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Sample records for presumptive copper deficiency

  1. White monkey syndrome and presumptive copper deficiency in wild savannah baboons.

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    Markham, A Catherine; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2011-11-01

    In immature wild savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus), we observed symptoms consistent with copper (Cu) deficiency and, more specifically, with a disorder referred to as white monkey syndrome (WMS) in laboratory primates. The objectives of this study were to characterize this pathology, and test three hypotheses that (1) Cu deficiency may have been induced by zinc (Zn) toxicity, (2) it may have been induced by molybdenum (Mo) toxicity, and (3) cumulative rainfall during the perinatal period and particularly during gestation is an ecological factor distinguishing infants afflicted with WMS from non-WMS infants. During 2001-2009, we observed 22 instances of WMS out of a total 377 live births in the study population. Visible symptoms exhibited by WMS infants included whitening of the animal's fur and/or impaired mobility characterized by an apparent "stiffening" of the hindlimbs. Occurrence of WMS did not vary significantly by gender. However, among individuals that survived at least 180 days, WMS males had a significantly lower survivorship probability than non-WMS males. Zn/Cu ratios assessed from hair samples of adult female baboons were higher in females who had produced at least one WMS offspring relative to females who had not had a WMS offspring. This was true even when the hair sample was collected long after the birth of the female's afflicted infant. We consider this potentially indicative of a robust tendency for low Cu levels induced by elevated Zn intake in some individuals. No significant differences of Mo/Cu ratios were observed. Cumulative rainfall during gestation (∼179 days) was 50% lower for WMS infants relative to non-WMS infants. In contrast, rainfall for the two classes of infants did not differ in the 180 days before conception or in the 180 days following birth. This finding highlights the importance of prenatal ecological conditions in healthy fetal development with regard to WMS. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Copper Deficiency Myelopathy After Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery.

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    King, Dominic; Siau, Keith; Senthil, Latha; Kane, Katherine F; Cooper, Sheldon C

    2017-06-01

    A well-functioning alimentary canal is required for adequate nutrient absorption. Disruption to the upper gastrointestinal tract through surgery can lead to micronutrient malnourishment. Copper deficiency has been noted in up to 10% of those undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but sequalae are not frequently reported. The resultant deficiency states can have profound and long-term consequences if not realized early and managed appropriately. Here we present a case of copper deficiency myelopathy, a condition indistinguishable from subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, following upper gastrointestinal bypass surgery for gastric ulceration, further complicated by inadequate nutrition.

  3. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  4. [Effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chaoxu; Yang, Li

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of copper deficiency on iron metabolism, the expression of IRP mRNA and Fn mRNA and transferrin receptor mRNA in rats. Forty clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight and there were 10 rats in each group. The groups are normal iron and copper control group (group I), copper deficiency group (group II), normal iron and copper slightly deficient group (group III), both iron and copper slightly deficient group (group IV). After 8 weeks, all the rats were killed by sodium pentobarbital anesthesia and all samples were collected and detected for gene expression. Compared with the controls, the contents of serum iron and serum ferritin in completely copper deficiency group decreased (P copper deficiency (P copper deficiency group was significantly increased (P copper deficiency group was significantly decreased (P copper deficiency through influencing the absorption, the results indicate that copper deficiency influences iron homeostasis in cells through affecting the expression of IRP2 and the activity of IRP-RNA combination which change the expressions of ferritin and transferrin mRNA.

  5. [Effect of copper deficiency on iron metabolism in rats].

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    Wang, Kebo; Wang, Chaoxu; Liu, Baosheng; Jiang, Shan

    2010-07-01

    To study the effect of copper deficiency on the nutritional status of iron, the expression of hepcidin mRNA and transferrin receptor mRNA in rats. Forty eight clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight; and there were 12 rats in each group. The groups are normal iron and copper control group (group I), normal iron and copper deficiency group (group II), normal iron and copper slightly deficient group (group III), both iron and copper slightly deficient group (group IV). Serum, liver and spleen of rats were collected by the end of 8th week. Serum copper, serum iron, hemoglobin, serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, liver iron and liver copper, spleen iron and spleen copper were determined. The expression of liver transferring receptor mRNA and hepcidin mRNA were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Compared with the controls, the contents of serum iron and serum ferritin decreased (P copper deficiency. The expression of transferrin receptor mRNA in liver increased but the expression of hepcidin mRNA in liver decreased significantly under copper deficiency (P copper deficiency through influencing the absorption, storage and transportation of iron. Under the condition of copper deficiency, the expression of hepcidin mRNA in liver was lowered and the expression of transferrin receptor mRNA was enhanced through the way of iron response element-iron regulatory protein (IRE-IRP) to regulate iron metabolism.

  6. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  7. Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

    2009-02-15

    Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements.

  8. Copper deficiency, a new triad: anemia, leucopenia, and myeloneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Shoaib M; Ghobrial, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Clinical copper deficiency is now more frequently recognized. Hematologically, it can present as anemia (microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic) and neutropenia. Thrombocytopenia is relatively rare. Neurologically, it can manifest as myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy simulating subacute combined degeneration. Bone marrow findings can mimic myelodysplasia resulting in occasional inappropriate referral for bone marrow transplantation. Other conditions with similar presentations include infections, drug toxicity, autoimmunity, B 12 deficiency, folate deficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, and lymphoma with bone marrow involvement. Hematological, but not neurological, manifestations respond promptly to copper replacement, making early diagnosis essential for good outcome. Common risk factors for copper deficiency are foregut surgery, dietary deficiency, enteropathies with malabsorption, and prolonged intravenous nutrition (total parenteral nutrition). We present a unique case of copper deficiency, with no apparent known risk factors.

  9. The effect of an induced copper deficiency on the total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a copper deficiency on certain aspects of reproduction in ewes was investigated. An effective copper deficiency was induced by using the copper antagonists cadmium, calcium and sulphate. An average decline in the plasma copper concentration from 160 fLg/dlto 56 fLg/dlwas achieved. Further indications of ...

  10. Copper Deficiency in Sheep with High Liver Iron Accumulation

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    Isadora Karolina Freitas de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of enzootic ataxia among sheep raised in the northeastern region of Brazil is described. Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 56 sheep, among which five presented characteristic clinical symptoms of enzootic ataxia. The symptoms began 30 days after birth, with a clinical condition that included locomotion difficulty, limb ataxia, tremors, and continual falls. Liver biopsies were performed and blood was collected to determine hepatic and plasmatic Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn concentration, respectively. The laboratory results showed that the animals presented low copper concentrations in the plasma and liver, without difference between the clinically healthy animals and those affected by enzootic ataxia. Even after supplementation with adequate Cu levels had been recommended, it was found on a new visit to the farm four months later that one animal still presented a clinical condition and that the hepatic Cu levels of the herd had not risen. Despite the low copper content of the diet, the high hepatic Fe levels found suggest that antagonism due to this element may have been an important factor in triggering copper deficiency in these animals, and thus, additional copper supplementation may be necessary for these animals.

  11. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  12. Peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat

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    Valdir Morais de Almeida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This report aimed to describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a copper-deficient goat, and highlights the clinical, and pathological features of the disease. The goat had low body score, hyporexia, alopecia, achromotrichia, left hindlimb protraction, paralysis with dragging of digit and difficulty to stand up and microcytic normochromic anemia. Copper concentration in serum was markedly lower (2.0µmol L-1 whereas the iron serum content was significantly increased (51.0µmol L-1. The main gross alteration was the reduction of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle volume. Histologically, there was atrophy of the quadriceps vastus laterallis muscle and presence of satellite cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and replacement of the fibers by connective tissue. In the femoral nerve, there was axonal degeneration with myelin sheath expansion and presence of vacuoles, usually in chains and containing axonal debris or macrophages. Clinical, laboratorial and pathologic findings are consistent with peripheral neuropathy due to a severy copper deficiency.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of copper deficiency following roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, N; Broderius, M; Frediani, J K; Zhao, V M; Griffith, D P; Davis, S S; Sweeney, J F; Lin, E; Prohaska, J R; Ziegler, T R

    2012-03-01

    The frequency of copper deficiency and clinical manifestations following roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is not yet clear. Objectives were to determine the prevalence and incidence of copper deficiency in patients who have undergone RYGB. We sought to determine the number of RYGB patients undergoing medical and nutritional follow-up visits at the Emory Bariatric Center who experienced copper deficiency and associated hematological and neurological complaints (n=136). Separately, in patients followed longitudinally before and during 6 and 24 months following RYGB surgery, we obtained measures of copper status (n=16). Systemic blood cell counts and measures of copper, zinc and ceruloplasmin were determined using standardized assays in reference laboratories including atomic absorption spectrometry and immunoassays. Thirteen patients were identified to have copper deficiency suggesting a prevalence of copper deficiency of 9.6%, and the majority of these had concomitant complications including anemia, leukopenia and various neuro-muscular abnormalities. In the longitudinal study, plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activity decreased over 6 and 24 months following surgery, respectively (Pdeficiency in these subjects was determined to be 18.8%. The prevalence and incidence of copper deficiency following RYGB surgery was determined to be 9.6% and 18.8%, respectively, with many patients experiencing mild-to-moderate symptoms. Given that copper deficiency can lead to serious and irreversible complications if untreated, frequent monitoring of the copper status of RYGB patients is warranted.

  14. Erythrocyte copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase is increased following marginal copper deficiency in adult and postweanling mice.

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    Lassi, Katie C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    A sensitive and reliable biomarker has yet to be identified for marginal copper deficiency in humans. The need for such a biomarker is critical, because increased cases of human copper deficiency evolve following bariatric surgery and other secondary factors besides diet. Four experiments were devised to induce marginal copper deficiency through copper-deficient (CuD) diets (5 wk for mice and 4 wk for rats). In Expt. 1 and 2, male postweanling mice were raised in either solid-bottom plastic cages (Expt. 1) or stainless steel hanging cages (Expt. 2) and compared. Postweanling rats (Expt. 3) and adult mice (Expt. 4) were also studied using stainless steel cages. Copper-adequate controls were fed a semipurified diet containing 9 mg Cu/kg. CuD rats exhibited the most severe changes in biomarkers due to copper limitation, including major reductions in plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and augmentation in copper chaperone for Sod1 (CCS). The CuD mice in Expt. 2 were more deficient than the CuD mice in Expt. 1, likely due to coprophagia differences. In fact, the CuD mice in Expt. 1 had unaltered Sod1 or Cp levels. Importantly though, these marginally deficient mice and CuD adult mice that had no changes in Cp activity or liver copper level had robust augmentation of CCS. Erythrocyte CCS was the only consistent biomarker to change in copper deficiency for all dietary groups, suggesting that CCS may be an excellent biomarker for human confirmation of marginal copper deficiency.

  15. Zinc containing dental fixative causing copper deficiency myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Liam Stuart; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Murray, Rosanne

    2017-08-08

    A 62-year-old male, previously well, was referred to neurology clinic following 6 months history of worsening lower limbs instability, paraesthesia, pain and weakness rendering him housebound. Examination revealed upper motor neuron pattern of weakness of the lower limbs and loss of proprioception. Serum analysis revealed reduced caeruloplasmin and copper levels with raised zinc. Spinal imaging revealed subtle dorsal column intensity changes in C2-C7, confirmed with 3T MRI. A copper deficiency myeloneuropathy was diagnosed secondary to chronic use of a zinc-containing dental fixative paste. The paste was discontinued and a copper supplementation was started. Resolution of symptoms was not achieved with intensive physiotherapy. The patient remains a wheelchair user though progression of symptoms has halted. Prompt recognition and treatment of hyperzincaemia-induced hypocupraemia earlier in the disease course may have prevented any irreversible neurological deficit. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Copper deficiency myelopathy in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylosis.

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    Page, Paul S; Nazar, Ryan G; Park, Michael C; James, Robert F

    2016-08-01

    When presenting conjointly, degenerative cervical spondylosis and copper deficiency myelopathy may be difficult to differentiate providing the potential for mismanagement and unnecessary surgery. We present a case of a 69-year-old female with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to previous bowel resection in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylotic disease.

  17. The effect of copper deficiency on the formation of hemosiderin in sprague-dawley rats.

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    Welch, Kevin D; Hall, Jeffery O; Davis, T Zane; Aust, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrated previously that loading iron into ferritin via its own ferroxidase activity resulted in damage to the ferritin while ferritin loaded by ceruloplasmin, a copper-containing ferroxidase, was not damaged and had similar characteristics to native ferritin (Welch et al. (2001) Free Radic Biol Med 31:999-1006). Interestingly, it has been suggested that the formation of hemosiderin, a proposed degradation product of ferritin, is increased in animals deficient in copper. In this study, groups of rats were fed normal diets, copper deficient diets, iron supplemented diets, or copper deficient-iron supplemented diets for 60 days. Rats fed copper-deficient diets had no detectable active serum ceruloplasmin, which indicates that they were functionally copper deficient. There was a significant increase in the amount of iron in isolated hemosiderin fractions from the livers of copper-deficient rats, even more than that found in rats fed only an iron-supplemented diet. Histological analysis showed that copper-deficient rats had iron deposits (which are indicative of hemosiderin) in their hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, whereas rats fed diets sufficient in copper only had iron deposits in their Kupffer cells. Histologic evidence of iron deposition was more pronounced in rats fed diets that were deficient in copper. Additionally, sucrose density-gradient sedimentation profiles of ferritin loaded with iron in vitro via its own ferroxidase activity was found to have similarities to that of the sedimentation profile of the hemosiderin fraction from rat livers. The implications of these data for the possible mechanism of hemosiderin formation are discussed.

  18. Tempol Normalizes Aortic Relaxation But Not Elevated Isoprostanes or PGE2 in Copper-Deficient Rats

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    Copper deficiency promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which likely impair nitric oxide mediated relaxation as well as trigger vascular inflammation. We hypothesize that an antioxidant supplementation would diminish oxidative stress, restore aortic relaxation, and limit pro-inflammatory...

  19. Copper deficiency and effects of copper supplementation in a herd of red deer (Cervus elaphus

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    Bernhoft Aksel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a Norwegian red deer (Cervus elaphus herd subsequent to deaths due to emaciation in late autumn 1999. The animals had free access to salt licks containing 3000 mg Cu/kg. An evaluation of the herd revealed poor calf growth rate, low weights of adult hinds, dull and light-coloured hair coats and cases of diarrhoea. The herd was subsequently monitored throughout a three-year period of Cu-supplementation. The monitoring regimen included clinical observation, copper serum examination, weighing, faecal parasitological examination, and reproduction control by ultrasound. During the period January 2000 to May 2001, the animals were treated with Cu oxid capsules (1 g CuO/10 kg liveweight at 2–4 months intervals, with the exception of March to September 2000. The animals were fed continuously with Cu-enriched concentrates containing 300 mg Cu/kg, at a rate of 1/2 kg per head and day, from May 2001 to January 2003. Following both copper supplementation regimens adequate serum Cu concentrations were measured, and markedly improved body weights, coat quality and reproductive results were observed, except for the period from March to September 2000 when no treatment was given. The results showed that in a deer herd, with a diet low in Cu, supplementation with CuO capsules had to be given at intervals of a few months to maintain adequate serum Cu levels. Free access to Cu-containing salt licks did not meet the animals' Cu demand. Good and stable results were achieved by the daily feeding of Cu-enriched concentrates.

  20. Regression of Copper-Deficient Heart Hypertrophy: Reduction in the Size of Hypertrophic Cardiomyocytes

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    Dietary copper deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy and its transition to heart failure in a mouse model. Copper repletion results in a rapid regression of cardiac hypertrophy and prevention of heart failure. The present study was undertaken to understand dynamic changes of cardiomyocytes in the hy...

  1. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. High mortality rates occur in copper deficient rats exposed to a normally nonlethal endotoxin treatment

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    DiSilvestro, R.; Joseph, E.; Yang, F.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Endotoxin hepatotoxicity is proposed to occur by processes which could be retarded by 3 copper enzymes: ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and extracellular (EC) SOD. Weanling rats fed low copper for 40 days showed low activity levels of these enzymes, and a very high mortality rate 20 h after endotoxin injection. No rats fed adequate copper died from this treatment. In addition, serum transaminase activities, indicators of liver damage, were elevated by 3 h to a greater extent in the deficient rats than in the adequates. The high susceptibility to endotoxemia in the deficient rats was not associated with low hepatic glutathione, high liver malondialedhyde, nor restricted metallothionein induction 3 h after endotoxin injection. Endotoxin reduced serum EC SOD activities in adequate and deficient rats, but final values were lower in the latter. Studies on roles of specific copper enzymes in resistance to endotoxemia are currently underway.

  3. Zinc containing dental fixative causing copper deficiency myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Liam Stuart; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Murray, Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    A 62-year-old male, previously well, was referred to neurology clinic following 6 months history of worsening lower limbs instability, paraesthesia, pain and weakness rendering him housebound. Examination revealed upper motor neuron pattern of weakness of the lower limbs and loss of proprioception. Serum analysis revealed reduced caeruloplasmin and copper levels with raised zinc. Spinal imaging revealed subtle dorsal column intensity changes in C2-C7, confirmed with 3T MRI. A copper deficienc...

  4. Nutritional Optic Neuropathy Caused by Copper Deficiency After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Yuna; Lavin, Patrick J M

    2016-06-01

    A 47-year-old woman developed severe bilateral visual loss 4 years after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 24 years after vertical banded gastroplasty. Her serum copper level was 35 μg/dL (normal, 80-155 μg/dL). She was prescribed elemental copper tablets. Because her methylmalonic acid was slightly elevated, she received vitamin B12 injections as well. Five weeks later, she reported that her vision had improved and, at 10 months, her vision had recovered from 20/400 bilaterally to 20/25 in each eye. This case highlights the importance of checking copper levels in addition to the "more routine" vitamin levels, such as B1, B6, B12, E, and serum folate in patients with suspected nutritional optic neuropathy after bariatric surgery, particularly if it involved a bypass procedure.

  5. Rapid alteration in rat red blood cell copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase after marginal copper deficiency and repletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Katie C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2011-09-01

    There is increased incidence of human copper deficiency (CuD). A sensitive and reliable blood biomarker may reveal additional cases of marginal deficiency. Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) would be a robust marker after marginal CuD. Experiment 1 used weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats that were offered a CuD diet for 4 weeks, and samples were evaluated after 1, 2, and 4 weeks and compared with copper-adequate (CuA) controls. Furthermore, iron-deficient rats were included for comparison after 2 weeks of depletion. Red blood cell and plasma cuproenzymes were evaluated through Western blot analysis. Superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and ceruloplasmin protein were found to be altered by both iron and CuD, whereas CCS and CCS/Sod1 ratio were found to only be altered only in CuD rats and, importantly, after only 1 week of treatment. Two weeks on CuA diet restored cuproenzyme levels to control values after 4 weeks of CuD depletion. In experiment 2, marginal CuD (CuM) rats were compared with CuA and CuD rats after 2 weeks of treatment. Superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, and CCS/Sod1 abundances were lower in CuM and CuD groups compared with CuA rats, but there was no statistical difference between CuM and CuD rats. However, CCS was statistically different between all groups, and abundance highly correlated with liver copper concentration. Results suggest that red blood cell CCS may be an excellent biomarker for diagnosis of rapid and marginal CuD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  7. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  8. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  9. Copper deficiency induced emphysema is associated with focal adhesion kinase inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mizuno

    Full Text Available Copper is an important regulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and is also required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX to effect matrix protein cross-linking. Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix can induce apoptosis (anoikis via inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK.To examine the molecular mechanisms whereby copper depletion causes the destruction of the normal alveolar architecture via anoikis, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper deficient diet for 6 weeks while being treated with the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. Other groups of rats were treated with the inhibitor of auto-phosphorylation of FAK, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride (1,2,4,5-BT or FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA.Copper depletion caused emphysematous changes, decreased HIF-1α activity, and downregulated VEGF expression in the rat lungs. Cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim expression was increased, and the phosphorylation of FAK was decreased in copper depleted rat lungs. Administration of 1,2,4,5-BT and FAK siRNA caused emphysematous lung destruction associated with increased expression of cleaved capase-3, caspase-8 and Bim.These data indicate that copper-dependent mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema, which may be associated with decreased HIF-1α and FAK activity in the lung.

  10. Presumption of Negligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    This paper is about the incentive effects of legal presumptions. We analyze three interrelated effects of legal presumptions in a tort setting: (1) incentives to invest in evidence technology; (2) incentives to invest in care-type precautions; and (3) incentives to mitigate excessive activity lev...

  11. Diets containing corn oil, coconut oil and cholesterol alter ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation and function in hearts of rats fed copper-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J E; Medeiros, D M

    1993-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and function were evaluated in rats fed diets containing deficient, marginal or adequate levels of copper. The fat concentration of the diets was either 10 g/100 g corn oil, 10 g/100 g coconut oil or 10 g/100 g coconut oil + 1 g/100 g added cholesterol. Left ventricular (LV) wall thickening of hearts in rats fed copper-deficient diets was characterized by greater (P oil. Rats fed the copper-deficient diet with coconut oil + cholesterol had LV chamber volumes that were twofold larger than those of rats fed the copper-deficient diet with coconut oil or corn oil. Copper deficiency reduced LV chamber volume only in rats fed coconut oil + cholesterol. Cardiac LV end diastolic pressure in rats fed copper-deficient diets was twofold larger than in copper-adequate and copper-marginal groups fed corn oil or coconut oil. Hearts from rats fed the copper-deficient diet with corn oil compared with those from rats fed the copper-deficient diet with coconut oil + cholesterol had greater right ventricular (RV) and LV end diastolic pressures, LV pressures and LV and RV maximal rates of positive pressure development. Our data suggest that cardiac adaptations in rats fed copper-deficient diets are influenced by dietary fat type: 1) hearts of rats fed the copper-deficient diet with corn oil were concentrically hypertrophied, whereas cardiac contractility was maintained in the presence of high preload; 2) preload and contractility in hearts of coconut oil-fed rats was greater than cardiac response to cholesterol addition to the coconut oil diet; 3) hearts in copper-deficient rats fed coconut oil + cholesterol exhibited eccentric hypertrophy and ventricular dysfunction.

  12. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  13. Alterations in lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes in copper-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, K.Y.; Rosenstein, F.; Shi, F.; Hassel, C.A.; Carr, T.P.; Zhang, J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1988-07-01

    In view of the importance of membrane fluidity on cell functions, the influence of phospholipid acyl groups on membrane fluidity, and the changes in lipid metabolism induced by copper (Cu) deficiency, this study was designed to examine the influence of dietary Cu on the lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary treatments, namely Cu deficient and Cu adequate. After 8 weeks of treatment, liver plasma membranes were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The lipid fluidity of plasma membranes, as assessed by the intramolecular eximer fluorescence of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl) propane, was significantly depressed by Cu deficiency. In addition, Cu deficiency significantly reduced the content of arachidonic and palmitoleic acids but increased the docosatetraenoic acids of membrane phospholipids. This alteration in unsaturated phospholipid fatty acid composition, especially the large reduction in arachidonic acid, may have contributed to the depressed membrane fluidity. Furthermore, Cu deficiency also markedly altered the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols associated with the plasma membranes. Thus, the lipid composition and fluidity of liver plasma membranes are responsive to the animal's Cu status.

  14. Effects of a copper-deficient diet on the biochemistry, neural morphology and behavior of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognin, Silvia; Pasqualetto, Federica; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Scancar, Janez; Milacic, Radmila; Zambenedetti, Pamela; Cozzi, Bruno; Zatta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a) the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc) in the main organs and in different brain areas; b) the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c) behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests). Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of "domino effect" which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour.

  15. Effects of a copper-deficient diet on the biochemistry, neural morphology and behavior of aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bolognin

    Full Text Available Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc in the main organs and in different brain areas; b the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests. Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of "domino effect" which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour.

  16. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  17. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Avila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  18. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Gaona, Berenice; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were 14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.

  19. Metal-Deficient Aggregates and Diminished Copper Found in Cells Expressing SOD1 Mutations that Cause ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan W Bourassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in metal ion homeostasis have been described in association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS for a number of years but the precise mechanism of involvement is poorly understood. Metal ions are especially important to familial ALS cases caused by mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1. To investigate the role of metals in aggregation of mutant SOD1, we have examined the localization of metal ions in a cell culture model of overexpression. Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 were transfected to overexpress SOD1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP to readily identify the transfected cells and the intracellular aggregates that develop in the cells expressing mutant or wild-type (WT SOD1. The concentration and distribution of iron, copper, and zinc were determined for four SOD1 mutants (A4V, G37R, H80R, and D125H as well as a WT SOD1 using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM. Results demonstrated that the SOD1 aggregates were Metal-deficient within the cells, which is consistent with recent in vitro studies. In addition, all SOD1 mutants showed significantly decreased copper content compared to the WT SOD1 cells, regardless of the mutant’s ability to bind copper. These results suggest that SOD1 overexpression creates an unmet demand on the cell for copper. This is particularly true for the SOD1 mutants where copper delivery may also be impaired. Hence, the SOD1 mutants are less stable than WT SOD1 and if copper is limited, aggregate formation of the metal-deficient, mutant SOD1 protein occurs.

  20. The BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide: Copper deficiency and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthebaud, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Lebedev, O.I. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Maignan, A., E-mail: antoine.maignan@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Gamon, J.; Barboux, P. [Institut de Recherche de Chimie de Paris, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 09 France (France)

    2016-05-15

    An oxysulfide series of nominal compositions BiCu{sub 1−x}OS with x<0.20 has been prepared and its structural properties characterized by combining powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is found that this oxysulfide, crystallizing in the P4/nmm space group, tends to adopt a constant amount of copper vacancy corresponding to x=0.05 in the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS formula. The presence of Cu vacancies is confirmed by HAADF-STEM analysis showing, in the Cu atomic columns, alternating peaks of different intensities in some very localized regions. For larger Cu deficiencies (x>0.05 in the nominal composition), other types of structural nanodefects are evidenced such as bismuth oxysulfides of the “BiOS” ternary system which might explain the report of superconductivity for the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide. Local epitaxial growth of the BiCuOS oxysulfide on top of CuO is also observed. In marked contrast to the BiCu{sub 1−x}OSe oxyselenide, these results give an explanation to the limited impact of Cu deficiency on the Seebeck coefficient in BiCu{sub 1−x}OS compounds. - Graphical abstract: High resolution TEM image showing a Bi(Cu)OS/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S interface and corresponding dislocation region. The Bi(Cu)OS structure adopts a rather constant Cu content (near 0.95); starting from BiCuOS leads to the formation of defects such as the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfide.

  1. Limbic system pathologies associated with deficiencies and excesses of the trace elements iron, zinc, copper, and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Adriana; Pliego-Rivero, Bernardo F; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria A; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M; Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Deficiencies of nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and trace elements during gestation and early infanthood have strong deleterious effects on the development of the limbic system; these effects may be irreversible, even when adequate supplementation is provided at later developmental stages. Recent advances in the neurochemistry of biometals are increasingly establishing the roles of the trace elements iron, copper, zinc, and selenium in a variety of cell functions and are providing insight into the repercussions of deficiencies and excesses of these elements on the development of the central nervous system, especially the limbic system. The limbic system comprises diverse areas with high metabolic demands and differential storage of iron, copper, zinc, and selenium. This review summarizes available evidence suggesting the involvement of these trace elements in pathological disorders of the limbic system. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  2. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the cytostatic effect of acrylamide during copper-deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommuguri, Upendra Nadh; Satyaprasad Pallem, Poorna Venkata; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide exposure increases oxidative stress and causes cytotoxicity. In order to understand the role of oxidative stress in acrylamide toxicity, we utilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism grown in Yeast Peptone Dextrose (YPD) or Copper-Deficient Medium (CDM). Although the growth curves of yeast were comparable in these media, acrylamide treatment resulted in significant growth inhibition and colony formation only in the CDM. Copper-deficiency induced a decrease in the intracellular metallothionein levels, along with reduced Cu, Zn-SOD activity that appeared to increase the sensitivity of the yeast to the cytostatic effect of acrylamide. Increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence, enhanced formation of para-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (PBN)-hydroxyethyl adducts and a lowered reduced glutathione (GSH) content were observed under copper-deficient conditions, when challenged with acrylamide. The cytostatic effects and intracellular redox changes in response to acrylamide were ameliorated by antioxidant molecules viz. a viz. curcumin, β-carotene, vanillin and caffeic acid, which effectively decreased the oxidative stress and improved the growth recovery.

  3. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium......Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  4. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  5. Copper Deficiency Induced Emphysema Is Associated with Focal Adhesion Kinase Inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Shiro; Yasuo, Masanori; Bogaard, Harm J.; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Alhussaini, Aysar; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose; Farkas, Daniela; Farkas, Laszlo; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper is an important regulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and is also required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX) to effect matrix protein cross-linking. Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix can induce apoptosis (anoikis) via inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Methodology To examine the molecular mechanisms whereby copper depletion causes the destruction of the normal alveola...

  6. Copper deficiency in Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep on pasture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... The Guizhou semi-fine sheep in the Weining County, Guizhou province, south west China karst mountain area were affected by an ailment characterized by pica, emaciation, dyskinesia, depressed appetites, unsteady gait and anemia. We found that concentrations of copper (Cu) in soil and forage.

  7. Relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on bone manganese and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, José M; González-Reimers, Emilio; DeLaVega-Prieto, María José; Durán-Castellón, María del Carmen; Viña-Rodríguez, José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Alvisa-Negrín, Julio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Both manganese and copper may affect bone synthesis. Bone content of both metals can be altered in alcoholics, although controversy exists regarding this matter. To analyse the relative and combined effects of ethanol and a low protein diet on bone copper and manganese, and their relationships with bone structure and metabolism, including trabecular bone mass (TBM), osteoid area (OA), osteocalcin (OCN), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary hydroxyproline (uHP) and vitamin D. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control rats received a 18% protein-containing diet; a second group, an isocaloric, 2% protein-containing diet; a third one, an isocaloric, 36% ethanol-containing diet and a fourth, an isocaloric diet containing 2% protein and 36% ethanol. After sacrifice, TBM and OA were histomorphometrically assessed; bone and serum manganese and copper were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum OCN, IGF-1, PTH, uHP and vitamin D by radioimmunoassay. Ethanol-fed rats showed decreased TBM and bone manganese. Significant relationships existed between bone manganese and TBM, serum IGF-1 and OCN. Ethanol leads to a decrease in bone manganese, related to decreased bone mass and bone synthesis. No alterations were found in bone copper.

  8. Elevation of brain glucose and polyol-pathway intermediates with accompanying brain-copper deficiency in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: metabolic basis for dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J.; Patassini, Stefano; McHarg, Selina; Kureishy, Nina; Hollywood, Katherine A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Shaoping; Lin, Wanchang; Herholz, Karl; Turner, Clinton; Synek, Beth J.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Lawrence, Catherine B.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Vardy, Emma R. L. C.; Wu, Donghai; Unwin, Richard D.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Dowsey, Andrew W.; Cooper, Garth J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of brain-glucose uptake and brain-copper regulation occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we sought to further elucidate the processes that cause neurodegeneration in AD by measuring levels of metabolites and metals in brain regions that undergo different degrees of damage. We employed mass spectrometry (MS) to measure metabolites and metals in seven post-mortem brain regions of nine AD patients and nine controls, and plasma-glucose and plasma-copper levels in an ante-mortem case-control study. Glucose, sorbitol and fructose were markedly elevated in all AD brain regions, whereas copper was correspondingly deficient throughout (all P < 0.0001). In the ante-mortem case-control study, by contrast, plasma-glucose and plasma-copper levels did not differ between patients and controls. There were pervasive defects in regulation of glucose and copper in AD brain but no evidence for corresponding systemic abnormalities in plasma. Elevation of brain glucose and deficient brain copper potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:27276998

  9. Studies on Association Between Copper Excess, Zinc Deficiency and TP53 Mutations in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma From Kashmir Valley, India-A High Risk Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Salam, Irfana; Malik, Mushtaq Ahmad; Lone, Mohamad Maqbool; Yatoo, Ghulam Nabi; Ahmad, Aquil; Shah, Azra

    2007-01-01

    Trace element deficiency or excess is implicated in the development or progression in some cancers. Here we report the elevated levels of copper and low level of zinc in the plasma of esophageal cancer patients in Kashmir India- a high incidence area. The average level of copper was significantly higher for patients than for controls (pgender, tumor site, green tea with salt (nun chai) consumption, smoking habits or snuff in cases. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors had a higher copper concentration than those with moderately or well-differentiated tumors (pimbalance in the esophageal tumorigenesis in high risk Kashmiri population exposed to a range of nitroso compounds or their precursors. Further prospective cohort studies are warranted to determine whether change in the plasma zinc and copper homeostasis may represent an independent risk factor for this malignancy as well as possible target for preventive intervention.

  10. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile); Ferrick, David [Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA (United States); Elorza, Alvaro A., E-mail: aelorza@unab.cl [Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive.

  11. Copper deficiency alters cell bioenergetics and induces mitochondrial fusion through up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 in erythropoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Rodrigo I.; Jensen, Erik L.; Ruiz, Lina M.; Rivera, Salvador; Ruiz, Sebastián; Simon, Felipe; Riedel, Claudia; Ferrick, David; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •In copper deficiency, cell proliferation is not affected. In turn, cell differentiation is impaired. •Enlarged mitochondria are due to up-regulation of MNF2 and OPA1. •Mitochondria turn off respiratory chain and ROS production. •Energy metabolism switch from mitochondria to glycolysis. -- Abstract: Copper is essential in cell physiology, participating in numerous enzyme reactions. In mitochondria, copper is a cofactor for respiratory complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase. Low copper content is associated with anemia and the appearance of enlarged mitochondria in erythropoietic cells. These findings suggest a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis, which has not been explored so far. Here, we describe that bathocuproine disulfonate-induced copper deficiency does not alter erythropoietic cell proliferation nor induce apoptosis. However it does impair erythroid differentiation, which is associated with a metabolic switch between the two main energy-generating pathways. That is, from mitochondrial function to glycolysis. Switching off mitochondria implies a reduction in oxygen consumption and ROS generation along with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial fusion proteins MFN2 and OPA1 were up-regulated along with the ability of mitochondria to fuse. Morphometric analysis of mitochondria did not show changes in total mitochondrial biomass but rather bigger mitochondria because of increased fusion. Similar results were also obtained with human CD34+, which were induced to differentiate into red blood cells. In all, we have shown that adequate copper levels are important for maintaining proper mitochondrial function and for erythroid differentiation where the energy metabolic switch plus the up-regulation of fusion proteins define an adaptive response to copper deprivation to keep cells alive

  12. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  13. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., E-mail: elina.huttunen-saarivirta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Rajala, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bomberg, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geobiotechnology, Tietotie 2, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Carpén, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Materials Performance, Kemistintie 3, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Copper was exposed to groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms. • Biofilm composition was determined and correlated with the behaviour of copper. • Under biotic conditions, the film of Cu{sub 2}S formed on copper surfaces. • Bacterial pool was in a key role for the morphology and properties of Cu{sub 2}S film. • Under abiotic conditions, Cu{sub 2}O systematically developed on copper surfaces. - Abstract: Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu{sub 2}S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu{sub 2}O

  14. Association between copper excess, zinc deficiency, and TP53 mutations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from Kashmir Valley, India--a high risk area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Salam, Irfana; Malik, Mushtaq Ahmad; Gulzar, Ghulam Mohammad; Yatoo, Ghulam Nabi; Ahmad, Aquil; Shah, Azra

    2008-01-01

    Trace element deficiency or excess is implicated in the development or progression in some cancers. Here we report the elevated level of copper and low level of zinc in the plasma of esophageal cancer patients in Kashmir India--a high incidence area. The average level of copper was significantly higher (P gender and age in patients as compared to controls. Similarly, smokers depicted a significant increase in serum copper (N = 39, P = 0.002) and a decrease in serum zinc approaching level of significance in the patient group as compared to controls. The copper and zinc levels were significantly altered in patients (N = 40) when compared to controls as a function of snuff consumption. The differences in the levels of copper and zinc showed significant association with the consumption of local salted tea up to 1,500 ml per day, but the changes were insignificant beyond that. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors (N = 7) had a higher copper concentration than those with moderately or well-differentiated tumors (P imbalance in copper and zinc levels may lead to higher prevalence of TP53 mutations, we compared the 3 variables, and no association was found between copper concentration and TP53 mutation status; but patients with TP53 mutant tumor had lower zinc levels than those with no mutation. In conclusion, our results point toward a role of the trace element imbalance in the esophageal tumorigenesis in high-risk Kashmiri population exposed to a range of nitroso compounds or their precursors. Further prospective cohort studies are warranted to determine whether change in the plasma zinc and copper homeostasis may represent an independent risk factor for this malignancy as well as a possible target for preventive intervention.

  15. Tyrosinase inhibition due to interaction of homocyst(e)ine with copper: the mechanism for reversible hypopigmentation in homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, O; Townsend, D; Berry, S A; Tsai, M Y; King, R A

    1995-01-01

    Deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a genetic disorder of transsulfuration resulting in elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine and methionine and decreased cysteine. Affected patients have multisystem involvement, which may include light skin and hair. Reversible hypopigmentation in treated homocystinuric patients has been infrequently reported, and the mechanism is undefined. Two CBS-deficient homocystinuric patients manifested darkening of their hypopigmented hair following treatment that decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine. We hypothesized that homocyst(e)ine inhibits tyrosinase, the major pigment enzyme. The activity of tyrosinase extracted from pigmented human melanoma cells (MNT-1) that were grown in the presence of homocysteine was reduced in comparison to that extracted from cells grown without homocysteine. Copper sulfate restored homocyst(e)ine-inhibited tyrosinase activity when added to the culture cell media at a proportion of 1.25 mol of copper sulfate per 1 mol of DL-homocysteine. Holo-tyrosinase activity was inhibited by adding DL-homocysteine to the assay reaction mixture, and the addition of copper sulfate to the reaction mixture prevented this inhibition. Other tested compounds, L-cystine and betaine did not affect tyrosinase activity. Our data suggest that reversible hypopigmentation in homocystinuria is the result of tyrosinase inhibition by homocyst(e)ine and that the probable mechanism of this inhibition is the interaction of homocyst(e)ine with copper at the active site of tyrosinase. Images Figure 1 PMID:7611281

  16. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora; Berenice Gaona; Salvador Villalpando; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Ricardo Robledo

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overa...

  17. Auditors' Professional Skepticism: Neutrality versus Presumptive Doubt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.L.C.M.; Quadackers, L.M.; Wright, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although skepticism is widely viewed as essential to audit quality, there is a debate about what form is optimal. The two prevailing perspectives that have surfaced are "neutrality" and "presumptive doubt." With neutrality, auditors neither believe nor disbelieve client management. With presumptive

  18. Effects of nanomolar copper on water plants—Comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of deficiency and sublethal toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George, E-mail: george.thomas@uni.kn [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: ha-jo.staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wellenreuther, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.wellenreuther@desy.de [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: bryan.dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We found different optimal Cu requirement for different physiological mechanisms. •Kinetics and concentration thresholds of damage mechanisms were established. •Cu toxicity caused internal Cu re-distribution and inhibition of Zn uptake. •Cu deficient plants released Cu, indicating lack of high-affinity Cu transporters. •Cu deficiency caused re-distribution of zinc in the plant. -- Abstract: Toxicity and deficiency of essential trace elements like Cu are major global problems. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu (supplied as CuSO{sub 4}) and simulations of natural light- and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Growth was optimal at 10 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 2 nM Cu. Damage to the PSII reaction centre was the first target of Cu toxicity, followed by disturbed regulation of heat dissipation (NPQ). Only after that, electron transport through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) was inhibited, and finally chlorophylls decreased. Copper accumulation in the plants was stable until 10 nM Cu in solution, but strongly increased at higher concentrations. The vein was the main storage site for Cu up to physiological concentrations (10 nM). At toxic levels it was also sequestered to the epidermis and mesophyll until export from the vein became inhibited, accompanied by inhibition of Zn uptake. Copper deficiency led to a complete stop of growth at “0” nM Cu after 6 weeks. This was accompanied by high starch accumulation although electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) decreased from 2 weeks, followed by decrease in pigments and increase of non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Release of Cu from the plants below 10 nM Cu supply in the nutrient solution indicated lack of high-affinity Cu transporters, and on the tissue level copper deficiency led to a re-distribution of zinc.

  19. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  20. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations...

  1. Presumptive Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health care providers and Head Start programs can play a major role in finding and enrolling uninsured children through presumptive eligibility. States can authorize...

  2. 28 CFR 80.10 - Rebuttable presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity with the Department's present enforcement policy, is in compliance with those provisions of the FCPA. Such a presumption may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence. In considering the...

  3. Risks of Hemolysis in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Infants Exposed to Chlorproguanil-Dapsone, Mefloquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Part of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment of Malaria in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Eugenie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ishengoma, Deus; Alifrangis, Michael; Carneiro, Ilona; Hashim, Ramadhan; Baraka, Vito; Mosha, Jacklin; Gesase, Samwel; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gosling, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) has been linked to hemolysis in symptomatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) children. Few studies have explored the effects of G6PD status on hemolysis in children treated with Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi) antimalarial regimens. We sought to examine the joint effects of G6PD status and IPTi antimalarial treatment on incidence of hemolysis in asymptomatic children treated with CD, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and mefloquine (MQ). A secondary analysis of data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPTi was conducted. Hemoglobin (Hb) measurements were made at IPTi doses, regular follow-up and emergency visits. G6PD genotype was determined at 9 months looking for SNPs for the A- genotype at coding position 202. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine hemolysis among children with valid G6PD genotyping results. Hemolysis was defined as the absolute change in Hb or as any post-dose Hb <8 g/dL. These outcomes were assessed using either a single follow-up Hb on day 7 after an IPTi dose or Hb obtained 1 to 14 or 28 days after each IPTi dose. Relative to placebo, CD reduced Hb by approximately 0.5 g/dL at day 7 and within 14 days of an IPTi dose, and by 0.2 g/dL within 28 days. Adjusted declines in the CD group were larger than in the MQ and SP groups. At day 7, homo-/hemizygous genotype was associated with higher odds of Hb <8 g/dL (adjusted odds ratio = 6.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 27.0) and greater absolute reductions in Hb (-0.6 g/dL, 95% CI -1.1 to 0.003). There was no evidence to suggest increased reductions in Hb among homo-/hemizygous children treated with CD compared to placebo, SP or MQ. While treatment with CD demonstrated greater reductions in Hb at 7 and 14 days after an IPTi dose compared to both SP and MQ, there was no evidence that G6PD deficiency exacerbated the adverse effects of CD, despite evidence for higher hemolysis risk among G6PDd infants.

  4. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  5. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  6. Homocysteine & its metabolite homocysteine-thiolactone & deficiency of copper in patients with age related macular degeneration - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathselvi, Muthuvel; Biswas, Sayantan; Raman, Rajiv; Selvi, Radhakrishnan; Coral, Karunakaran; Narayanansamy, Angayarkanni; Ramakrishnan, Sivaramakrishnan; Sulochana, Konerirajapuram N

    2016-06-01

    Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a leading cause of blindness, particularly in persons above 60 yr of age. Homocysteine is implicated in many ocular diseases including ARMD. This study was undertaken to assess the status and relationship between plasma homocysteine, homocysteine - thiolactone, homocysteinylated protein and copper levels in patients with ARMD. A total of 16 patients with ARMD and 16 age-matched controls were recruited for the study. Plasma glutathione, homocysteine, homocysteine - thiolactone and extent of homocysteine conjugation with proteins, copper and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured. Homocysteine levels were elevated with increase in homocysteine-thiolactone, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease of glutathione. The levels of homocysteinylated protein were elevated in ARMD. The elevated homocysteine, homocysteine-thiolactone correlated with the decrease in copper level. Elevated homocysteine and its metabolite homocysteine-thiolactone and decreased levels of copper may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD.

  7. Misleading presumption of a generalized Hartman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanjuntak, Herbert P.; Pereyra, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    We analyze different examples to show that the so-called generalized Hartman effect is an erroneous presumption. The results obtained for electron tunneling and transmission of electromagnetic waves through superlattices and Bragg gratings show clearly the resonant character of the phase time behavior where a generalized Hartman effect is expected. A reinterpretation of the experimental results in double Bragg gratings is proposed. (author)

  8. outcome of presumptive versus rapid diagnostic tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2010-03-02

    Mar 2, 2010 ... diagnostic test in the management of children with this overlap, but this has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of presumptive versus malaria rapid diagnostic test - ... the rain forest belt of Nigeria, an area with perennial malaria trans mission.

  9. Microbiological studies of blood specimen from presumptively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and fifteen blood samples were obtained from presumptively diagnosed typhoid patients who were referred for Widal Serological test at four diagnostic centres. The blood samples were subjected to bacteriological investigations. Salmonella and non-Salmonella organisms isolated were identified according ...

  10. 15 CFR 990.13 - Rebuttable presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... assessment of damages to natural resources made by a Federal, State, or Indian trustee in accordance with this part shall have the force and effect of a rebuttable presumption on behalf of the trustee in any...

  11. Micronutrient problems of crops in Pakistan with special reference to zinc and copper deficiency in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, F.M.; Sharif, M.

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of zinc-65 adsorption by various types of soil are being conducted. The soils of the Hyderabad region of the Sind province appear to de deficient in Zn for maize and in B for cotton, sweet clover, wheat and millets. Zinc, Cu and B deficiency seems to be widespread for wheat on many non-rice growing soils of the Punjab. In the North Frontier Province, sugarbeet and citrus orchards respond markedly to the application of Zn, Cu and Fe. Lowland rice responds to the addition of Zn in all the provinces of Pakistan. In rice tracts of the Punjab, Zn and Cu deficiency is quite prevalent for rice. The scope of necessary future research is discussed

  12. Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, M.; Thomsen, Pernille Sjølin

    2001-01-01

    damage to neurons as indicated by neuron specific enolase (NSE) ir, and the number of cells undergoing apoptosis (measured by TUNEL) was dramatically increased. Zinc deficiency significantly altered brain response to TBI, potentiating the microgliosis and reducing the astrogliosis, while increasing...

  13. Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Astrup, Arne; Birch, Leann L.; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Foster, E. Michael; Heymsfield, Steven B.; McIver, Kerry; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P.K.; Pate, Russell; Rolls, Barbara J.; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L.; Thomas, Diana M.; Allison, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and an unproductive allocation of research resources and may divert attention away from useful, evidence-based information. METHODS Using Internet searches of popular media and scientific literature, we identified, reviewed, and classified obesity-related myths and presumptions. We also examined facts that are well supported by evidence, with an emphasis on those that have practical implications for public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. RESULTS We identified seven obesity-related myths concerning the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals for weight loss, rapid weight loss, weight-loss readiness, physical-education classes, breast-feeding, and energy expended during sexual activity. We also identified six presumptions about the purported effects of regularly eating breakfast, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight cycling, snacking, and the built (i.e., human-made) environment. Finally, we identified nine evidence-supported facts that are relevant for the formulation of sound public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. CONCLUSIONS False and scientifically unsupported beliefs about obesity are pervasive in both scientific literature and the popular press. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:23363498

  14. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance—A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Andresen, Elisa [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Branišovská 31/1160, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Mattusch, Jürgen [UFZ − Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hubáček, Tomáš [Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Hydrochemistry and Ecosystem Modelling, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); SoWa National Research Infrastructure, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmentally relevant toxicity and limitation of Cu were investigated. • Copper > 50nM replaces Mg in the LHCII‐trimers. • Deficiency causes decreased electron flow through PSII via lack of plastocyanin. • Of all metabolic pathways, photosynthesis was most affected by Cu toxicity. • Detection of Cu in the Chl peaks of LHCII suggests the generation of [Cu]‐Chl. - Abstract: Essential trace elements (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non‐summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5–35 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 7.5 nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50 nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production.

  15. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Andrew D; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+55%) and decrease (-56%) in CSF Cu levels (pBCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (pBCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  17. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease, it...

  18. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (− 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (− 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  19. Increased type I collagen content and DNA binding activity of a single-stranded, cytosine-rich sequence in the high-salt buffer protein extract of the copper-deficient rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Saari, Jack T

    2004-11-01

    Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency not only causes a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but also increases cancer risk in rodent models. However, a possible alteration in gene expression has not been fully examined. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Cu deficiency on protein profiles in rat heart tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets that were either a Cu-adequate diet (6.0 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) or a Cu-deficient diet (0.3 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) for 5 weeks. The high-salt buffer (HSB) protein extract from heart tissue of Cu-deficient, but not Cu-adequate rats showed a 132 kDa protein band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. This protein band stained pink with Coomassie Blue, suggesting the presence of collagens or other proline-rich proteins. Dot immunoblotting demonstrated that total type I collagen was increased by 110% in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient, relative to Cu-adequate, rats. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the 132 kDa protein band contained a collagen alpha (I) chain precursor as well as a leucine-rich protein 130 (LRP130) in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient but not Cu-adequate rats. A gel shift assay showed that HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient rats bound to a single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA with higher affinity than the extract of Cu-adequate rats, similar to reports of an increase in LRP130 single-stranded DNA binding activity in several types of tumor cells. Collectively, these results not only suggest an additional feature of altered collagen metabolism with Cu deficiency but also demonstrate for the first time an increase in single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA binding in Cu-deficient rat heart.

  20. Mortes súbitas em bovinos associadas à carência de cobre Sudden deaths in cattle associated with copper deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques

    2003-01-01

    de S (0,21±0,04% a 0,5±0,17% e Fe (172,92±62,64 a 437,24±205,44 ppm-bs alcançaram, ocasionalmente, níveis tóxicos. Teores de proteína variaram de 7,77±2,6% a 13,16±3,02%. Seis amostras de água e 6 amostras de pasto submerso foram coletadas no fim do experimento quando o campo estava inundado. Altos teores de Fe (169, 23±83,49 ppm e S (0,06±0,03% foram encontrados na água. Os teores de Fe e S no pasto submerso foram de 469,5±218,28 ppm e 0,19±0,05%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as mortes súbitas foram causadas por deficiência de Cu. Três fatores parecem ser responsáveis pela deficiência de Cu: 1 altos teores de Fe na pastagem e na água; 2 ocasionalmente baixos teores de Cu na pastagem; e 3 ingestão de S acima dos requerimentos, devido aos teores ocasionalmente altos na pastagem e na água. O surto descrito é similar a outros surtos de morte súbita em bovinos descritos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul durante o inverno, que foram, também, associados a baixos teores de cobre no fígado. As regiões onde ocorre a enfermidade são caracterizadas por solos arenosos e ácidos com inundações freqüentes durante o inverno. Em solos ácidos periodicamente inundáveis o ferro é solubilizado e absorvido pelas plantas, diminuindo o conteúdo de Cu na forragem e aumentando os teores de Fe. Esta parece ser a maior razão para a deficiência de cobre na região.An outbreak of sudden death was observed in cattle in southern Brazil. No significant gross or microscopic lesions were found in 10 cattle at post-mortem examination. To test if the sudden deaths were caused by a toxic plant, 13 weeds were collected and given to rabbits at a total of 440 to 600 g per kg body weight within 7 days. Results were negative. Mean copper levels of the liver in 10 cattle were very low (3.6±1.6 ppm-dry matter suggesting Cu deficiency as the cause of the disease. Five samples of pasture collected during the outbreak had normal levels of Cu (8.4±0.8 ppm

  1. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  2. A Minimalist and Garantistic Conception of the Presumption of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ferrer Beltrán

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the multiple faces that the presumption of innocence incorporates in modern legal systems from a critical perspective. In this sense, an analytical methodology seeks to demonstrate that some of these faces overlap with other legal rights and institutes, which, far from increasing the guarantees of citizens, leads to confusion and lack of controllability of judicial decisions. Thus, it is defended the conceptual and practical convenience of thinking the presumption of innocence avoiding overlaps with other legal rights or concepts, as standards of proof or burden of proof rules. Hence the reference to a minimalist and guarantistic conception of the presumption of innocence and, and, as will be seen, the defense of the presumption of innocence as a second order rule whose application would make sense in contexts of uncertainty about the satisfaction of the standard of proof.

  3. The Presumption of Innocence as a Counterfactual Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article’s primary aim is to highlight the essentially critical potential of the presumption of innocence, as well as the need for this critical potential to be duly recognized. It is argued that the essential meaning of the presumption of innocence is best understood when approached from what is referred to as its counterfactual status. As a first step, the different values and functions that are attributed to the presumption of innocence in contemporary legal literature are discussed, in order to provide an outline of the central ideas it contains or is supposed to contain. Subsequently, the concept of ‘counterfactuality’ is introduced and it is argued that a counterfactual perspective can further clarify the nature of the presumption of innocence. Next, a number of fundamental shifts in society and criminal justice are discussed that affect the presumption of innocence and that lend a large measure of urgency to disclosing its essence and critical potential. The conclusion argues that today’s threats to the presumption of innocence are of a fundamental nature, and that attempts to preserve the principle’s efficacy should focus on the value attached to its counterfactual and critical nature.

  4. Efeitos da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças com desnutrição grave Effects of copper, zinc and magnesium deficiency on the immune system of severely malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Michelle C. de Macêdo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esclarecer as repercussões da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças desnutridas graves. FONTES DE DADOS: Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica mediante consulta às bases de dados Pubmed Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, selecionando-se publicações científicas recentes, da última década, e representativas do tema por meio dos descritores: desnutrição infantil, cobre, zinco, magnésio e sistema imune. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Os micronutrientes são compostos orgânicos essenciais. Além de sua função regulatória, atuam de maneira decisiva na modulação da resposta imune. Sua deficiência pode ocorrer devido à ingestão inadequada ou associada a doenças específicas. Quando associada à desnutrição, a multideficiência de minerais pode acarretar disfunções imunológicas e aumento na suscetibilidade a infecções, afetando gravemente a eficácia de intervenções terapêuticas. Cobre, zinco e magnésio atuam como cofatores de enzimas responsáveis tanto por diversas atividades metabólicas como na resposta imune inata e adquirida, além do papel importante na maturação dos tecidos e células linfoides. Sua deficiência acarreta neutropenia e linfopenia, comprometendo a imunocompetência. CONCLUSÕES: As alterações ocasionadas pelos déficits séricos dos minerais cobre, zinco e magnésio comprometem o funcionamento do sistema imune, levando à imunossupressão. A reposição desses elementos no manejo da desnutrição grave, como preconizada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, é essencial, uma vez que tais alterações podem ser reversíveis.OBJECTIVE: To report the effects of the deficiency of copper, zinc and magnesium on the immune system of severely malnourished children. DATA SOURCE: A literature review was performed by consulting the databases Pubmed Medline, Lilacs and SciELO, using the descriptors: child malnutrition, copper, zinc, magnesium and immune system. Representative

  5. Outcome of Presumptive Versus Rapid Diagnostic Tests-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, 50 children with malaria-pneumonia symptom overlap were consecutively enrolled and treated presumptively with antibiotics and antimalarials irrespective of malaria test result (control arm).Then, another 50 eligible children were enrolled and treated with antibiotics with/out antimalarials based on rapid diagnostic test ...

  6. Factors influencing utilization of intermittent presumptive treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is one of the recommended interventions by World Health Organization to mitigate the impact of malaria in pregnancy in malaria stable transmission zones such as Sub Saharan regions so as to ensure the best outcome for both the mother and ...

  7. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB

  8. operation and effect of presumptions in civil proceedings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    “Although presumption is not evidence and has no weight as such, it does make a ..... intelligence to appreciate the difficulties of the subject-matter has approached .... facts exists. This envisages the existence of another fact or aggregate of facts, called the presumed fact or fact(s) that must be assumed in the absence of.

  9. 47 CFR 76.906 - Presumption of no effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presumption of no effective competition. 76.906... competition. In the absence of a demonstration to the contrary, cable systems are presumed not to be subject to effective competition. ...

  10. Studies of copper transport in mammalian cells using copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    The trace element copper poses a major problem for all organisms. It is essential as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Using the copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t1/2 = 61 hr) we have developed a number of systems for studying copper transport in mammalian cells. These include investigation of copper uptake, copper efflux and ligand blot assays for Cu-binding proteins. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency disorder in humans. We have demonstrated that the Menkes protein is directly involved as a copper efflux pump in mammalian cells. Using cells overexpressing the Menkes protein we have provided the first biochemical evidence that this functions as a Cu translocating (across the membrane) P-type ATPase (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press). These studies were carried out using purified plasma membrane vesicles. We are now carrying out structure- function studies on this protein using targeted mutations and assaying using the radiocopper vesicle assay. Recently we have commenced studies on the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in copper transport and relationship of this to Alzheimers disease

  11. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  12. Is psychosocial risk prevention possible? Deconstructing common presumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Leka, Stavroula; Van Wassenhove, Wim; Jain, Aditya Kailash

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles a much debated and often misunderstood issue in the modern world of work, psychosocial risks. Although the prevalence and impact of psychosocial risks is now widely acknowledged as a priority in health and safety in Europe, there remains resistance by key stakeholders in prioritizing psychosocial risk management both in business and policy making. This paper explores why this is still the case by discussing three presumptions in relation to the current state of the art in t...

  13. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  14. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels and urinary copper excretion in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; McCall, J T; Solem, L D; Ahrenholz, D H; McClain, C J

    1986-12-01

    Conflicting reports regarding copper status in thermal injury patients have been published. We determined serial serum-copper and serum-ceruloplasmin levels and 24-h urinary excretion of copper in 23 patients with second- and third-degree thermal burns. Throughout hospitalization, mean serum-copper concentration was significantly depressed; lowest levels were found in patients with greater than 40% total body surface area burns. Serum ceruloplasmin was also depressed, an unexpected finding because this protein is a positive acute-phase reactant poststress. Mean urinary excretion of copper was elevated, reaching 2.5 times the upper limit of normal 2 wk postburn. Depressed serum-copper levels paralleled the serum-ceruloplasmin levels rather than the increased urinary-copper losses. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism(s) of this altered copper metabolism and whether physiological or biochemical evidence of copper deficiency accompanies the observed hypocupremia.

  15. Plasma Copper Status in Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Femi Olaleye

    ... Rosenstein, F., and Lei, K.Y.. (1994): Pool size and concentration of plasma cholesterol are increased and tissue copper levels are reduced during early stages of copper deficiency in rats. J. Nutr. 124, 628-635. Anon (2000): Cardiovascular disease ranks as the first cause of death in Spain. Rev Esp Salud Publica 74 (3),.

  16. Chlamydial cervicitis: testing the practice guidelines for presumptive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellors, J; Howard, M; Pickard, L; Jang, D; Mahony, J; Chernesky, M

    1998-01-13

    To test the recommendation from the Canadian guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) per high-power field of a Gram-stained endocervical smear or, when Gram staining is not possible, the presence of endocervical discharge and one of edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix can be considered diagnostic for chlamydial cervicitis. A total of 596 consecutive women attending 2 family planning clinics for routine care underwent vaginal speculum examination and were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMN counts from Gram-stained endocervical smears and the presence or absence of putative indicators of chlamydial infection were recorded. The prevalence of chlamydial cervicitis was 6.2% (37/596), and no women tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis based on the guidelines criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power microscopic field had a sensitivity and specificity of 18.9% and 97.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 29.2% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 6.2 (p = 0.003). Presumptive diagnosis based on endocervical discharge with edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix had a sensitivity and specificity of 43.2% and 80.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 12.5% and a positive LR of 2.2 (p = 0.002). In the presence of bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis, the LR for the criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power field was 5.4 (p = 0.04), whereas the LR was 4.3 (p = 0.10) if bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis were absent. In this setting, the practice of making a presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis on the basis of the criteria given in the Canadian STD guidelines was not supported.

  17. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35-64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving health-seeking behaviour among males, urban

  18. PRESUMPTIVE PIT VIPER ENVENOMATION IN PSITTACINES IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Mathias; Wohlsein, Peter; Croukamp, Anna Sophie; Neumann, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema. Histologically, degeneration and necrosis of subcutaneous musculature were observed. Lung, heart, and kidneys displayed focal hemorrhages. The local changes are similar to those described for mammalian patients including humans. However, except for the parenchymatous hemorrhages, additional external and internal gross and histopathological lesions were missing. After ruling out other causes, such as aggression and dicoumarinic intoxication, the presumptive diagnosis of snake envenomation was made. The smaller size and variabilities of pathophysiological effects of the venom in parrots might explain the different lesion patterns observed, compared with mammals. Possibly, the birds may have reacted differently to envenomation by pit vipers and died before the venom could cause macroscopic and histological changes often observed in mammals.

  19. Presumption of Innocence and Public Safety: A Possible Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aguilar-Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, increasing demands for public safety coupled with the need for a more effective criminal justice system resulted in the security and justice constitutional reform of 2008. The outcome was a constitutional framework with provisions based on the highest standards of human rights on the one hand, and on the other, exceptional measures that restrict rights in an attempt to improve public safety. Unfortunately, the crime rate and incidence of unreported crime have changed little. When public safety is demanded, a clear, rational and concrete response is required. Limiting the alternatives to pre-trial detention or increasing penalties is rarely the appropriate response. This paper focuses on pre-trial detention and non-custodial measures supported by the new criminal justice system, how they relate to the principle of the presumption of innocence and the tension between this and the punitive demands for increased imprisonment. In addition, this study discusses a technical solution, found in pre-trial services, which seeks to balance the presumption of innocence and the right to personal liberty with public safety.

  20. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M.; Smith, S.; Mercer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and 67 Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  1. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    . As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak...... hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  2. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis—survivor's...

  3. 75 FR 25161 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Presumption of Development at Private Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Presumption of Development at Private Expense AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... the presumption of development at private expense for major systems; and section 815(a)(2) of the NDAA... Expense--Technical Data The validation of asserted restrictions on technical data is based on statutory...

  4. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  5. USE OF PRESUMPTIVE TAXATION IN FACILITATING SMALL BUSINESS TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria IORDACHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of this article is determined by the necessity of implementing fiscal simplicity for increasing tax compliance through fiscal education of small business representatives. In many developing and transition countries, micro and small enterprises are the most rapidly growing business segment. Tax compliance attitude within this sector varies significantly because high conformation costs and difficult formalization procedures can determine many small enterprises to operate in the informal economy. Thus tax regulation of small enterprises is crucial in the process of small entrepreneurs fiscal education and tax simplification of SMEs in many countries becomes one of the most efficient instruments. The main research methods were systemic analysis and logic synthesis. The main results obtained in article, as a result of research, are identification, analysis and systematization of foreign countries’ practices in implementing presumptive tax design and elaboration of some recommendations on fiscal simplicity.

  6. Doxorubicin chemotherapy for presumptive cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, C M; Arkans, M A; Sammarco, C D; Vail, D M; Britton, B M; Vickery, K R; Risbon, R E; Lachowicz, J; Burgess, K E; Manley, C A; Clifford, C A

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-four dogs were treated with single-agent doxorubicin (DOX) for presumptive cardiac hemangiosarcoma (cHSA). The objective response rate (CR + PR) was 41%, and the biologic response rate (CR + PR + SD), or clinical benefit, was 68%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for treated dogs was 66 days. The median survival time (MST) for this group was 116 days and was significantly improved compared to a MST of 12 days for untreated control dogs (P = 0.0001). Biologic response was significantly associated with improved PFS (P < 0.0001) and OS (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis identified larger tumour size as a variable negatively associated with PFS. The high rate of clinical benefit and improved MST suggest that DOX has activity in canine cHSA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Low-temperature operation of copper-vapor lasers by using vapor-complex reaction of metallic copper and metal halide

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO, HIROSHI; TANIGUCHI, HIROSHI

    1985-01-01

    The first successful use of vapor-complex reactions for a laser is reported. Vapor-complex reactions between metallic copper and metal halides are found effective in reducing the operating temperature in copper-vapor lasers. By using a vapor-complex reaction of Cu+AlBr3, a laser oscillation starts at a reservoir temperature of about 25°C. The results obtained by the mass spectroscopic analysis support the presumption that the copper vapor is generated through a vapor-complex reaction process.

  8. 38 CFR 1.18 - Guidelines for establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war. 1.18 Section 1.18 Pensions... Guidelines for establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war. (a) Purpose. The Secretary of Veterans Affairs will establish presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war...

  9. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  10. Copper Imbalances in Ruminants and Humans: Unexpected Common Ground1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F.

    2012-01-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen–free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson’s disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre–hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen–free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the “copper cost” of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question “can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?” A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates. PMID:22983845

  11. 20 CFR 416.934 - Impairments which may warrant a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Allegation of total blindness; (d) Allegation of bed confinement or immobility without a wheelchair, walker... arms. (g) Allegation of Down syndrome. (h) Allegation of severe mental deficiency made by another...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of presumptive lumbosacral discospondylitis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.L.; Mussman, J.M.; Smith, T.; Biller, D.S.; Hoskinson, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    three-year-old male Boxer dog had hyperesthesia, symmetrical epaxial, gluteal and hind limb muscular atrophy and rear limb ataxia. Neurological deficits included decreased conscious proprioception of the left hind limb, decreased withdrawal and increased patellar reflexes of both hind limbs. The dog had a urinary tract infection with positive culture for Staphylococcus intermedius. On survey radiography of the lumbosacral spine there was active bone proliferation spanning the L7 S1 intervertebral disc space with an epidural filling defect at the ventral aspect of the vertebral canal on epidurography. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), findings were similar to those described for human diskospondylitis including altered signal intensity and nonuniform contrast enhancement of the L7-S1 intervertebral disc, adjacent vertebral end plates and epidural and sublumbar soft tissues. Although skeletal radiography is usually sufficient to reach a diagnosis of discospondylitis, MRI of this patient made it possible to reach a presumptive diagnosis of discospondylitis prior to development of definitive radiographic abnormalities

  13. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal copper transporter gene show enhanced acquisition of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Korripally, Premsagar; Vancheeswaran, Ramachandran; Eapen, Susan

    2011-10-01

    The diets of two-thirds of the world's population are deficient in one or more essential elements and one of the approaches to enhance the levels of mineral elements in food crops is by developing plants with ability to accumulate them in edible parts. Besides conventional methods, transgenic technology can be used for enhancing metal acquisition in plants. Copper is an essential element, which is often deficient in human diet. With the objective of developing plants with improved copper acquisition, a high-affinity copper transporter gene (tcu-1) was cloned from fungus Neurospora crassa and introduced into a model plant (Nicotiana tabacum). Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic tobacco plants (T(0) and T(1)) expressing tcu-1, when grown in hydroponic medium spiked with different concentrations of copper, showed higher acquisition of copper (up to 3.1 times) compared with control plants. Transgenic plants grown in soil spiked with copper could also take up more copper compared with wild-type plants. Supplementation of other divalent cations such as Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) did not alter uptake of Cu by transgenic plants. The present study has shown that expression of a heterologous copper transporter in tobacco could enhance acquisition of copper.

  14. Some aspects of copper metabolism in Brindled mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The semi-dominant X-linked mutation in Brindled mice causes a severe copper deficiency of which the hemizygous Brindled mice die between 14 and 21 days post partum. Previously, in analogy to Menkes' disease in man, the primary defect in mutated Brindled mice has been described as a block in the resorption of alimentary copper, i.e., the transport of copper from the intestinal lumen into the portal blood circulation. During this research it became clear that the impaired resorption of alimentary copper is only a part of a more general aberration of copper metabolism in epithelioid cells. Tracer techniques using 64 Cu are used for metabolism studies. (Auth.)

  15. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; Sluis, van de Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  16. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  17. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  18. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  19. Clinical zinc deficiency as early presentation of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Küry, Sébastien; De Bruyne, Ruth; Vanakker, Olivier M; Schmitt, Sébastien; Vande Velde, Saskia; Blouin, Eric; Bézieau, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Wilson disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP-ase Cu(2+) transporting polypeptide (ATP7B) gene. The copper accumulation in different organs leads to the suspicion of Wilson disease. We describe a child with clinical zinc deficiency as presenting symptom of Wilson disease, which was confirmed by 2 mutations within the ATP7B gene and an increased copper excretion.

  20. Plasma Copper Status in Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Femi Olaleye

    reduced during early stages of copper deficiency in rats. J. Nutr. 124, 628-635. Anon (2000): Cardiovascular disease ranks as the first cause of death in Spain. Rev Esp Salud Publica 74 (3),. 215-53. Anon. (1967): Vital Statistics of the United States. Mortality, Washington: U.S. Dept. Health, Educ. Wefare, 1969, vol. 2, Part A ...

  1. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  2. Presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for former prisoners of war. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulations to establish a presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for former Prisoners of War (POWs) who were detained or interned for at least 30 days and whose osteoporosis is at least 10 percent disabling. The amendment implements a decision by the Secretary to establish such a presumption based on scientific studies. VA is additionally amending its adjudication regulations to establish a presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for POWs who were detained or interned for any period of time, have a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whose osteoporosis is at least 10 percent disabling. This amendment reflects statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Improvement Act of 2008.

  3. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia......, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest...... for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had...

  4. Introduction to Metals in Biology 2018: Copper homeostasis and utilization in redox enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guengerich, F Peter

    2018-03-30

    This 11th Thematic Metals in Biology Thematic Series deals with copper, a transition metal with a prominent role in biochemistry. Copper is a very versatile element, and both deficiencies and excesses can be problematic. The five Minireviews in this series deal with several aspects of copper homeostasis in microorganisms and mammals and the role of this metal in two enzymes, copper-only superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c oxidase. © 2018 Guengerich.

  5. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratorie...... (serogroup D). In conclusion, rough presumptive Salmonella isolates can be conveniently confirmed to the serogroup-revel, using the pre-mixed PCR tests. The system can be easily implemented in accredited laboratories with limited experience in molecular biology....

  6. Role of copper in the process of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Ogórek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential trace element required for the normal development of living organisms. Due to its redox potential, copper is a cofactor in many enzymes responsible for important processes in cells. Copper deficiency has a significant influence on the reduction or the total eradication of copper-dependent enzymes in the body, thereby inhibiting cell life processes. On the other hand, copper is a very reactive element and in its free state, it can trigger the production of large amounts of free radicals, which will consequently lead to the damage of proteins and DNA. Because of those reasons, living organisms have developed precise mechanisms regulating the concentration of copper in cells. Copper also plays a very important role in male fertility. It is an essential element for the production of male gametes. The significant role of copper is also described in the processes of cell division – mitotic and meiotic. Copper-dependent enzymes such as ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase SOD1 and SOD3, group of metallothionein and cytochrome c oxidase are present at all stages of gametogenesis as well as in the somatic cells of the testis and in the somatic cells of epididymis. Substantial amounts of copper can also be found in liquids associated with sperm in the epididymis and prostate. Copper also affects the integral androgen distribution in terms of fertility on the line hypothalamic-pituitary-testis. Both copper increase and deficiency leads to a significant reduction in male fertility, which spans the entire spectrum of abnormalities at the sperm level, male gonad, production of hormones and distribution of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Nowadays, the effects of copper on gametes production have become more important and are connected with the increasing levels of pollution with heavy metals in environment.

  7. Low hepcidin levels in severely anemic malawian children with high incidence of infectious diseases and bone marrow iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Faragher, Brian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2013-01-01

    A reliable diagnostic biomarker of iron status is required for severely anemic children living in malarious areas because presumptive treatment with iron may increase their infection risk if they are not iron deficient. Current biomarkers are limited because they are altered by host inflammation. In

  8. Low hepcidin levels in severely anemic malawian children with high incidence of infectious diseases and bone marrow iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.A.; Calis, J.C.; Phiri, K.; Kraaijenhagen, R.J.; Brabin, B.J.; Faragher, B.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Hensbroek, M. Boele van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reliable diagnostic biomarker of iron status is required for severely anemic children living in malarious areas because presumptive treatment with iron may increase their infection risk if they are not iron deficient. Current biomarkers are limited because they are altered by host

  9. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...

  10. 20 CFR 410.418 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability due to pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.418 Irrebuttable presumption of total disability due to pneumoconiosis... miner was totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis at the time of his death, if he is suffering or...

  11. Authority, Freedom and Liberal Judgment: The Presumptions and Presumptuousness of Whately, Mill and Tocqueville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedbee, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Examines the conflict between individualism and communitarianism (and its implications for rhetorical theory) by examining the historical debate between liberals and conservatives during and after the French Revolution. Shows how Richard Whately's notions of "presumption" and "burden of proof" (further developed by Mill and…

  12. The Principle of the Presumption of Innocence and its Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The administration of the criminal justice system tries to strike a balance between the search for truth and the fairness of the process. To this end, the law should protect individual rights and impose various legal burdens on the state. One such tool is the principle of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. This is a ...

  13. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  14. The Ethics of Fertility Preservation for Paediatric Cancer Patients: From Offer to Rebuttable Presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-11-01

    Given advances in the science of fertility preservation and the link between fertility choices and wellbeing, it is time to reframe our ethical thinking around fertility preservation procedures for children and young people with cancer. The current framing of fertility preservation as a possible offer may no longer be universally appropriate. There is an increasingly pressing need to discuss the ethics of failing to preserve fertility, particularly for patient groups for whom established techniques exist. I argue that the starting point for deliberating about a particular patient should be a rebuttable presumption that fertility preservation ought to be attempted. Consideration of the harms applicable to that specific patient may then override this presumption. I outline the benefits of attempting fertility preservation; these justify a presumption in favour of the treatment. I then discuss the potential harms associated with fertility preservation procedures, which may justify failing to attempt fertility preservation in an individual patient's particular case. Moving from a framework of offer to one of rebuttable presumption in favour of fertility preservation would have significant implications for medical practice, healthcare organizations and the state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Presumptive self-diagnosis of malaria and other febrile illnesses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-diagnosis of influenza, yellow fever, typhoid, and pneumonia was also common. Conclusion: Self-diagnosis and presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs and other antibiotic medications that are readily available without a prescription may compromise health outcomes for febrile adults and children. Key words: ...

  16. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within two years after service and within two years after the end of the Persian...

  17. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... care eligibility for veterans of certain wars and conflicts who developed psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis...

  18. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  19. 47 CFR 51.230 - Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology. 51.230 Section 51.230 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... following circumstances, where the technology: (1) Complies with existing industry standards; or (2) Is...

  20. Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Felippe, Isis Moreira; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2018-04-23

    We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy. The presumptive identification showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98.8, 92.5 and 97.9 %, respectively. Macroscopic analysis of MTBC isolates that would have been erroneously classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria based solely on microscopic morphology enabled us to direct them rapidly to DST, representing a substantial gain to patients. In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times.

  1. Detection of presumptive Bacillus cereus in the Irish dairy farm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to isolate potential Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l. from a range of farm environments. Samples of tap water, milking equipment rinse water, milk sediment filter, grass, soil and bulk tank milk were collected from 63 farms. In addition, milk liners were swabbed at the start and the end of milking, and swabs were taken from cows’ teats prior to milking. The samples were plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP and presumptive B. cereus s.l. colonies were isolated and stored in nutrient broth with 20% glycerol and frozen at -80 °C. These isolates were then plated on chromogenic medium (BACARA and colonies identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. on this medium were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing. Of the 507 isolates presumed to be B. cereus s.l. on the basis of growth on MYP, only 177 showed growth typical of B. cereus s.l. on BACARA agar. The use of 16S rRNA sequencing to identify isolates that grew on BACARA confirmed that the majority of isolates belonged to B. cereus s.l. A total of 81 of the 98 isolates sequenced were tentatively identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out on milk and soil isolates from seven farms that were identified as having presumptive B. cereus s.l. No pulsotype was shared by isolates from soil and milk on the same farm. Presumptive B. cereus s.l. was widely distributed within the dairy farm environment.

  2. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  3. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  4. Activation of chick tendon lysyl oxidase in response to dietary copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R B; Rucker, B R; Mitchell, A E; Cui, C T; Clegg, M; Kosonen, T; Uriu-Adams, J Y; Tchaparian, E H; Fishman, M; Keen, C L

    1999-12-01

    Lysyl oxidase (EC 1.4.3.13), a cuproenzyme, can account for 10-30% of the copper present in connective tissue. Herein, we assess the extent to which tissue copper concentrations and lysyl oxidase activity are related because the functional activity of lysyl oxidase and the copper content of chick tendon are both related to dietary copper intake. Chicks (1-d old) were fed diets (basal copper concentration, 0.4 microg/g diet) to which copper was added from 0 to 16 microg/g diet. Liver and plasma copper levels tended to normalize in chickens that consumed from 1 to 4 microg copper/g of diet, whereas tendon copper concentrations suggested an unusual accumulation of copper in chickens that consumed 16 microg copper/g diet. The molecular weight of lysyl oxidase was also estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS). A novel aspect of these measurements was estimation of protein mass directly from the surface of chick tendons and aortae. Whether copper deficiency (0 added copper) or copper supplementation (16 microg copper/g of diet) caused changes in the molecular weight of protein(s) in tendon corresponding to lysyl oxidase was addressed. The average molecular weight of the peak corresponding to lysyl oxidase in tendon and aorta from copper-deficient birds was 28,386 Da +/- 86, whereas the average molecular weight of corresponding protein in tendon from copper-supplemented birds was 28,639 Da +/- 122. We propose that the shift in molecular weight is due in part to copper binding and the formation of lysyl tyrosyl quinone, the cofactor at the active site of lysyl oxidase.

  5. Copper in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yruela, Inmaculada

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential metal for normal plant growth and development, although it is also potentially toxic. Copper participates in numerous physiological processes and is an essential cofactor for many metalloproteins, however, problems arise when excess copper is present in cells. Excess copper inhibits plant growth and impairs important cellular processes (i.e., photosynthetic electron transport). Since copper is both an essential cofactor and a toxic element, involving a complex network o...

  6. HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay M.V. Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV [active tuberculosis (TB, pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60 million, India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68% were tested for HIV and 2262 (8% were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17% had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58% were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79% were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89% were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

  7. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood sa...

  8. The Importance of Copper Mineral in Animal Body Relating to Animal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the micro elements that has very important roles in the process of body metabolism. Some enzymes are bound with copper and iron in the formation of blood haemoglobin. Copper deficiency in animal body will cause inappropriate function of the enzyme system, so that metabolism and physiological systems of the body will not work normally and if copper is in excess, it will cause toxicity which then destroys body tissues causes troubles in blood formation, Therefore, it is clear that copper has an important role in the process of living, hence monitoring its concentration in the blood is important to maintain animal health.

  9. Value of polymerase chain reaction in patients with presumptively diagnosed and treated as tuberculous pericardial effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, H.; Hafizullah, M.; Shah, S.T.; Khan, S.B.; Hadi, A.; Ahmad, F.; Shah, I.; Gul, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pericardial fluid and response to antituberculous treatment (ATT) in PCR positive patients who were presumptively diagnosed and treated as tuberculous pericardial effusion. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out from June 1, 2009 to 31 May 2010 at Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients with presumptive diagnosis and receiving treatment for tuberculous pericardial effusion were included. Pericardial fluid sample was aspirated under fluoroscopy for the routine work up. The specimens were subjected to PCR detection of mycobacterium tuberculous DNA. Results: During 12 month study period, a total of 54 patients with large pericardial effusion presented to Cardiology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Of them, 46 patients fulfilled the criteria for presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericardial effusion. PCR for mycobacterium tuberculous DNA in pericardial fluid was positive in 45.7%(21). Patients were followed for three months. In PCR positive group, 01 patient while in PCR negative group 3 patients were lost to follow up. Among PCR positive patients 17(85%) while in PCR negative group 11(47.82%) patient responded to ATT both clinically and echo-cardio graphically. We found that patients who were PCR positive responded better to therapy than those who were PCR negative and this finding was statistically significant (p=0.035). Conclusion: PCR, with all its limitations, is potentially a useful diagnostic test in patients with presumptively diagnosed tuberculous pericardial effusion. A PCR positive patient responds better to therapy as compared to PCR negative patient. (author)

  10. The use of elemental microanalysis in verification of the composition of presumptive amalgam tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, L C; Natiella, J R; Meenaghan, M A

    1986-08-01

    Routine histochemistry, special stains, and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used to analyze 15 cases of presumptive amalgam tattoo. Histologically, the fine, spherical, golden brown granules of amalgam were remarkably similar to hemosiderin and melanin granules, and routine and special stains were not always reliable in differentiating one from the others. EDX provided a simple, fast, inexpensive, and reliable method for identifying the precise elemental composition of the pigmented material.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  12. 12 CFR 225.139 - Presumption of continued control under section 2(g)(3) of the Bank Holding Company Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... situations in which there may be a risk that the divestiture will not result in the complete termination of a... the kinds of indebtedness that, standing alone, support a presumption that the creditor is able to...

  13. The effect of copper on the content and composition of saccharides in oat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ślusarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the content and composition of saccharides and the dose and time of application of copper sulphate was studied in different organs and stages of development of oats (Avena sativa L. var. 'Udycz żółty'. The plant material was obtained from pot experiments run on low peat, deficient in copper. Under these conditions, oat plants contained less soluble sugars, hemicelluloses and cellulose than plants receiving a sufficient amount of this element. The differences in the composition of the individual saccharide fractions depended on the dose of copper and time of its application, as well as on the organ and stage of development of the oat plant. In grain of oats grown in copper deficient peat, increased amounts of pentoses (arabinose and xylose were found concomitantly with a lowered glucose content. Attempts to explain the changes in the sugar metabolism under conditions of copper deficiency and the role of this micronutrient in seed formation are presented.

  14. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  15. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  16. Community referral for presumptive TB in Nigeria: a comparison of four models of active case finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adejumo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a

  17. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  18. Iron and copper, and their interactions during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambling, Lorraine; Andersen, Henriette S; McArdle, Harry J

    2008-12-01

    During development, the fetus is entirely dependent on the mother for its nutrient requirements. Subsequently, it is a period when both are vulnerable to changes in dietary supply, especially of those nutrients that are marginal under normal circumstances. In developed countries, this applies mainly to micronutrients. Even now, iron deficiency is a common disorder, especially in pregnancy. Similarly, copper intake in the U.K. population is rarely above adequate levels. It is now becoming clear that nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy can result in problems for the offspring, in both the short- and long-term. Early studies showed that lambs born to mothers on copper-deficient pastures developed 'swayback', with neurological and muscular symptoms that could not be reversed by postnatal supplementation. Our own findings have shown that prenatal iron deficiency results in increased postnatal blood pressure, even though the offspring have normal dietary iron levels from birth. These observations emphasize the importance of iron and copper in growth and development. Complicating the situation further is the fact that copper and iron are known to interact with each other in many ways, including absorption and intracellular transport. However, their interactions during the pregnancy appear to be more complex than during the non-pregnant state. In the present review, we examine the importance of these metals and their interactions, the consequences, both short- and long-term, of deficiency and consider some possible mechanisms whereby these effects may be generated.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  20. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  1. Characteristics of presumptive idiopathic disseminated intravascular coagulation during second-trimester induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sloane; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2012-05-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious and relatively uncommon complication of induced or spontaneous abortion or delivery. Occasionally, it has been reported in the absence of predisposing conditions. Little information in the literature describing idiopathic DIC or the treatment of patients with DIC exists. From 2002 through 2008, 24 cases of presumptive idiopathic DIC occurred following dilation and evacuation (D&E) abortion between 13 5/7 and 23 6/7 weeks' estimated gestational age at a Midwestern ambulatory surgical center. The characteristics of each patient, their pregnancies and surgical experiences were examined and compared with a temporally matched control group of D&E patients. We explored whether the index cases had a predominance of any historical, clinical or reproductive characteristics compared with controls matched for demographic and reproductive landmarks. Overall incidence of presumptive idiopathic DIC was 1.8 per 1000 D&E cases. Compared with matched controls, there was a greater likelihood of DIC with more advanced gestation (p=.009); no case of DIC was under 17 weeks' gestational age. Increased bleeding occurred at a mean time of 153 min after completion of surgery (range, 55-491 min; median, 131 min). Nineteen of 24 cases were successfully treated at the surgical center after receiving 6 to 8 units of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP); 5 cases were transferred to a hospital for further treatment. The abnormal bleeding of presumptive DIC typically begins to appear within 2 h after uncomplicated D&E and is more likely to occur at 17 weeks' estimated gestational age and more. With rapid diagnosis and treatment, most patients were able to be treated in an outpatient setting with up to 6 to 8 units of FFP and rehydration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Danielle A.; Balcer, Laura J.; Galetta, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurologic...

  6. Three cases of a presumptive atypical myopathy in New Zealand horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R K; Gibson, I R; Ritmeester, A

    2013-11-01

    Three weanling Thoroughbred fillies were presented during autumn with depression, muscle rigidity and, in one case, colic symptoms and cardiovascular shock. All fillies had abnormal physical examinations that included elevated heart rates and respiratory rates coupled with muscle rigidity through the back and rump. Biochemistry revealed markedly elevated creatinine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase which indicated a myopathy. All three horses were diagnosed with presumptive equine atypical myopathy. The horses received supportive therapy as per the literature available at the time regarding this condition; two responded to supportive therapy and survived, and one was euthanased due to a rapid deterioration in clinical status. Following post mortem of one case, histology of the trapezius muscle demonstrated an acute, severe myofibre degeneration. Atypical myopathy and a very similar disorder termed seasonal pasture myopathy in North America are potentially fatal, pasture-related syndromes that have been described in Europe and America but have not been previously described in New Zealand. This report describes three presumptive cases of this unique syndrome in New Zealand for the first time; it outlines the characteristics of the condition; and includes recently published information regarding diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Membrane filtration test for rapid presumptive differentiation of four Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, T G; Peleman, R; Moerman, M; Vermeersch, H; de Looze, D; Noens, L; Nelis, H J

    1999-05-01

    A rapid enzymatic two-step test for the presumptive differentiation of four Candida species commonly occurring in various clinical samples is described. The technique involves membrane filtration of a liquid sample, followed by preincubation of the membrane filter on Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid to yield microcolonies. In a separate assay step, parts of the filter are placed on absorbent pads impregnated with fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) enzyme substrates (4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, 4-MU-phosphate, 4-MU-pyrophosphate, and 4-MU-beta-D-galactoside) in combination with 0.1% digitonin acting as a membrane permeabilizer. The membrane filter in contact with the assay medium is incubated to allow cleavage of the enzyme substrate, resulting in fluorescent microcolonies under long-wavelength UV light. This approach, tested on 301 clinical samples, is able to presumptively differentiate C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and to distinguish them from other Candida spp. in about 9 to 11 h. Overall agreement with the conventional methods of 94.4% (one Candida species present in the sample) to 83.8% (multiple Candida spp. present) was obtained. The false-negative rates with reference to identification by traditional methods were 1.3% (single species) and 3.8% (multiple species).

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  11. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack ... vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia called pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia risk factors include: Smoking. Smoking ...

  12. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  13. Efeitos da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças com desnutrição grave Effects of copper, zinc and magnesium deficiency on the immune system of severely malnourished children

    OpenAIRE

    Érika Michelle C. de Macêdo; Marco Antônio F. Amorim; Alyne Cristine S. da Silva; Célia Maria M. B. de Castro

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Esclarecer as repercussões da deficiência de cobre, zinco e magnésio sobre o sistema imune de crianças desnutridas graves. FONTES DE DADOS: Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica mediante consulta às bases de dados Pubmed Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, selecionando-se publicações científicas recentes, da última década, e representativas do tema por meio dos descritores: desnutrição infantil, cobre, zinco, magnésio e sistema imune. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Os micronutrientes são compostos orgânicos...

  14. Presumptive brain influx of large neutral amino acids and the effect of phenylalanine supplementation in patients with Tyrosinemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Willem G; van Vliet, Danique; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; de Blaauw, Pim; Rubio Gozalbo, M Estela; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare metabolic disease caused by a defect in the tyrosine degradation pathway. Current treatment consists of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a tyrosine and phenylalanine restricted diet. Recently, neuropsychological deficits have been seen in HT1 patients. These deficits are possibly associated with low blood phenylalanine concentrations and/or high blood tyrosine concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was threefold. Firstly, we aimed to calculate how the plasma amino acid profile in HT1 patients may influence the presumptive brain influx of all large neutral amino acids (LNAA). Secondly, we aimed to investigate the effect of phenylalanine supplementation on presumptive brain phenylalanine and tyrosine influx. Thirdly, we aimed to theoretically determine minimal target plasma phenylalanine concentrations in HT1 patient to ensure adequate presumptive brain phenylalanine influx. Data of plasma LNAA concentrations were obtained. In total, 239 samples of 9 HT1 children, treated with NTBC, diet, and partly with phenylalanine supplementation were collected together with 596 samples of independent control children. Presumptive brain influx of all LNAA was calculated, using Michaelis-Menten parameters (Km) and Vmax-values obtained from earlier articles. In HT1 patients, plasma concentrations and presumptive brain influx of tyrosine were higher. However, plasma and especially brain influx of phenylalanine were lower in HT1 patients. Phenylalanine supplementation did not only tend to increase plasma phenylalanine concentrations, but also presumptive brain phenylalanine influx, despite increased plasma tyrosine concentrations. However, to ensure sufficient brain phenylalanine influx in HT1 patients, minimal plasma phenylalanine concentrations may need to be higher than considered thus far. This study clearly suggests a role for disturbed brain LNAA biochemistry, which is not well

  15. Neutron-activation analysis of copper in food-stuffs and biomedium of organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Our investigation has been carried out in the area with different ecologic characteristics of Samarkand region in Zarafshon valley (Urgut, Samarkand, Djambay and Nurabad). Tests for food-stuffs and hairs of children were carried out by neutron-activation analysis as per method worked out in the Nuclear Physics institute of academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan. We have studied 37 varieties of food-stuffs, mainly of vegetable and animal origin. 245 healthy school children were investigated for copper deficiency, aged 7-14. The results of the study showed high concentration of copper in the bread of coarse grist, black raisin, dried apricots, sumalak (national Uzbek food), pea, broth from vinery stalk (100, 51, 24, 36, 21, 33 mg/kg respectively). As for animal products high concentration of copper was in white of egg and beef (480 and 25 mg/kg respectively). Copper concentration was insignificant in many other investigated products of vegetable origin, but in 15 of them Neutron-activation analysis showed the absence of copper at all. Concentration of microelements in hairs is an important index of micro element status assessment. Copper concentration in hairs of practically healthy school children of Zarafshon valley made up 9,24 ± 0,84 mkg/g. Our data of copper in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshon valley was lower compared the data stated by other investigators (A.A. Kist, 1987) and concerning other regions too. Lore copper content in hairs, probably depends on the structure of nutritional products consumed and peculiarities of natural condition of biogeochemical area. Os per sexual characters copper content in hairs was lore - 7,97±1,38 mkg/g in girls under investigation (n=33), compared myth boys (n=131) -9,67±0,71 mkg/g; as per place of residence, copper concentration indices in hairs was nearly the some as in urban (n=66) and rural (n=98) children (7,62 ± 0,96 and 8,38 ± 0,77 mg/kg, respectively). Thus, determination of

  16. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eTelianidis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  17. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  18. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  19. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  20. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  1. Presumptive intraperitoneal envenomation resulting in hemoperitoneum and acute abdominal pain in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istvan, Stephanie A; Walker, Julie M; Hansen, Bernard D; Hanel, Rita M; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical features, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome of a dog with acute abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum secondary to a presumptive intraperitoneal (IP) snakebite. A 10-month-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for suspected snake envenomation. The dog presented recumbent and tachycardic with signs of severe abdominal pain. Two cutaneous puncture wounds and hemoperitoneum were discovered during evaluation. Ultrasonographic examination revealed communication of the wounds with the peritoneal cavity. The dog was treated with supportive care, parenteral analgesia, packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusions, crotalid antivenom, and placement of an IP catheter to provide local analgesia. The dog recovered fully and was discharged 5 days after initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IP envenomation accompanied by hemorrhage treated with continuous IP analgesia in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  2. Ground red hot pepper agar in the isolation and presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, S; Vuković, D; Radonjić, I; Dimitrijević, V; Svabić-Vlahović, M

    2002-11-01

    The study compared ground red hot pepper agar (GRHP) and Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar (GACA), a medium routinely used for isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans. In order to confirm the capacity of GRHP to support the Cr. neoformans growth and pigment production, 15 strains were inoculated onto GRHP and GACA. No significant differences in the growth and pigmentation of the tested strains on the two media were noted. As heavily contaminated specimens, 50 samples of pigeon droppings were examined by plating on GRHP and GACA, which resulted in the isolation of 14 and nine Cr. neoformans strains, respectively. The results indicate that GRHP, as a result of its superior selectivity and significant reduction of contaminant growth, provides better conditions than GACA for isolation and presumptive identification of Cr. neoformans from heavily contaminated specimens.

  3. A presumptive case of Human rabies: a rare survived case in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Awingura Apanga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with nearly hundred percent (100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival was a rare occurrence in rural Ghana. Lessons from this case study provides a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. We report of the survival of a 36 year old man who developed clinical rabies three weeks after he was bitten by his dog while restraining the dog with a chain. Prior to this he did not observe any abnormal or rabid behaviour in the dog. Following the bite, he did not immediately resort to hospital treatment, but rather to traditional application of herbs to the laceration he sustained after the bite. Reason given for not seeking immediate hospital treatment was that the dog was not rabid and lack of funds to seek hospital care. However, he began to show symptoms consistent with rabies virus infection after 10 days and was subsequently rushed to the hospital by relatives. At the hospital, he was administered human immune tetanus immunoglobulin, diazepam, ceftriaxone, paracetamol and intravenous fluids. No rabies vaccine was administered. Six days after commencing treatment patient became well, showed no signs of confused state of mind, hydrophobia nor photophobia. He was discharged home after 13 days of commencing treatment. This study provides insight on a presumptive case of Human rabies case that survived despite non-administration of rabies vaccine during esposure. It also exposes the weaknesses in the health and veterinary systems in rural Ghana regarding rabies surveillance and case management.

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.5 - What are the presumptions as to the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presumptions as to the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-10.5 Section 301-10.5 Public Contracts... most advantageous method of transportation? (a) Common carrier. Travel by common carrier is presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation and must be used when reasonably available. (b...

  5. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level.

  6. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412424428; Fieten, Hille|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  7. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  8. Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar medium and conventional culture system for isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-09-01

    Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ≥ 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 37(0)C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique.

  9. Copper resistance determinants in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Rouch, D A; Lee, B T

    1992-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that is utilized in a number of oxygenases and electron transport proteins, but it is also a highly toxic heavy metal, against which all organisms must protect themselves. Known bacterial determinants of copper resistance are plasmid-encoded. The mechanisms which confer resistance must be integrated with the normal metabolism of copper. Different bacteria have adopted diverse strategies for copper resistance, and this review outlines what is known about bacterial copper resistance mechanisms and their genetic regulation.

  10. Determination of copper oxidizing power in superconducting yttrium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontaler, R.P.; Lebed', N.B.

    1989-01-01

    A new photometric method for determining the formal copper degree of oxidation and oxygen deficiency in superconducting high-temperature oxides containing yttrium, barium and copper is developed. The method is based on oxidation of Co(2) complex with EDTA by Cu(3) ions in acetrate buffer solution with pH 4.2-4.7 and allows one to determine 1-10% of Cu(3). Relative standard deviation when determining Cu(3) makes up 0.03-0.05. Using a qualitative reaction with the application of sodium vanadate hydrochloride solution the absence of peroxide compound in superconducting yttrium ceramics is ascertained

  11. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  12. Sliding Friction of Copper

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Tung

    1963-01-01

    .... With less clean surfaces, the coefficient of friction obtained was about 0.4. Since the degree of cleanliness cannot be controlled quantitatively, the friction - load curve of sliding copper pairs in air exhibits a bifurcation characteristic...

  13. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  14. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  15. Copper regulation and homeostasis of Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: influence of acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Bart T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate (1) the capacity of the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the waterflea Daphnia magna to regulate copper when exposed to environmentally realistic copper concentrations and (2) the influence of multi-generation acclimation to these copper concentrations on copper bioaccumulation and homeostasis. Based on bioconcentration factors, active copper regulation was observed in algae up to 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids up to 35 μg Cu L -1 . Constant body copper concentrations (13 ± 4 μg Cu g DW -1 ) were observed in algae exposed to 1 through 5 μg Cu L -1 and in daphnids exposed to 1 through 12 μg Cu L -1 . At higher exposure concentrations, there was an increase in internal body copper concentration, while no increase was observed in bioconcentration factors, suggesting the presence of a storage mechanism. At copper concentrations of 100 μg Cu L -1 (P. subcapitata) and 150 μg Cu L -1 (D. magna), the significant increases observed in body copper concentrations and in bioconcentration factors may be related to a failure of this regulation mechanism. For both organisms, internal body copper concentrations lower than 13 μg Cu g DW -1 may result in copper deficiency. For P. subcapitata acclimated to 0.5 and 100 μg Cu L -1 , body copper concentrations ranged (mean ± standard deviation) between 5 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 1300 ± 197 μg Cu g DW -1 , respectively. For D. magna, this value ranged between 9 ± 2 μg Cu g DW -1 and 175 ± 17 μg Cu g DW -1 for daphnids acclimated to 0.5 and 150 μg Cu L -1 . Multi-generation acclimation to copper concentrations ≥12 μg Cu L -1 resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in body copper concentrations for both organisms compared to the body copper concentration of the first generation. It can be concluded that there is an indication that P. subcapitata and D. magna can regulate their whole body copper concentration to maintain copper homeostasis within their optimal copper range and

  16. Neuron Types in the Presumptive Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Gupta, Kanika; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-01-01

    Within afrotherians, sirenians are unusual due to their aquatic lifestyle, large body size and relatively large lissencephalic brain. However, little is known about the neuron type distributions of the cerebral cortex in sirenians within the context of other afrotherians and aquatic mammals. The present study investigated two cortical regions, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2), in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to characterize cyto- and chemoarchitecture. The mean neuron density for both cortical regions was 35,617 neurons/mm(3) and fell within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass based on a reference group of afrotherians and xenarthrans. Densities of inhibitory interneuron subtypes labeled against calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptide Y were relatively low compared to afrotherians and xenarthrans and also formed a small percentage of the overall population of inhibitory interneurons as revealed by GAD67 immunoreactivity. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (NPNFP-ir) neurons comprised a mean of 60% of neurons in layer V across DL1 and CL2. DL1 contained a higher percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons than CL2, although CL2 had a higher variety of morphological types. The mean percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons in the two regions of the presumptive S1 were low compared to other afrotherians and xenarthrans but were within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass, and their morphologies were comparable to those found in other afrotherians and xenarthrans. Although this specific pattern of neuron types and densities sets the manatee apart from other afrotherians and xenarthrans, the manatee isocortex does not appear to be explicitly adapted for an aquatic habitat. Many of the features that are shared between manatees and cetaceans are also shared with a diverse array of terrestrial mammals and likely represent highly conserved

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... deficiency anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  20. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  1. Abandoning presumptive antimalarial treatment for febrile children aged less than five years--a case of running before we can walk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike English

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  2. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels and urinary copper excretion in thermal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boosalis, M.G.; Solem, L.D.; Ahrenholz, D.H.; McCall, J.T.; McClain, C.J.

    1986-03-01

    Conflicting or incomplete reports exist regarding the copper (Cu) status of thermal injury patients. Therefore, the authors evaluated, longitudinally, serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin (CP) and the 24-hr urinary excretion of Cu in 23 patients with 12-90% total body surface area (TBSA) 2nd and 3rd degree burns. Mean serum Cu level was below normal throughout hospitalization being lowest in patients with > 40% TBSA burn. Serum CP showed a similar pattern. To the authors knowledge, this is the only report of a decrease in serum Cu and CP levels post trauma. Mean urinary Cu excretion was elevated; the greater the TBSA burn, the greater the loss. The depression in serum Cu coincides with the depression in CP levels and is not a result of urinary losses. Clearly Cu status is altered in thermal injury. This injury may mimic a human Cu deficiency state requiring further investigation.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  8. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a (mo-ms) recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15......Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level...

  9. New culture medium for the presumptive identificaion of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W H; Hopkins, J M; Land, G A

    1977-02-01

    A new medium composed of Tween 80, oxgall, caffeic acid, and Davis agar (TOC) that provides for the rapid presumptive identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans is described herein. C. albicans is differentiated from other yeasts by the sequential production of germ tubes and chlamydospores. In a comparison with cormeal agar control plates, there was an increase of chlamydospore-forming strains of C. albicans (97.1% versus 87.2%) and a decrease in the time required for chlamydospore formation (24 h versus 48 h). C. neoformans produced a brown pigment of TOC, which is specific for its identification, thus differentiating it from the other yeasts. A comparison of 24-h pigment production by C. neoformans on TOC with that of birdseed agar showed a dark, coffee brown color in the former cultures and a light brown color in the latter. The change in pigmentation of C. neoformans, as well as morphological changes in C. albicans, can be induced within 3 to 12 h and in not more than 24 h on the TOC medium.

  10. Should sputum-negative presumptive TB patients be actively followed to identify missing cases in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikar, S; Pathak, A; Ghule, V; Kapoor, A; Sagili, K; Babu, E R; Chadha, S

    2017-12-21

    Setting: Sputum smear microscopy, the primary diagnostic tool used for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), has low sensitivity, resulting in a significant number of TB cases reported as sputum-negative. As the revised guidelines pose challenges in implementation, sputum-negative presumptive TB (SNPT) patients are subjected to 2 weeks of antibiotics, followed by chest X-ray (CXR), resulting in significant loss to care among these cases. Objective: To determine whether reducing delays in CXR would yield additional TB cases and reduce initial loss to follow-up for diagnosis among SNPT cases. Methods: In an ongoing intervention in five districts of Maharashtra, SNPT patients were offered upfront CXR. Results: Of 119 male and 116 female SNPT patients with a mean age of 45 years who were tested by CXR, 32 (14%) were reported with CXR suggestive of TB. Administering upfront CXR in SNPT patients yielded twice as many additional cases, doubling the proportion of cases detected among all those tested as against administering CXR 2 weeks after smear examination. Conclusion: Our interventional study showed that the yield of TB cases was significantly greater when upfront CXR examination was undertaken without waiting for a 2-week antibiotic trial.

  11. Treatment of presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia with mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclosporine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, F O; Rizzo, S A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare hospitalisation duration, survival times, adverse events and cost of therapy in dogs with presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia undergoing therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids versus cyclosporine and corticosteroids. A retrospective study of medical case records of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was conducted. Data collected included signalment, presenting complaints, haematologic and biochemical profiles, vector-borne disease testing, thoracic and abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, medications administered, duration of hospitalisation, 30- and 60-day survival, adverse events and cost of therapy. Variables were compared between dogs treated solely with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids or cyclosporine and corticosteroids. A total of 55 dogs with primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia were identified. Eighteen were excluded because multiple immunosuppressive medications were used during treatment. Hospitalisation times, 30-day survival and 60-day survival times were similar between both groups. Dogs in the mycophenolate mofetil/corticosteroid group experienced fewer adverse events than the cyclosporine/corticosteroid group. Therapy with mycophenolate mofetil was less expensive than that with cyclosporine. These results suggest that using the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids appears to be as effective as cyclosporine and corticosteroids in the treatment of presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs. Adverse events were less common and cost of therapy was lower in the mycophenolate mofetil group. Additional larger prospective, controlled, double-masked, outcome-based, multi-institutional studies are required to substantiate these preliminary findings. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Rapid presumptive "fingerprinting" of body fluids and materials by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-11-01

    Human body fluids and materials were evaluated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Purified proteins, cosmetics, and foodstuffs were also assayed with the method. The results of this study show that the sampled fluids and materials vary in the fingerprint region and locations of the amide I peaks because of the secondary structure of the composite proteins although the C = O stretch is always present. The distinct 1016 cm(-1) peak serves as a signature for semen. The lipid-containing materials (e.g., fingerprints, earwax, tears, and skin) can also be easily separated from the aqueous materials because of the strong CH(3) asymmetric stretch of the former. Blood-saliva and blood-urine mixtures were also successfully differentiated using combinations of peaks. Crime scene investigators employing rapid, portable, or handheld infrared spectroscopic instruments may be able to reduce their need for invasive, destructive, and consumptive presumptive test reagents in evaluating trace evidence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Case report 471: Hemophilic pseudotumors (presumptive diagnosis) and hemophilic arthropathy of elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Gilbert, M.

    1988-01-01

    A case has been presented of a 72-year-old man on whom an excretory urogram showed the incidental findings of two soft tissue masses in the abdomen containing considerable deposits of calcium. The history was interesting in that the patient was classic hemophiliac with Factor VIII level less than 1%, who first developed symptoms and signs of multiple hemarthroses affecting the knees, ankles, elbows, and shoulders at the age of nine years. Secondary hemophilic arthropathy followed, particularly advanced in the right elbow. Total knee replacements were performed within the last 10 years. A mass within the muscles of the right chest wall, superficial to the ribs, was surgically removed. The abdominal masses in this case were studied with CT and showed considerable calcification with a fibrous wall. Surgical removal of pseudotumors is usually undertaken following diagnosis because the natural history includes continuous enlargement and destruction of the adjacent tissues. Because of the age of the patient and the significant cardiac history, it was considered inappropriate to undertake surgery for the masses in the abdomen which were considered presumptively to be pseudotumors. The clinical, radiological, and pathological aspects of pseudotumor of hemophilia were reviewed. In this case, besides the masses in the abdomen, hemophilic arthropathy of an elbow was illustrated and a soft tissue mass in the right chest wall was demonstrated radiologically and the pathological specimen shown after surgical excision. (orig.)

  14. Late latent syphilis in a patient with end-stage renal disease and presumptive penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Karen T; Day, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacotherapy challenges in a case of late latent syphilis complicated by end-stage renal disease and presumptive penicillin allergy are described. A 58-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital for symptoms including altered mental status, shortness of breath, and chest pain. The initial workup isolated syphilis immunoglobulin G antibody. A treponemal test was reactive, and a nontreponemal test was nonreactive; analysis of cerebrospinal fluid did not indicate neurosyphilis. The patient was diagnosed as having late latent syphilis of unknown duration, for which the standard treatment is intramuscular penicillin G benzathine 2.4 million units once weekly for three weeks. Given the patient's advanced renal disease and other serious comorbidities, there were concerns about the potential need for renal dosage adjustment and repeated desensitization. However, given the slow absorption and long half-life of penicillin G and published data indicating its safe use in the context of hemodialysis, the treating clinicians decided to proceed with penicillin G therapy at the usual dose after an oral penicillin desensitization protocol; repeat desensitization before two subsequent injections was not performed. The patient completed the full course of penicillin G without incident. Notably, skin testing was not performed to definitively establish penicillin allergy. Microbiological testing to determine a cure of syphilis was not performed. After the completion of an oral desensitization protocol, the standard three-dose regimen of intramuscular penicillin G for late latent syphilis was safely administered to a hemodialysis patient without dosage adjustment or repeated desensitization.

  15. Isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Gharai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 30-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with sudden loss of visibility in his left visual field. He had no other systemic symptoms. Perimetry showed left-sided incongruous homonymous hemianopsia denser above the horizontal meridian. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed irregular well-marginated lobulated lesions right temporo-occipital cerebral hemisphere and left high fronto-parietal cerebral hemisphere suggestive of brain tubercular abscess. Serological tests for HIV were reactive, and the patient was started only on anti-tubercular drugs with the presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tubercular abscess. Therapeutic response confirmed the diagnosis. Atypical ophthalmic manifestations may be the initial presenting feature in patients with HIV infection. This highlights the need for increased index of suspicion for HIV infection in young patients with atypical ophthalmic manifestations.

  16. Lancefield grouping and smell of caramel for presumptive identification and assessment of pathogenicity in the Streptococcus milleri group.

    OpenAIRE

    Brogan, O; Malone, J; Fox, C; Whyte, A S

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. METHODS: Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caram...

  17. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  18. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles ...

  19. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  20. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, D.G.; Allen, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail that has been possible to date. The beam is produced by using third-generation insertion devices in a 7 GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1100 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high power devices is very high and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop{reg_sign}, a dispersion strengthened copper, is the desired material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. High pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive MDR-TB: an operational research from Bhopal district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kokane, Arun M; Singh, Akash Ranjan; Verma, Manoj; Parmar, Malik; Chauhan, Ashish; Chahar, Sanjay Singh; Tiwari, Manoj; Khan, Sheeba Naz; Gupta, Vivek; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Nagar, Mukesh; Singh, Sanjai Kumar; Mehra, Pradeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajay Mv

    2017-04-04

    Pre-diagnosis attrition needs to be addressed urgently if we are to make progress in improving MDR-TB case detection and achieve universal access to MDR-TB care. We report the pre-diagnosis attrition, along with factors associated, and turnaround times related to the diagnostic pathway among patient with presumptive MDR-TB in Bhopal district, central India (2014). Study was conducted under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting. It was a retrospective cohort study involving record review of all registered TB cases in Bhopal district that met the presumptive MDR-TB criteria (eligible for DST) in 2014. In quarter 1, Line Probe Assay (LPA) was used if sample was smear/culture positive. Quarter 2 onwards, LPA and Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CbNAAT) was used for smear positive and smear negative samples respectively. Pre-diagnosis attrition was defined as failure to undergo DST among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (as defined by the programme). Of 770 patients eligible for DST, 311 underwent DST and 20 patients were diagnosed as having MDR-TB. Pre-diagnosis attrition was 60% (459/770). Among those with pre-diagnosis attrition, 91% (417/459) were not identified as 'presumptive MDR-TB' by the programme. TAT [median (IQR)] to undergo DST after eligibility was 4 (0, 10) days. Attrition was more than 40% across all subgroups. Age more than 64 years; those from a medical college; those eligible in quarter 1; patients with presumptive criteria 'previously treated - recurrent TB', 'treatment after loss-to-follow-up' and 'previously treated-others'; and patients with extra-pulmonary TB were independent risk factors for not undergoing DST. High pre-diagnosis attrition was contributed by failure to identify and refer patients. Attrition reduced modestly with time and one factor that might have contributed to this was introduction of CbNAAT in quarter 2 of 2014. General health system strengthening which includes improvement in

  2. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in

  3. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  4. Evaluation of dose response effects related to nutritional diseases (mineral deficiencies) in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goksoy, K.; Gucus, A.I.; Morcol, T.

    1986-01-01

    Nutritional diseases (mineral deficiencies) of farm animals are one of the limiting factors in animal production in Turkey. Present knowledge of mineral deficiencies of farm animals is derived from the study of severe deficiency conditions. Examples in sheep are deficiencies of copper in the central area of the Black Sea region and of selenium in the interior of Anatolia. Phosphorus deficiency is becoming the most serious problem in cattle. Outbreaks of wool shedding in sheep in central Anatolia are also becoming more severe. It is also likely that moderate (borderline) mineral deficiencies exist on a large scale. A general overview of trace mineral deficiencies and recent studies carried out to diagnose and correct them with the aid of biochemical and radioisotopic parameters is presented and discussed. (author)

  5. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-µm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 µm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.

  6. Presumptive subarticular stress reactions of the knee: MRI detection and association with meniscal tear patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Stanczak, Jeffrey; Boutin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    MRI detects subchondral marrow findings in painful knees which bear resemblance to spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). Gathering evidence suggests that the primary or predominant pathogenesis of these lesions is physical stress. This study analyzes the patient characteristics and meniscal pathology associated with these lesions - herein referred to as ''presumptive subarticular stress related'' (PSSR) lesions. All patients were scanned using a standardized imaging protocol. The criterion for a PSSR lesion was a subchondral marrow edema pattern encompassing a more focal, low-signal zone adjacent to or contiguous with the subchondral cortex. Patients were identified using an electronic database search of cases reported by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Twenty-five PSSR lesions were identified among 1,948 MRI evaluations of the knee. Twenty-one PSSR lesions occurred in the medial compartment, and four occurred in the lateral compartment. There was no sex predilection. Patients with PSSR lesions were older than other patients undergoing MRI evaluation (mean 66 years versus 52 years, P<0.001). Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in cases with PSSR lesions than in the group as a whole (76% versus 45%, P<0.001). Radial and posterior root tears were more common in knees with PSSR lesions than in other knees with meniscal tears (53% versus 26%, P<0.01). PSSR lesions are associated with meniscal tears and, more specifically, with meniscal tear patterns that dramatically increase contact forces across the knee joint. This observation supports the hypothesis that mechanical stress is important in the pathogenesis of these subarticular lesions that are detected by MRI. (orig.)

  7. Presumptive subarticular stress reactions of the knee: MRI detection and association with meniscal tear patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence [Diagnostic Radiology Department, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 1C640, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1182, MD 20892-1182, Bethesda (United States); Stanczak, Jeffrey [Fairfax Radiological Consultants, PC, 2722 Merrilee Drive, Suite 230, VA 22031, Fairfax (United States); Boutin, Robert D. [MedTel International, 1430 Spring Hill Road, State 500, VA 22102, Mclean (United States)

    2004-05-01

    MRI detects subchondral marrow findings in painful knees which bear resemblance to spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). Gathering evidence suggests that the primary or predominant pathogenesis of these lesions is physical stress. This study analyzes the patient characteristics and meniscal pathology associated with these lesions - herein referred to as ''presumptive subarticular stress related'' (PSSR) lesions. All patients were scanned using a standardized imaging protocol. The criterion for a PSSR lesion was a subchondral marrow edema pattern encompassing a more focal, low-signal zone adjacent to or contiguous with the subchondral cortex. Patients were identified using an electronic database search of cases reported by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Twenty-five PSSR lesions were identified among 1,948 MRI evaluations of the knee. Twenty-one PSSR lesions occurred in the medial compartment, and four occurred in the lateral compartment. There was no sex predilection. Patients with PSSR lesions were older than other patients undergoing MRI evaluation (mean 66 years versus 52 years, P<0.001). Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in cases with PSSR lesions than in the group as a whole (76% versus 45%, P<0.001). Radial and posterior root tears were more common in knees with PSSR lesions than in other knees with meniscal tears (53% versus 26%, P<0.01). PSSR lesions are associated with meniscal tears and, more specifically, with meniscal tear patterns that dramatically increase contact forces across the knee joint. This observation supports the hypothesis that mechanical stress is important in the pathogenesis of these subarticular lesions that are detected by MRI. (orig.)

  8. Death by caffeine: presumptive malicious poisoning of a dog by incorporation in ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, S N; Puschner, B; Albin, T; Stump, S; Poppenga, R H

    2012-12-01

    A 4-year-old, 37 kg, male German shepherd developed hyperthermia, tachycardia, and agitation following consumption of ground meat found in the backyard of its owner. When presented to a veterinary clinic, plasma ethylene glycol (EG) testing was positive, and the dog was given ethanol and lactated Ringer's solution intravenously. Approximately 11 h postexposure the dog died. Among tissues submitted for toxicological analysis, urine was negative for EG, ground meat was negative for certain drugs of abuse, and gastric contents were negative for zinc/aluminum phosphide and metaldehyde. Analysis of gastric contents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of caffeine. Caffeine concentration in the ground meat was estimated at 1 %. Caffeine is a methylxanthine alkaloid with a reported canine oral median lethal dose (MLD(50)) of 140 mg/kg (range 120-200 mg/kg). A commercially available 200-mg tablet formulation of caffeine was considered to be a possible source but this was not confirmed. By conservative estimates, the dog would need to ingest approximately 500-550 g of the meat to reach the MLD(50). Acute intoxication affects the cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems. Although no tablet remnants were observed in the bait, tablets could have been crushed and/or dissolved. Other potential caffeine sources include guarana, brewed and concentrated coffee, and caffeine-containing beverages. Based on the history, clinical signs, and the detection of caffeine in the gastric contents and meat, a presumptive diagnosis of malicious caffeine poisoning was made. A suggested treatment regimen for caffeine intoxication in dogs is described. While few cases of accidental ingestion of caffeine by dogs have been described, the intentional use of a concentrated caffeine source to cause mortality in a dog has not been previously reported.

  9. Coping with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure...

  10. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    characterization of several imidazolate-bridged binuclear copper(II) complexes have been reported 1–17. ... of the desired complex formed were collected, washed with ethanol and dried in vacuo at room temperature. .... 16. Sigel H (ed.) 1981 Metal ions in biological system (New York: Marcel Dekker) vol 13, p. 259. 17.

  11. The role of insufficient copper in lipid synthesis and fatty-liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Austin; Tallino, Savannah; Yu, Lei; Burkhead, Jason L

    2017-04-01

    The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier. Inadequate copper supply to the body due to poor diet quality or malabsorption can disrupt several molecular level pathways and processes. Though much of the copper distribution machinery has been described and consequences of disrupted copper handling have been characterized in human disease as well as animal models, physiological consequences of sub-optimal copper due to poor nutrition or malabsorption have not been extensively studied. Recent work indicates that insufficient copper may be important in a number of common diseases including obesity, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, marginal copper deficiency (CuD) has been reported as a potential etiologic factor in diseases characterized by disrupted lipid metabolism such as non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In this review, we discuss the available data suggesting that a significant portion of the North American population may consume insufficient copper, the potential mechanisms by which CuD may promote lipid biosynthesis, and the interaction between CuD and dietary fructose in the etiology of NAFLD. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):263-270, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Danielle A; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B(12), folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurological complications of bariatric surgery and emphasize that these findings may vary based on the specific type of bariatric surgery and time elapsed from the procedure.

  13. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurological complications of bariatric surgery and emphasize that these findings may vary based on the specific type of bariatric surgery and time elapsed from the procedure.

  14. Modulation of lysyl oxidase by dietary copper in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R B; Romero-Chapman, N; Wong, T; Lee, J; Steinberg, F M; McGee, C; Clegg, M S; Reiser, K; Kosonen, T; Uriu-Hare, J Y; Murphy, J; Keen, C L

    1996-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase levels were estimated in rat tissues using an enzyme-linked immunosorption assay (ELISA) and a functional assay standardized against known amounts of purified lysyl oxidase. High concentrations of lysyl oxidase (> or = 150 micrograms/g of tissue or packed cells) were detected in connective tissues, such as tendon and skin. Values for aorta, kidney, lung and liver ranged from 30 to 150 micrograms/g of tissue; values for skeletal muscle and diaphragm were tendon (r2 > 0.9). When egg white-based experimental diets containing 2 or 10 micrograms/g added copper were fed to weanling rats, values for skin lysyl oxidase functional activity in the group fed 2 micrograms/g added copper were one-third to one-half the values for skin lysyl oxidase functional activity in rats fed 10 micrograms/g copper. This reduction in lysyl oxidase activity, however, had minimal effect on indices of collagen maturation in rat skin, e.g., collagen solubility in neutral salt and dilute acid or the levels of acid stable cross-links. Moreover, copper deficiency did not influence the steady-state levels of lysyl oxidase specific mRNA in rat skin or the apparent amounts of lysyl oxidase in rat skin as determined by ELISA. These observations underscore that the concentration of lysyl oxidase is relatively high in dense corrective tissues, and although decreasing dietary copper influences functional activity, there is little apparent effect on the production of lysyl oxidase protein.

  15. Colour vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  16. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  17. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  18. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Shcherbak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the lactase deficiency in children. The most frequent clinical manifestations — diarrhea and flatulence —are not specific to this pathology. Symptoms, typical for the majority of the diseases nosologies of the digestive system, lack of timely laboratory diagnosis, and, often, lack of pediatricians awareness about the specifics of this disease are the cause of lactase deficiency under-diagnostics. The article describes in detail the physiopathological mechanisms, clinical picture, diagnosis and dietary correction of lactase deficiency, the data concerning the prevalence of this disease are cited.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, children, health food.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... are also at high risk of deficiency in populations where dietary intake of B12-containing animal-derived foods is restricted. Deficiency is caused by either inadequate intake, inadequate bioavailability or malabsorption. Disruption of B12 transport in the blood, or impaired cellular uptake or metabolism...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  3. Electrodiagnostic studies in presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy in dogs with reevaluation during hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Elżbieta Gabriela; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef Marian; Wrzosek, Marcin Adam

    2016-05-21

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological manifestation of canine hypothyroidism. Data concerning electrodiagnostic studies in hypothyroid associated polyneuropathy in dogs are very limited and usually lack a reevaluation after hormone replacement therapy. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed, retrospective analysis of electromyographic (EMG), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), F-wave and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) findings in 24 dogs with presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy with a comparison of the results before and after initiation of levothyroxine treatment with the assessment of the clinical outcome. The results obtained from hypothyroid dogs showed a significant reduction in MNCV at a proximal-distal and middle-distal stimulation, decreased amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), an increased CMAP duration and a prolonged distal latency prior to treatment. Fifty percent of the dogs had an increased F-wave latency. A normal BAER recording was found in 78 % of the hypothyroid patients without vestibular impairment. Bilaterally increased peak V latencies and increased interpeak I-V latencies were found in the remaining individuals. Dogs with concurrent vestibular impairment had ipsilaterally increased peak latencies with normal interpeak latencies and decreased amplitudes of wave I and II. A comparison of the findings before and after 2 months of treatment revealed a decrease in the pathological activity on EMG, an improvement of proximal, middle and distal CMAP amplitudes and an increase in the proximal-distal conduction velocity in all dogs. F-wave latency improved in 38 % of dogs. The BAER reexamination revealed a persistent prolongation of peak I, II, III and V latencies and decreased wave I amplitude on the affected side in all dogs manifesting vestibular signs. Conversely, in dogs without vestibular signs, the peak V and interpeak I-V latencies decreased to normal values

  4. Multilevel cycle of anthropogenic copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T E; van Beers, D; Bertram, M; Fuse, K; Gordon, R B; Gritsinin, A; Kapur, A; Klee, R J; Lifset, R J; Memon, L; Rechberger, H; Spatari, S; Vexler, D

    2004-02-15

    A comprehensive contemporary cycle for stocks and flows of copper is characterized and presented, incorporating information on extraction, processing, fabrication and manufacturing, use, discard, recycling, final disposal, and dissipation. The analysis is performed on an annual basis, ca. 1994, at three discrete governmental unit levels--56 countries or country groups that together comprise essentially all global anthropogenic copper stocks and flows, nine world regions, and the planet as a whole. Cycles for all of these are presented and discussed, and a "best estimate" global copper cycle is constructed to resolve aggregation discrepancies. Among the most interesting results are (1) transformation rates and recycling rates in apparently similar national economies differ by factors of two or more (country level); (2) the discard flows that have the greatest potential for copper recycling are those with low magnitude flows but high copper concentrations--electronics, electrical equipment, and vehicles (regional level); (3) worldwide, about 53% of the copper that was discarded in various forms was recovered and reused or recycled (global level); (4) the highest rate of transfer of discarded copper to repositories is into landfills, but the annual amount of copper deposited in mine tailings is nearly as high (global level); and (5) nearly 30% of copper mining occurred merely to replace copper that was discarded. The results provide a framework for similar studies of other anthropogenic resource cycles as well as a basis for supplementary studies in resource stocks, industrial resource utilization, waste management, industrial economics, and environmental impacts.

  5. Comparison of clinical signs and outcomes between dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy and dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Joe; Drees, Randi; Volk, Holger A; De Decker, Steven

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs and outcomes between dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy and dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE). DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 51 dogs with ischemic myelopathy and 42 dogs with ANNPE examined at 1 referral hospital. PROCEDURES Medical records and MRI sequences were reviewed for dogs with a presumptive antemortem diagnosis of ischemic myelopathy or ANNPE. Information regarding signalment, clinical signs at initial examination, and short-term outcome was retrospectively retrieved from patient records. Long-term outcome information was obtained by telephone communication with referring or primary-care veterinarians and owners. RESULTS Compared with the hospital population, English Staffordshire Bull Terriers and Border Collies were overrepresented in the ischemic myelopathy and ANNPE groups, respectively. Dogs with ANNPE were significantly older at disease onset and were more likely to have a history of vocalization at onset of clinical signs, have spinal hyperesthesia during initial examination, have a lesion at C1-C5 spinal cord segments, and be ambulatory at hospital discharge, compared with dogs with ischemic myelopathy. Dogs with ischemic myelopathy were more likely to have a lesion at L4-S3 spinal cord segments and have long-term fecal incontinence, compared with dogs with ANNPE. However, long-term quality of life and outcome did not differ between dogs with ischemic myelopathy and dogs with ANNPE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results revealed differences in clinical signs at initial examination between dogs with ischemic myelopathy and dogs with ANNPE that may aid clinicians in differentiating the 2 conditions.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  8. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  9. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  10. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  13. G6PD Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that is most common in males. About 1 in 10 African American males in the United States has it. G6PD deficiency mainly affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  17. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  5. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  7. Micronutrient Deficiencies in Morbidly Obese Women Prior to Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas, Pamela; Basfi-Fer, Karen; Carrasco, Fernando; Inostroza, Jorge; Codoceo, Juana; Valencia, Alejandra; Papapietro, Karin; Csendes, Attila; Ruz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Although morbid obesity is related to excess of energy and macronutrient intake, it does not rule out the presence of micronutrient deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate food intake and the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in a group of morbidly obese women seeking bariatric surgery. A total of 103 morbidly obese women were studied prior to bariatric surgery. Anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) were performed on all subjects. Energy and nutrient intake was determined by food frequency questionnaire. Blood tests to assess micronutrients status, including plasma iron, ferritin, transferrin, zinc, copper, calcium, phosphorus, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and hair zinc, were performed. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were also assessed in 66 subjects. Mean energy intake was 2801 ± 970 kcal/day. Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intake represented 55 ± 9.1, 13.9 ± 3.3, and 32.5 ± 8.2% of total energy intake, respectively. Iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake was below the recommended dietary allowance. The prevalence of nutritional deficiencies were as follows: plasma iron 12.6%, ferritin 8.7%, transferrin 14.6%, plasma zinc 2.9%, calcium 3.3%, phosphorus 2.3%, hemoglobin 7.7%, hematocrit 13.6%, MCV 6.8%, and hair zinc 15.7%. In the subsample, 10.6% had a vitamin B12 deficiency, 71.7% showed low concentrations of vitamin D, and 66% had high PTH levels. No folic acid or copper deficiencies were detected. Despite high daily energy intake and adequate macronutrient distribution, morbidly obese Chilean women seeking bariatric surgery present with deficient intake of some micronutrients and a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies.

  8. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    that the imidazolate-bridged complex is stable over the pH-range 7⋅15–10⋅0. .... copper(II) complex. The observed room temperature magnetic moments are around. 1⋅79 BM, in agreement with a one-spin (S = 1/2) system. 3.2 EPR studies .... (SK) thanks the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi for an.

  9. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cl..Cu.. interactions but restricted ..Cu..N N..Cu interacations. Supramolecular isomers of Br and I are reported for the first time in this paper. [Cu2I(pdz)X2]. Figure S18. Self assembly of the simultaneous presence of tecton {Cu(sol)3X} and {Cu(pdz)(sol)2X} result in [Cu2I(pdz)X2]. 1. Table S3. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs ...

  10. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in High-School Girl Students of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noori Shadkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency. The most severe consequence of iron depletion is iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and it is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. The main risk factors for IDA include: inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption or transport, physiologic losses associated with chronological or reproductive age, or acute or chronic blood loss, parasite infections such as hookworms, acute and chronic infections, including malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and other micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins A and B12, folate, riboflavin, and copper deficiency. Methods: This work as a cross-sectional study was done in 2007-2008 in Yazd. Two hundred girls who participated in the study were selected randomly from eight girl high schools. Five ml venous blood was collected for determination of serum ferritin and cell blood count (CBC. Serum ferritin was determined by using ECLIA method and CBC by cell counter SYSMEX KX21N. Iron deficiency was defined as having serum ferritin values below 12 μ/l. Anemia was defined as having Hemoglobin levels below12 g/dl. Iron-deficiency anemia was considered to be the combination of both. Results: The3 mean ageyears and body mass index (kg/m2 were 15.19±0.7years and 21.5±4.2, respectively. Distribution in the 14, 15 and 16 years and more age groups were 13, 58.5 and 28.5 percent, respectively. Mean of Hemoglobin(g/dl, Hematocrit(%, MCV (fl, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dl and ferritin(μ/l were 12.8±0.9, 38.9±3.0, 80.7±4.3, 26.6±1.8, 33.2±3.6 and 23±18.2, respectively. Of the total, 13.5% were anemic, 68% of which had Iron Deficiency Anemia (9.3% of the total. Iron deficiency was present in 34.7% of the population under study. Conclusion: According to world health organization criteria, anemia is a mild public health problem in this region, but iron deficiency is a significant problem and suitable measures for

  12. Jet-printed copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheong Min

    Macroelectronics is a technology for making electronic circuits over very large areas at low cost. Flat panel displays, sensor arrays, and thin film solar cells are examples of macroelectronics. Crucial to the success of this new technology is the development of inexpensive electronic processes, materials, and devices. Direct printing techniques, which eliminate processing steps and save device and process materials, are the key to high volume and high throughput manufacturing. Copper metallization has been receiving increasing attention in both microelectronics and macroelectronics. Copper has high conductivity, density, melting point, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. However, copper is also hard to dry etch. For these reasons we have developed and demonstrated a directly printed copper source/drain metallization technique and applied it to the fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFTs). The maximum process temperature of 200°C is compatible with conventional active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology. In this dissertation, we show the process of depositing copper films by jet printing. We discuss the preparation and the properties of the copper precursor material used in the jet printing. We survey the conversion process from copper precursor to copper under varying processing conditions. The resulting copper film is probed for its physical, electrical, and mechanical properties. To demonstrate the feasibility of the jet printing technique, we print copper source/drain contacts for a-Si:H TFTs. The photolithography-free TFT fabrication process uses the printed xerographic toner technique developed earlier in this laboratory. We show that functional TFTs can be made with printed copper source and drain contacts. The jet printing of copper contacts represents a further step toward an all-printed thin film transistor technology.

  13. The activity of ascorbic acid and catechol oxidase, the rate of photosynthesis and respiration as related to plant organs, stage of development and copper supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Łyszcz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments were performed to investigate the physiological role of copper in oat and sunflower and to recognize some effects of copper deficiency. Oat and sunflower plants were grown in pots on a peat soil under copper deficiency conditions (–Cu or with the optimal copper supply (+Cu. In plants the following measurements were carried out: 1 the activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO and of catechol oxidase (PPO in different plant organs and at different stages of plant development, 2 the activity and the rate of photosynthesis, 3 the activity of RuDP-carboxylase, 4 the intensity of plant respiration. The activity of AAO and of PPO, and also the rate and the activity of photosynthesis were significantly lower under conditions of copper deficiency. The activity of both discussed oxidases depended on: 1 the plant species, 2 plant organs, 3 stage of plant development. Copper deficiency caused decrease of the respiration intensity of sunflower leaves but it increased to some extent the respiration of oat tops. Obtained results are consistent with the earlier suggestion of the authors that the PPO activity in sunflower leaves could be a sensitive indicator of copper supply of the plants, farther experiments are in progress.

  14. [A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Fujii, Shigehisa; Shirakawa, Seiji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Nishii, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube is presented. The calculation procedure is to add an amount of characteristic X-ray photons that corresponds to the ratio of characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons to the bremsstrahlung spectrum obtained using semiempirical calculation. The bremsstrahlung spectrum was calculated by using a corrected Tucker's formula. The corrected content was a formula for calculating the self-absorption length in the target that originated in the difference of the incident angle to the target of the electron and the mass stopping power data. The measured spectrum was separated into the bremsstrahlung component and the characteristic photon component, and the ratio of the characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons was obtained. The regression was derived from the function of the tube voltage. Based on this calculation procedure, computer software was constructed that can calculate an X-ray spectrum in arbitrary exposure conditions. The X-ray spectrum obtained from this presumption calculating formula and the measured X-ray spectrum corresponded well. This formula is very useful for analyzing various problems related to mammography by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  16. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  17. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  18. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...

  17. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... explain tests and procedures that your doctor may use to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who ... heavy menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special measures can help prevent the condition in these groups. ... is a complete blood count (CBC). The CBC measures many parts of your blood. This test checks ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... test called a complete blood count (CBC) to see if you have lower than normal red blood ... iron-deficiency anemia: Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of ...

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Grants & Training Grants and Training Home Policies and Guidelines Funding Opportunities and Contacts Training and Career Development ... Study - Red Blood Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less ... deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ... flow. In some cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... size of your liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding ... bleeding in the stomach, upper intestines, colon, or pelvic organs. Treatment Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen ... mean corpuscular volume (MCV) that would suggest anemia. Different tests help your doctor screen for iron-deficiency ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mouth Pale skin Swelling or soreness of the tongue Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest ... Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of your eyelids are ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation) • Some lymphomas, a type of cancer Other risk factors for vitamin D deficiency ... medications • Frequent falls in older adults, or a non-traumatic fracture (bone break without ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ... deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can cause complications and may be life-threatening. Signs and Symptoms Common signs of iron-deficiency anemia ... abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... to iron-deficiency anemia. We are interested in studying in more detail how iron levels are regulated ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you curious about how ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... disease also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for ... be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia if they're underweight or have chronic (ongoing) illnesses. Teenage girls who ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... treat iron-deficiency anemia. These doctors include pediatricians, family doctors, gynecologists/obstetricians, and internal medicine specialists. A hematologist (a blood disease specialist), a gastroenterologist (a digestive system specialist), and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing age ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children ... blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... All News NHLBI News NHLBI in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming Events About ... NHLBI Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the likelihood of bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors that ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... Reticulocytes are young, immature red blood cells. Over time, reticulocytes become mature red blood cells that carry ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as ice, dirt, paint, or starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in their blood from ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  14.  Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors inSana’a City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molham AL-Habori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G-6-PD deficiency among Yemeni people fromdifferent regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a,giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemenimale blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank atthe National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in thecapital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used forscreening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activityand separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype.Results: Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into thestudy, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiencyprevalence of 7.1�20None of these deficient donors had history ofanemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2�howed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10�0of normalactivity, and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PDMediterraneanvariant.Conclusion: The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiencytype in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could representan important health problem through occurrence of hemolyticanemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed todetermine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and shouldbe extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen.

  15. Copper (II) complexes with aroylhydrazones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper(II) complexes with aroylhydrazones ... The coordination chemistry of copper(II) with tridentate aroylhydrazones is briefly discussed in this article. ... EPR spectroscopy and variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been used to reveal the nature of the coordination geometry and magnetic ...

  16. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi...

  17. In vitro digestion method for estimation of copper bioaccessibility in Açaí berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Wojcieszek, Justyna

    Copper is an essential trace element for humans and its deficiency can lead to numerous diseases. A lot of mineral supplements are available to increase intake of copper. Unfortunately, only a part of the total concentration of elements is available for human body. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine bioaccessibility of copper in Açai berry, known as a "superfood" because of its antioxidant qualities. An analytical methodology was based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) and on capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS). To extract various copper compounds, berries were treated with the following buffers: ammonium acetate, Tris-HCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The best extraction efficiency of copper was obtained for SDS extract (88 %), while results obtained for Tris-HCl and ammonium acetate were very similar (47 and 48 %, respectively). After SEC-ICP-MS analysis, main signal was obtained for all extracts in the region of molecular mass about 17 kDa. A two-step model simulated gastric (pepsin) and gastrointestinal (pancreatin) digestion was used to obtain the knowledge about copper bioaccessibility. Copper compounds present in Açai berry were found to be highly bioaccessible. The structures of five copper complexes with amino acids such as aspartic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, were proposed after µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis. Obtained results show that copper in enzymatic extracts is bound by amino acids and peptides what leads to better bioavailability of copper for human body.

  18. ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER(IICHLORIDE DIHYDRATE AGAINST DENGUE VIRUS TYPE-2 IN VERO CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Hari Sucipto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection of dengue virus (DENV was number of globally significant emerging pathogen. Antiviral dengue therapies ar importantly needed to control emerging dengue. Dengue virus (DENV is mosquito-borne arboviruses responsible for causing acute systemic diseases and grievous health conditions in humans. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for humans, even though there have been great efforts towards this end. Copper and copper compounds have more effective in inactivation viruses, likes an influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Purpose in this project was investigated of Copper(IIchloride Dihydrate antiviral compound were further tested for inhibitory effect on the replication of DENV-2 in cell culture. DENV replication was measures by Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA with selectivity index value (SI was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 for compound. The maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of Copper(IIchloride Dihydrate against dengue virus type-2 was 0.13 μg/ml. The cytotoxic concentration (CC50 of compound against Vero cell was 5.03 μg/ml. The SI values for Copper(IIchloride Dihydrate 38.69. Result of this study suggest that Copper(IIchloride Dihydrate demonstated significant anti-DENV-2 inhibitory activities and not toxic in the Vero cells. Copper mechanisms play an important role in the prevention of copper toxicity, exposure to excessive levels of copper can result in a number of adverse health effects, as a result increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage to lipid, DNA, and proteins have been observed in human cell culture models or clinical syndromes of severe copper deficiency and inhibition was attributed to released cupric ions which react with cysteine residues on the surface of the protease.

  19. Effect of molybdenum and sulphur on copper status and mohair quality in Merghoze goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, M M; Souri, M; Nooriyan, E

    2008-05-15

    This study was made on the effects of a normal diet containing 12.8 mg Cu kg(-1) DM which added gradually molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status and fibre quality in eight 1-year Merghoze goat. One group (n = 4 mean weight 31 +/- 2.0 kg) was treated with Mo and S supplements for 20 weeks, the second group (n = 4 mean weight 32 +/- 2.1 kg) served as controls. In addition of blood sampling for measuring copper status in plasma, the copper content and quality of fleeces were measured every 6 weeks. Mohair measurements were carried out by taking patch samples (10 x 10 cm2) from the mid-side area of the goat. The analytical set consists of plasma copper concentrations (Pl Cu), Trichloroacetic acid soluble copper concentrations (TCA-Cu), and fleece copper content. The results indicated that the addition of 20-30 mg Mo and 2-2.5 g S kg(-1) DM to the normal diet did produce sub clinical copper deficiency in treated goats. One such visual symptom was the loss of fleeces pigmentation and poorer crimp being observed. The Pl Cu minus TCA-Cu plasma became more than 2 microM in the blood of treated goat, indicating that there was a significant thiomolybdate formation in the body. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in Pl Cu (p copper deficiency and mohair quality are likely to be from high molybdenum intake and thiomolybdate formation in the body.

  20. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead...... involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells...

  1. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    was unable to derive Average Requirements (ARs) and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs). Hence, Adequate Intakes (AIs) were defined based on mean observed intakes in several European Union (EU) countries, given that there is no evidence of overt copper deficiency in the European population. Data from balance...... studies were used as supportive evidence. For adults, AIs of 1.6 mg/day for men and 1.3 mg/day for women are proposed. For children, AIs are 0.7 mg/day for children aged 1 to ..., respectively. For infants aged 7–11 months, based on mean observed intakes in four EU countries, an AI of 0.4 mg/day is proposed, which is supported by upwards extrapolation of estimated copper intake in exclusively breast-fed infants. For pregnant women, an increment of 0.2 mg/day is estimated to cover...

  2. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  3. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    The Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach, initially developed for the assessment of microorganisms referred to EFSA and added to the food chain is equally applicable to the assessment of botanicals or botanical preparations. Using the principles to establish the suitability of a botanical...... preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... of the assessment scheme to related botanicals or different botanical preparations obtained from the same plant variety can allow a QPS status to be derived for specific groupings. However, the particularity of botanicals that may be presented in a wide variety of forms or whose morphology and chemical composition...

  4. Presumptive meningoencephalitis secondary to extension of otitis media/interna caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Daniels, Joshua B

    2011-08-01

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic longhair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a central vestibular lesion and left Horner's syndrome. Computed tomography images revealed hyperattenuating, moderately contrast-enhancing material within the left tympanic bulla, most consistent with left otitis media/interna. Marked neutrophilic pleocytosis was identified on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Intracranial extension of otitis media/interna is relatively infrequent in small animals. There are no reports of otitis media/interna caused by SEZ in dogs or cats. This is the first report of otitis media/interna and presumptive secondary meningoencephalitis caused by SEZ in a cat. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of presumptive primordial germ cell (pPGC)-like cells in explants into PGCs in experimental tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenishi, K.; Okuda, T.; Nakazato, S.

    1984-05-01

    A single blastomere containing the ''germ plasm'' of 32-cell stage Xenopus embryos was cultured with (/sup 3/H)thymidine until the control embryos developed to the neurula stage. The explants, showing a spherical mass in which the nuclei of all cells were labeled, were implanted into the prospective place of presumptive primordial germ cells (pPGCs) in the endodermal cell mass of unlabeled host embryos of the neurula stage. Labeled PGCs as well as unlabeled, host PGCs were found in the genital ridges of experimental tadpoles. This indicates that the precursor of germ cells, corresponding to pPGCs in normal embryos of the neurula stage, in the explants migrated to genital ridges just at the right moment to become PGCs, and suggests that the developmental process progressed normally, even in the explants, as far as the differentiation of pPGCs is concerned.

  6. Medical professionals convicted of accessing child pornography--presumptive lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice? Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate [2007] NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos [2006] MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.

  7. Further studies on the reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test for the presumptive identification of Lancefield group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D J; McGhie, D; Tebbutt, G M

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test to differentiate between 125 Lancefield group A and 122 non-group A beta-haemolytic streptococci was studied. Bacitracin discs containing 0-02, 0-04, or 0-1 international units and the conditions recommended by both the Association of Clinical Pathologists and the Federal Drug Administration for routine sensitivity testing were used. The results suggest that the presence or absence of a zone of inhibition around a 0-04 unit disc can be used routinely for the presumptive identification of group A streptococci and that a specific zone size can be used for reading the test only with a 0-1 unit disc. PMID:325019

  8. Lancefield grouping and smell of caramel for presumptive identification and assessment of pathogenicity in the Streptococcus milleri group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, O; Malone, J; Fox, C; Whyte, A S

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caramel smell for presumptive identification was examined, and the relation of the S milleri species, Lancefield group, and SDS-PAGE protein analysis to severity of infection and infection site was investigated. Lower respiratory tract and genital tract specimens, strict anaerobes, group D streptococci, and strains identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae were excluded. Most streptococci occurring in pure or significant growth density were S milleri group (87/100; 87%, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93). Of these, 89.7% (78/87; 0.84-0.96) were associated with infection. Lancefield group F antigen predominated (41/87; 47.1%, 0.38-0.56). Lancefield group F alone or accompanied by the caramel smell had a specificity of 100%, but a sensitivity of only 47.3% for group F alone, and 19.5% for group F accompanied by the caramel smell. There was no significant association between species, Lancefield group, and severity of infection, site of infection, or pathogenicity. SDS-PAGE analysis failed to discriminate between strains. Neither species nor Lancefield antigen was related to the site of infection. The presence of Lancefield group F antigen alone or accompanied by a caramel smell was a useful indicator for the S milleri group when present, but was too insensitive to use as a screening test. Most streptococci occurring in pure culture or in significant growth density were of clinical importance. Such organisms should be identified to species level to

  9. Copper complexes as 'radiation recovery' agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copper and its compounds have been used for their remedial effects since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 3000 BC the Egyptians used copper as an antiseptic for healing wounds and to sterilise drinking water; and later, ca 1550 BC, the Ebers Papyrus reports the use of copper acetate, copper sulphate and pulverised metallic copper for the treatment of eye infections. These historical uses of copper and its compounds are particularly interesting in the light of modern evidence concerning the use of certain copper complexes for the treatment of radiation sickness and more recently as an adjunct to radiotherapy for cancer patients. (author)

  10. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  11. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium and copper radionuclides have a long history of use in nuclear medicine. Table 1 presents the nuclear properties of several gallium and copper isotopes that either are used in the routine practice of clinical nuclear medicine or exhibit particular characteristics that might make them useful in diagnostic or therapeutic medicine. This paper will provide some historic perspective along with an overview of some current research directions in gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry. A more extensive review of gallium radiopharmaceutical chemistry has recently appeared and can be consulted for a more in-depth treatment of this topic

  12. Factor XI deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Diamant

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with a prolonged aPTT who was diagnosedas having factor XI deficiency after a rather large hematoma wasformed after angiography. Factor XI deficiency affects 1 in 1 millionpeople, but it is more common in Ashkenazim with a gene frequencyof 5% to 11%, being 0.3% homozygotes. These individuals usuallydo not present hemorrhagic events, except in cases of trauma orsurgery. These patients should be identified by routine coagulationscreening; bleeding could be prevented by use of fresh humanplasma or plasma concentrates.

  13. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  14. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  15. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia if they're underweight or have chronic (ongoing) illnesses. Teenage girls who have heavy periods ... because blood is lost during dialysis. Also, the kidneys are no longer able to make ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program now includes participants with anemia, which may help us understand how genes contribute to differences in disease severity and how patients respond to treatment. The ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... woman's risk for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal bleeding, such as intestinal bleeding, can develop iron-deficiency anemia due to blood loss. Certain conditions, such as colon cancer and bleeding ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially harmful donations and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proof packages for supplements can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency ... within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so ...

  3. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia is a worldwide health problem affecting developed and developing countries. Children <5 years of age and women of child-bearing age are the most vulnerable. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) ranked 15th and 14th in the global disability-adjusted life-years in. 1990 and 2010, respectively.[1] Globally, the ...

  4. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ... anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  7. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia ... iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  14. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12 . Causes Your body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells. In order ... rest of your life. Some people may also need to take vitamin B12 supplements by mouth. Treatment may no longer ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate ... Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z ... usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another condition. Finally, the CBC looks at mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV). MCV is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. The results may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or advise you to eat more iron-rich foods. This not only will help you avoid iron-deficiency anemia, but also may lower your risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and ...

  1. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may ask whether you might be pregnant. Physical Exam Your doctor will do a physical exam to look for signs of iron-deficiency anemia. ... liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding Diagnostic Tests and ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron added). If you don't eat these foods regularly, or if you don't take an iron supplement, you're more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... body. People with severe iron-deficiency anemia or who have chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor about delayed clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ... Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and low-birth-weight babies (weighing less than 5.5 pounds) are at even greater risk for iron- ... loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other ... poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat diet over a ...

  17. MCAD deficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS...

  18. Copper atomic-scale transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqing Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4 in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate. The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and −170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes (Ubias influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1G0 (G0 = 2e2/h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck’s constant or 2G0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  19. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  20. Atmospheric corrosion effects on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franey, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the naturally formed patina on various copper samples. Samples have been obtained from structures at AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (40,2,1 and <1 yr) and the Statue of Liberty (100 yr). The samples show a distinct layering effect, that is, the copper base material shows separate oxide and basic sulfate layers on all samples, indicating that patina is not a homogeneous mixture of oxides and basic sulfates

  1. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) inhibits insulin sensitivity by decreasing copper levels in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang-Bo; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Dou, Xin; Du, Shao-Yue; Ding, Meng; Peng, Wan-Qiu; Qian, Shu-Wen; Huang, Hai-Yan; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2017-09-23

    Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis. However, the role of SCO1 in the regulation of metabolism remains unknown. Here, we found that obese mice had higher expression of SCO1 and lower levels of copper in white adipose tissue (WAT) than did the control mice. Overexpression of SCO1 in adipocytes was associated with copper deficiency. Copper increased insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein. Ectopic expression of SCO1 led to insulin resistance and was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular copper level, and addition of copper abolished the inhibitory effect of SCO1 on insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrated a novel role of SCO1 in modulating insulin sensitivity via the regulation of copper concentration in WAT and suggested a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  3. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eSkjørringe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers i.e. the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCB have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain-iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1 and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters

  4. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A.; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G.; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F.; Geng, Linda N.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; De Sluis, Bart van; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex

  5. Neural effects in copper defiient Menkes disease: ATP7A-a distinctive marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Kanthlal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Menkes disease, also termed as “Menkes’s syndrome”, is a disastrous infantile neurodegenerative disorder originated by diverse mutations in cupric cation-transport gene called ATP7A. This gene encodes a protein termed as copper transporting P-type ATPase, essential for copper ion transport from intestine to the other parts of our body along with other transporters like copper transporter receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1. The copper transportation is vital in the neuronal development and synthesis of various enzymes. It is found to be an appreciated trace element for normal biological functioning but toxic in excess. It is essential for the metallation of cuproenzymes which is responsible for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and other vital physiological mechanisms. Copper is also actively involved in the transmission pathway of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and its subsequent molecular changes in neural cells. The expression of ATP7A gene in regions of brain depicts the importance of copper in neural development and stabilization. Studies revealed that the mutation of ATP7A gene leads the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative disorders. This review focused on the normal physiological function of the gene with respect to their harmful outcome of the mutated gene and its associated deficiency which detriments the neural mechanism in Menkes patients.

  6. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  7. Genetics Home Reference: prolidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instructions for making the enzyme prolidase, also called peptidase D. Prolidase helps divide certain dipeptides, which are ... Names for This Condition hyperimidodipeptiduria imidodipeptidase deficiency PD peptidase deficiency Related Information How are genetic conditions and ...

  8. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  9. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  10. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... Lieberman," in fact, found that 15·2% of 66 patients hospitalized with pulmonary emphysema had heterozygous alpha,-antitrypsin deficiency. The over-all incidence of the deficiency was 25'8% in this group. Of patients under the age of 50 years, 47·8% had deficient levels. If such observations are confirmed ...

  11. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  12. Studies on intestinal copper and zinc absorption in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreicher, P.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine the interactions zinc and copper undergo at the absorptive level in the rat. In addition, the kinetics of zinc transport by rat intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles are described. The influence copper and zinc exert on each other's absorption was studied using the isolated, vascularly and luminally perfused rat intestine system. Rats were fed one of nine diets for one week, each with a different copper and zinc concentration representing low, adequate and high dietary concentrations (1-36 mg/kg Cu 2+ and 5-180 mg/kg Zn 2+ ). Experiments to describe zinc transport out of intestinal cells were carried out using a membrane fraction enriched with basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). Initial rates of 65 Zn 2+ uptake (extravesicular Zn 2+ concentrations of 5 μM to 625 μM) with BLMV from zinc-adequate and zinc-deficient rats fit Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics indicating a carrier-mediated transport process. The Km and Jmax were not significantly changed by dietary zinc status. SDS-PAGE of BLMV from rats of different zinc status did not show differences in the number of abundance of protein bands. Na + did not alter 65 Zn 2+ uptake. ATP caused a reduction in 65 Zn 2+ uptake due to complex formation with zinc ions thereby decreasing the amount of zinc available for transport

  13. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  14. [Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Alicja; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class A is the main protein of the mucosal immune system. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. sIGAD is strongly associated with the certain major histocompatibility complex region. Most individuals with sIgAD are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations. Several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves disease and celiac disease, are associated with an increased prevalence of sIgAD. Screening for sIgAD in coeliac disease is essential. Patients need treatment of associated diseases. It is also known that IgA deficiency may progress into a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenesis and molecular mechanism involved in sIgAD should be elucidated in the future.

  15. Deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, R/I is a Cohen–. Macaulay algebra of Type 1, and hence R/I is Gorenstein. In view of Theorem 2.1, R/I is a nearly (or 1-deficient) extremal Gorenstein algebra. We now shall describe a result of Bruns and Hibi [1] which characterizes the Stanley–. Reisner rings having 2-pure but not 2-linear resolutions. Theorem 2.3.

  16. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  17. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK

    2008-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role...

  18. Orexin deficiency and narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Orexin deficiency results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy in many mammalian species, including mice, dogs, and humans, suggesting that the orexin system is particularly important for normal regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, and especially for maintenance of wakefulness. This review discusses animal models of narcolepsy; the contribution of each orexin receptor subtype to the narcoleptic phenotypes; and the etiology of orexin neuronal death. It also raises the possibility of novel thera...

  19. Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurecka, Agnieszka; Zikanova, Marie; Kmoch, Stanislav; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase ADSL) deficiency is a defect of purine metabolism affecting purinosome assembly and reducing metabolite fluxes through purine de novo synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling pathways. Biochemically this defect manifests by the presence in the biologic fluids of two dephosphorylated substrates of ADSL enzyme: succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado). More than 80 individuals with ADSL deficiency have been identified, but incidence of the disease remains unknown. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The fatal neonatal form has onset from birth and presents with fatal neonatal encephalopathy with a lack of spontaneous movement, respiratory failure, and intractable seizures resulting in early death within the first weeks of life. Patients with type I (severe form) present with a purely neurologic clinical picture characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, early onset of seizures, and autistic features. A more slowly progressing form has also been described (type II, moderate or mild form), as having later onset, usually within the first years of life, slight to moderate psychomotor retardation and transient contact disturbances. Diagnosis is facilitated by demonstration of SAICAr and S-Ado in extracellular fluids such as plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and/or followed by genomic and/or cDNA sequencing and characterization of mutant proteins. Over 50 ADSL mutations have been identified and their effects on protein biogenesis, structural stability and activity as well as on purinosome assembly were characterized. To date there is no specific and effective therapy for ADSL deficiency.

  20. Contemporary view on the nature of deficient states in early age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Banadyha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. To set the peculiarities of micronutrient deficiencies and activity of humoral immunity in young children. Materials and methods. Comprehensive survey of 106 children with iron deficiency anemia under 3 years involved special study methods, such as: determination of serum zinc and copper and their excretion in the urine; assessment of humoral immunity (serum immunoglobulins. Results. Patients with light and severe anemia prevailed, most part of them were two years old ones(43.4 %. The leading factors of anemia were nutritional, short-term feeding with human milk, early use of unmodified cow's milk (in 30.2 % of cases, untimely and incomplete introduction of foods. Physical and psychomotor development were assessed, rickets was diagnosed. Iron deficiency anemia in children was accompanied with dyselementosis: significantly reduced serum copper (11.74 ± 0.48 mmol/l, p < 0.05, with significantly lower values at the first and second stages. The daily excretion of copper in all surveyed was significantly lower compared to the control. Significant reduction in serum zinc was found in children with iron deficiency anemia (12.18 ± 0.34 mmol/l and the downward trend of zinc daily excretion of urine (341.11 ± 11.56 mg/day. Iron deficiency anemia was accompanied by impaired humoral immunity, lowered maintenance of IgG, Ig activated synthesis A which was probably compensatory in nature, when in conditions of iron deficiency serum bactericidal ability usually decreases. Conclusions. Modern clinic deficient states in young children are defined as polydeficient status: iron deficiency anemia in 82.1 % of cases is combined with significantly low levels of copper, zinc in serum and violations of excretion in urine; in 36.8 % of patients with rickets; in 48.1 % of patients with disharmonious physical development. Dyselementosis diagnosed on the background of iron deficiency anemia in combination with dysimmunoglobulinemia (reduced

  1. Health centre versus home presumptive diagnosis of malaria in southern Ghana: implications for home-based care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyo, S K; Afari, E A; Koram, K A; Ahorlu, C K; Abubakar, I; Nkrumah, F K

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1997 to compare the accuracy of presumptive diagnosis of malaria in children aged 1-9 years performed by caretakers of the children to that of health centre staff in 2 ecological zones in southern Ghana. Similar symptoms were reported in the children at home and at the health centre. In the home setting, symptoms were reported the same day that they occurred, 77.6% of the children with a report of fever were febrile (axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C) and 64.7% of the reports of malaria were parasitologically confirmed. In the health centre, the median duration of symptoms before a child was seen was 3 days (range 1-14 days), 58.5% of the children with a report of fever were febrile and 62.6% of the clinically diagnosed cases were parasitologically confirmed. In the 2 settings almost all the infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite density was 3 times higher in the health centre cases compared to the home-diagnosed cases. Early and appropriate treatment of malaria detected in children by caretakers may prevent complications that arise as a result of persistence of symptoms and attainment of high parasitaemic levels.

  2. Cost of presumptive source term Remedial Actions Laboratory for energy-related health research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Josephson, G.B.; Lanigan, D.C.; Liikala, T.L.; Newcomer, D.R.; Pearson, A.W.; Teel, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is in progress at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis. The purpose of the RI/FS is to gather sufficient information to support an informed risk management decision regarding the most appropriate remedial actions for impacted areas of the facility. In an effort to expedite remediation of the LEHR facility, the remedial project managers requested a more detailed evaluation of a selected set of remedial actions. In particular, they requested information on both characterization and remedial action costs. The US Department of Energy -- Oakland Office requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to prepare order-of-magnitude cost estimates for presumptive remedial actions being considered for the five source term operable units. The cost estimates presented in this report include characterization costs, capital costs, and annual operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs. These cost estimates are intended to aid planning and direction of future environmental remediation efforts

  3. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  4. [Presumptive identification of Cryptococcus gattii isolated from Terminalia catappa in Montería city, Córdoba, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Orfa Inés; Aycardi Morinelli, María Paulina; Alarcón Furnieles, Jany Luz; Jaraba Ramos, Aparicio Manuel

    2011-01-01

    the members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex are responsible for cryptococcosis in animals and humans. Human infection is thought to be acquired by inhalation of airborne propagules from an environmental source; therefore it is greatly important to study their habitat. to determine the ecological relationship of Cryptococcus gattii with Terminalia catappa trees present in urban areas of Montería city in Colombia. a total of 163 Terminalia catappa trees were selected; some samples were taken from the bark, the leaves, the flowers, the fruits of these trees and from the surrounding soil. The yeast was isolated using the Guizotia abyssinica seed agar medium; it was identified thanks to biochemical and morphologic tests whereas the right variety was determined by L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB), D-proline and D-tryptophan tests. there was obtained 9.050 CFU/g isolate of Cryptococcus spp., 5.795 CFU/g of which were presumptively identified as Cryptococcus gattii. The highest percentage of isolates was found in flowers, followed by bark and fruits, presenting small cellular and capsular sizes. These isolates were more frequent in the south of the city, followed by the center zone and the lowest percentage in the northern zone. these findings confirmed the close relationship of Cryptococcus gattii and Terminalia catappa, being this the first study conducted in Monteria city. These results give us meaningful information for understanding and analyzing the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Monteria city, Colombia.

  5. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling U-Shaped Exposure-Response Relationships for Agents that Demonstrate Toxicity Due to Both Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Brittany; Farrell, Patrick J; Birkett, Nicholas; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Essential elements such as copper and manganese may demonstrate U-shaped exposure-response relationships due to toxic responses occurring as a result of both excess and deficiency. Previous work on a copper toxicity database employed CatReg, a software program for categorical regression developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to model copper excess and deficiency exposure-response relationships separately. This analysis involved the use of a severity scoring system to place diverse toxic responses on a common severity scale, thereby allowing their inclusion in the same CatReg model. In this article, we present methods for simultaneously fitting excess and deficiency data in the form of a single U-shaped exposure-response curve, the minimum of which occurs at the exposure level that minimizes the probability of an adverse outcome due to either excess or deficiency (or both). We also present a closed-form expression for the point at which the exposure-response curves for excess and deficiency cross, corresponding to the exposure level at which the risk of an adverse outcome due to excess is equal to that for deficiency. The application of these methods is illustrated using the same copper toxicity database noted above. The use of these methods permits the analysis of all available exposure-response data from multiple studies expressing multiple endpoints due to both excess and deficiency. The exposure level corresponding to the minimum of this U-shaped curve, and the confidence limits around this exposure level, may be useful in establishing an acceptable range of exposures that minimize the overall risk associated with the agent of interest. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload

  9. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  10. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cyanide- plating bath for copper has been developed using alkaline trisodium citrate and triethanolamine solutions5. The present investigation presents cyclic voltammetric studies on the electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes, ...

  11. Testing Corrosion Inhibitors for the Conservation of Archaeological Copper and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a synopsis of the Ph.D. research undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. The aim was to evaluate corrosion inhibitors for use in the conservation of copper and copper alloy archaeological artefacts. The objective of this work was to acquire an insight into the performance of copper corrosion inhibitors, when applied to archaeological copper.

  12. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  13. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  14. Laser sintering of copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Saar, Amir; Ermak, Oleg; Kotler, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (NP) inks serve as an attractive potential replacement to silver NP inks in functional printing applications. However their tendency to rapidly oxidize has so far limited their wider use. In this work we have studied the conditions for laser sintering of Cu-NP inks in ambient conditions while avoiding oxidation. We have determined the regime for stable, low-resistivity copper (< ×3 bulk resistivity value) generation in terms of laser irradiance and exposure duration and have indicated the limits on fast processing. The role of pre-drying conditions on sintering outcome has also been studied. A method, based on spectral reflectivity measurements, was used for non-contact monitoring of the sintering process evolution. It also indicates preferred spectral regions for sintering. Finally, we illustrated how selective laser sintering can generate high-quality, fine line (<5 µm wide) and dense copper circuits. (paper)

  15. Surface Modelling of Nanostructured Copper Subjected to Erosion-Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Irfan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed considerable advancements in nanostructured material synthesis and property characterization. However, there still exists some deficiency in the mechanical and surface property characterization of these materials. In this paper, the erosion corrosion (E-C behavior of nanostructured copper was studied. The nanostructured copper was produced through severe plastic deformation (SPD by applying four passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The combined effects of the testing time, impact velocity, and concentration of erosive solid particles (i.e., sand concentration on the E-C behavior of nanostructured copper were then examined. Based on a defined domain for the testing time, impact velocity, and sand concentration, E-C tests were performed for numerous combinations of test points via the slurry pot method. The test points were selected using the face-centered center composite design of experiments to enable visualization of the test results through surface plots. The extent of E-C on the test specimens was determined by measuring the mass loss. Polynomial regression and Kriging were used to fit surfaces to the experimental data, which were subsequently used to generate surface plots. The results showed that the E-C of nanostructured copper is best described by a quadratic function of testing time, velocity, and erosive solid particle concentration. The results also revealed that E-C increases with an increasing testing time, impact velocity, and erosive solid particle concentration. In addition, it was observed that the effect of the erosive solid particles on E-C is further intensified by an increased impact velocity.

  16. Studies on Ferrokinetics and Copper Metabolism in Various Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyu

    1967-01-01

    Anemia is a usual finding in advanced malignant diseases. Various mechanisms were reported as to be involved in the development of anemia of this kind, and they may differ in individual cases. Tumor anemias may be due, for instance, to chronic blood loss, shortened life span of the red blood cells or a decreased hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The serum iron and copper levels, total iron binding capacity, apparent half survival of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were measurement with the ferrokinetic studies using 59 Fe in 64 patients with various malignant tumors. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron levels were decreased in all cases. There existed no correlation between the serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 2) The serum copper levels were increased, particularly in lung cancer, rectal cancer, hepatoma and various sarcomas. There was also no correlation between the serum copper levels and the severity of the diseases. 3) The serum iron levels appeared to be inversely proportional to the serum copper levels. 4) The total iron binding capacities were within normal limits in all cases. There were also no correlations between the total iron binding capacities, serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 5) The patients could be classified according the ferrokinetic patterns, namely, that of iron deficiency anemia in 10 cases, that of refractory anemia in 6 cases, normal in 1 case and that of atypical abnormal in 9 cases. 6) Apparent half survival time of 51 Cr-labelled red blood cells were definitely shortened in half of the cases.

  17. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  18. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  19. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K

    2016-01-01

    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  20. La noción de presunción más allá del Derecho = The notion of presumption beyond the field of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Es bien conocido que las presunciones juegan un papel de gran importancia en el campo del Derecho. Ahora bien, tal vez no lo es tanto que presunción es una noción que se estudia con un valor en cierta medida diferente más allá de las fronteras de esta disciplina, en campos como la Teoría de la Argumentación, la Epistemología y la Pragmática. En este artículo nos proponemos, de un lado, ofrecer una visión general de qué se entiende por presunción en dichos campos de estudio y, de otro, dar unas pinceladas acerca de su vinculación con la noción jurídica.Abstract: It is common knowledge that presumptions play a paramount role within the field of Law. Nonetheless, it may not be widely known that presumption is a notion that is studied with a partly different meaning beyond the boundaries of this subject, in fields of knowledge such as Argumentation Theory, Epistemology and Pragmatics. In this paper we aim to briefly present what presumption stands for in these fields of knowledge and give some hints on the way in which these uses are related to the legal notion.