and to be affected by cue imageability. The cognitive mechanisms underlying...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...... of details in both memories and future thoughts, indicating the involvement of some common component processes in autobiographical memory and future thinking....
Iverson, Barbara K.
The ability to take a playful outlook is important to creative thought, but too often schools recognize the legitimacy of structured games only, squelching creative play. Schools should cultivate natural playfulness so that children can adapt to our fast-changing world and learn to create new rules. (Author/WD)
Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E
Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald
Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold
In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...
Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Weijun; Yang, Lingxiao; Wen, Liang; Wang, Wenxing; Wang, Xinming; Collett, Jeffrey L; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Sui, Xiao; Sun, Xiaomin; Mellouki, Abdelwahid
Haze episodes often hit urban cities in China recently. Here, we present several continuous haze episodes with extremely high PM2.5 levels that occurred over several weeks in early 2013 and extended across most parts of the northern and eastern China-far exceeding the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Particularly, the haze episode covered ~1 million km(2) on January 14, 2013 and the daily averaged PM2.5 concentration exceeded 360 μg m(-3) in Ji'nan. The observed maximum hourly PM2.5 concentration in urban Ji'nan reached 701 μg m(-3) at 7:00 am (local time) in January 30. During these haze episodes, several fog events happened and the concurrent fog water was found to be seriously polluted. For the fog water collected in Ji'nan from 10:00 pm in January 14 to 11:00 am in January 15, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the major ions with concentrations of 1.54 × 10(6), 8.98 × 10(5), and 1.75 × 10(6) μeq L(-1), respectively, leading to a low in-situ pH of 3.30. The sulfate content in the fog sample was more than 544 times as high as those observed in other areas. With examination of the simultaneously observed data on PM2.5 and its chemical composition, the fog played a role in scavenging and removing fine particles from the atmosphere during haze episodes and thus was seriously contaminated. However, the effect was not sufficient to obviously cleanse air pollution and block haze episodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of meteorological processes in two of the highest ozone (O3 episodes within the last decade at monitoring sites in southern New Hampshire (NH, USA. The highest O3 levels occurred on 14 August 2002 at Thompson Farm (TF and 22 July 2004 at Castle Springs (CS. Ozone mixing ratios in the 2002 episode showed continual high values (>100 ppbv at the beginning of the episode, and reached 151 ppbv on 14 August. The 2004 episode consisted of one day of high O3 (>100 ppbv on 22 July at CS with the peak level of 111 ppbv. Our analysis suggested that the August 2002 high O3 event at TF occurred under stagnant synoptic high-pressure conditions that prevailed over the entire eastern USA for an unusually extended time period. The clear skies and stable meteorological conditions resulted in accumulation of pollutants in the boundary layer. At the same time, the mesoscale low-level-jet (LLJ played an important role in transporting air masses from the polluted Mid-Atlantic areas to the Northeast. Local land-sea-breeze circulations also added to the impact of this event. Our examination showed that the unprecedented high levels of O3 on 22 July 2004 at CS was driven by two mechanisms, stratospheric intrusion and the Appalachian lee trough (APLT, which was not found during other O3 episodes at the site in the decade long data record. This study demonstrated that unusually high O3 levels at New England rural sites were driven by multi-scale processes, and the regional/local scale processes controlled the magnitude and timing of the local pollution episodes.
Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J
Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brom, C.; Lukavský, Jiří; Kadlec, R.
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-244 ISSN 1793-8473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : episodic memory * virtual agent * modelling Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.worldscinet.com/ijmc/02/0202/S1793843010000461.html
Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.
We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be
Full Text Available Objectives Hemoptysis is an alarming symptom of underlying lung disease. Clinicians are often unsure how to deal with and follow up patients who have had a single episode of hemoptysis, especially if the cause remains unknown despite thorough examination, because a second, more severe episode of hemoptysis might occur despite an apparently stable condition. Investigations were done, using multivariate analyses, to see whether several clinical factors present during an initial episode of hemoptysis could be used to predict a second episode. Subjects and Methods Eighty patients with an initial episode of hemoptysis who underwent both computed tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations from 2003 through 2005 were reviewed. Results The isolation of bacteria from bronchial lavage fluid (odds ratio 13.5, P = 0.001 and the failure to determine the cause of the initial episode of hemoptysis (odds ratio 7.0, P = 0.014 were significant independent predictors of a second episode of hemoptysis. Subset analysis showed that isolation of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Haemophilus influenzae increased the likelihood of a second episode of hemoptysis (P = 0.077, even if colonization, representing host-bacterial equilibrium, had occurred. Furthermore, the failure to determine the etiology of an initial episode of hemoptysis was associated with an increased risk of a massive second episode (P = 0.042, regardless of the volume of the initial episode. Conclusions In patients with bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract or an initial episode of hemoptysis of unknown etiology, there is an increased possibility of a second episode of hemoptysis.
Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori
Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
This article analyses the relationship between cannabis use and educational trajectories among 42 young drug users, recruited at addiction treatment centres in Denmark. Quantitative research shows regular cannabis use to be associated with poor school performance and drop-out. However, these stud......, we show how regular cannabis plays into the ‘illusio’ of different fields, challenging the interviewees’ playing of educational games....
Eberle, Scott G.
Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…
In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…
The subtitle of the book is exact: the book presents an impression of the development of physics between 1895 (Röntgen's x-rays) and 2001 (Neutrinos have mass). Each episode describes a particular discovery in about five pages in an easily readable style. More demanding explanations are presented in inserted boxes. A nice feature of the book is that many episodes contain the original drawing of the scheme of the experiment, so that the reader can see how it really happened. For most of the past century, certainly for its first half, physics was the leading science and brought fundamental discoveries in the structure of matter, including the structure of nuclei and particles, and the structure of space-time. Most of the episodes in the book concern these two general fields. Among the episodes are the discoveries of radioactivity, the atomic nucleus, the structure of the atom, quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, accelerators, superconductivity, superfluidity, nuclear reactions in stars, and also transistors, masers, lasers, black-body radiation of the Universe and Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms in traps amongst others. The author is to be congratulated for the selection of the 100 episodes, as it must have been a difficult task. The discovery of the structure of haemoglobin in Bragg's laboratory received only two lines, and there is no mention of the explanation of the chemical bond in hydrogen molecules or on the construction of fantastic medical instruments based on discoveries in physics. Perhaps there is scope in the future for another 100 episodes of discoveries in multidisciplinary fields where physics has played an essential role. Even some discoveries in pure physics could not be included, for instance, super-heavy nuclei. I would like to recommend this book to all those who like the history of physics and admire its achievements in the past century. In particular, I would also like to recommend it to teachers of introductory courses in atomic
Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul
This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....
Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.
Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...
Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.
Kessing, Lars Vedel
BACKGROUND: The ICD-10 categorisation of severity of depression into mild, moderate and severe depressive episodes has not been validated. AIMS: To validate the ICD-10 categorisation of severity of depression by estimating its predictive ability on the course of illness and suicidal outcome. METHOD......: All psychiatric in-patients in Denmark who had received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at their first discharge between 1994 and 1999 were identified. The risk of relapse and the risk of suicide were compared for patients discharged with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate...... or severe depressive episode. RESULTS: At their first discharge, 1103 patients had an ICD-10 diagnosis of mild depressive episode, 3182 had a diagnosis of moderate depressive episode and 2914 had a diagnosis of severe depressive episode. The risk of relapse and the risk of suicide were significantly...
Full Text Available Pretend play has a central role for children’s development and psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of standardized and valid measures specifically devoted to assess the core domains involved in play activities in preschool and primary school children. The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool (4-5 years and the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Extended Version (6-10 years are semi-structured parallel tools designed to explore child’s cognitive and affective processes using a standardized play task. The current study administered this 5-minutes play task to 538 Italian children aged 4-10. The purposes were to compare play abilities in boys versus girls and in preschool versus primary school children, to correlate pretend play with divergent thinking and to evaluate the structural validity of the measure along the considered age span. No differences, excepting for Organization, were found between boys and girls, whereas school age children reported higher play abilities then the younger ones. External validity was assessed using correlational analysis with the divergent thinking task (the Alternate Uses Test for preschoolers and primary school-aged children, in line with findings from Manova. Construct validity, assessed through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, showed good fits for the two-factor model with cognitive and affective factor for both the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool and its Extended Version. A multi-group factor analysis suggested a partial invariance of the two-factor model across preschool (4-5 years old and primary school-aged (6-10 years old children. Results supported the use of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool and its Extended Version as adequate measures to assess the interplay of cognitive and affective skills in preschool and school age children. The discussion highlights clinical and research implications linked to the possibility to have a unique play task able to assess child’s affective and cognitive
Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan
The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…
In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…
Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.
In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful
Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…
Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…
Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca
Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…
Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.
This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…
Anderson, Tory S.
Human experiences are stored in episodic memory and are the basis for developing semantic narrative structures and many of the narratives we continually compose. Episodic memory has only recently been recognized as a necessary module in general cognitive architectures and little work has been done to examine how the data stored by these modules may be formulated as narrative structures. This paper regards episodic memory as fundamental to narrative intelligence and considers the gap between s...
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N; Lavender, Jason M; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; Peterson, Carol B; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E
The primary goal of this article is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 min, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in bulimia nervosa. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ferretti, F; Chiera, A; Nicchiarelli, S; Adornetti, I; Magni, R; Vicari, S; Valeri, G; Marini, A
The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.001, 2005) in order to avoid potential linguistic effects on children's performance. The results showed that this task can be used to assess the development of EFT at least until the age of 8. Furthermore, EFT scores correlated with measures of phonological short-term and verbal working memory. These results support the possibility that cognitive factors such as working memory play a key role in EFT.
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.
Play is well-established as central to the learning processes of young children (including Anning (2015) Moyles (2015) and Wood and Attfield (2005)) and is included in UK state legislation, central to the Statutory Framework for Early Years Foundation Stage (2017). This chapter will counter the assumption that play-based learning is of value only to Early Years teaching and learning by outlining how it has been used to develop and carry-out research within a Higher Education postgraduate prog...
Gürkov, Robert; Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva
External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière's disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004-2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future.
Buchy, Lisa; Luck, David; Czechowska, Yvonne; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with psychosis are more confident in beliefs and judgments compared to healthy participants and psychiatric controls with major depression. A recent study conducted by our research group has provided evidence for hippocampal pathology in association with overconfidence in a first-episode psychosis sample. The fornix is the primary efferent neural pathway of the hippocampus and may also play a role in self-certainty pathophysiology. The current investigation applied diffusion tensor imaging tractography to a first-episode psychosis sample to explore whether integrity of the fornix is associated with self-certainty. High resolution structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were obtained in 44 people with a first-episode psychosis. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography was used to estimate fractional anisotrophy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, in the fornix. Confidence in beliefs and judgments was measured with the self-certainty subscale of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). The analysis showed that self-certainty significantly correlated to FA values in the right fornix but was nonsignificant for the left fornix. The findings indicate anatomical dysconnectivity of the right fornix in correlation with BCIS-rated self-certainty in our first-episode psychosis sample. When considered with our previously published self-certainty-hippocampus result in a first-episode psychosis sample, overlapping with that of this study, the results indicate a concurrence of volumetric reductions in hippocampus and fornix pathology in correlation with self-certainty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.
Helmich, Rick C; Siebner, Hartwig R; Giffin, Nicola
Episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine are two rare hereditary disorders that are linked to dysfunctional ion channels and are characterized clinically by paroxysmal neurological symptoms. Impaired regulation of cerebral excitability is thought to play a role in the occurrence......-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at an interstimulus interval of 2 and 10 ms to assess intracortical inhibition and facilitation, respectively. The time course of burst-induced excitability changes differed between groups. Healthy controls showed a short-lived increase in excitability that was only present 50...... ms after the burst. In contrast, patients with episodic ataxia type 2 showed an abnormally prolonged increase in corticospinal excitability that was still present 250 ms after the transcranial magnetic stimulation burst. Furthermore, while controls showed a decrease in intracortical facilitation...
... a desire to learn how one determines blood types, their differences and which ones are compatible for blood transfusions. ” See a Video about the Blood Typing Game 3 min. Play 1. ploster 3480 2. Yokota ...
Grueber, Catherine E; Wallis, Graham P; Jamieson, Ian G
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved pattern-recognition molecules responsible for initiating innate and acquired immune responses. Because they play a key role in host defence, these genes have received increasing interest in the evolutionary and population genetics literature, as their variation represents a potential target of adaptive evolution. However, the role of pathogen-mediated selection (i.e. episodic positive selection) in the evolution of these genes remains poorly known and has not been examined outside of mammals. A recent increase in the number of bird species for which TLR sequences are available has enabled us to examine the selective processes that have influenced evolution of the 10 known avian TLR genes. Specifically, we tested for episodic positive selection to identify codons that experience purifying selection for the majority of their evolution, interspersed with bursts of positive selection that may occur only in restricted lineages. We included up to 23 species per gene (mean = 16.0) and observed that, although purifying selection was evident, an average of 4.5% of codons experienced episodic positive selection across all loci. For four genes in which sequence coverage traversed both the extracellular leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) and transmembrane/intracellular domains of the proteins, increased positive selection was observed at the extracellular domain, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide evidence that episodic positive selection has played an important role in the evolution of most avian TLRs, consistent with the role of these loci in pathogen recognition and a mechanism of host-pathogen coevolution.
Yvelise T. Morato-Conceicao
Full Text Available Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum. Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively. Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in
Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V.
A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546
Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V
A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.
Naudin, Marine; Carl, Tatiana; Surguladze, Simon; Guillen, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Atanasova, Boriana
Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE), and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale), an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors), and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant), facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions), and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant). In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
CERN Video productions
On Monday 7 November at 4pm in English and 4.20pm in French, watch "What's new@CERN" on webcast.cern.ch. In this second episode: LHC performance, a journey to the particle source and this past month's news. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-posterframe-640x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1394250', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');
Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the duration of treated episodes changes during the course of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. METHOD: The rate of recovery from successive hospitalized episodes was estimated with survival analyses in a case-register study includ...
Cara S. Jonker
Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults. Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace. Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes. Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements. Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions. Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of Bipolar I Disorder patients with a single manic episode. Method: In a retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of inpatients who had been admitted to treat a single manic episode of Bipolar I Disorder at Noor University Hospital, ...
Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.
Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…
Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji
We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…
Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.
Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…
Schacter, Daniel L; Carpenter, Alexis C; Devitt, Aleea; Roberts, Reece P; Addis, Donna Rose
According to Mahr & Csibra (M&C), the view that the constructive nature of episodic memory is related to its role in simulating future events has difficulty explaining why memory is often accurate. We hold this view, but disagree with their conclusion. Here we consider ideas and evidence regarding flexible recombination processes in episodic retrieval that accommodate both accuracy and distortion.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air...
Larsen, Lasse Juel
The aim of this article is to present a formal deﬁnition of the aspect of play generally known as ‘make-believe’. ‘Make-believe’ is deﬁned in relation to theory of place and Dasein’s being- in-the-world as presented by Martin Heidegger in Being and time. From this point of view ‘make-believe’ can...... be deﬁned as a uniform and situational spatial dyad where being is doubled, characterized by the presence of the physically absent. I will apply this deﬁnition after a survey of central and inﬂuential aspects of the history of the theory of play to demonstrate its relevance for a formal deﬁnition of play....
Conway, M A
Episodic memory is reconceived as a memory system that retains highly detailed sensory perceptual knowledge of recent experience over retention intervals measured in minutes and hours. Episodic knowledge has yet to be integrated with the autobiographical memory knowledge base and so takes as its context or referent the immediate past of the experiencing self (or the 'I'). When recalled it can be accessed independently of content and is recollectively experienced. Autobiographical memory, in contrast, retains knowledge over retention intervals measured in weeks, months, years, decades and across the life span. Autobiographical knowledge represents the experienced self (or the 'me'), is always accessed by its content and, when accessed, does not necessarily give rise to recollective experience. Instead, recollective experience occurs when autobiographical knowledge retains access to associated episodic memories. In this reworking of the 'episodic memory' concept autobiographical memory provides the instantiating context for sensory-perceptual episodic memory. PMID:11571029
Moscovitch, Morris; Cabeza, Roberto; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn
The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. In keeping with this dynamic perspective, research on episodic memory (and the hippocampus) has infiltrated domains, from perception to language and from empathy to problem solving, that were once considered outside its boundaries. Using the component process model as a framework, and focusing on the hippocampus, its subfields, and specialization along its longitudinal axis, along with its interaction with other brain regions, we consider these new developments and their implications for the organization of episodic memory and its contribution to functions in other domains.
Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.
Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Corbin, Hannah E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Sluka, Christina M; Wu, Jie-En; Crystal, Jonathon D
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory. Here, we show that rats remember many unique events and the contexts in which the events occurred using episodic memory. We used an olfactory memory assessment in which new (but not old) odors were rewarded using 32 items. Rats were presented with 16 odors in one context and the same odors in a second context. To attain high accuracy, the rats needed to remember item in context because each odor was rewarded as a new item in each context. The demands on item-in-context memory were varied by assessing memory with 2, 3, 5, or 15 unpredictable transitions between contexts, and item-in-context memory survived a 45 min retention interval challenge. When the memory of item in context was put in conflict with non-episodic familiarity cues, rats relied on item in context using episodic memory. Our findings suggest that rats remember multiple unique events and the contexts in which these events occurred using episodic memory and support the view that rats may be used to model fundamental aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baldessarini, R J; Salvatore, P; Khalsa, H-M K; Imaz-Etxeberria, H; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Tohen, M
Preliminary review of a century of studies of the course of manic-depressive syndromes produced 40 reports, of which approximately one-third report evidence of shortening wellness intervals or cycle-lengths with more recurrences, and two-thirds did not. We evaluated inter-episode intervals (cycle-length) in 128 clinically-treated, DSM-IV bipolar-I disorder patients followed prospectively and systematically over 5.7 years, with 6.5 episodes/person. As expected, cycle-length varied inversely with total cycle-count/person; however, multivariate linear regression found only longer initial hospitalization and fewer total cycles to be associated with cycle-length, whereas cycle-number (1, 2, 3, etc.), sex, intake-age, and first-episode polarity were not. Regression of within-subject cycle-length versus cycle-number yielded individual slope-functions with pseudo-random distribution (28% fell within ±1 month/cycle of the null [zero-slope]). Mean duration of early and late euthymic intervals (cycles 2 vs. 5) in patients with matched recurrence-counts was nearly identical. The course of bipolar-I disorder from onset was largely random or chaotic over nearly 6 years from onset. Only a minority of patients showed either cycle-acceleration or slowing, without changes in wellness intervals. The findings may be influenced by treatment-effects, but seem to indicate that most current bipolar-I disorder patients are unlikely to show progressive shortening of recurrence-cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.
Storosum, Jitschak G.; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Linszen, Don H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van den Brink, Wim
Objective: The authors' goal was to investigate whether there is a greater suicide risk in the placebo arms of placebo-controlled studies of active medication for the treatment of acute manic episode and the prevention of manic/depressive episode. If so, this would be a strong ethical argument
Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe
Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.
In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…
Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats
The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.
Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola
Increased focus on quantifiable performance and assessment in higher education is creating a learning culture characterised by fear of failing, avoidance of risk, and extrinsic goal-oriented behaviours. In this article, we explore possibilities of a more playful approach to teaching and learning...... in higher education through the metaphor of the ‘magic circle’. This approach stimulates intrinsic motivation and educational drive, creates safe spaces for academic experimentation and exploration, and promotes reflective risk-taking, ideation, and participation in education. We present a model of playful...
Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline
Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....
Lund, Henrik Hautop
We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...
Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Chen, Lichun
The Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) is the largest Cenozoic rifted basin in eastern China, which exhibited a multi-episodic behavior. A 2D multi-episodic finite extension model is employed to estimate the stretching factor and strain rate for each rift episode along six seismic profiles. The modeling is based on a reconstruction of pre-rift crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, and is calibrated with the present-day heat flow and Moho depth. The pre-rift thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere are determined to be 34-39 and 80-105 km. The stretching factors range from 1.28 to 1.97, with a peak in the middle-to-late Eocene during which the average strain rate reached 1.1 × 10- 15 s- 1. Our analyses show that the centers of stretching migrated generally from south to north and from west to east during the Cenozoic. The results also indicate an inverse relationship between variations of the average strain rate and the relative motion rate between Pacific plate and Eurasian plate. Combining the results of the previous studies with ours, we infer that the changing subduction rate of the Pacific plate accompanied by episodic eastward retreat of the subduction zone plays important roles in the episodic extension of the BBB and eastward migration of the centers of stretching.
Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H
The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.
Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke
Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18-31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55-82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults.
Bizzo, Bernardo Canedo; Sanchez, Tiago Arruda; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Netto, Tania Maria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain cortical thickness of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without episodic memory impairment and healthy controls. We studied 51 patients divided in 2 groups (SLE with episodic memory deficit, n = 17; SLE without episodic memory deficit, n = 34) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and 34 healthy controls. Groups were paired based on sex, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and accumulation of disease burden. Cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging scans was determined using the FreeSurfer software package. SLE patients with episodic memory deficits presented reduced cortical thickness in the left supramarginal cortex and superior temporal gyrus when compared to the control group and in the right superior frontal, caudal, and rostral middle frontal and precentral gyri when compared to the SLE group without episodic memory impairment considering time since diagnosis of SLE as covaried. There were no significant differences in the cortical thickness between the SLE without episodic memory and control groups. Different memory-related cortical regions thinning were found in the episodic memory deficit group when individually compared to the groups of patients without memory impairment and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Mahr, Johannes; Csibra, Gergely
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past. Instead, empirical findings suggest that the contents of human episodic memory are often constructed in the service of the explicit justification of such beliefs. Existing accounts of episodic memory function that have focused on explaining its constructive character through its role in 'future-oriented mental time travel' neither do justice to its capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past nor to its representational format. We provide an account of the metarepresentational structure of episodic memory in terms of its role in communicative interaction. The generative nature of recollection allows us to represent and communicate the reasons for why we hold certain beliefs about the past. In this process, autonoesis corresponds to the capacity to determine when and how to assert epistemic authority in making claims about the past. A domain where such claims are indispensable are human social engagements. Such engagements commonly require the justification of entitlements and obligations, which is often possible only by explicit reference to specific past events.
Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem
Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21–45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48–62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71–83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group. PMID:23378831
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.
Chi T. Ngo
Full Text Available Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted childrenâs performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Keywords: White matter, Memory development, Episodic memory, Diffusion weighted imaging
Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D
This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Trauelsen, Anne Marie
While metacognitive mastery seems to be closely linked to general functioning in persons with psychosis, little is known of metacognitive capacity of family members, who often play an important role in recovery and often report high levels of distress. We gathered assessments of metacognitive...... mastery from persons with first-episode psychosis and their mothers. We found that relatively higher overall mean mastery levels among the dyads, was related to less negative caregiver experiences, and less caregiver criticism. Greater levels of mastery were related to decreased duration of untreated...... psychosis. Clinical implications in terms of family intervention programmes repertoire are discussed....
Corsaro, William A.
The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…
This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.
This article explores the potential of play in the teaching of college composition. Drawing primarily on the theoretical framework of D. W. Winnicott, the author describes how he used ludic pedagogies to provide first-year writing students a "potential space" in which to explore a range of course elements including composing conventions,…
This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…
Skovbjerg, Helle Marie
Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship betwe...
... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah. General Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 36-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Knoche, Hendrik; Hald, Kasper; Richter, Dorte
We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress...
Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff
This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…
Robelen, Erik W.
Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…
White, Randy; Stoecklin, Vicki L.
Why typical playgrounds are designed the way they are by adults is discussed, including what the ideal outdoor play/learning environment for children is and how the outdoor space should be considered as an extension of the classroom. The paper emphasizes the importance of nature to children, discusses the criteria playground designers should…
Papenberg, Goran; Bäckman, Lars; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J; Fastbom, Johan; Johnell, Kristina
Anticholinergic drug use is common in older adults and has been related to increased dementia risk. This suggests that users of these drugs may experience accelerated cognitive decline. So far, however, longitudinal data on this topic are absent and the available evidence is inconclusive with respect to effects on specific cognitive domains due to suboptimal control of confounding variables. We investigated whether anticholinergic medication use is associated with cognitive decline over 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (aged 60-90; n = 1473) without dementia. We found that users (n = 29) declined more on episodic memory over 6 years compared to nonusers (n = 1418). These results were independent of age, sex, education, overall drug intake, physical activity, depression, cardiovascular risk burden, and cardiovascular disease. By contrast, anticholinergic drug use was unrelated to performance in processing speed, semantic memory, short-term memory, verbal fluency, and global cognition (the Mini-Mental-State Examination). Our results suggest that effects of anticholinergics may be particularly detrimental to episodic memory in older adults, which supports the assertion that the cholinergic system plays an important role in episodic memory formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lekes, Natasha
We argue that episodic memories have an active and directive function with respect to a number of relational outcomes. In line with self-determination theory, it is expected that the satisfaction of 3 needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in couple-related memories facilitates the quality of romantic relationships and their development. Results of 4 studies support this contention. Study 1 showed that need satisfaction in couple-related memories was associated with relationship quality, even after controlling for other important relational constructs. Study 2 underscored the context-dependent aspect of the directive function of episodic memories. Need satisfaction in couple-related memories was found to be associated with partner relationship quality but not with friendship quality, whereas need satisfaction in friend-related memories was associated with friendship quality but not with partner relationship quality. Study 3 showed that couple-related memories contributed independently to each partner's perceptions of relationship quality, that is, both the rememberer and the partner. Study 4 showed the long-term directive function of episodic memories. Need satisfaction in couple-related memories positively and negatively predicted increases in relationship quality and the likelihood of a breakup over a 1-year period, respectively. This directive function of memories was examined along with the self function of memories (self-enhancement, self-protection) and shown to be complementary. We also examined the stability of need satisfaction in couple-related memories over time and investigated this stability as a function of whether the partners had broken up or not over the year. Overall, the findings suggest that episodic memories play an important role in romantic relationships.
Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro
Cumulatively developing robots offer a unique opportunity to reenact the constant interplay between neural mechanisms related to learning, memory, prospection, and abstraction from the perspective of an integrated system that acts, learns, remembers, reasons, and makes mistakes. Situated within such interplay lie some of the computationally elusive and fundamental aspects of cognitive behavior: the ability to recall and flexibly exploit diverse experiences of one's past in the context of the present to realize goals, simulate the future, and keep learning further. This article is an adventurous exploration in this direction using a simple engaging scenario of how the humanoid iCub learns to construct the tallest possible stack given an arbitrary set of objects to play with. The learning takes place cumulatively, with the robot interacting with different objects (some previously experienced, some novel) in an open-ended fashion. Since the solution itself depends on what objects are available in the "now," multiple episodes of past experiences have to be remembered and creatively integrated in the context of the present to be successful. Starting from zero, where the robot knows nothing, we explore the computational basis of organization episodic memory in a cumulatively learning humanoid and address (1) how relevant past experiences can be reconstructed based on the present context, (2) how multiple stored episodic memories compete to survive in the neural space and not be forgotten, (3) how remembered past experiences can be combined with explorative actions to learn something new, and (4) how multiple remembered experiences can be recombined to generate novel behaviors (without exploration). Through the resulting behaviors of the robot as it builds, breaks, learns, and remembers, we emphasize that mechanisms of episodic memory are fundamental design features necessary to enable the survival of autonomous robots in a real world where neither everything can be known
Lund, Henrik Hautop
or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care......Decades of research into intelligent, playful technology and user-friendly man-machine interfaces has provided important insight into the creation of robotic systems and intelligent interactive systems which are much more user-friendly, safer and cheaper than what appeared possible merely a decade...... sector. This includes playful robotics, LEGO robots for kids, minimal robot systems, user-friendly, behavior-based, biomimetic, modular robotics and intelligent systems. The insight into these components and the use in synthesis for designing robots and intelligent systems allows anybody, anywhere...
Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.
Hudson, Judith A; Mayhew, Estelle M Y; Prabhakar, Janani
Episodic foresight is here defined as the ability to project oneself into the future and mentally simulate situations and outcomes. Tasks used to study the development of episodic foresight in young children are reviewed and compared to tasks used to study other future-oriented abilities (planning, delay of gratification, and prospective memory) in the same age-group. We argue for the importance of accounting for and minimizing the role of other cognitive demands in research tasks. Because episodic foresight is an emerging ability in young children, more research needs to be directed at the contexts in which it emerges and the extent to which episodic foresight is part of a growing ability for mental representation.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
Factors associated with acquisition of enteric episodes in cattle waste handlers in Morogoro, Tanzania. Balichene P Madoshi, Athuman M Lupindu, Madundo M A Mtambo, Amandus P Muhairwa, John E Olsen ...
Ibarra-Sifuentes, Héctor Raúl; Del Cueto-Aguilera, Ángel; Gallegos-Arguijo, Daniel Alberto; Castillo-Torres, Sergio Andres; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Martínez-Granados, Rolando Jacob; Atilano-Díaz, Alexandro; Cuellar-Monterrubio, Jesus Eduardo; Pezina-Cantú, Cesar Octaviano; Martínez-Guevara, Edgar de Jesús; Ortiz-Treviño, Juan Francisco; Delgado-García, Guillermo Rubén; Martínez-Jiménez, José Guadalupe; Cruz-Valdez, Jesús; Sánchez-Martínez, Concepción
Intradialytic hypotension is common complication in stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis. Incidence ranges from 15 to 30%. These patients have levocarnitine deficiency. A randomized, placebo-controlled quadruple-blinded trial was designed to demonstrate the levocarnitine efficiency on intradialytic hypotension prevention. Patients were randomized into four groups, to receive levocarnitine or placebo. During the intervention period, levocarnitine and placebo was administered 0 and 30 min before each hemodialysis session, respectively. During the trial, 33 patients received 1188 hemodialysis sessions. We identified 239 (21.3%) intradialytic hypotension episodes. The intradialytic hypotension episodes were less frequent in the levocarnitine group (9.3%, 60 IH events) (P hypotension episodes. Levocarnitine supplementation before each hemodialysis session efficiently diminishes the intradialytic hypotension episodes. This is a new application method that must be considered and explored. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...
Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.
Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Fei, Yutong; Mehring, Michael; Vertosick, Emily A.; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R
Background Acupuncture is often used for migraine prevention but its effectiveness is still controversial. We present an update of our Cochrane review from 2009. Objectives To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than sham (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as prophylactic treatment with drugs in reducing headache frequency in adults with episodic migraine. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: 2016, issue 1); MEDLINE (via Ovid, 2008 to January 2016); Ovid EMBASE (2008 to January 2016); and Ovid AMED (1985 to January 2016). We checked PubMed for recent publications to April 2016. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform to February 2016 for ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials at least eight weeks in duration that compared an acupuncture intervention with a no-acupuncture control (no prophylactic treatment or routine care only), a sham-acupuncture intervention, or prophylactic drug in participants with episodic migraine. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers checked eligibility; extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results, and assessed risk of bias and quality of the acupuncture intervention. The primary outcome was migraine frequency (preferably migraine days, attacks or headache days if migraine days not measured/reported) after treatment and at follow-up. The secondary outcome was response (at least 50% frequency reduction). Safety outcomes were number of participants dropping out due to adverse effects and number of participants reporting at least one adverse effect. We calculated pooled effect size estimates using a fixed-effect model. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created ’Summary of findings’ tables. Main results Twenty-two trials including 4985 participants in total (median 71, range
Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H
We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor.......We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor....
GREENBERG, DANIEL L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE
Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...
Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela
risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests...... in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans....
Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik
Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....
Full Text Available The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.
The distinction between episodic and semantic memory has become very popular since it was first proposed by Tulving in 1972. So far, very few neuropsychological, psychophysical, and imaging studies have related to the mnemonic aspects of music, notably on the long-term memory features, and practically nothing is known about the functional anatomy of long-term memory for music. Numerous functional imaging studies have shown that retrieval from semantic and episodic memory is subserved by distinct neural networks. For instance, the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry) ascribes to the left prefrontal cortex a preferential role in the encoding process of episodic material and the recall of semantic information, while the right prefrontal cortex would preferentially operate in the recall of episodic information. However, these results were essentially obtained with verbal and visuo-spatial material. We have done a study to determine the neural substrates underlying the semantic and episodic components of music using familiar and nonfamiliar melodic tunes. Two distinct patterns of activations were found: bilateral activation of the middle and superior frontal areas and precuneus for episodic memory, and activation of the medial and orbital frontal cortex bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and the anterior part of the left middle and superior temporal gyri for semantic memory. We discuss these findings in light of the available neuropsychological data obtained in brain-damaged subjects and functional neuroimaging studies.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.
Souchay, Céline; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Wojcik, Dominika Zofia; Eustache, Francis
Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle) to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts, and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience) and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing). We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different NDDs there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process. PMID:24399944
Ngo, Chi T; Alm, Kylie H; Metoki, Athanasia; Hampton, William; Riggins, Tracy; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R
Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jacob, Eufemia; Sockrider, Marianna M; Dinu, Marlen; Acosta, Monica; Mueller, Brigitta U
The authors examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determined whether respiratory symptoms were associated with prevalence of chest pain and number of acute painful episodes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Participants (N = 93; 44 females, 49 males; mean age 9.8 +/- 4.3 years) reported coughing in the morning (21.5%), at night (31.2%), and during exercise (30.1%). Wheezing occurred both when they had a cold or infection (29.0%) and when they did not have (23.7%) a cold or infection. Sleep was disturbed by wheezing in 20.4%. Among the 76 patients who were school-age (>5 years), 19.7% of patients missed more than 4 days of school because of respiratory symptoms. The majority of patients reported having acute painful episodes (82.8%), and most (66.7%) reported having chest pain during acute painful episodes in the previous 12 months. Participants with acute pain episodes greater than 3 during the previous 12 months had significantly higher reports of breathing difficulties (P = .01) and chest pain (P = .002). The high number of respiratory symptoms (cough and wheeze) among patients with sickle cell disease may trigger acute painful episodes. Early screening and recognition, ongoing monitoring, and proactive management of respiratory symptoms may minimize the number of acute painful episodes.
Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.
Durand, Thomas; Berzero, Giulia; Bompaire, Flavie; Hoffmann, Sabine; Léger, Isabelle; Jego, Virginie; Baruteau, Marie; Delgadillo, Daniel; Taillia, Hervé; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien
Cognitive investigations in brain tumor patients have mostly explored episodic memory without differentiating between encoding, storage, and retrieval deficits. The aim of this study is to offer insight into the memory sub-processes affected in primary brain tumor patients and propose an appropriate assessment method. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and memory assessments of 158 patients with primary brain tumors who had presented to our departments with cognitive complaints and were investigated using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. Retrieval was the process of episodic memory most frequently affected, with deficits in this domain detected in 92% of patients with episodic memory impairments. Storage and encoding deficits were less prevalent, with impairments, respectively, detected in 41% and 23% of memory-impaired patients. The pattern of episodic memory impairment was similar across different tumor histologies and treatment modalities. Although all processes of episodic memory were found to be impaired, retrieval was by far the most widely affected function. A thorough assessment of all three components of episodic memory should be part of the regular neuropsychological evaluation in patients with primary brain tumors.
Cross-cultural studies have shown that Asians exhibit less accessibility to episodic memories than Euro-Americans. This difference is often attributed to differential cognitive and social influences on memory retention, although there have been no empirical data concerning the underlying mechanism. Three studies were conducted to examine encoding and retention processes that may underlie the cultural difference in episodic recall. While Asians recalled fewer personal event episodes than Euro-Americans across different retention intervals, the two groups showed similar forgetting functions over time (Study 1). Asians also recalled fewer episodes of fictional events than Euro-Americans when the retention interval was kept to a minimum (Study 2). Finally, Asians perceived fewer discrete episodes than Euro-Americans when reading events in a narrative text (Study 3). Collectively, these findings suggest that the cultural difference in episodic recall may not be a mere consequence of memory retention but culture-specific perceptual processing and encoding. They have great theoretical, developmental, and clinical relevance.
Full Text Available Among Slovene scholars in English and German studies Jakob Kelemina (19 July 1882- 14 May 1957 has a very important place. Janez Stanonik justly places him among the founding fathers of the University of Ljubljana (Stanonik 1966: 332. From 1920 Kelemina was professor of Germanic philology and between 1920 and 1957 he was also the Chair of the Deparment ofGermanic Languages and Literatures at the Faculty of Arts of this university. The major part of Kelemina's research was devoted to German and Austrian literatures, German philology, German-Slovene cultural relations, and literary theory; his work in these fields has already been discussed by severa! Slovene scholars. However, in the first two decades of the twentieth century Kelemina also wrote severa! book reviews of Slovene and Croatian translations of Shakespeare's plays as well as three introductory essays to Slovene translations of Shakespeare's plays. They are considered as the first serious studies on Shakespeare in Slovenia (Moravec 1974: 437, and have not been analysed yet. Therefore this topic presents the core of my study, together with an evaluation of Kelemina's contribution to Slovene translations of Shakespeare's plays done by Oton Župančič (1878-1949 during the first half of the twentieth century. Župančič's translations became the criterion for all further translations of Shakespeare's dramatic works in Slovene. Župančič is stili one of our most important poets and translators of this time and Kelemina's advice and criticism undoubtedly also helped him to achieve such a high standard in his translations. In the central part of my study I also include some new material (e.g. Kelernina's letters, which is relevant for our understanding of his co-operation with Oton Župančič and other Slovene authors and critics. In order to put Kelemina's work into a historical perspective I present at the beginning of my study a brief survey of the
The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Gil-Fernández, Juan José; Flores Ballester, Elena; González Martínez, María; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Tamayo Martín, Ana Teresa; Burgaleta Alonso de Ozalla, Carmen
To analyze haemolytic episodes in patients with warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) and compare corticosteroids treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (group A) or without IVIG (group B). Observational study that includes 21 haemolytic episodes occurred in 17 patients (9 males and 12 females), with a median age of 59 years (26-82). In group A, 8 episodes received IGIV + corticosteroids and in group B, 12 episodes received only corticosteroids and one rituximab. Hemoglobin (Hb) value at diagnosis was 1.8 g/dl lower (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 3.1; P = .007) in group A, with a median Hb of 6.3g/dl in this group vs 7.9 g/dl in group B. There were non-significant differences in red blood cells transfusion (50 vs 23%; P > .20) and global increase of Hb values (7.3 vs 5.6; P > .20). Overall hematological responses were similar: 88 vs 92% (P > .20). Hematological response achieved in more severe episodes with the use of IVIG was similar to non-severe episodes treated without IVIG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent
In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff
Illusion (A Game Against)”. Games and Culture 2007; 2 Juul. J. (2005). Half-real. Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press Leino. O. (2009). “Understanding Games as Played: Sketch for a first-person perspective for computer game analysis” The Philosophy of Computer......A prevailing understanding of how games convey meaning relates to the idea of games as rule-based systems as expressed by Juul (2005) “A game is a rule-based system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values(…)". This understanding of games...... highlights formal aspects of a game, such as the rules or the mechanics, as the game elements that describe what the player can do in the game and how. These formal aspects thus become the meaning-carriers that shapes the game-play by giving the player information about how she can interact with the game...
The episodic long-term memory system supports remembering of events. It is considered to be the most age-sensitive system, with an average onset of decline around 60 years of age. However, there is marked interindividual variability, such that some individuals show faster than average change and others show no or very little change. This variability may be related to the risk of developing dementia, with elevated risk for individuals with accelerated episodic memory decline. Brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signalling or positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to reveal the brain bases of declining episodic memory in ageing. Several studies have demonstrated a link between age-related episodic memory decline and the hippocampus during active mnemonic processing, which is further supported by studies of hippocampal functional connectivity in the resting state. The hippocampus interacts with anterior and posterior neocortical regions to support episodic memory, and alterations in hippocampus-neocortex connectivity have been shown to contribute to impaired episodic memory. Multimodal MRI studies and more recently hybrid MRI/PET studies allow consideration of various factors that can influence the association between the hippocampal BOLD signal and memory performance. These include neurovascular factors, grey and white matter structural alterations, dopaminergic neurotransmission, amyloid-Β and glucose metabolism. Knowledge about the brain bases of episodic memory decline can guide interventions to strengthen memory in older adults, particularly in those with an elevated risk of developing dementia, with promising results for combinations of cognitive and physical stimulation. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
García González, Elsa; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; Luaces Cubells, Carles
Prevention is an essential aspect in paediatric poisonings, especially when recurrent episodes are detected. The aims of this article are to detect the recurrence rate for suspected poisoning in emergency consultations, as well as to identify the cases in which specific preventive measures are indicated, and to determine whether the creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in the computerised medical records system facilitates its detection. A retrospective study was conducted on patients less than 18 years of age treated in the emergency room due to suspected poisoning during 2013 and 2014. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of previous episodes. From January 2014, a specific item is present in the computerised medical records of the poisoned patient, where the history of previous episodes is registered. The preventive measures used between both groups were compared. A total of 731 consultations were recorded for suspected poisoning. A history of previous episodes was detected in 9% of cases. Medical injury reports and follow-up in outpatient clinics were more often performed in patients with recurrent episodes than in patients without them (28.8% vs 18.0%, P=.034, and 65.2% vs. 18.8%, P<.001, respectively). In 2013, the recurrence rate was 5.9% vs 12% in 2014 (P=.004). The recurrence rate observed is significant. Although preventive measures are more frequently indicated in these patients, their application is low. The creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in a computerised medical records system facilitates their detection. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jeffrey M Brunstrom
Full Text Available Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether 'memory for recent eating' plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each. Independent manipulation of the 'actual' and 'perceived' soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the 'expected satiation' of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans.
Moore, Robin C.; Goltsman, Susan M.
A CD-ROM provides a tour of some of the world's greatest play environments, presenting 94 photographic images that illustrate the key concepts and recommendations from Play For All guidelines. It is organized into 10 categories covering a range of play area settings, including play equipment, sand settings, water settings, play props, and animal…
Full Text Available The structure of sexual contact networks plays a key role in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections, and their reconstruction from interview data has provided valuable insights into the spread of infection. For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major discrepancies have been observed between the contact network and the transmission network revealed by viral phylogenetics. The high rate of HIV evolution in principle allows for detailed reconstruction of links between virus from different individuals, but often sampling has been too sparse to describe the structure of the transmission network. The aim of this study was to analyze a high-density sample of an HIV-infected population using recently developed techniques in phylogenetics to infer the short-term dynamics of the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM.Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 2,126 patients, predominantly MSM, from London were compared: 402 of these showed a close match to at least one other subtype B sequence. Nine large clusters were identified on the basis of genetic distance; all were confirmed by Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 25% of individuals with a close match with one sequence are linked to 10 or more others. Dated phylogenies of the clusters using a relaxed clock indicated that 65% of the transmissions within clusters took place between 1995 and 2000, and 25% occurred within 6 mo after infection. The likelihood that not all members of the clusters have been identified renders the latter observation conservative.Reconstruction of the HIV transmission network using a dated phylogeny approach has revealed the HIV epidemic among MSM in London to have been episodic, with evidence of multiple clusters of transmissions dating to the late 1990s, a period when HIV prevalence is known to have doubled in this
Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R
The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.
Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva
In this paper we introduce social games as a new terrain for studies in participatory culture. Social games defy easy classification and cannot be appropriately understood from existing research perspectives. Initially, we therefore attempt to define social games by comparing it with related game...... genres, notably serious games and health games. To further increase knowledge of social games we introduce a typology of playful participation in social games. The typology is build up by using formal concepts from theories of participatory art. Its range of application is then demonstrated through...... an empirical analysis of eight social game prototypes that are designed as part of an on-going 3-year research project called Social Games against Crime. The purpose of this project is to develop socialgames that can help children build resilience towards many of the personal and social problems...
Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip
We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can always...... win if n is even/odd) and Evans’s theorem (for even n, the acute corner is a winning opening move for the first player). Also, for even n ≥ 4, we find another first-player winning opening (adjacent to the acute corner, on the first player’s side), and for odd n ≥ 3, and for each first-player opening......, we find second-player winning replies. Finally, in response to comments by Martin Gardner, for each n ≤ 5, we give a simple winning strategy for the n × n board....
Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi
Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.
Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.
Bendtsen, L; Ashina, S; Moore, K A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tension-type headache (TTH) imposes a heavy burden on the global population but remains incompletely understood and poorly managed. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: Here, we review current knowledge of peripheral factors involved in the mechanism of TTH and make recommendat......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tension-type headache (TTH) imposes a heavy burden on the global population but remains incompletely understood and poorly managed. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: Here, we review current knowledge of peripheral factors involved in the mechanism of TTH and make...... recommendations for the treatment of episodic TTH based on these. RESULTS: Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is most probably involved in the development of muscle pain and the acute episode of TTH. Repetitive episodes of muscle pain may sensitize the central nervous system...... resulting in progression of TTH to the chronic form. Thus, muscular factors may be responsible not only for the acute headache episode but also for chronification of the disorder. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstays of management of individual headache episodes...
Bodnar, Anna; Rybakowski, Janusz K
To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during an acute manic or depressive episode. The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years) during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years) during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years). Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test. In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated. However, indices of affective empathy were significantly higher in the manic group than in depressed and control subjects. In the depressed patients, indices did not differ from those of healthy controls. For affective empathy, a significant positive correlation was found with intensity of manic symptoms and a negative correlation was found with intensity of depressive symptoms. No such correlations were observed with cognitive empathy. We found evidence of increased affective empathy (overempathizing) during a manic episode in bipolar patients. This phenomenon may be connected with disturbances in emotion inhibition related to anastrophic thinking and associated with increased activity of mirror neurons, all of which occur during a manic episode.
Fredrikson, Mats; Annas, Peter; Hettema, John M
Fear conditioning seems to account for the acquisition of post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas conscious recall of events in aftermath of trauma reflects episodic memory. Studies show that both fear conditioning and episodic memory are heritable, but no study has evaluated whether they reflect common or separate genetic factors. To this end, we studied episodic memory and fear conditioning in 173 healthy twin pairs using visual stimuli predicting unconditioned electric shocks. Fear conditioning acquisition and extinction was determined using conditioned visual stimuli predicting unconditioned mild electric shocks, whereas electrodermal activity served as the fear learning index. Episodic memory was evaluated using cued recall of pictorial stimuli unrelated to conditioning. We used multivariate structural equation modeling to jointly analyze memory performance and acquisition as well as extinction of fear conditioning. Best-fit twin models estimated moderate genetic loadings for conditioning and memory measures, with no genetic covariation between them. Individual differences in fear conditioning and episodic memory reflect distinct genetically influenced processes, suggesting that the genetic risk for learning-induced anxiety disorders includes at least two memory-related genetic factors. These findings are consistent with the facts that the two separate learning forms are distant in their evolutionary development, involve different brain mechanisms, and support that genetically independent memory systems are pivotal in the development and maintenance of syndromes related to fear learning.
Burns, Patrick; Russell, Charlotte; Russell, James
In two experiments, both employing deferred imitation, we studied the developmental origins of episodic memory in two- to three-year-old children by adopting a "minimalist" view of episodic memory based on its What-When-Where ("WWW": spatiotemporal plus semantic) content. We argued that the temporal element within spatiotemporal should be the order/simultaneity of the event elements, but that it is not clear whether the spatial content should be egocentric or allocentric. We also argued that episodic recollection should be configural (tending towards all-or-nothing recall of the WWW elements). Our first deferred imitation experiment, using a two-dimensional (2D) display, produced superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but no evidence of configural memory. Moreover, performance did not differ from that on a What-What-What control task. Our second deferred imitation study required the children to reproduce actions on an object in a room, thereby affording layout-based spatial cues. In this case, not only was there superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but memory was also configural at both ages. We discuss the importance of allocentric spatial cues in episodic recall in early proto-episodic memory and reflect on the possible role of hippocampal development in this process.
Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars
There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Domes, Gregor; Spenthof, Ines; Radtke, Martina; Isaksson, Alexandra; Normann, Claus; Heinrichs, Markus
Difficulties in social interaction are characteristic for depressive disorders and one of the cardinal symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It has been proposed that chronically depressed persons have profoundly impaired empathic abilities in comparison to episodically depressed persons, and that specifically they exhibit a deficit in cognitive empathy, but not in affective empathy, a pattern also reported in ASD. This study aimed to explore autistic traits and empathy deficits in chronic depression, and identify specific differences to episodic depression. Autistic traits and multimodal empathy were assessed in chronically depressed patients (n=59), episodically depressed patients (n=40), and a healthy control group (n=55) using standardized questionnaires. Regardless of the disorder's chronicity, depressed patients exhibited higher levels of autistic traits and lower levels of perspective-taking than healthy controls. Chronically depressed patients reported significantly higher impairment in social skills and higher levels of personal distress in social interactions than episodic patients. Our results suggest that patients with chronic depression share two distinct characteristics, namely lower levels of social skills and higher levels of distress in tense social situations than patients with episodic depression. Future studies will need to determine whether the elevated autistic traits in chronic depression are specific to chronic depression, or represent the general tendency to withdraw from social situations. We conclude that chronically depressed patients are not specifically impaired in understanding another person's state of mind, but are unable to deal with another person's suffering or negative affective state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Byrne, G.D.; Hindmarsh, A.C.; Jackson, K.R.; Brown, H.G.
This is a sequel to the paper ''A comparison of two ODE codes: GEAR and EPISODE,'' and is concerned with the testing of two superficially similar ODE packages, GEAR and EPISODE. Fourteen basic test problems, some with several cases, are the basis for the testing. These problems represent several types--nonlinear systems with real and complex eigenvalues, linear systems with varied diagonal dominance, linear scalar problems, stiff and nonstiff problems, chemical kinetics with and without diurnal effect, and systems arising from the use of the numerical method of lines. Some problems are included in order to examine the options and error returns. The test results are presented in two forms: raw output and a comparative display of operation counts and of timings for the best method in the GEAR package and the best method in the EPISODE package. This approach allows a comparison of the consequences of the fixed-step interpolate strategy (GEAR) for changing step size against the truly variable step size strategy (EPISODE). It is concluded that EPISODE is generally faster than GEAR for problems involving wave fronts or transients on the interior of the interval of integration. For linear or simply decaying problems, these roles are usually reversed. 19 figures, 116 tables.
Bauer, Karen L.; Dettore, Ernest
Examines the appeal of superheroes to children and adults' beliefs about superhero play, and suggests some potential benefits of such play. Offers examples of ways to successfully incorporate superhero play into an early childhood classroom. (Author/KB)
Wei, Shengnan; Geng, Haiyang; Jiang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Qian; Chang, Miao; Zhou, Yifang; Xu, Ke; Tang, Yanqing; Wang, Fei
Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most complex mental illnesses, characterized by interactive depressive and manic states that are 2 contrary symptoms of disease states. The bilateral amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to play critical roles in BD; however, abnormalities seem to manifest differently in the 2 states and may provide further insight into underlying mechanisms. Sixteen participants with first-episode depressive and 13 participants with first-episode manic states of bipolar disorder as well as 30 healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the bilateral amygdala and PFC was compared among the 3 groups. Compared with depressive state participants of the BD group, manic state participants of the BD group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the amygdala and right orbital frontal cortex (pamygdala and left middle frontal cortex was significantly decreased in depressive and manic state participants of the BD group when compared with the HC group (pamygdala- left PFC functional connectivity might present the trait feature for BD, while deficits in amygdala- right PFC functional connectivity might be specific to manic episode, compared to depressive episode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M; Gardiner, John M
Considerable evidence suggests that the episodic memory system operates abnormally in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) whereas the functions of the semantic memory system are relatively preserved. Here we show that the same dissociation also applies to the domain of order memory. We asked adult participants to order the names of famous historical figures either according to their chronological order in history (probing semantic memory) or according to a random sequence shown once on a screen (probing episodic memory). As predicted, adults with ASD performed less well than age- and IQ-matched comparison individuals only on the episodic task. This observation is of considerable importance in the context of developmental theory because semantic and episodic order memory abilities can be dissociated in typically developing infants before they reach the age at which the behavioural markers associated with ASD are first apparent. This raises the possibility that early emerging memory abnormalities play a role in shaping the developmental trajectory of the disorder. We discuss the broader implications of this possibility and highlight the urgent need for greater scrutiny of memory competences in ASD early in development.
Huuki, Tuija; Renold, Emma
Drawing on ethnographic multi-modal data of the gendered and sexual dynamics of pre-school play (age 6) in a rapidly declining fishing and farming community in North Finland, this paper offers a glimpse into our sense-making of a short video-recorded episode in which three boys repeatedly pile up on and demand a kiss from one of their girl…
Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Silvern, Steven B.
This paper reviews Piaget's stages of play and discusses the implications of play for early childhood education. The three stages of play identified in Piaget's research are: (1) practice play, (2) symbolic or make believe play and (3) games with rules. The characteristics of each type of play are presented and examples of play at each stage are…
Kessing, Lars Vedel
a period from 1994 to 1999 were identified. The risk of relapse leading to readmission and the risk of committing suicide were compared for patients discharged with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode with and without melancholic syndrome and for patients with and without psychotic symptoms......BACKGROUND: The long-term predictive ability of the ICD-10 subtypes of depression with melancholic syndrome and depression with psychosis has not been investigated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: All patients in Denmark who had a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at their first ever discharge during......, respectively. RESULTS: In all, 1,639 patients had a diagnosis of depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, 1,275 patients a diagnosis with psychotic symptoms, 293 a diagnosis without melancholic syndrome, and 248 a diagnosis with melancholic symptoms at first discharge. The risk of relapse leading...
Jeunehomme, Olivier; Folville, Adrien; Stawarczyk, David; Van der Linden, Martial; D'Argembeau, Arnaud
Remembering an event typically takes less time than experiencing it, suggesting that episodic memory represents past experience in a temporally compressed way. Little is known, however, about how the continuous flow of real-life events is summarised in memory. Here we investigated the nature and determinants of temporal compression by directly comparing memory contents with the objective timing of events as measured by a wearable camera. We found that episodic memories consist of a succession of moments of prior experience that represent events with varying compression rates, such that the density of retrieved information is modulated by goal processing and perceptual changes. Furthermore, the results showed that temporal compression rates remain relatively stable over one week and increase after a one-month delay, particularly for goal-related events. These data shed new light on temporal compression in episodic memory and suggest that compression rates are adaptively modulated to maintain current goal-relevant information.
Brainerd, Charles J; Wang, Zheng; Reyna, Valerie F
Memory exhibits episodic superposition, an analog of the quantum superposition of physical states: Before a cue for a presented or unpresented item is administered on a memory test, the item has the simultaneous potential to occupy all members of a mutually exclusive set of episodic states, though it occupies only one of those states after the cue is administered. This phenomenon can be modeled with a nonadditive probability model called overdistribution (OD), which implements fuzzy-trace theory's distinction between verbatim and gist representations. We show that it can also be modeled based on quantum probability theory. A quantum episodic memory (QEM) model is developed, which is derived from quantum probability theory but also implements the process conceptions of global matching memory models. OD and QEM have different strengths, and the current challenge is to identify contrasting empirical predictions that can be used to pit them against each other. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non...... of patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration...
Haahr, Ulrik; Simonsen, Erik; Røssberg, Jan Ivar
Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient), individ......Purpose: To examine first-episode psychotic patients' satisfaction with elements of a comprehensive 2-year treatment program. Subjects and method: The TIPS (Early Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project provided a 2-year treatment program consisting of milieu therapy (inpatient...... in satisfaction for specific interventions. In this sample of first-episode psychosis patients, there was general satisfaction with treatments based on one-to-one relationships while multi-family group intervention was consistently valued less enthusiastically....
Melle, I; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U
Quality of life (QoL) measures are increasingly recognized as necessary parts of outcome assessments in psychosis. The present paper is a comprehensive study of patients with first-episode psychosis where QoL is measured by the commonly used Lehman Quality of Life Interview (L-QoLI). The aim...... is to examine if the L-QoLI maintain its original structure when used in a group of patients with first-episode psychosis, and to investigate what determines global subjective QoL with a specific emphasis on premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical symptoms. The study indicates......, abusing drugs, being depressed, having a diagnosis of psychotic affective disorder, having poor premorbid social adjustment and DUP over 10 weeks. The study supports the notion that patients with first-episode psychosis construct QoL in the same way as other groups, and that longer durations...
Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil
Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing...... of treatment in first-episode psychosis. One health care sector (Rogaland, Norway) is experimental and has developed an early detection (ED) system to reduce DUP. Two other sectors (Ullevål, Norway, and Roskilde, Denmark) are comparison sectors and rely on existing detection and referral systems for first......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...
Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A.
Functional MRI (fMRI) studies investigating the neural basis of episodic memory recall, and the related task of thinking about plausible personal future events, have revealed a consistent network of associated brain regions. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the contributions individual brain areas make to the overall recollective experience. In order to examine this, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm where subjects had to imagine fictitious experiences. In contrast to future thinking, this results in experiences that are not explicitly temporal in nature or as reliant on self-processing. By using previously imagined fictitious experiences as a comparison for episodic memories, we identified the neural basis of a key process engaged in common, namely scene construction, involving the generation, maintenance and visualisation of complex spatial contexts. This was associated with activations in a distributed network, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. Importantly, we disambiguated these common effects from episodic memory-specific responses in anterior medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. These latter regions may support self-schema and familiarity processes, and contribute to the brain's ability to distinguish real from imaginary memories. We conclude that scene construction constitutes a common process underlying episodic memory and imagination of fictitious experiences, and suggest it may partially account for the similar brain networks implicated in navigation, episodic future thinking, and the default mode. We suggest that further brain regions are co-opted into this core network in a task-specific manner to support functions such as episodic memory that may have additional requirements. PMID:18160644
Er, Erkan; Kim, ChanMin
Teachers' episodic memories influence their beliefs. The investigation of episodic memories can help identify the teacher beliefs that limit technology-integration. We propose the Episode-Centered Belief Change (ECBC) model that utilizes teachers' episodic memories for changing beliefs impeding effective technology integration. We also propose…
A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…
Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo
Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident…
The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs.
Full Text Available Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism which influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data support a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.
Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier
This review offers a critical appraisal of the literature on episodic memory performance in frontotemporal dementia. Historically, description of patients diagnosed with what was then known as Pick's disease included the presence of memory deficits and an underlying amnestic syndrome was noted in some of these patients. Over the last 20 years, however, the clinical view has been that episodic memory processing is relatively intact in the frontotemporal dementia syndrome. In particular, patients with the subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia are reported to perform within normal limits on standard memory tests. In the third clinical presentation of frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, relatively intact episodic memory against a significantly impaired semantic memory was regarded as the hallmark. This position was instrumental in the development of clinical diagnostic criteria for frontotemporal dementia in which amnesia was explicitly listed as an exclusion criterion for the disease. The relative intactness of episodic memory, therefore, appeared to be a useful diagnostic marker to distinguish early frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease, in which early episodic memory disturbance remains the most common clinical feature. We argue that recent evidence questions the validity of preserved episodic memory in frontotemporal dementia, particularly in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In semantic dementia, a complex picture emerges with preservation of some components of episodic memory, notably recognition-based visual memory and recall of recent autobiographical events. We propose a critical synthesis of recent neuropsychological evidence on retrograde and anterograde memory in light of neuroimaging and neuropathological findings, demonstrating involvement of medial temporal structures in frontotemporal dementia, structures known to be critical for episodic memory processing. We further
Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Ritchie, Kathleen E.; Johnson, Zita M.
Systematic efforts at the Arizona State Child Study Laboratory were successful in replacing children's undesirable superhero play with other types of sociodramatic play. Teachers found superhero play undesirable because it was aggressive and noisy and was accompanied by an increase in random activity. Observations indicated that superhero play had…
Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin
This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…
Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.
The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…
Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.
In this article, the author describes the empirical studies that have investigated whether play (mostly social play) is rewarding. He then discusses the brain circuits and neurotransmitters that underlie the pleasurable aspects of play. He concludes that the pleasure of play has the ability to reinforce learning activities and that the brain's…
Malinowski, Josie E.; Horton, Caroline L.
The present study aimed to explore autobiographical memories (long-lasting memories about the self) and episodic memories (memories about discrete episodes or events) within dream content. We adapted earlier episodic memory study paradigms and reinvestigated the incorporation of episodic memory sources into dreams, operationalizing episodic memory as featuring autonoetic consciousness, which is the feeling of truly re-experiencing or reliving a past event. Participants (n = 32) recorded daily...
Tan, Jihua; Guo, Songjun; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Jingchun; Cheng, Yuan; He, Kebin; Yang, Fumo
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 2.5 and TSP were measured in Guangzhou during a typical haze episode. This episode included NH (non-haze, 3 days), HFN (haze when air masses from north and northeast, 6 days) and HFS (haze when air masses from south, 4 days). The air quality in HFN was much worse than that in NH and HFS. The total average concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were 13.25 ng m -3, 59.82 ng m -3 and 13.09 ng m -3 in NH, HFN and HFS, respectively. It indicated PAH pollution had been substantially aggravated by HFN. PAHs(5 + 6) were the most abundant compounds in HFN and HFS, which accounted for 55-75% of total concentration of PAHs, while PAHs(3 + 4) were the most abundant compounds in NH, which accounted for 54-67% of total concentration of PAHs. TEF (Toxic Equivalency Factors)-adjusted concentrations of 13 particulate PAHs were very high in HFN, indicating high health risks to humans for PAH exposure in HFN. The characteristic ratios of PAHs indicated coal combustion and traffic emission were the major contributors to PAHs in HFN and HFS. The concentrations of particulate PAHs in haze episode were strongly affected by wind speed and wind direction. PAHs in NH could be from long-range transport with high north wind speed, while local emission could be the main contributor of particle-associated PAHs in HFN. The transport speed of air masses was found to play an important role on PAH concentrations.
Atienza, Mercedes; Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L
Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face-location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect in a conceptual priming test (priming group) also gave faster responses when recollecting source information of semantically congruent faces as compared with semantically incongruent faces. This improved episodic retrieval was positively correlated with increases in theta power during the study phase mainly in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left lateral posterior parietal lobe. Reconstructed signals from the estimated sources showed higher theta power for congruent than incongruent faces and also for the priming than the nonpriming group. These results are in agreement with the attention to memory model. Besides directing top-down attention to goal-relevant semantic information during encoding, the dorsal parietal lobe may also be involved in redirecting attention to bottom-up-driven memories thanks to connections between the medial-temporal and the left ventral parietal lobe. The latter function can either facilitate or interfere with encoding of face-location associations depending on whether they are preceded by semantically congruent or incongruent contexts, respectively, because only in the former condition retrieved representations related to the cue and the face are both coherent with the person identity and are both associated with the same location.
Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard
The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Sethna, Vaheshta; Murray, Lynne; Edmondson, Olivia; Iles, Jane; Ramchandani, Paul G
Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of some adverse child developmental outcomes. One possible mechanism for the familial transmission of risk is through the negative effects of depression on parenting and the parent-child relationship. So far, evidence indicates that depressed fathers tend to be more withdrawn in their early interactions. However, the interaction dimensions studied to date may not be able to detect and accurately classify unique features of father-infant play - including physically stimulating and highly rousing episodes of play. Hence, in this matched design comparison study, we set out to examine, for the first time, links between diagnosed paternal depression in the postnatal period and playfulness in father-infant interactions. Fathers and their infants were assessed when the infants were 3 months old. Paternal depression was diagnosed using a structured psychiatric interview. Currently depressed (n = 19) and non-depressed (n = 19) fathers were individually matched on age and education. Fathers were filmed playing with their children. Four dimensions were coded for paternal playfulness during free-play: physicality, playful excitation, tactile stimulation and active engagement. Depressed fathers, compared to non-depressed fathers, engaged in fewer episodes of playful excitation (mean scores: 0.71 vs.2.53, p = 0.005), less gentle touch (mean time: 38.57 vs. 53.37, p = 0.015) and less active engagement (mean scores: 2.29 vs 3.24, p = 0.044). When controlling for infant fretfulness, the findings remained largely unchanged. The sample size was small and the sample was limited to mostly white, well-educated fathers. Playful paternal behaviours as early as 3 months differ between fathers with and without depression. These changes may help in understanding children's risk in relation to paternal psychopathology and could be a target for future family interventions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors
Michael E. Hasselmo
Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex plays an important role in spatial memory and episodic memory functions. These functions may result from cellular mechanisms for integration of the afferent input to entorhinal cortex. This article reviews physiological data on persistent spiking and membrane potential oscillations in entorhinal cortex then presents models showing how both these cellular mechanisms could contribute to properties observed during unit recording, including grid cell firing, and how they could underlie behavioural functions including path integration. The interaction of oscillations and persistent firing could contribute to encoding and retrieval of trajectories through space and time as a mechanism relevant to episodic memory.
Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh
While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...
Purpose: To determine the factors associated with severity of hypoglycemia in hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary health facility in Malaysia. Methods: This retrospective study involved 207 hospitalised T2DM patients with hypoglycaemia episodes from January 2008 to December 2012 and was ...
"Sitting down to watch the fourth episode of the second season of Nova ScienceNOW I'm mainly struck by one thought: why have they only put out four epidoses nearly nine months into their second season? The second story is all about CERN and the LHC. (2 pages)
Suddendorf, Thomas; Redshaw, Jonathan
Episodic foresight is the future-directed counterpart of episodic memory. It is a sophisticated, potentially uniquely human capacity, with tremendous adaptive consequences. Here we review what is currently known about its development through early childhood. We tackle this from two distinct perspectives. First, we present the first systematic evaluation of the development of purported components of mental scenario building as highlighted by a theater metaphor: the stage, the playwright, the set, the actors, the director, the executive producer, and the broadcaster. We find that, although there are diverse developmental trajectories, by 4 years of age children have acquired the basic cognitive components required to mentally construct specific future events. Second, we examine recent attempts to test children's episodic foresight more directly and find that results are in line with those examining the development of required components. This is not to say that children younger than four have no inkling of upcoming events or that older children have nothing left to learn about constructing the future. Episodic foresight, and its neurocognitive foundations, continues to develop throughout childhood. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
The other widespread variety of mineral occurrences, notably calcite, siderite and sometime pyrite in the coal basin and traceable to precipitates in various joints, cleats, cell voids and lumens are associated/formed during epigenetic mineralization episode (post depositional phase), when the macerals have differentiated ...
SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was
Bloemen HJTh; Mennen M; Meulen A van der; LLO
To assess the behaviour of fine suspended particulate matter (PM10), a descriptive study was undertaken in the Netherlands in the City of Amsterdam and in a rural area some 50 km north-east of Amsterdam. During winter-smog episodes the contribution of PM1 to PM10 increases from approximately 10 to
Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic. ... female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated ...
Rosenberg, J; Rasmussen, Verner; von Jessen, F
heart rate increased 16 beat min-1 (P less than 0.001) and mean oxygen saturation (SaO2) decreased 2.6% (P less than 0.001) after operation. Episodic oxygen desaturation to less than 80% occurred in four patients before operation, but in 13 patients after operation (P less than 0.05). ECG abnormalities...
Dewa, Carolyn S; Thompson, Angus H; Jacobs, Phillip
About one-third of the annual $51 billion cost of mental illnesses is related to productivity losses. However, few studies have examined the association of treatment and productivity. The purpose of our research is to examine the association of depression and its treatment and work productivity. Our analyses used data from 2737 adults aged between 18 and 65 years who participated in a large-scale community survey of employed and recently employed people in Alberta. Using the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, a productivity variable was created to capture high productivity (above the 75th percentile). We used regression methods to examine the association of mental disorders and their treatment and productivity, controlling for demographic factors and job characteristics. In the sample, about 8.5% experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The regression results indicated that people who had a severe depressive episode were significantly less likely to be highly productive. Compared with people who had a moderate or severe depressive episode who did not have treatment, those who did have treatment were significantly more likely to be highly productive. However, about one-half of workers with a moderate or severe depressive episode did not receive treatment. Our results corroborate those in the literature that indicate mental disorders are significantly associated with decreased work productivity. In addition, these findings indicate that treatment for these disorders is significantly associated with productivity. Our results also highlight the low proportion of workers with a mental disorder who receive treatment.
This paper explores the role of monetary policy in Zimbabwe's hyperinflation episode, using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Error Correction Model (ECM) approaches with monthly data from 2006:01 to 2008:07. Results from both the ECM and ARDL approaches show that during the study period, ...
Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O
Emotional events are remembered better than nonemotional ones, especially after a long period of time. In this study, we investigated whether emotional music is kept better in episodic long-term memory than less emotional music and to which extent musical structure is important.
Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Nakamura, Koyuki; Reyna, Valerie F.
Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in…
Background. Co-morbidity between substance abuse and psychotic disorders is high. Few studies have examined the relationship between first-episode psychosis and substance abuse. Several questions emerge from this common relationship and many of them remain unanswered . Objectives. To determine the effect of ...
McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K
According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.
Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M
BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...
Thorson, Esther; Friestad, Marian
Based on the associational nature of memory, the distinction between episodic and semantic memory, and the notion of memory strength, a model was developed of the role of emotion in the memory of television commercials. The model generated the following hypotheses: (1) emotional commercials will more likely be recalled than nonemotional…
Klemfuss, J. Zoe
Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Kvaavik, Elisabeth
Objectives Little is known about the consequences of adolescent social media use. The current study estimated the association between the amount of time adolescents spend on social media and the risk of episodic heavy drinking. Methods A school-based self-report cross-sectional study including 851 Norwegian middle and high school students (46.1% boys). frequency and quantity of social media use. Frequency of drinking four or six (girls and boys, respectively) alcoholic drinks during a single day (episodic heavy drinking). The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items for Adolescents, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Peer Relationship problems scale, gender, and school grade. Results Greater amount of time spent on social media was associated with greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents ( OR = 1.12, 95% CI (1.05, 1.19), p = 0.001), even after adjusting for school grade, impulsivity, sensation seeking, symptoms of depression, and peer relationship problems. Conclusion The results from the current study indicate that more time spent on social media is related to greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: A sizeable percentage of Hispanic youth are affected by alcohol use. Research is needed to identify specific factors placing Hispanic youth at elevated risk. Purpose: This study examined whether recent alcohol use (past 30 days) and frequent episodic heavy drinking among 7th - 12th grade Hispanic students (N = 946) in Greater…
Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude, use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and the prevalence of malaria episodes among boarding secondary school pupils in Zaria, Nigeria. Methods : A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample five (5) secondary schools within Zaria, from ...
Bliksted, Vibeke; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan; Frith, Chris; Videbech, Poul
Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ, and clinical symptoms. Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance in the patient group. The results imply that social cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia come in two distinct versions where one is a complex, cognitive demanding form linked with IQ. The other version is related to simpler forms of social cognition and independent of IQ. These two forms are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...
Kolenic, M.; Franke, K.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Matějka, M.; Čapková, J.; Pausova, Z.; Uher, R.; Alda, M.; Španiel, F.; Hájek, T.
Roč. 99, April (2018), s. 151-158 ISSN 0022-3956 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NV16-32791A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1611 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : BrainAGE score * Dyslipidemia * First-episode psychosis * Obesity * Overweight * Schizophrenia Impact factor: 4.183, year: 2016
Interest in the subject of first-episode psychosis has increased considerably in the last two decades. At present, a number of centres around the world focus on early identification and intervention in people with psychotic disorders. Researchers have focused particularly on people who are possibly experiencing the ...
LaBianca, Sonja; Jensen, Rigmor; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M
and extended clinical examinations, which further worsened the psychoses. Since the episodes were recognized as related to the hemiplegic migraine, a treatment strategy combining sleep and sedation was initiated and progression onto psychosis was almost completely avoided in both father and son. Genetic...
Background: Major psychotic disorders such as the schizophrenias consume a high proportion of health budgets in developed countries. The economic implications of acute psychotic disorders in Nigeria have not been well documented. Aim: To estimate the direct cost of treating patients with acute psychotic episodes in a ...
Cross-cultural studies have shown that Asians exhibit less accessibility to episodic memories than Euro-Americans. This difference is often attributed to differential cognitive and social influences on memory retention, although there have been no empirical data concerning the underlying mechanism. Three studies were conducted to examine encoding…
2Department of Epidemiology, Reproductive Medicine Research Center, Royan Institute, Isfahan, Iran. Abstract. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of Bipolar I Disorder patients with a single manic episode. Method: In a retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of ...
Bramão, Inês; Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Mikael
This study investigates context-dependent memory retrieval. Previous work has shown that physically re-experiencing the encoding context at retrieval improves memory accessibility. The current study examined if mental reconstruction of the original encoding context would yield parallel memory benefits. Participants performed a cued-recall memory task, preceded either by a mental or by a physical context reinstatement task, and we manipulated whether the context reinstated at retrieval overlapped with the context of the target episode. Both behavioral and electrophysiological measures of brain activity showed strong encoding-retrieval (E-R) overlap effects, with facilitated episodic retrieval when the encoding and retrieval contexts overlapped. The electrophysiological E-R overlap effect was more sustained and involved more posterior regions when context was mentally compared with physically reinstated. Additionally, a time-frequency analysis revealed that context reinstatement alone engenders recollection of the target episode. However, while recollection of the target memory is readily prompted by a physical reinstatement, target recollection during mental reinstatement is delayed and depends on the gradual reconstruction of the context. Taken together, our results show facilitated episodic remembering also when mentally reinstating the encoding context; and that such benefits are supported by both shared and partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms when the encoding context is mentally reconstructed as compared with physically presented at the time of retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva
Background External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière’s disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Methods Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004–2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. Results A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Conclusions Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future. PMID:27096752
Das, Uma; Pan, C J
Equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves are investigated during a positive El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode using temperature data retrieved from GPS Radio Occultation (RO) observations of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC during the period from August 2006 to December 2013. Enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes are observed during the El Niño episode of 2009-2010 and it is also observed that these amplitudes correlate with the Niño 3.4 index and also with outgoing longwave radiation and trade wind index. This study indicates that the enhanced equatorial atmospheric Kelvin wave amplitudes might be produced by geophysical processes that were involved in the onset and development of the El Niño episode. Further, easterly winds above the tropopause during this period favored the vertically upward propagation of these waves that induced a fast descending westerly regime by the end of 2010, where the zero-wind line is observed to take only 5 months to descend from 10 to 50 hPa. The current study presents observational evidence of enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes during El Niño that has affected the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) through wave-mean flow interactions. Earlier El Niño episodes of 1987 and 1998 are also qualitatively investigated, using reanalysis data. It is found that there might have been an enhancement in the equatorial Kelvin wave amplitudes during almost all El Niño episodes, however, an effect of a fast descending westerly is observed in the QBO only when the ambient zonal winds in the lower stratosphere favor the upward propagation of the Kelvin waves and consequently they interact with the mean flow. This study indicates that the El Niño and QBO are not linearly related and wave mean flow interactions play a very important role in connecting these two geophysical phenomena. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maass, Anne; Lockhart, Samuel N; Harrison, Theresa M; Bell, Rachel K; Mellinger, Taylor; Swinnerton, Kaitlin; Baker, Suzanne L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Jagust, William J
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is an early site of tau accumulation and MTL dysfunction may underlie episodic-memory decline in aging and dementia. Postmortem data indicate that tau pathology in the transentorhinal cortex is common by age 60, whereas spread to neocortical regions and worsening of cognition is associated with β-amyloid (Aβ). We used [ 18 F]AV-1451 and [ 11 C]PiB positron emission tomography, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessment to investigate how in vivo tau accumulation in temporal lobe regions, Aβ, and MTL atrophy contribute to episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults ( n = 83; age, 77 ± 6 years; 58% female). Stepwise regressions identified tau in MTL regions known to be affected in old age as the best predictor of episodic-memory performance independent of Aβ status. There was no interactive effect of MTL tau with Aβ on memory. Higher MTL tau was related to higher age in the subjects without evidence of Aβ. Among temporal lobe subregions, episodic memory was most strongly related to tau-tracer uptake in the parahippocampal gyrus, particularly the posterior entorhinal cortex, which in our parcellation includes the transentorhinal cortex. In subjects with longitudinal MRI and cognitive data ( n = 57), entorhinal atrophy mirrored patterns of tau pathology and their relationship with memory decline. Our data are consistent with neuropathological studies and further suggest that entorhinal tau pathology underlies memory decline in old age even without Aβ. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tau tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques are key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but both pathologies also occur in cognitively normal older people. Neuropathological data indicate that tau tangles in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) underlie episodic-memory impairments in AD dementia. However, it remains unclear whether MTL tau pathology also accounts for memory impairments often seen in elderly people and how Aβ affects this relationship
Landreth, Garry L.
Reviews five major developments in play therapy: psychoanalysis, release therapy, relationship therapy, nondirective therapy, and play therapy in school settings. Suggests ways school counselors can use play therapy. Describes play therapy facilities, location selection, and play materials. Lists objectives of play therapy and how teachers can aid…
Kim, Kyung Ran; Park, Jin Young; Song, Dong-Ho; Koo, Hae Kyung; An, Suk Kyoon
The aim of the present study was to explore the neurocognitive performance of patients at ultrahigh risk (UHR) compared with patients with first-episode (FE) schizophrenia and healthy control (HC) subjects. Twenty-seven subjects at UHR for schizophrenia, 25 patients in their FE of schizophrenia, and 33 HCs were included. All participants completed a neurocognitive battery, including tests of general intelligence, attention and working memory, executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Of the 3 groups, the FE subjects performed poorest at all neurocognitive tests, encompassing the broad range of impairments. The UHR subjects had a similar pattern of neuropsychological dysfunction but less severe than that of FE patients. The UHR subjects were particularly impaired on measures of attention and working memory, executive function, and verbal memory compared with the HCs. These findings are consistent with the view that the neurocognitive impairments of schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental in nature and, although less severe, those impairments are mostly in place before the onset of the first frank psychotic episode. Neurocognitive impairments may play an important role in the pathogenesis of early psychosis and could help to clarify individuals at UHR for schizophrenia. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hudson, Mark E
Use of budget-based payment methodologies (capitation and episode-based bundled payment) has been demonstrated to drive value in healthcare delivery. With a focus on high-volume, high-cost surgical procedures, inclusion of anaesthesiology services in these methodologies is likely. This review provides a summary of budget-based payment methodologies and practical information necessary for anaesthesiologists to prepare for participation in these programmes. Although few examples of anaesthesiologists' participation in these models exist, an understanding of the structure of these programmes and opportunities for participation are available. Prospective preparation in developing anaesthesiology-specific bundled payment profiles and early participation in pathway development associated with selected episodes of care are essential for successful participation as a gainsharing partner. With significant opportunity to contribute to care coordination and cost management, anaesthesiology can play an important role in budget-based payment programmes and should expect to participate as full gainsharing partners. Precise costing methodologies and accurate economic modelling, along with identification of quality management and cost control opportunities, will help identify participation opportunities and appropriate payment and gainsharing agreements. Anaesthesiology-specific examples with budget-based payment models are needed to help guide increased participation in these programmes.