WorldWideScience

Sample records for presumption accumulated evidence

  1. Presumption of Negligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    This paper is about the incentive effects of legal presumptions. We analyze three interrelated effects of legal presumptions in a tort setting: (1) incentives to invest in evidence technology; (2) incentives to invest in care-type precautions; and (3) incentives to mitigate excessive activity lev...

  2. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I

    2015-08-31

    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals.

  3. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  4. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations...

  5. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. 28 CFR 80.10 - Rebuttable presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity with the Department's present enforcement policy, is in compliance with those provisions of the FCPA. Such a presumption may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence. In considering the...

  7. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R; Riès, S; van Maanen, L; Alario, F X

    2015-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alternatives, which each have varying activations (or signal supports), that are largely resultant of an initial stimulus recognition. We thoroughly present a case for how such a process may be theoretically explained by the evidence accumulation paradigm, and we demonstrate how this paradigm can be directly related or combined with conventional psycholinguistic theory and their simulatory instantiations (generally, neural network models). Then with a demonstrative application on a large new real data set, we establish how the empirical evidence accumulation approach is able to provide parameter results that are informative to leading psycholinguistic theory, and that motivate future theoretical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  9. Evidence accumulation in the integrated and primed Stroop tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; de Wit, Bianca; Aji, Melissa; Norris, Dennis

    2017-07-01

    We report distributional analyses of response times (RT) in two variants of the color-word Stroop task using manual keypress responses. In the classic Stroop task, in which the color and word dimensions are integrated into a single stimulus, the Stroop congruence effect increased across the quantiles. In contrast, in the primed Stroop task, in which the distractor word is presented ahead of colored symbols, the Stroop congruence effect was manifested solely as a distributional shift, remaining constant across the quantiles. The distributional-shift pattern mirrors the semantic-priming effect that has been reported in semantic categorization tasks. The results are interpreted within the framework of evidence accumulation, and implications for the roles of task conflict and informational conflict are discussed.

  10. Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Astrup, Arne; Birch, Leann L.; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Foster, E. Michael; Heymsfield, Steven B.; McIver, Kerry; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P.K.; Pate, Russell; Rolls, Barbara J.; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L.; Thomas, Diana M.; Allison, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and an unproductive allocation of research resources and may divert attention away from useful, evidence-based information. METHODS Using Internet searches of popular media and scientific literature, we identified, reviewed, and classified obesity-related myths and presumptions. We also examined facts that are well supported by evidence, with an emphasis on those that have practical implications for public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. RESULTS We identified seven obesity-related myths concerning the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals for weight loss, rapid weight loss, weight-loss readiness, physical-education classes, breast-feeding, and energy expended during sexual activity. We also identified six presumptions about the purported effects of regularly eating breakfast, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight cycling, snacking, and the built (i.e., human-made) environment. Finally, we identified nine evidence-supported facts that are relevant for the formulation of sound public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. CONCLUSIONS False and scientifically unsupported beliefs about obesity are pervasive in both scientific literature and the popular press. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:23363498

  11. Evidence Accumulation and Choice Maintenance Are Dissociated in Human Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Lund Pedersen

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making in monkeys relies on decision neurons, which accumulate evidence and maintain choices until a response is given. In humans, several brain regions have been proposed to accumulate evidence, but it is unknown if these regions also maintain choices. To test if accumulator regions in humans also maintain decisions we compared delayed and self-paced responses during a face/house discrimination decision making task. Computational modeling and fMRI results revealed dissociated processes of evidence accumulation and decision maintenance, with potential accumulator activations found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral insula. Potential maintenance activation spanned the frontal pole, temporal gyri, precuneus and the lateral occipital and frontal orbital cortices. Results of a quantitative reverse inference meta-analysis performed to differentiate the functions associated with the identified regions did not narrow down potential accumulation regions, but suggested that response-maintenance might rely on a verbalization of the response.

  12. History-dependent variability in population dynamics during evidence accumulation in cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Ari S; Harvey, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    We studied how the posterior parietal cortex combines new information with ongoing activity dynamics as mice accumulate evidence during a virtual navigation task. Using new methods to analyze population activity on single trials, we found that activity transitioned rapidly between different sets of active neurons. Each event in a trial, whether an evidence cue or a behavioral choice, caused seconds-long modifications to the probabilities that govern how one activity pattern transitions to the next, forming a short-term memory. A sequence of evidence cues triggered a chain of these modifications resulting in a signal for accumulated evidence. Multiple distinguishable activity patterns were possible for the same accumulated evidence because representations of ongoing events were influenced by previous within- and across-trial events. Therefore, evidence accumulation need not require the explicit competition between groups of neurons, as in winner-take-all models, but could instead emerge implicitly from general dynamical properties that instantiate short-term memory.

  13. Evidence accumulator or decision threshold - which cortical mechanism are we observing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSimen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most psychological models of perceptual decision making are of the accumulation-to-threshold variety. The neural basis of accumulation in parietal and prefrontal cortex is therefore a topic of great interest in neuroscience. In contrast, threshold mechanisms have received less attention, and their neural basis has usually been sought in subcortical structures. Here I analyze a model of a decision threshold that can be implemented in the same cortical areas as evidence accumulators, and whose behavior bears on two open questions in decision neuroscience: 1 When ramping activity is observed in a brain region during decision making, does it reflect evidence accumulation? 2 Are changes in speed-accuracy tradeoffs and response biases more likely to be achieved by changes in thresholds, or in accumulation rates and starting points? The analysis suggests that task-modulated ramping activity, by itself, is weak evidence that a brain area mediates evidence accumulation as opposed to threshold readout; and that signs of modulated accumulation are as likely to indicate threshold adaptation as adaptation of starting points and accumulation rates. These conclusions imply that how thresholds are modeled can dramatically impact accumulator-based interpretations of this data.

  14. Heart failure and socioeconomic status: accumulating evidence of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Jhund, Pardeep S; McMurray, John J V; Capewell, Simon

    2012-02-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of incident coronary disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Understanding the impact of SES on heart failure (HF) development and subsequent outcomes may help to develop effective and equitable prevention, detection, and treatment strategies A systematic literature review of electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, restricted to human subjects, was carried out. The principal outcomes were incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, mortality, and treatment of HF. Socioeconomic measures included education, occupation, employment relations, social class, income, housing characteristics, and composite and area level indicators. Additional studies were identified from bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews. Twenty-eight studies were identified. Lower SES was associated with increased incidence of HF, either in the community or presenting to hospital. The adjusted risk of developing HF was increased by ∼30-50% in most reports. Readmission rates following hospitalization were likewise greater in more deprived patients. Although fewer studies examined mortality, lower SES was associated with poorer survival. Evidence defining the equity of medical treatment of patients with HF was scarce and conflicting. Socioeconomic deprivation is a powerful independent predictor of HF development and adverse outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for this risk remain elusive. Heart failure represents the endpoint of numerous different pathophysiological processes and 'chains of events', each modifiable throughout the disease trajectories. The interaction between SES and HF is accordingly complex. Disentangling the many and varied life course processes is challenging. A better understanding of these issues may help attenuate the health inequalities so clearly evident among patients with HF.

  15. Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Screening System - A presumptive test for the detection of DNA on forensic evidence items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawnay, Nick; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Moore, Dave; Blackman, Stephen; Rendell, Paul; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Nagy, Randy; Wells, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Current assessment of whether a forensic evidence item should be submitted for STR profiling is largely based on the personal experience of the Crime Scene Investigator (CSI) and the submissions policy of the law enforcement authority involved. While there are chemical tests that can infer the presence of DNA through the detection of biological stains, the process remains mostly subjective and leads to many samples being submitted that give no profile or not being submitted although DNA is present. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System was developed to address this issue. It consists of a sampling device, pre-loaded reaction plates and detection instrument. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon™ detection of PCR amplicons to identify the presence and relative amount of DNA on an evidence item and also provides a gender identification result in approximately 75 minutes. This simple-to-use design allows objective data to be acquired by both DNA analyst and non-specialist personnel, to enable a more informed submission decision to be made. The developmental validation study described here tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Screening System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrates that the ParaDNA Screening System identifies the presence of DNA on a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva and touch DNA items. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. operation and effect of presumptions in civil proceedings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    “Although presumption is not evidence and has no weight as such, it does make a ..... intelligence to appreciate the difficulties of the subject-matter has approached .... facts exists. This envisages the existence of another fact or aggregate of facts, called the presumed fact or fact(s) that must be assumed in the absence of.

  17. Unbounded evidence accumulation characterizes subjective visual vertical forced-choice perceptual choice and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Koeun; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-11-01

    Humans can subjectively yet quantitatively assess choice confidence based on perceptual precision even when a perceptual decision is made without an immediate reward or feedback. However, surprisingly little is known about choice confidence. Here we investigate the dynamics of choice confidence by merging two parallel conceptual frameworks of decision making, signal detection theory and sequential analyses (i.e., drift-diffusion modeling). Specifically, to capture end-point statistics of binary choice and confidence, we built on a previous study that defined choice confidence in terms of psychophysics derived from signal detection theory. At the same time, we augmented this mathematical model to include accumulator dynamics of a drift-diffusion model to characterize the time dependence of the choice behaviors in a standard forced-choice paradigm in which stimulus duration is controlled by the operator. Human subjects performed a subjective visual vertical task, simultaneously reporting binary orientation choice and probabilistic confidence. Both binary choice and confidence experimental data displayed statistics and dynamics consistent with both signal detection theory and evidence accumulation, respectively. Specifically, the computational simulations showed that the unbounded evidence accumulator model fits the confidence data better than the classical bounded model, while bounded and unbounded models were indistinguishable for binary choice data. These results suggest that the brain can utilize mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory-especially when judging confidence without time pressure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that choice confidence data show dynamics consistent with evidence accumulation for a forced-choice subjective visual vertical task. We also found that the evidence accumulation appeared unbounded when judging confidence, which suggests that the brain utilizes mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory to determine choice

  18. Auditors' Professional Skepticism: Neutrality versus Presumptive Doubt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.L.C.M.; Quadackers, L.M.; Wright, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although skepticism is widely viewed as essential to audit quality, there is a debate about what form is optimal. The two prevailing perspectives that have surfaced are "neutrality" and "presumptive doubt." With neutrality, auditors neither believe nor disbelieve client management. With presumptive

  19. An Accumulation-of-Evidence Task Using Visual Pulses for Mice Navigating in Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual accumulation of sensory evidence is a crucial component of perceptual decision making, but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Given the wide availability of genetic and optical tools for mice, they can be useful model organisms for the study of these phenomena; however, behavioral tools are largely lacking. Here, we describe a new evidence-accumulation task for head-fixed mice navigating in a virtual reality (VR environment. As they navigate down the stem of a virtual T-maze, they see brief pulses of visual evidence on either side, and retrieve a reward on the arm with the highest number of pulses. The pulses occur randomly with Poisson statistics, yielding a diverse yet well-controlled stimulus set, making the data conducive to a variety of computational approaches. A large number of mice of different genotypes were able to learn and consistently perform the task, at levels similar to rats in analogous tasks. They are sensitive to side differences of a single pulse, and their memory of the cues is stable over time. Moreover, using non-parametric as well as modeling approaches, we show that the mice indeed accumulate evidence: they use multiple pulses of evidence from throughout the cue region of the maze to make their decision, albeit with a small overweighting of earlier cues, and their performance is affected by the magnitude but not the duration of evidence. Additionally, analysis of the mice's running patterns revealed that trajectories are fairly stereotyped yet modulated by the amount of sensory evidence, suggesting that the navigational component of this task may provide a continuous readout correlated to the underlying cognitive variables. Our task, which can be readily integrated with state-of-the-art techniques, is thus a valuable tool to study the circuit mechanisms and dynamics underlying perceptual decision making, particularly under more complex behavioral contexts.

  20. Data fusion and evidence accumulation for land mine detection using the Dempster-Shafer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Karthik; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Rao, Vittal S.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, an architecture for multisensor data fusion and evidence accumulation for landmine detection and discrimination is presented. Evidential and discriminatory information about the buried object such as shape, size, depth, and material, chemical or electromagnetic properties is obtained from different sensor and sensor algorithms. A streamlined assimilation of these varied information from dissimilar and non-homogenous sensor and sensor algorithms is presented. Information theory based pre-processing of the data and subsequent unsupervised clustering using Dignet architecture is used to capture the underlying structure of the information available from different sensors. Sensor information is categorized into type, size, depth, and position data channels. Each sensor may provide one or more of this information. Type data channel provides any relevant discriminatory characteristics of the buried object. A supervised feed-forward neural network is used to learn the causality between the cluster information and the evidence of a given class of the buried object. Size, depth and phenomenology input are used as control gating input for the neural network mapping. The supervisory feedback is provided by the output of the global sensor fusion system and accommodates both autonomous and human assisted learning. Dempster-Shafer evidential reasoning is used to accumulate different evidence from sensor channels and thus to detect and discriminate between different types of buried landmine and clutter. Performance of fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer reasoning is studied using simulated data. For the simulated data noisy images of regular and irregular shapes of different objects are produced. Fourier descriptor, moment invariant and Matlab shape features are used to define the shape information of the objects. Evidence accumulation is done using shape and size information form each of the algorithms.

  1. Presumptive Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health care providers and Head Start programs can play a major role in finding and enrolling uninsured children through presumptive eligibility. States can authorize...

  2. Misleading presumption of a generalized Hartman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanjuntak, Herbert P.; Pereyra, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    We analyze different examples to show that the so-called generalized Hartman effect is an erroneous presumption. The results obtained for electron tunneling and transmission of electromagnetic waves through superlattices and Bragg gratings show clearly the resonant character of the phase time behavior where a generalized Hartman effect is expected. A reinterpretation of the experimental results in double Bragg gratings is proposed. (author)

  3. outcome of presumptive versus rapid diagnostic tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2010-03-02

    Mar 2, 2010 ... diagnostic test in the management of children with this overlap, but this has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of presumptive versus malaria rapid diagnostic test - ... the rain forest belt of Nigeria, an area with perennial malaria trans mission.

  4. Microbiological studies of blood specimen from presumptively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and fifteen blood samples were obtained from presumptively diagnosed typhoid patients who were referred for Widal Serological test at four diagnostic centres. The blood samples were subjected to bacteriological investigations. Salmonella and non-Salmonella organisms isolated were identified according ...

  5. 15 CFR 990.13 - Rebuttable presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... assessment of damages to natural resources made by a Federal, State, or Indian trustee in accordance with this part shall have the force and effect of a rebuttable presumption on behalf of the trustee in any...

  6. Silica uptake by Spartina – evidence of multiple modes of accumulation from salt marshes around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si plays a critical role in plant functional ecology, protecting plants from multiple environmental stressors. While all terrestrial plants contain some Si, wetland grasses are frequently found to have the highest concentrations, although the mechanisms driving Si accumulation in wetland grasses remain in large part uncertain. For example, active Si accumulation is often assumed to be responsible for elevated Si concentrations found in wetland grasses. However, life stage and differences in Si availability in the surrounding environment also appear to be important variables controlling the Si concentrations of wetland grasses. Here we used original data from five North American salt marshes, as well as all known published literature values, to examine the primary drivers of Si accumulation in Spartina, a genus of prolific salt marsh grasses found worldwide. We found evidence of multiple modes of Si accumulation in Spartina, with passive accumulation observed in non-degraded marshes where Spartina was native, while rejective accumulation was found in regions where Spartina was invasive. Evidence of active accumulation was found in only one marsh where Spartina was native, but was also subjected to nutrient over-enrichment. We developed a conceptual model which hypothesizes that the mode of Si uptake by Spartina is dependent on local environmental factors and genetic origin, supporting the idea that plant species should be placed along a spectrum of Si accumulation. We hypothesize that Spartina exhibits previously unrecognized phenotypic plasticity with regard to Si accumulation, allowing these plants to respond to changes in marsh condition. These results provide new insight regarding how salt marsh ecosystems regulate Si exchange at the land-sea interface.

  7. HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay M.V. Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV [active tuberculosis (TB, pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60 million, India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68% were tested for HIV and 2262 (8% were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17% had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58% were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79% were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89% were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

  8. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  9. Constrained firms, not subsistence activities: evidence on capital returns and accumulation in Peruvian microenterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); K. Göbel (Kristin); J. Lay (Jann)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the returns to capital and capital accumulation using panel data of Peruvian micro enterprises (MEs). Marginal returns to capital are found to be very high at low levels of capital, but rapidly decreasing at higher levels. The dynamic analyses of capital accumulation in

  10. Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, L; Slat, B; Ferrari, F; Sainte-Rose, B; Aitken, J; Marthouse, R; Hajbane, S; Cunsolo, S; Schwarz, A; Levivier, A; Noble, K; Debeljak, P; Maral, H; Schoeneich-Argent, R; Brambini, R; Reisser, J

    2018-03-22

    Ocean plastic can persist in sea surface waters, eventually accumulating in remote areas of the world's oceans. Here we characterise and quantify a major ocean plastic accumulation zone formed in subtropical waters between California and Hawaii: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP). Our model, calibrated with data from multi-vessel and aircraft surveys, predicted at least 79 (45-129) thousand tonnes of ocean plastic are floating inside an area of 1.6 million km 2 ; a figure four to sixteen times higher than previously reported. We explain this difference through the use of more robust methods to quantify larger debris. Over three-quarters of the GPGP mass was carried by debris larger than 5 cm and at least 46% was comprised of fishing nets. Microplastics accounted for 8% of the total mass but 94% of the estimated 1.8 (1.1-3.6) trillion pieces floating in the area. Plastic collected during our study has specific characteristics such as small surface-to-volume ratio, indicating that only certain types of debris have the capacity to persist and accumulate at the surface of the GPGP. Finally, our results suggest that ocean plastic pollution within the GPGP is increasing exponentially and at a faster rate than in surrounding waters.

  11. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water

  12. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease, it...

  13. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Claude; Demory, François; Canut, Victor; DUSSOUILLEZ, Philippe; FLEURY, Jules

    2011-01-01

    International audience; An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhˆone Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39m inland, up to about 2ma.s.l. On the ...

  14. Evidence of lipofuscin accumulation in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MEZZASALMA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin, a non-degradable, degenerative fluorescent pigment which accumulates in post-mitotic cells, represents a promising method for ageing marine crustaceans. The presence and accumulation of lipofuscin has been studied in the deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827 to assess its use as a tool for ageing larger (i.e., older specimens and thus improve knowledge of the growth and longevity of this species. Specimens, gathered during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea, were stored directly on-board in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution; their brain was thereafter removed, prepared with various current histological techniques and examined with a binocular microscope. Thin sections of the olfactory lobe cell mass were also analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, and the lipofuscin concentration was measured through image analysis. Various indices were computed for each individual by pooling data from many images: number and coverage of the lipofuscin granules per unit area, and mean individual area of the granules. Lipofuscin was detected in all specimens investigated with characteristics (grain typology and dimension strictly resembling those already described in other crustacean species. The present preliminary results encourage further studies to develop and validate a methodology based on the use of lipofuscin for improving the relative ageing of large A. foliacea shrimps.

  15. Optical studies of MBE-grown InN nanocolumns: Evidence of surface electron accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2009-03-01

    Vertically self-aligned InN nanocolumns have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Different nanocolumn morphologies corresponding to different molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions have been studied. Raman spectra revealed strain-free nanocolumns with high crystalline quality for the full set of samples studied. Longitudinal optical modes both uncoupled and coupled to an electron plasma coexist in the Raman spectra pointing to the existence of two distinctive regions in the nanocolumn: a surface layer of degenerated electrons and a nondegenerated inner core. The characteristics of the low-temperature photoluminescence and its dependence on temperature and excitation power can be explained by a model considering localized holes recombining with degenerated electrons close to the nonpolar surface. The differences observed in the optical response of different samples showing similar crystalline quality have been attributed to the variation in the electron accumulation layer with the growth conditions.

  16. Abandoning presumptive antimalarial treatment for febrile children aged less than five years--a case of running before we can walk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike English

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  17. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, C.; Demory, F.; Canut, V.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.

    2011-03-01

    An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  18. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  19. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2017-04-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.

  20. Using Time-Varying Evidence to Test Models of Decision Dynamics: Bounded Diffusion vs. the Leaky Competing Accumulator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L; Usher, Marius

    2012-01-01

    When people make decisions, do they give equal weight to evidence arriving at different times? A recent study (Kiani et al., 2008) using brief motion pulses (superimposed on a random moving dot display) reported a primacy effect: pulses presented early in a motion observation period had a stronger impact than pulses presented later. This observation was interpreted as supporting the bounded diffusion (BD) model and ruling out models in which evidence accumulation is subject to leakage or decay of early-arriving information. We use motion pulses and other manipulations of the timing of the perceptual evidence in new experiments and simulations that support the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model as an alternative to the BD model. While the LCA does include leakage, we show that it can exhibit primacy as a result of competition between alternatives (implemented via mutual inhibition), when the inhibition is strong relative to the leak. Our experiments replicate the primacy effect when participants must be prepared to respond quickly at the end of a motion observation period. With less time pressure, however, the primacy effect is much weaker. For 2 (out of 10) participants, a primacy bias observed in trials where the motion observation period is short becomes weaker or reverses (becoming a recency effect) as the observation period lengthens. Our simulation studies show that primacy is equally consistent with the LCA or with BD. The transition from primacy-to-recency can also be captured by the LCA but not by BD. Individual differences and relations between the LCA and other models are discussed.

  1. A Minimalist and Garantistic Conception of the Presumption of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ferrer Beltrán

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the multiple faces that the presumption of innocence incorporates in modern legal systems from a critical perspective. In this sense, an analytical methodology seeks to demonstrate that some of these faces overlap with other legal rights and institutes, which, far from increasing the guarantees of citizens, leads to confusion and lack of controllability of judicial decisions. Thus, it is defended the conceptual and practical convenience of thinking the presumption of innocence avoiding overlaps with other legal rights or concepts, as standards of proof or burden of proof rules. Hence the reference to a minimalist and guarantistic conception of the presumption of innocence and, and, as will be seen, the defense of the presumption of innocence as a second order rule whose application would make sense in contexts of uncertainty about the satisfaction of the standard of proof.

  2. The Presumption of Innocence as a Counterfactual Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article’s primary aim is to highlight the essentially critical potential of the presumption of innocence, as well as the need for this critical potential to be duly recognized. It is argued that the essential meaning of the presumption of innocence is best understood when approached from what is referred to as its counterfactual status. As a first step, the different values and functions that are attributed to the presumption of innocence in contemporary legal literature are discussed, in order to provide an outline of the central ideas it contains or is supposed to contain. Subsequently, the concept of ‘counterfactuality’ is introduced and it is argued that a counterfactual perspective can further clarify the nature of the presumption of innocence. Next, a number of fundamental shifts in society and criminal justice are discussed that affect the presumption of innocence and that lend a large measure of urgency to disclosing its essence and critical potential. The conclusion argues that today’s threats to the presumption of innocence are of a fundamental nature, and that attempts to preserve the principle’s efficacy should focus on the value attached to its counterfactual and critical nature.

  3. Activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex signals the accumulation of evidence in a probability learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu d'Acremont

    Full Text Available In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes.

  4. Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; de Bruin, Marijn; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect size. However, there are a range of issues that raise concern about whether this approach is actually furthering or instead obstructing the advancement of health psychology theories and the quality of health behaviour change interventions. Using examples from theory, the literature and data from previous meta-analyses, these concerns and their implications are explained and illustrated. An iterative protocol for evidence base accumulation is proposed that integrates evidence derived from both experimental and applied behaviour change research, and combines theory development in experimental settings with theory testing in applied real-life settings. As evidence gathered in this manner accumulates, a cumulative science of behaviour change can develop.

  5. Outcome of Presumptive Versus Rapid Diagnostic Tests-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, 50 children with malaria-pneumonia symptom overlap were consecutively enrolled and treated presumptively with antibiotics and antimalarials irrespective of malaria test result (control arm).Then, another 50 eligible children were enrolled and treated with antibiotics with/out antimalarials based on rapid diagnostic test ...

  6. Factors influencing utilization of intermittent presumptive treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is one of the recommended interventions by World Health Organization to mitigate the impact of malaria in pregnancy in malaria stable transmission zones such as Sub Saharan regions so as to ensure the best outcome for both the mother and ...

  7. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB

  8. 47 CFR 76.906 - Presumption of no effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presumption of no effective competition. 76.906... competition. In the absence of a demonstration to the contrary, cable systems are presumed not to be subject to effective competition. ...

  9. First evidence of an extensive Acheulean large cutting tool accumulation in Europe from Porto Maior (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Quintas, E; Santonja, M; Pérez-González, A; Duval, M; Demuro, M; Arnold, L J

    2018-02-15

    We describe a European Acheulean site characterised by an extensive accumulation of large cutting tools (LCT). This type of Lower Paleolithic assemblage, with dense LCT accumulations, has only been found on the African continent and in the Near East until now. The identification of a site with large accumulations of LCTs favours the hypothesis of an African origin for the Acheulean of Southwest Europe. The lithic tool-bearing deposits date back to 293-205 thousand years ago. Our chronological findings confirm temporal overlap between sites with clear "African" Acheulean affinities and Early Middle Paleolithic sites found elsewhere in the region. These complex technological patterns could be consistent with the potential coexistence of different human species in south-western Europe during the Middle Pleistocene.

  10. Is psychosocial risk prevention possible? Deconstructing common presumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Leka, Stavroula; Van Wassenhove, Wim; Jain, Aditya Kailash

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles a much debated and often misunderstood issue in the modern world of work, psychosocial risks. Although the prevalence and impact of psychosocial risks is now widely acknowledged as a priority in health and safety in Europe, there remains resistance by key stakeholders in prioritizing psychosocial risk management both in business and policy making. This paper explores why this is still the case by discussing three presumptions in relation to the current state of the art in t...

  11. Do Child Development Accounts Promote Account Holding, Saving, and Asset Accumulation for Children's Future? Evidence from a Statewide Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret; Zager, Robert; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) on account holding, saving, and asset accumulation for children, using data from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids experiment (SEED OK). SEED OK, a policy test of universal and progressive CDAs, provides a 529 college savings plan account to every infant in the treatment group with…

  12. Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as

  13. Innovation and Competitiveness of the Slovak Economy: New Evidence of International Impacts in the Knowledge Accumulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškárová Paula

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are twofold - to demonstrate the internal forces driving R&D productivity in Slovakia and the internationalization of Slovak R&D investments and R&D patenting since EU accession as compared to the other Visegrad Four (V4 countries. After the Introduction, Slovakia's position in the field of competitiveness and the Slovak innovation policy are described. The Slovak knowledge accumulation paradox being the discrepancy between R&D productivity and TFP is then demonstrated and disentangled through an analysis of innovation activities using Eurostat and OECD Stat data spanning the 1995-2011 period. This analysis is followed by some concluding remarks.

  14. Salinity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in barley and wheat leaves correlates with increased oxidative stress tolerance: in planta evidence for cross-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniran-Hartley, Norhawa; Hartley, Joseph; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-10-01

    Salinity tolerance in plants is dependent on their abilities to adjust osmotically to reduced soil water potential and to keep intracellular ROS levels under control. Both these processes are believed to rely on de novo synthesis of organic osmolytes (traditionally defined as compatible solutes). However direct in planta evidence for anti-oxidant roles of compatible solutes are scarce. In this work, we induced changes in the level of endogenous organic osmolytes by exposing plants to various levels of NaCl (salinity stress; 50-300 mM range) and then studying sensitivity of leaves to oxidative (UV-B) stress. Increase in the external NaCl concentrations was accompanied by the progressive accumulation in leaf Na(+). This accumulation was much higher in old leaves compared with young ones. In old leaves, three major inorganic ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) have made 67.7% and 70.4% of leaf osmotic potential (in wheat and barley, respectively) when exposed to 200 mM NaCl treatment, while in young leaves their contribution was only 43.9% and 46.8%, respectively. Here, organic osmolytes played a substantial role in leaf osmotic adjustment. Increased accumulation of organic osmolytes correlated strongly with activity of PSII in leaves exposed to oxidation inducing UV-B treatment in both species (R(2) = 0.50 for wheat and 0.71 for barley). We conclude that salinity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in barley and wheat leaves correlates with increased oxidative stress tolerance and provides the evidence for a mechanism of cross-tolerance between these two stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlamydial cervicitis: testing the practice guidelines for presumptive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellors, J; Howard, M; Pickard, L; Jang, D; Mahony, J; Chernesky, M

    1998-01-13

    To test the recommendation from the Canadian guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) per high-power field of a Gram-stained endocervical smear or, when Gram staining is not possible, the presence of endocervical discharge and one of edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix can be considered diagnostic for chlamydial cervicitis. A total of 596 consecutive women attending 2 family planning clinics for routine care underwent vaginal speculum examination and were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMN counts from Gram-stained endocervical smears and the presence or absence of putative indicators of chlamydial infection were recorded. The prevalence of chlamydial cervicitis was 6.2% (37/596), and no women tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis based on the guidelines criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power microscopic field had a sensitivity and specificity of 18.9% and 97.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 29.2% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 6.2 (p = 0.003). Presumptive diagnosis based on endocervical discharge with edema, erythema or induced mucosal bleeding of the cervix had a sensitivity and specificity of 43.2% and 80.0% respectively, a positive predictive value of 12.5% and a positive LR of 2.2 (p = 0.002). In the presence of bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis, the LR for the criteria of mucopurulent endocervical discharge and 10 or more PMN per high-power field was 5.4 (p = 0.04), whereas the LR was 4.3 (p = 0.10) if bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis were absent. In this setting, the practice of making a presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial cervicitis on the basis of the criteria given in the Canadian STD guidelines was not supported.

  16. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35-64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving health-seeking behaviour among males, urban

  17. Influence of Vegetation on Sediment Accumulation in Restored Tidal Saltmarshes: Field Evidence from the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal saltmarshes in the UK, and especially in the estuaries of southeast England, have been subject to degradation and erosion over the last few decades, primarily caused by sea-level rise and coastal squeeze due to fixed coastal defences. This is of great concern to a range of coastal stakeholders due to the corresponding loss of functions and services associated with these systems. The coastal defence role that saltmarshes play is well established, and the importance of saltmarsh ecosystems as habitats for birds, fish, and other species is evidenced in the fact that a large proportion of saltmarsh in the southeast England is designated for its scientific and conservation significance. Sediment accumulation is critical for the maintenance of marsh elevation within the tidal frame and for delivery of the aforementioned functions and services. Although many studies have examined accumulation processes, key questions have yet to be fully tested through intensive field observations. One such question relates to the role of vegetation in mediating the retention of newly introduced sediment, as recent research has called into doubt the traditional view of halophytes significantly enhancing rates of sedimentation through wave dissipation. This study presents early results from a project designed to advance our understanding of the processes controlling sediment accumulation. The research focuses on the UK's first large-scale experimental managed flood defence realignment at Tollesbury, Blackwater estuary, Essex. The seawall protecting 21ha of reclaimed agricultural land was artificially breached in 1995 and saltmarsh has progressively developed as tidal exchange has introduced fine sediment into the site. Results from a 12 month monitoring campaign involving hierarchical two-week sediment trap deployments indicates that the role of vegetation in marsh development is less clear cut that previously thought. Gross sedimentation rates were generally higher in non

  18. PCB and OCP accumulation and evidence of hepatic alteration in the Atlantic bluefin tuna, T. thynnus, from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Oliva, Sabrina; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Pietro; Romeo, Teresa; Salvo, Andrea; Spanò, Nunziacarla; Mauceri, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to act as "obesogens", being fat-soluble and affecting lipid metabolism. The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, are top pelagic predators prone to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. This study aimed at evaluating POPs-induced ectopic lipid accumulation in liver of adult tuna from the Mediterranean Sea. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tuna liver, and marked morphological changes observed, namely poorly compacted tissues, intense vacuolization, erythrocyte infiltration and presence of melanomacrophages. The expression of perilipin, a lipid-droplet marker, positively correlated with the gene expression of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, and its heterodimeric partner, RXRα. Changes in metabolites involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and ketogenesis were also observed. Although male bluefin tuna appeared to be more sensitive than females to the adverse effects of environmental obesogens, the alterations observed in tuna liver of both sexes suggest a potential onset of hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulating Evidence on the Benefits and Costs of Supported and Transitional Employment for Persons with Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, John H., Jr.; Conley, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Benefits and costs of supported and transitional employment services are compared with those of adult day care and traditional sheltered workshops (including work activity centers) for the severely disabled. Evidence indicates that all forms of employment (supported, transitional, and sheltered) are more productive and less costly than adult day…

  20. PRESUMPTIVE PIT VIPER ENVENOMATION IN PSITTACINES IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Mathias; Wohlsein, Peter; Croukamp, Anna Sophie; Neumann, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema. Histologically, degeneration and necrosis of subcutaneous musculature were observed. Lung, heart, and kidneys displayed focal hemorrhages. The local changes are similar to those described for mammalian patients including humans. However, except for the parenchymatous hemorrhages, additional external and internal gross and histopathological lesions were missing. After ruling out other causes, such as aggression and dicoumarinic intoxication, the presumptive diagnosis of snake envenomation was made. The smaller size and variabilities of pathophysiological effects of the venom in parrots might explain the different lesion patterns observed, compared with mammals. Possibly, the birds may have reacted differently to envenomation by pit vipers and died before the venom could cause macroscopic and histological changes often observed in mammals.

  1. Presumption of Innocence and Public Safety: A Possible Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aguilar-Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, increasing demands for public safety coupled with the need for a more effective criminal justice system resulted in the security and justice constitutional reform of 2008. The outcome was a constitutional framework with provisions based on the highest standards of human rights on the one hand, and on the other, exceptional measures that restrict rights in an attempt to improve public safety. Unfortunately, the crime rate and incidence of unreported crime have changed little. When public safety is demanded, a clear, rational and concrete response is required. Limiting the alternatives to pre-trial detention or increasing penalties is rarely the appropriate response. This paper focuses on pre-trial detention and non-custodial measures supported by the new criminal justice system, how they relate to the principle of the presumption of innocence and the tension between this and the punitive demands for increased imprisonment. In addition, this study discusses a technical solution, found in pre-trial services, which seeks to balance the presumption of innocence and the right to personal liberty with public safety.

  2. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis—survivor's...

  3. 75 FR 25161 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Presumption of Development at Private Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Presumption of Development at Private Expense AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... the presumption of development at private expense for major systems; and section 815(a)(2) of the NDAA... Expense--Technical Data The validation of asserted restrictions on technical data is based on statutory...

  4. USE OF PRESUMPTIVE TAXATION IN FACILITATING SMALL BUSINESS TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria IORDACHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of this article is determined by the necessity of implementing fiscal simplicity for increasing tax compliance through fiscal education of small business representatives. In many developing and transition countries, micro and small enterprises are the most rapidly growing business segment. Tax compliance attitude within this sector varies significantly because high conformation costs and difficult formalization procedures can determine many small enterprises to operate in the informal economy. Thus tax regulation of small enterprises is crucial in the process of small entrepreneurs fiscal education and tax simplification of SMEs in many countries becomes one of the most efficient instruments. The main research methods were systemic analysis and logic synthesis. The main results obtained in article, as a result of research, are identification, analysis and systematization of foreign countries’ practices in implementing presumptive tax design and elaboration of some recommendations on fiscal simplicity.

  5. Doxorubicin chemotherapy for presumptive cardiac hemangiosarcoma in dogs†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, C M; Arkans, M A; Sammarco, C D; Vail, D M; Britton, B M; Vickery, K R; Risbon, R E; Lachowicz, J; Burgess, K E; Manley, C A; Clifford, C A

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-four dogs were treated with single-agent doxorubicin (DOX) for presumptive cardiac hemangiosarcoma (cHSA). The objective response rate (CR + PR) was 41%, and the biologic response rate (CR + PR + SD), or clinical benefit, was 68%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for treated dogs was 66 days. The median survival time (MST) for this group was 116 days and was significantly improved compared to a MST of 12 days for untreated control dogs (P = 0.0001). Biologic response was significantly associated with improved PFS (P < 0.0001) and OS (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis identified larger tumour size as a variable negatively associated with PFS. The high rate of clinical benefit and improved MST suggest that DOX has activity in canine cHSA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15 0 C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37 0 C. Biochemical experiments utilizing 125 I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that ≅ 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis

  7. Nitrogen starvation-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol in the green algae: evidence for a role for ROC40, a transcription factor involved in circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elton C; Koh, Jin; Zhu, Ning; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chen, Sixue; Matsuo, Takuya; Johnson, Jodie V; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal triacylglycerol (TAG), a promising source of biofuel, is induced upon nitrogen starvation (-N), but the proteins and genes involved in this process are poorly known. We performed isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics to identify Chlorella proteins with modulated expression under short-term -N. Out of 1736 soluble proteins and 2187 membrane-associated proteins identified, 288 and 56, respectively, were differentially expressed under -N. Gene expression analysis on select genes confirmed the same direction of mRNA modulation for most proteins. The MYB-related transcription factor ROC40 was the most induced protein, with a 9.6-fold increase upon -N. In a previously generated Chlamydomonas mutant, gravimetric measurements of crude total lipids revealed that roc40 was impaired in its ability to increase the accumulation of TAG upon -N, and this phenotype was complemented when wild-type Roc40 was expressed. Results from radiotracer experiments were consistent with the roc40 mutant being comparable to the wild type in recycling membrane lipids to TAG but being impaired in additional de novo synthesis of TAG during -N stress. In this study we provide evidence to support the hypothesis that transcription factor ROC40 has a role in -N-induced lipid accumulation, and uncover multiple previously unknown proteins modulated by short-term -N in green algae. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Four-hour quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based comprehensive chromosome screening and accumulating evidence of accuracy, safety, predictive value, and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Scott, Richard T

    2013-03-15

    Embryonic comprehensive chromosomal euploidy may represent a powerful biomarker to improve the success of IVF. However, there are a number of aneuploidy screening strategies to consider, including different technologic platforms with which to interrogate the embryonic DNA, and different embryonic developmental stages from which DNA can be analyzed. Although there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each strategy, a series of experiments producing evidence of accuracy, safety, clinical predictive value, and clinical efficacy indicate that trophectoderm biopsy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) may represent a useful strategy to improve the success of IVF. This Biomarkers in Reproductive Medicine special issue review summarizes the accumulated experience with the development and clinical application of a 4-hour blastocyst qPCR-based CCS technology. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 38 CFR 1.18 - Guidelines for establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war. 1.18 Section 1.18 Pensions... Guidelines for establishing presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war. (a) Purpose. The Secretary of Veterans Affairs will establish presumptions of service connection for former prisoners of war...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of presumptive lumbosacral discospondylitis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.L.; Mussman, J.M.; Smith, T.; Biller, D.S.; Hoskinson, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    three-year-old male Boxer dog had hyperesthesia, symmetrical epaxial, gluteal and hind limb muscular atrophy and rear limb ataxia. Neurological deficits included decreased conscious proprioception of the left hind limb, decreased withdrawal and increased patellar reflexes of both hind limbs. The dog had a urinary tract infection with positive culture for Staphylococcus intermedius. On survey radiography of the lumbosacral spine there was active bone proliferation spanning the L7 S1 intervertebral disc space with an epidural filling defect at the ventral aspect of the vertebral canal on epidurography. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), findings were similar to those described for human diskospondylitis including altered signal intensity and nonuniform contrast enhancement of the L7-S1 intervertebral disc, adjacent vertebral end plates and epidural and sublumbar soft tissues. Although skeletal radiography is usually sufficient to reach a diagnosis of discospondylitis, MRI of this patient made it possible to reach a presumptive diagnosis of discospondylitis prior to development of definitive radiographic abnormalities

  11. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  12. Rapid presumptive "fingerprinting" of body fluids and materials by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-11-01

    Human body fluids and materials were evaluated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Purified proteins, cosmetics, and foodstuffs were also assayed with the method. The results of this study show that the sampled fluids and materials vary in the fingerprint region and locations of the amide I peaks because of the secondary structure of the composite proteins although the C = O stretch is always present. The distinct 1016 cm(-1) peak serves as a signature for semen. The lipid-containing materials (e.g., fingerprints, earwax, tears, and skin) can also be easily separated from the aqueous materials because of the strong CH(3) asymmetric stretch of the former. Blood-saliva and blood-urine mixtures were also successfully differentiated using combinations of peaks. Crime scene investigators employing rapid, portable, or handheld infrared spectroscopic instruments may be able to reduce their need for invasive, destructive, and consumptive presumptive test reagents in evaluating trace evidence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Towards theory integration: Threshold model as a link between signal detection theory, fast-and-frugal trees and evidence accumulation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Iztok; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Luan, Shenghua; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    Theories of decision making are divided between those aiming to help decision makers in the real, 'large' world and those who study decisions in idealized 'small' world settings. For the most part, these large- and small-world decision theories remain disconnected. We linked the small-world decision theoretic concepts of signal detection theory (SDT) and evidence accumulation theory (EAT) to the threshold model and the large world of heuristic decision making that rely on fast-and-frugal decision trees (FFT). We connected these large- and small-world theories by demonstrating that seemingly different decision-making concepts are actually equivalent. In doing so, we were able (1) to link the threshold model to EAT and FFT, thereby creating decision criteria that take into account both the classification accuracy of FFT and the consequences built in the threshold model; (2) to demonstrate how threshold criteria can be used as a strategy for optimal selection of cues when constructing FFT; and (3) to show that the compensatory strategy expressed in the threshold model can be linked to a non-compensatory FFT approach to decision making. We also showed how construction and performance of FFT depend on having reliable information - the results were highly sensitive to the estimates of benefits and harms of health interventions. We illustrate the practical usefulness of our analysis by describing an FFT we developed for prescribing statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By linking SDT and EAT to the compensatory threshold model and to non-compensatory heuristic decision making (FFT), we showed how these two decision strategies are ultimately linked within a broader theoretical framework and thereby respond to calls for integrating decision theory paradigms. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  15. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-µm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 µm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.

  16. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  17. The influence of ascorbate on anthocyanin accumulation during high light acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana: further evidence for redox control of anthocyanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mike; Sultana, Nighat; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Florance, Hannah; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    Ascorbate and anthocyanins act as photoprotectants during exposure to high light (HL). They accumulate in Arabidopsis leaves in response to HL on a similar timescale, suggesting a potential relationship between them. Flavonoids and related metabolites were identified and profiled by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc1, vtc2 and vtc3 accumulated less anthocyanin than wild-type (WT) during HL acclimation. In contrast, kaempferol glycoside accumulation was less affected by light and not decreased by ascorbate deficiency, while sinapoyl malate levels decreased during HL acclimation. Comparison of six Arabidopsis ecotypes showed a positive correlation between ascorbate and anthocyanin accumulation in HL. mRNA-Seq analysis showed that all flavonoid biosynthesis transcripts were increased by HL acclimation in WT. RT-PCR analysis showed that vtc1 and vtc2 were impaired in HL induction of transcripts of anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes, and the transcription factors PAP1, GL3 and EGL3 that activate the pathway. Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA), hormones that could affect anthocyanin accumulation, were unaffected in vtc mutants. It is concluded that HL induction of anthocyanin synthesis involves a redox-sensitive process upstream of the known transcription factors. Because anthocyanins accumulate in preference to kaempferol glycosides and sinapoyl malate in HL, they might have specific properties that make them useful in HL acclimation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for former prisoners of war. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulations to establish a presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for former Prisoners of War (POWs) who were detained or interned for at least 30 days and whose osteoporosis is at least 10 percent disabling. The amendment implements a decision by the Secretary to establish such a presumption based on scientific studies. VA is additionally amending its adjudication regulations to establish a presumption of service connection for osteoporosis for POWs who were detained or interned for any period of time, have a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whose osteoporosis is at least 10 percent disabling. This amendment reflects statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Improvement Act of 2008.

  19. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia......, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest...... for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had...

  20. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratorie...... (serogroup D). In conclusion, rough presumptive Salmonella isolates can be conveniently confirmed to the serogroup-revel, using the pre-mixed PCR tests. The system can be easily implemented in accredited laboratories with limited experience in molecular biology....

  1. Presumptive subarticular stress reactions of the knee: MRI detection and association with meniscal tear patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Stanczak, Jeffrey; Boutin, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    MRI detects subchondral marrow findings in painful knees which bear resemblance to spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). Gathering evidence suggests that the primary or predominant pathogenesis of these lesions is physical stress. This study analyzes the patient characteristics and meniscal pathology associated with these lesions - herein referred to as ''presumptive subarticular stress related'' (PSSR) lesions. All patients were scanned using a standardized imaging protocol. The criterion for a PSSR lesion was a subchondral marrow edema pattern encompassing a more focal, low-signal zone adjacent to or contiguous with the subchondral cortex. Patients were identified using an electronic database search of cases reported by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Twenty-five PSSR lesions were identified among 1,948 MRI evaluations of the knee. Twenty-one PSSR lesions occurred in the medial compartment, and four occurred in the lateral compartment. There was no sex predilection. Patients with PSSR lesions were older than other patients undergoing MRI evaluation (mean 66 years versus 52 years, P<0.001). Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in cases with PSSR lesions than in the group as a whole (76% versus 45%, P<0.001). Radial and posterior root tears were more common in knees with PSSR lesions than in other knees with meniscal tears (53% versus 26%, P<0.01). PSSR lesions are associated with meniscal tears and, more specifically, with meniscal tear patterns that dramatically increase contact forces across the knee joint. This observation supports the hypothesis that mechanical stress is important in the pathogenesis of these subarticular lesions that are detected by MRI. (orig.)

  2. Presumptive subarticular stress reactions of the knee: MRI detection and association with meniscal tear patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence [Diagnostic Radiology Department, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 1C640, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1182, MD 20892-1182, Bethesda (United States); Stanczak, Jeffrey [Fairfax Radiological Consultants, PC, 2722 Merrilee Drive, Suite 230, VA 22031, Fairfax (United States); Boutin, Robert D. [MedTel International, 1430 Spring Hill Road, State 500, VA 22102, Mclean (United States)

    2004-05-01

    MRI detects subchondral marrow findings in painful knees which bear resemblance to spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). Gathering evidence suggests that the primary or predominant pathogenesis of these lesions is physical stress. This study analyzes the patient characteristics and meniscal pathology associated with these lesions - herein referred to as ''presumptive subarticular stress related'' (PSSR) lesions. All patients were scanned using a standardized imaging protocol. The criterion for a PSSR lesion was a subchondral marrow edema pattern encompassing a more focal, low-signal zone adjacent to or contiguous with the subchondral cortex. Patients were identified using an electronic database search of cases reported by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Twenty-five PSSR lesions were identified among 1,948 MRI evaluations of the knee. Twenty-one PSSR lesions occurred in the medial compartment, and four occurred in the lateral compartment. There was no sex predilection. Patients with PSSR lesions were older than other patients undergoing MRI evaluation (mean 66 years versus 52 years, P<0.001). Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in cases with PSSR lesions than in the group as a whole (76% versus 45%, P<0.001). Radial and posterior root tears were more common in knees with PSSR lesions than in other knees with meniscal tears (53% versus 26%, P<0.01). PSSR lesions are associated with meniscal tears and, more specifically, with meniscal tear patterns that dramatically increase contact forces across the knee joint. This observation supports the hypothesis that mechanical stress is important in the pathogenesis of these subarticular lesions that are detected by MRI. (orig.)

  3. Mechanisms of soil organic carbon accumulation from long-term fertilization strategies in two soils: Evidence from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term fertilization strategies have been proven to significantly influence soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, while the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using two long-term (>20 y) field experiments of a double-cropped maize-wheat rotation on a Calcaric Fluvisol and paddy rice on a Hyd...

  4. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...

  5. 20 CFR 410.418 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability due to pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.418 Irrebuttable presumption of total disability due to pneumoconiosis... miner was totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis at the time of his death, if he is suffering or...

  6. Authority, Freedom and Liberal Judgment: The Presumptions and Presumptuousness of Whately, Mill and Tocqueville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedbee, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Examines the conflict between individualism and communitarianism (and its implications for rhetorical theory) by examining the historical debate between liberals and conservatives during and after the French Revolution. Shows how Richard Whately's notions of "presumption" and "burden of proof" (further developed by Mill and…

  7. The Principle of the Presumption of Innocence and its Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The administration of the criminal justice system tries to strike a balance between the search for truth and the fairness of the process. To this end, the law should protect individual rights and impose various legal burdens on the state. One such tool is the principle of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. This is a ...

  8. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  9. The Ethics of Fertility Preservation for Paediatric Cancer Patients: From Offer to Rebuttable Presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-11-01

    Given advances in the science of fertility preservation and the link between fertility choices and wellbeing, it is time to reframe our ethical thinking around fertility preservation procedures for children and young people with cancer. The current framing of fertility preservation as a possible offer may no longer be universally appropriate. There is an increasingly pressing need to discuss the ethics of failing to preserve fertility, particularly for patient groups for whom established techniques exist. I argue that the starting point for deliberating about a particular patient should be a rebuttable presumption that fertility preservation ought to be attempted. Consideration of the harms applicable to that specific patient may then override this presumption. I outline the benefits of attempting fertility preservation; these justify a presumption in favour of the treatment. I then discuss the potential harms associated with fertility preservation procedures, which may justify failing to attempt fertility preservation in an individual patient's particular case. Moving from a framework of offer to one of rebuttable presumption in favour of fertility preservation would have significant implications for medical practice, healthcare organizations and the state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Presumptive self-diagnosis of malaria and other febrile illnesses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-diagnosis of influenza, yellow fever, typhoid, and pneumonia was also common. Conclusion: Self-diagnosis and presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs and other antibiotic medications that are readily available without a prescription may compromise health outcomes for febrile adults and children. Key words: ...

  11. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within two years after service and within two years after the end of the Persian...

  12. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... care eligibility for veterans of certain wars and conflicts who developed psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis...

  13. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  14. 47 CFR 51.230 - Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presumption of acceptability for deployment of an advanced services loop technology. 51.230 Section 51.230 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... following circumstances, where the technology: (1) Complies with existing industry standards; or (2) Is...

  15. Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Felippe, Isis Moreira; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2018-04-23

    We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy. The presumptive identification showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98.8, 92.5 and 97.9 %, respectively. Macroscopic analysis of MTBC isolates that would have been erroneously classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria based solely on microscopic morphology enabled us to direct them rapidly to DST, representing a substantial gain to patients. In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times.

  16. Detection of presumptive Bacillus cereus in the Irish dairy farm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to isolate potential Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l. from a range of farm environments. Samples of tap water, milking equipment rinse water, milk sediment filter, grass, soil and bulk tank milk were collected from 63 farms. In addition, milk liners were swabbed at the start and the end of milking, and swabs were taken from cows’ teats prior to milking. The samples were plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP and presumptive B. cereus s.l. colonies were isolated and stored in nutrient broth with 20% glycerol and frozen at -80 °C. These isolates were then plated on chromogenic medium (BACARA and colonies identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. on this medium were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing. Of the 507 isolates presumed to be B. cereus s.l. on the basis of growth on MYP, only 177 showed growth typical of B. cereus s.l. on BACARA agar. The use of 16S rRNA sequencing to identify isolates that grew on BACARA confirmed that the majority of isolates belonged to B. cereus s.l. A total of 81 of the 98 isolates sequenced were tentatively identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out on milk and soil isolates from seven farms that were identified as having presumptive B. cereus s.l. No pulsotype was shared by isolates from soil and milk on the same farm. Presumptive B. cereus s.l. was widely distributed within the dairy farm environment.

  17. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) evidence for variations in free phase carbon gas accumulation as a function of peatland landforms: a comparison between near-crest bogs and mid-slope lawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, A.; Slater, L.; Comas, X.; Nolan, J.; Glaser, P.

    2009-05-01

    Northern peatlands serve as atmospheric sources of biogenic free-phase gas (FPG) produced under anaerobic conditions below the water table (mostly methane and carbon dioxide). Recent evidence suggest that FPG accumulates in the subsurface under confining layers and is released during sudden ebullition events, often triggered by sudden drops in atmospheric pressure. Accurate quantification of the impact of FPG releases on the global carbon budget is needed given recent observations of increasing atmospheric methane concentrations. One important step towards understanding the dynamics of FPG in peatlands is to investigate whether certain peatland landforms (i.e. areas with significantly different vegetation patterns) may be more conducive to FPG accumulation and/or release. Additionally, it is important to determine the vertical distribution of FPG within the peat soil and the potential role of peat stratigraphy on gas accumulation and release. In this study, we used common mid-point (CMP) velocity surveys to predict vertical profiles of FPG accumulations by comparing two different peatland landforms: historically forested near-crest bogs and non- forested mid-slope lawns in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of Minnesota, USA. We show that there is a statistically significant difference in electromagnetic (EM) wave velocities calculated over gas-rich intervals in the peat strata compared to gas-poor intervals. Common-offset radar profiles identified laterally continuous woody confining layers responsible for FPG accumulation. Chaotic GPR facies containing diffraction hyperbolae at the forested near-crest sites are interpreted as deformation of the peat matrix due to FPG accumulation and/or peat fabric disturbance during FPG release events. In contrast, non-forested mid-slope lawn sites, are characterized by planar GPR facies with no evidence of peat fabric disturbance and small relative changes in interpreted EM velocity distribution along the peat column. Using the

  18. Transitions in cognitive test scores over 5 and 10 years in elderly people: Evidence for a model of age-related deficit accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On average, health worsens with age, but many people have periods of improvement. A stochastic model provides an excellent description of how such changes occur. Given that cognition also changes with age, we wondered whether the same model might also describe the accumulation of errors in cognitive test scores in community-dwelling older adults. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 8954 older people (aged 65+ at baseline from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging were followed for 10 years. Cognitive status was defined by the number of errors on the 100-point Modified Min-Mental State Examination. The error count was chosen to parallel the deficit count in the general model of aging, which is based on deficit accumulation. As with the deficit count, a Markov chain transition model was employed, with 4 parameters. Results On average, the chance of making errors increased linearly with the number of errors present at each time interval. Changes in cognitive states were described with high accuracy (R2 = 0.96 by a modified Poisson distribution, using four parameters: the background chance of accumulating additional errors, the chance of incurring more or fewer errors, given the existing number, and the corresponding background and incremental chances of dying. Conclusion The change in the number of errors in a cognitive test corresponded to a general model that also summarizes age-related changes in deficits. The model accounts for both improvement and deterioration and appears to represent a clinically relevant means of quantifying how various aspects of health status change with age.

  19. Nerve growth factor-induced accumulation of PC12 cells expressing cyclin D1: evidence for a G1 phase block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grunsven, L A; Thomas, A; Urdiales, J L; Machenaud, S; Choler, P; Durand, I; Rudkin, B B

    1996-02-15

    The anti-proliferative effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 has been previously shown to be accompanied by the accumulation of cells in either the G1 phase with a 2c DNA content, or with a 4c DNA content characteristic for G2/M, as evidenced by flow cytometric analysis of DNA distribution using propidium iodide. Herein, these apparently conflicting results are clarified. The present studies indicate that a simple DNA distribution profile obtained by this technique can confound interpretation of the biological effects of NGF on cell-cycle distribution due to the presence of tetraploid cells. Using cyclin D1 and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine as markers of respectively, G1 and S phase, we show that PC12 cultures can have a considerable amount of tetraploid cells which, when in the G1 phase, have a 4c DNA content and express cyclin D1. During exposure to NGF, this population increases, reflecting the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The data presented, support the possibility that events affecting the expression or action of G1 regulatory proteins may be involved in the molecular mechanism of the anti-mitogenic effect of NGF.

  20. Spectroscopic and kinetic evidence for an accumulating intermediate in an SNV reaction with amine nucleophiles. Reaction of methyl beta-methylthio-alpha-nitrocinnamate with piperidine and morpholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Claude F; Brown, Shoshana D; Eventova, Irina; Rappoport, Zvi

    2007-04-27

    A spectroscopic and kinetic study of the reaction of methyl beta-methylthio-alpha-nitrocinnamate (4-SMe) with morpholine, piperidine, and hydroxide ion in 50% DMSO/50% water (v/v) at 20 degrees C is reported. The reactions of 4-SMe with piperidine in a pH range from 10.12 to 11.66 and those with morpholine at pH 12.0 are characterized by two kinetic processes when monitored at lambdamax (364 nm) of the substrate, but by only one process when monitored at lambdamax (388) nm of the product. The rate constants obtained at 388 nm were the same as those determined for the slower of the two processes at 364 nm. These rate constants refer to product formation, whereas the faster process observed at 364 nm is associated with the loss of reactant to form an intermediate. In contrast, for the reaction of 4-SMe with morpholine at pH 8.62 the rates of product formation and disappearance of the substrate were the same, i.e., there is no accumulation of an intermediate. Likewise, the reaction of 4-SMe with OH- did not yield a detectable intermediate. The factors that allow the accumulation of intermediates in certain SNV reactions but not in others are discussed in detail, and structure-reactivity comparisons are made with reactions of piperidine and morpholine with other highly activated vinylic substrates.

  1. Value of polymerase chain reaction in patients with presumptively diagnosed and treated as tuberculous pericardial effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, H.; Hafizullah, M.; Shah, S.T.; Khan, S.B.; Hadi, A.; Ahmad, F.; Shah, I.; Gul, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pericardial fluid and response to antituberculous treatment (ATT) in PCR positive patients who were presumptively diagnosed and treated as tuberculous pericardial effusion. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out from June 1, 2009 to 31 May 2010 at Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients with presumptive diagnosis and receiving treatment for tuberculous pericardial effusion were included. Pericardial fluid sample was aspirated under fluoroscopy for the routine work up. The specimens were subjected to PCR detection of mycobacterium tuberculous DNA. Results: During 12 month study period, a total of 54 patients with large pericardial effusion presented to Cardiology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Of them, 46 patients fulfilled the criteria for presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericardial effusion. PCR for mycobacterium tuberculous DNA in pericardial fluid was positive in 45.7%(21). Patients were followed for three months. In PCR positive group, 01 patient while in PCR negative group 3 patients were lost to follow up. Among PCR positive patients 17(85%) while in PCR negative group 11(47.82%) patient responded to ATT both clinically and echo-cardio graphically. We found that patients who were PCR positive responded better to therapy than those who were PCR negative and this finding was statistically significant (p=0.035). Conclusion: PCR, with all its limitations, is potentially a useful diagnostic test in patients with presumptively diagnosed tuberculous pericardial effusion. A PCR positive patient responds better to therapy as compared to PCR negative patient. (author)

  2. The use of elemental microanalysis in verification of the composition of presumptive amalgam tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, L C; Natiella, J R; Meenaghan, M A

    1986-08-01

    Routine histochemistry, special stains, and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used to analyze 15 cases of presumptive amalgam tattoo. Histologically, the fine, spherical, golden brown granules of amalgam were remarkably similar to hemosiderin and melanin granules, and routine and special stains were not always reliable in differentiating one from the others. EDX provided a simple, fast, inexpensive, and reliable method for identifying the precise elemental composition of the pigmented material.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  4. 12 CFR 225.139 - Presumption of continued control under section 2(g)(3) of the Bank Holding Company Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... situations in which there may be a risk that the divestiture will not result in the complete termination of a... the kinds of indebtedness that, standing alone, support a presumption that the creditor is able to...

  5. Male circumcision to prevent syphilis in 1855 and HIV in 1986 is supported by the accumulated scientific evidence to 2015: Response to Darby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Wamai, Richard G; Krieger, John N; Banerjee, Joya; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    An article by Darby disparaging male circumcision (MC) for syphilis prevention in Victorian times (1837-1901) and voluntary medical MC programs for HIV prevention in recent times ignores contemporary scientific evidence. It is one-sided and cites outlier studies as well as claims by MC opponents that support the author's thesis, but ignores high quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. While we agree with Darby that risky behaviours contribute to syphilis and HIV epidemics, there is now compelling evidence that MC helps reduce both syphilis and HIV infections. Although some motivations for MC in Victorian times were misguided, others, such as protection against syphilis, penile cancer, phimosis, balanitis and poor hygiene have stood the test of time. In the absence of a cure or effective prophylactic vaccine for HIV, MC should help lower heterosexually acquired HIV, especially when coupled with other interventions such as condoms and behaviour. This should save lives, as well as reducing costs and suffering. In contrast to Darby, our evaluation of the evidence leads us to conclude that MC would likely have helped reduce syphilis in Victorian times and, in the current era, will help lower both syphilis and HIV, so improving global public health.

  6. Community referral for presumptive TB in Nigeria: a comparison of four models of active case finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adejumo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a

  7. Evidence for early intracellular accumulation of volatile compounds during spadix development in Arum italicum L. and preliminary data on some tropical Aroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguet, Aurélia; Gibernau, Marc; Shintu, Laetitia; Caldarelli, Stefano; Moja, Sandrine; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-01

    Staining and histochemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed at different inflorescence developmental stages on nine aroid species; one temperate, Arum italicum and eight tropical from the genera Caladium, Dieffenbachia and Philodendron. Moreover, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs constituting the scent of A. italicum, depending on the stage of development of inflorescences was also conducted. In all nine species, vesicles were observed in the conical cells of either the appendix or the stamens (thecae) and the staminodes. VOCs were localised in intracellular vesicles from the early stages of inflorescence development until their release during receptivity of gynoecium. This localisation was observed by the increase of both number and diameter of the vesicles during 1 week before receptivity. Afterwards, vesicles were fewer and smaller but rarely absent. In A. italicum, staining and gas chromatography analyses confirmed that the vesicles contained terpenes. The quantitatively most important ones were the sesquiterpenes, but monoterpenes were not negligible. Indeed, the quantities of terpenes matched the vesicles' size evolution during 1 week. Furthermore, VOCs from different biosynthetic pathways (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) were at their maximum quantity 2 days before gynoecium receptivity (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) or during receptivity (isobutylamine, monoterpenes, skatole and p-cresol). VOCs seemed to be emitted during gynoecium receptivity and/or during thermogenesis, and FADs are accumulated after thermogenesis in the spadix. These complex dynamics of the different VOCs could indicate specialisation of some VOCs and cell machinery to attract pollinators on the one hand and to repulse/protect against phytophagous organisms and pathogens after pollination on the other hand.

  8. Transition metal atoms pathways on rutile TiO2 (110) surface: Distribution of Ti3+ states and evidence of enhanced peripheral charge accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqing; Bai, Zhaoqiang; Chintalapati, Sandhya; Zeng, Qingfeng; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2013-04-01

    Charge transfer between metal nanoparticles and the supported TiO2 surface is primarily important for catalytic applications as it greatly affects the catalytic activity and the thermal stability of the deposited nanoparticles on the surface. Herein, systematic spin-polarized density functional and HSE06 calculations are performed to evaluate the adsorption, diffusion, and charge state of several transition metal monomers on both stoichiometric and reduced rutile TiO2 (110) surface. Although the presence of oxygen vacancy (Ov) increases the binding of Au, Pt and Pd on the surface, it weakens the interaction thus enhancing the diffusion for Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, and Cu adatoms on the surface. For pristine reduced surface, only a small portion (around 5%) of the excess electrons occupy the topmost surface, which are mainly delocalized at the second nearest and third nearest fivefold coordinated Ti (Ti5c) atoms. Excess electrons populating at the Ti5c atoms on the basal plane can be transferred to strongly electronegative adsorbates like Au and Pt thus enabling a moderate adsorption at this site, whereas no stable adsorption is found for other less electronegative transition metal adatoms (Ag, Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd) on the reduced surface and for all the adatoms on stoichiometric surface. This result clarifies the origin of the experimental observation of the adsorption of O2 and CO molecules at Ti5c sites in connection with charge transfer. In addition, the spatial redistribution of the excess electrons around the Ov upon the adsorption of the monomers is thoroughly examined. Our finding of an accumulation of excess electrons at the Ti5c sites around the monomers explains the critical role of the perimeter interface of the deposited nanoparticles in promoting the adsorption and activation of reactants observed in experiments.

  9. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of presumptive idiopathic disseminated intravascular coagulation during second-trimester induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sloane; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2012-05-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious and relatively uncommon complication of induced or spontaneous abortion or delivery. Occasionally, it has been reported in the absence of predisposing conditions. Little information in the literature describing idiopathic DIC or the treatment of patients with DIC exists. From 2002 through 2008, 24 cases of presumptive idiopathic DIC occurred following dilation and evacuation (D&E) abortion between 13 5/7 and 23 6/7 weeks' estimated gestational age at a Midwestern ambulatory surgical center. The characteristics of each patient, their pregnancies and surgical experiences were examined and compared with a temporally matched control group of D&E patients. We explored whether the index cases had a predominance of any historical, clinical or reproductive characteristics compared with controls matched for demographic and reproductive landmarks. Overall incidence of presumptive idiopathic DIC was 1.8 per 1000 D&E cases. Compared with matched controls, there was a greater likelihood of DIC with more advanced gestation (p=.009); no case of DIC was under 17 weeks' gestational age. Increased bleeding occurred at a mean time of 153 min after completion of surgery (range, 55-491 min; median, 131 min). Nineteen of 24 cases were successfully treated at the surgical center after receiving 6 to 8 units of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP); 5 cases were transferred to a hospital for further treatment. The abnormal bleeding of presumptive DIC typically begins to appear within 2 h after uncomplicated D&E and is more likely to occur at 17 weeks' estimated gestational age and more. With rapid diagnosis and treatment, most patients were able to be treated in an outpatient setting with up to 6 to 8 units of FFP and rehydration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three cases of a presumptive atypical myopathy in New Zealand horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R K; Gibson, I R; Ritmeester, A

    2013-11-01

    Three weanling Thoroughbred fillies were presented during autumn with depression, muscle rigidity and, in one case, colic symptoms and cardiovascular shock. All fillies had abnormal physical examinations that included elevated heart rates and respiratory rates coupled with muscle rigidity through the back and rump. Biochemistry revealed markedly elevated creatinine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase which indicated a myopathy. All three horses were diagnosed with presumptive equine atypical myopathy. The horses received supportive therapy as per the literature available at the time regarding this condition; two responded to supportive therapy and survived, and one was euthanased due to a rapid deterioration in clinical status. Following post mortem of one case, histology of the trapezius muscle demonstrated an acute, severe myofibre degeneration. Atypical myopathy and a very similar disorder termed seasonal pasture myopathy in North America are potentially fatal, pasture-related syndromes that have been described in Europe and America but have not been previously described in New Zealand. This report describes three presumptive cases of this unique syndrome in New Zealand for the first time; it outlines the characteristics of the condition; and includes recently published information regarding diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Membrane filtration test for rapid presumptive differentiation of four Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, T G; Peleman, R; Moerman, M; Vermeersch, H; de Looze, D; Noens, L; Nelis, H J

    1999-05-01

    A rapid enzymatic two-step test for the presumptive differentiation of four Candida species commonly occurring in various clinical samples is described. The technique involves membrane filtration of a liquid sample, followed by preincubation of the membrane filter on Sabouraud glucose agar supplemented with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid to yield microcolonies. In a separate assay step, parts of the filter are placed on absorbent pads impregnated with fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) enzyme substrates (4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, 4-MU-phosphate, 4-MU-pyrophosphate, and 4-MU-beta-D-galactoside) in combination with 0.1% digitonin acting as a membrane permeabilizer. The membrane filter in contact with the assay medium is incubated to allow cleavage of the enzyme substrate, resulting in fluorescent microcolonies under long-wavelength UV light. This approach, tested on 301 clinical samples, is able to presumptively differentiate C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and to distinguish them from other Candida spp. in about 9 to 11 h. Overall agreement with the conventional methods of 94.4% (one Candida species present in the sample) to 83.8% (multiple Candida spp. present) was obtained. The false-negative rates with reference to identification by traditional methods were 1.3% (single species) and 3.8% (multiple species).

  13. Presumptive brain influx of large neutral amino acids and the effect of phenylalanine supplementation in patients with Tyrosinemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Willem G; van Vliet, Danique; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; de Blaauw, Pim; Rubio Gozalbo, M Estela; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare metabolic disease caused by a defect in the tyrosine degradation pathway. Current treatment consists of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a tyrosine and phenylalanine restricted diet. Recently, neuropsychological deficits have been seen in HT1 patients. These deficits are possibly associated with low blood phenylalanine concentrations and/or high blood tyrosine concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was threefold. Firstly, we aimed to calculate how the plasma amino acid profile in HT1 patients may influence the presumptive brain influx of all large neutral amino acids (LNAA). Secondly, we aimed to investigate the effect of phenylalanine supplementation on presumptive brain phenylalanine and tyrosine influx. Thirdly, we aimed to theoretically determine minimal target plasma phenylalanine concentrations in HT1 patient to ensure adequate presumptive brain phenylalanine influx. Data of plasma LNAA concentrations were obtained. In total, 239 samples of 9 HT1 children, treated with NTBC, diet, and partly with phenylalanine supplementation were collected together with 596 samples of independent control children. Presumptive brain influx of all LNAA was calculated, using Michaelis-Menten parameters (Km) and Vmax-values obtained from earlier articles. In HT1 patients, plasma concentrations and presumptive brain influx of tyrosine were higher. However, plasma and especially brain influx of phenylalanine were lower in HT1 patients. Phenylalanine supplementation did not only tend to increase plasma phenylalanine concentrations, but also presumptive brain phenylalanine influx, despite increased plasma tyrosine concentrations. However, to ensure sufficient brain phenylalanine influx in HT1 patients, minimal plasma phenylalanine concentrations may need to be higher than considered thus far. This study clearly suggests a role for disturbed brain LNAA biochemistry, which is not well

  14. Presumptive intraperitoneal envenomation resulting in hemoperitoneum and acute abdominal pain in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istvan, Stephanie A; Walker, Julie M; Hansen, Bernard D; Hanel, Rita M; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical features, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome of a dog with acute abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum secondary to a presumptive intraperitoneal (IP) snakebite. A 10-month-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for suspected snake envenomation. The dog presented recumbent and tachycardic with signs of severe abdominal pain. Two cutaneous puncture wounds and hemoperitoneum were discovered during evaluation. Ultrasonographic examination revealed communication of the wounds with the peritoneal cavity. The dog was treated with supportive care, parenteral analgesia, packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusions, crotalid antivenom, and placement of an IP catheter to provide local analgesia. The dog recovered fully and was discharged 5 days after initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IP envenomation accompanied by hemorrhage treated with continuous IP analgesia in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  15. Ground red hot pepper agar in the isolation and presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, S; Vuković, D; Radonjić, I; Dimitrijević, V; Svabić-Vlahović, M

    2002-11-01

    The study compared ground red hot pepper agar (GRHP) and Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar (GACA), a medium routinely used for isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans. In order to confirm the capacity of GRHP to support the Cr. neoformans growth and pigment production, 15 strains were inoculated onto GRHP and GACA. No significant differences in the growth and pigmentation of the tested strains on the two media were noted. As heavily contaminated specimens, 50 samples of pigeon droppings were examined by plating on GRHP and GACA, which resulted in the isolation of 14 and nine Cr. neoformans strains, respectively. The results indicate that GRHP, as a result of its superior selectivity and significant reduction of contaminant growth, provides better conditions than GACA for isolation and presumptive identification of Cr. neoformans from heavily contaminated specimens.

  16. A presumptive case of Human rabies: a rare survived case in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Awingura Apanga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with nearly hundred percent (100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival was a rare occurrence in rural Ghana. Lessons from this case study provides a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. We report of the survival of a 36 year old man who developed clinical rabies three weeks after he was bitten by his dog while restraining the dog with a chain. Prior to this he did not observe any abnormal or rabid behaviour in the dog. Following the bite, he did not immediately resort to hospital treatment, but rather to traditional application of herbs to the laceration he sustained after the bite. Reason given for not seeking immediate hospital treatment was that the dog was not rabid and lack of funds to seek hospital care. However, he began to show symptoms consistent with rabies virus infection after 10 days and was subsequently rushed to the hospital by relatives. At the hospital, he was administered human immune tetanus immunoglobulin, diazepam, ceftriaxone, paracetamol and intravenous fluids. No rabies vaccine was administered. Six days after commencing treatment patient became well, showed no signs of confused state of mind, hydrophobia nor photophobia. He was discharged home after 13 days of commencing treatment. This study provides insight on a presumptive case of Human rabies case that survived despite non-administration of rabies vaccine during esposure. It also exposes the weaknesses in the health and veterinary systems in rural Ghana regarding rabies surveillance and case management.

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.5 - What are the presumptions as to the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presumptions as to the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-10.5 Section 301-10.5 Public Contracts... most advantageous method of transportation? (a) Common carrier. Travel by common carrier is presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation and must be used when reasonably available. (b...

  18. Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar medium and conventional culture system for isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-09-01

    Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ≥ 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 37(0)C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique.

  19. Neuron Types in the Presumptive Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Gupta, Kanika; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-01-01

    Within afrotherians, sirenians are unusual due to their aquatic lifestyle, large body size and relatively large lissencephalic brain. However, little is known about the neuron type distributions of the cerebral cortex in sirenians within the context of other afrotherians and aquatic mammals. The present study investigated two cortical regions, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2), in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to characterize cyto- and chemoarchitecture. The mean neuron density for both cortical regions was 35,617 neurons/mm(3) and fell within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass based on a reference group of afrotherians and xenarthrans. Densities of inhibitory interneuron subtypes labeled against calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptide Y were relatively low compared to afrotherians and xenarthrans and also formed a small percentage of the overall population of inhibitory interneurons as revealed by GAD67 immunoreactivity. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (NPNFP-ir) neurons comprised a mean of 60% of neurons in layer V across DL1 and CL2. DL1 contained a higher percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons than CL2, although CL2 had a higher variety of morphological types. The mean percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons in the two regions of the presumptive S1 were low compared to other afrotherians and xenarthrans but were within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass, and their morphologies were comparable to those found in other afrotherians and xenarthrans. Although this specific pattern of neuron types and densities sets the manatee apart from other afrotherians and xenarthrans, the manatee isocortex does not appear to be explicitly adapted for an aquatic habitat. Many of the features that are shared between manatees and cetaceans are also shared with a diverse array of terrestrial mammals and likely represent highly conserved

  20. Gallium accumulation in early pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.A.; Allegra, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The accumulation of gallium 67 citrate in pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii is well known. The sensitivity of gallium uptake in detecting early inflammatory processes, even when conventional roentgenograms are normal, would seem to make it possible in immunocompromised patients to make a presumptive diagnosis of this serious infection early in its course without using invasive techniques to demonstrate the organism. However, the presence of gallium uptake in radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary drug toxicity, and other processes that also occur in this group limit its usefulness. In our two patients--a young woman with Hodgkin's disease and an elderly woman with small cell lung cancer--this technique proved helpful. Although the latter patient was successfully treated empirically, such empiric treatment should be reserved for patients unable or unwilling to undergo invasive tests. Pulmonary gallium uptake in patients with respiratory symptoms, even with a normal chest film, should prompt attempts to directly demonstrate the organism

  1. New culture medium for the presumptive identificaion of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W H; Hopkins, J M; Land, G A

    1977-02-01

    A new medium composed of Tween 80, oxgall, caffeic acid, and Davis agar (TOC) that provides for the rapid presumptive identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans is described herein. C. albicans is differentiated from other yeasts by the sequential production of germ tubes and chlamydospores. In a comparison with cormeal agar control plates, there was an increase of chlamydospore-forming strains of C. albicans (97.1% versus 87.2%) and a decrease in the time required for chlamydospore formation (24 h versus 48 h). C. neoformans produced a brown pigment of TOC, which is specific for its identification, thus differentiating it from the other yeasts. A comparison of 24-h pigment production by C. neoformans on TOC with that of birdseed agar showed a dark, coffee brown color in the former cultures and a light brown color in the latter. The change in pigmentation of C. neoformans, as well as morphological changes in C. albicans, can be induced within 3 to 12 h and in not more than 24 h on the TOC medium.

  2. Should sputum-negative presumptive TB patients be actively followed to identify missing cases in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikar, S; Pathak, A; Ghule, V; Kapoor, A; Sagili, K; Babu, E R; Chadha, S

    2017-12-21

    Setting: Sputum smear microscopy, the primary diagnostic tool used for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), has low sensitivity, resulting in a significant number of TB cases reported as sputum-negative. As the revised guidelines pose challenges in implementation, sputum-negative presumptive TB (SNPT) patients are subjected to 2 weeks of antibiotics, followed by chest X-ray (CXR), resulting in significant loss to care among these cases. Objective: To determine whether reducing delays in CXR would yield additional TB cases and reduce initial loss to follow-up for diagnosis among SNPT cases. Methods: In an ongoing intervention in five districts of Maharashtra, SNPT patients were offered upfront CXR. Results: Of 119 male and 116 female SNPT patients with a mean age of 45 years who were tested by CXR, 32 (14%) were reported with CXR suggestive of TB. Administering upfront CXR in SNPT patients yielded twice as many additional cases, doubling the proportion of cases detected among all those tested as against administering CXR 2 weeks after smear examination. Conclusion: Our interventional study showed that the yield of TB cases was significantly greater when upfront CXR examination was undertaken without waiting for a 2-week antibiotic trial.

  3. Treatment of presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia with mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclosporine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, F O; Rizzo, S A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare hospitalisation duration, survival times, adverse events and cost of therapy in dogs with presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia undergoing therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids versus cyclosporine and corticosteroids. A retrospective study of medical case records of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was conducted. Data collected included signalment, presenting complaints, haematologic and biochemical profiles, vector-borne disease testing, thoracic and abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, medications administered, duration of hospitalisation, 30- and 60-day survival, adverse events and cost of therapy. Variables were compared between dogs treated solely with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids or cyclosporine and corticosteroids. A total of 55 dogs with primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia were identified. Eighteen were excluded because multiple immunosuppressive medications were used during treatment. Hospitalisation times, 30-day survival and 60-day survival times were similar between both groups. Dogs in the mycophenolate mofetil/corticosteroid group experienced fewer adverse events than the cyclosporine/corticosteroid group. Therapy with mycophenolate mofetil was less expensive than that with cyclosporine. These results suggest that using the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids appears to be as effective as cyclosporine and corticosteroids in the treatment of presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs. Adverse events were less common and cost of therapy was lower in the mycophenolate mofetil group. Additional larger prospective, controlled, double-masked, outcome-based, multi-institutional studies are required to substantiate these preliminary findings. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Case report 471: Hemophilic pseudotumors (presumptive diagnosis) and hemophilic arthropathy of elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Gilbert, M.

    1988-01-01

    A case has been presented of a 72-year-old man on whom an excretory urogram showed the incidental findings of two soft tissue masses in the abdomen containing considerable deposits of calcium. The history was interesting in that the patient was classic hemophiliac with Factor VIII level less than 1%, who first developed symptoms and signs of multiple hemarthroses affecting the knees, ankles, elbows, and shoulders at the age of nine years. Secondary hemophilic arthropathy followed, particularly advanced in the right elbow. Total knee replacements were performed within the last 10 years. A mass within the muscles of the right chest wall, superficial to the ribs, was surgically removed. The abdominal masses in this case were studied with CT and showed considerable calcification with a fibrous wall. Surgical removal of pseudotumors is usually undertaken following diagnosis because the natural history includes continuous enlargement and destruction of the adjacent tissues. Because of the age of the patient and the significant cardiac history, it was considered inappropriate to undertake surgery for the masses in the abdomen which were considered presumptively to be pseudotumors. The clinical, radiological, and pathological aspects of pseudotumor of hemophilia were reviewed. In this case, besides the masses in the abdomen, hemophilic arthropathy of an elbow was illustrated and a soft tissue mass in the right chest wall was demonstrated radiologically and the pathological specimen shown after surgical excision. (orig.)

  5. Late latent syphilis in a patient with end-stage renal disease and presumptive penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Karen T; Day, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacotherapy challenges in a case of late latent syphilis complicated by end-stage renal disease and presumptive penicillin allergy are described. A 58-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital for symptoms including altered mental status, shortness of breath, and chest pain. The initial workup isolated syphilis immunoglobulin G antibody. A treponemal test was reactive, and a nontreponemal test was nonreactive; analysis of cerebrospinal fluid did not indicate neurosyphilis. The patient was diagnosed as having late latent syphilis of unknown duration, for which the standard treatment is intramuscular penicillin G benzathine 2.4 million units once weekly for three weeks. Given the patient's advanced renal disease and other serious comorbidities, there were concerns about the potential need for renal dosage adjustment and repeated desensitization. However, given the slow absorption and long half-life of penicillin G and published data indicating its safe use in the context of hemodialysis, the treating clinicians decided to proceed with penicillin G therapy at the usual dose after an oral penicillin desensitization protocol; repeat desensitization before two subsequent injections was not performed. The patient completed the full course of penicillin G without incident. Notably, skin testing was not performed to definitively establish penicillin allergy. Microbiological testing to determine a cure of syphilis was not performed. After the completion of an oral desensitization protocol, the standard three-dose regimen of intramuscular penicillin G for late latent syphilis was safely administered to a hemodialysis patient without dosage adjustment or repeated desensitization.

  6. Isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Gharai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 30-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with sudden loss of visibility in his left visual field. He had no other systemic symptoms. Perimetry showed left-sided incongruous homonymous hemianopsia denser above the horizontal meridian. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed irregular well-marginated lobulated lesions right temporo-occipital cerebral hemisphere and left high fronto-parietal cerebral hemisphere suggestive of brain tubercular abscess. Serological tests for HIV were reactive, and the patient was started only on anti-tubercular drugs with the presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tubercular abscess. Therapeutic response confirmed the diagnosis. Atypical ophthalmic manifestations may be the initial presenting feature in patients with HIV infection. This highlights the need for increased index of suspicion for HIV infection in young patients with atypical ophthalmic manifestations.

  7. Lancefield grouping and smell of caramel for presumptive identification and assessment of pathogenicity in the Streptococcus milleri group.

    OpenAIRE

    Brogan, O; Malone, J; Fox, C; Whyte, A S

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. METHODS: Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caram...

  8. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho....... We will focus on the consequences of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-beta peptide accumulation in mitochondria and their involvement in AD pathogenesis....

  9. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    on the moderately wealthy. We develop a simple lifecycle model with utility of residual wealth (bequests) allowing us to interpret the evidence in terms of structural primitives. We calibrate the model to the quasi-experimental moments and simulate the model forward to estimate the long-run effect of wealth taxes......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...

  10. High pre-diagnosis attrition among patients with presumptive MDR-TB: an operational research from Bhopal district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kokane, Arun M; Singh, Akash Ranjan; Verma, Manoj; Parmar, Malik; Chauhan, Ashish; Chahar, Sanjay Singh; Tiwari, Manoj; Khan, Sheeba Naz; Gupta, Vivek; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Nagar, Mukesh; Singh, Sanjai Kumar; Mehra, Pradeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajay Mv

    2017-04-04

    Pre-diagnosis attrition needs to be addressed urgently if we are to make progress in improving MDR-TB case detection and achieve universal access to MDR-TB care. We report the pre-diagnosis attrition, along with factors associated, and turnaround times related to the diagnostic pathway among patient with presumptive MDR-TB in Bhopal district, central India (2014). Study was conducted under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting. It was a retrospective cohort study involving record review of all registered TB cases in Bhopal district that met the presumptive MDR-TB criteria (eligible for DST) in 2014. In quarter 1, Line Probe Assay (LPA) was used if sample was smear/culture positive. Quarter 2 onwards, LPA and Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CbNAAT) was used for smear positive and smear negative samples respectively. Pre-diagnosis attrition was defined as failure to undergo DST among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (as defined by the programme). Of 770 patients eligible for DST, 311 underwent DST and 20 patients were diagnosed as having MDR-TB. Pre-diagnosis attrition was 60% (459/770). Among those with pre-diagnosis attrition, 91% (417/459) were not identified as 'presumptive MDR-TB' by the programme. TAT [median (IQR)] to undergo DST after eligibility was 4 (0, 10) days. Attrition was more than 40% across all subgroups. Age more than 64 years; those from a medical college; those eligible in quarter 1; patients with presumptive criteria 'previously treated - recurrent TB', 'treatment after loss-to-follow-up' and 'previously treated-others'; and patients with extra-pulmonary TB were independent risk factors for not undergoing DST. High pre-diagnosis attrition was contributed by failure to identify and refer patients. Attrition reduced modestly with time and one factor that might have contributed to this was introduction of CbNAAT in quarter 2 of 2014. General health system strengthening which includes improvement in

  11. Death by caffeine: presumptive malicious poisoning of a dog by incorporation in ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, S N; Puschner, B; Albin, T; Stump, S; Poppenga, R H

    2012-12-01

    A 4-year-old, 37 kg, male German shepherd developed hyperthermia, tachycardia, and agitation following consumption of ground meat found in the backyard of its owner. When presented to a veterinary clinic, plasma ethylene glycol (EG) testing was positive, and the dog was given ethanol and lactated Ringer's solution intravenously. Approximately 11 h postexposure the dog died. Among tissues submitted for toxicological analysis, urine was negative for EG, ground meat was negative for certain drugs of abuse, and gastric contents were negative for zinc/aluminum phosphide and metaldehyde. Analysis of gastric contents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of caffeine. Caffeine concentration in the ground meat was estimated at 1 %. Caffeine is a methylxanthine alkaloid with a reported canine oral median lethal dose (MLD(50)) of 140 mg/kg (range 120-200 mg/kg). A commercially available 200-mg tablet formulation of caffeine was considered to be a possible source but this was not confirmed. By conservative estimates, the dog would need to ingest approximately 500-550 g of the meat to reach the MLD(50). Acute intoxication affects the cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems. Although no tablet remnants were observed in the bait, tablets could have been crushed and/or dissolved. Other potential caffeine sources include guarana, brewed and concentrated coffee, and caffeine-containing beverages. Based on the history, clinical signs, and the detection of caffeine in the gastric contents and meat, a presumptive diagnosis of malicious caffeine poisoning was made. A suggested treatment regimen for caffeine intoxication in dogs is described. While few cases of accidental ingestion of caffeine by dogs have been described, the intentional use of a concentrated caffeine source to cause mortality in a dog has not been previously reported.

  12. Electrodiagnostic studies in presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy in dogs with reevaluation during hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Elżbieta Gabriela; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef Marian; Wrzosek, Marcin Adam

    2016-05-21

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological manifestation of canine hypothyroidism. Data concerning electrodiagnostic studies in hypothyroid associated polyneuropathy in dogs are very limited and usually lack a reevaluation after hormone replacement therapy. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed, retrospective analysis of electromyographic (EMG), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), F-wave and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) findings in 24 dogs with presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy with a comparison of the results before and after initiation of levothyroxine treatment with the assessment of the clinical outcome. The results obtained from hypothyroid dogs showed a significant reduction in MNCV at a proximal-distal and middle-distal stimulation, decreased amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), an increased CMAP duration and a prolonged distal latency prior to treatment. Fifty percent of the dogs had an increased F-wave latency. A normal BAER recording was found in 78 % of the hypothyroid patients without vestibular impairment. Bilaterally increased peak V latencies and increased interpeak I-V latencies were found in the remaining individuals. Dogs with concurrent vestibular impairment had ipsilaterally increased peak latencies with normal interpeak latencies and decreased amplitudes of wave I and II. A comparison of the findings before and after 2 months of treatment revealed a decrease in the pathological activity on EMG, an improvement of proximal, middle and distal CMAP amplitudes and an increase in the proximal-distal conduction velocity in all dogs. F-wave latency improved in 38 % of dogs. The BAER reexamination revealed a persistent prolongation of peak I, II, III and V latencies and decreased wave I amplitude on the affected side in all dogs manifesting vestibular signs. Conversely, in dogs without vestibular signs, the peak V and interpeak I-V latencies decreased to normal values

  13. Mudanças em regimes industriais e acumulação de capacidades tecnológicas: evidências de empresas de celulose e papel no Brasil Changes in industrial regimes and accumulation of technological capabilities: evidence from pulp and paper firms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Teresa Carvajal García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito da profusão de estudos sobre capacidade tecnológica em nível de empresas ao longo dos últimos 30 anos, há escassez de estudos sobre similaridades e diferenças entre empresas do mesmo setor industrial, em termos de acumulação de capacidades tecnológicas e suas implicações para o aprimoramento de indicadores de performance técnico-econômica ao longo de diferentes regimes industriais, especialmente no contexto de países de industrialização recente, como é o caso do Brasil. Baseando-se em evidências de primeira mão colhidas à base de extensivos trabalhos de campo, este artigo examina essas questões em três grandes empresas de celulose e papel no Brasil (1970-2004. O estudo encontrou: (1 Diferenças inter e intraempresariais em termos da maneira e velocidade de acumulação de capacidades para funções tecnológicas específicas ao longo dos diferentes períodos; (2 Tais diferenças refletiram-se, com diferentes graus de intensidade, no aprimoramento dos indicadores de performance técnico-econômica; (3 As empresas responderam positivamente às mudanças para uma economia aberta partir dos anos 1990; (4 Porém, os aprimoramentos em seus indicadores de performance técnico-econômica não derivaram das mudanças do regime industrial per se, mas, principalmente, dos seus esforços internos para acumulação tecnológica.Despite the profusion of studies of firm-level technological capabilities studies, over the past 30 years, there is a scarcity of analyses on similarities and differences across firms, of the same industrial sector, in terms of types and levels, direction and rate of accumulation of technological capabilities and their implications for the improvement of techno-economic performance across different industrial regimes, especially in the context of late-industrializing countries, as it is the case of Brazil. Based on first-hand qualitative and quantitative empirical evidence, collected on the basis of

  14. Comparison of clinical signs and outcomes between dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy and dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Joe; Drees, Randi; Volk, Holger A; De Decker, Steven

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs and outcomes between dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy and dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE). DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 51 dogs with ischemic myelopathy and 42 dogs with ANNPE examined at 1 referral hospital. PROCEDURES Medical records and MRI sequences were reviewed for dogs with a presumptive antemortem diagnosis of ischemic myelopathy or ANNPE. Information regarding signalment, clinical signs at initial examination, and short-term outcome was retrospectively retrieved from patient records. Long-term outcome information was obtained by telephone communication with referring or primary-care veterinarians and owners. RESULTS Compared with the hospital population, English Staffordshire Bull Terriers and Border Collies were overrepresented in the ischemic myelopathy and ANNPE groups, respectively. Dogs with ANNPE were significantly older at disease onset and were more likely to have a history of vocalization at onset of clinical signs, have spinal hyperesthesia during initial examination, have a lesion at C1-C5 spinal cord segments, and be ambulatory at hospital discharge, compared with dogs with ischemic myelopathy. Dogs with ischemic myelopathy were more likely to have a lesion at L4-S3 spinal cord segments and have long-term fecal incontinence, compared with dogs with ANNPE. However, long-term quality of life and outcome did not differ between dogs with ischemic myelopathy and dogs with ANNPE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results revealed differences in clinical signs at initial examination between dogs with ischemic myelopathy and dogs with ANNPE that may aid clinicians in differentiating the 2 conditions.

  15. 20 CFR 404.722 - Rebuttal of a presumption of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.722 Rebuttal of a... continued life rather than death. Example 1: Evidence in a claim for surviving child's benefits showed that... wife several days after the disappearance to state he intended to begin a new life in California. In...

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  17. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  18. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  19. [A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Fujii, Shigehisa; Shirakawa, Seiji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Nishii, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    A presumption calculating formula of the X-ray spectrum generated from a molybdenum target X-ray tube is presented. The calculation procedure is to add an amount of characteristic X-ray photons that corresponds to the ratio of characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons to the bremsstrahlung spectrum obtained using semiempirical calculation. The bremsstrahlung spectrum was calculated by using a corrected Tucker's formula. The corrected content was a formula for calculating the self-absorption length in the target that originated in the difference of the incident angle to the target of the electron and the mass stopping power data. The measured spectrum was separated into the bremsstrahlung component and the characteristic photon component, and the ratio of the characteristic photons and bremsstrahlung photons was obtained. The regression was derived from the function of the tube voltage. Based on this calculation procedure, computer software was constructed that can calculate an X-ray spectrum in arbitrary exposure conditions. The X-ray spectrum obtained from this presumption calculating formula and the measured X-ray spectrum corresponded well. This formula is very useful for analyzing various problems related to mammography by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  1. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  2. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  3. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  4. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  5. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  6. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  7. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na + ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na + accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na + accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na + accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl - accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na + accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na + than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na + accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na + , and all of the observed increase in K + concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl - in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na + . QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na + accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na + uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl - accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na + under genetic control, or is Cl - (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl - accumulation to find Cl - QTL

  8. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    The Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach, initially developed for the assessment of microorganisms referred to EFSA and added to the food chain is equally applicable to the assessment of botanicals or botanical preparations. Using the principles to establish the suitability of a botanical...... preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... of the assessment scheme to related botanicals or different botanical preparations obtained from the same plant variety can allow a QPS status to be derived for specific groupings. However, the particularity of botanicals that may be presented in a wide variety of forms or whose morphology and chemical composition...

  9. Presumptive meningoencephalitis secondary to extension of otitis media/interna caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Daniels, Joshua B

    2011-08-01

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic longhair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a central vestibular lesion and left Horner's syndrome. Computed tomography images revealed hyperattenuating, moderately contrast-enhancing material within the left tympanic bulla, most consistent with left otitis media/interna. Marked neutrophilic pleocytosis was identified on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Intracranial extension of otitis media/interna is relatively infrequent in small animals. There are no reports of otitis media/interna caused by SEZ in dogs or cats. This is the first report of otitis media/interna and presumptive secondary meningoencephalitis caused by SEZ in a cat. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differentiation of presumptive primordial germ cell (pPGC)-like cells in explants into PGCs in experimental tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenishi, K.; Okuda, T.; Nakazato, S.

    1984-05-01

    A single blastomere containing the ''germ plasm'' of 32-cell stage Xenopus embryos was cultured with (/sup 3/H)thymidine until the control embryos developed to the neurula stage. The explants, showing a spherical mass in which the nuclei of all cells were labeled, were implanted into the prospective place of presumptive primordial germ cells (pPGCs) in the endodermal cell mass of unlabeled host embryos of the neurula stage. Labeled PGCs as well as unlabeled, host PGCs were found in the genital ridges of experimental tadpoles. This indicates that the precursor of germ cells, corresponding to pPGCs in normal embryos of the neurula stage, in the explants migrated to genital ridges just at the right moment to become PGCs, and suggests that the developmental process progressed normally, even in the explants, as far as the differentiation of pPGCs is concerned.

  11. Medical professionals convicted of accessing child pornography--presumptive lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice? Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate [2007] NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos [2006] MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.

  12. Further studies on the reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test for the presumptive identification of Lancefield group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D J; McGhie, D; Tebbutt, G M

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test to differentiate between 125 Lancefield group A and 122 non-group A beta-haemolytic streptococci was studied. Bacitracin discs containing 0-02, 0-04, or 0-1 international units and the conditions recommended by both the Association of Clinical Pathologists and the Federal Drug Administration for routine sensitivity testing were used. The results suggest that the presence or absence of a zone of inhibition around a 0-04 unit disc can be used routinely for the presumptive identification of group A streptococci and that a specific zone size can be used for reading the test only with a 0-1 unit disc. PMID:325019

  13. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A; Fontaine, Kevin R; Heymsfield, Steven; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P K; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths." Here, we present nine myths and 10 presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breastfeeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e., yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about the obesity domain.

  14. Lancefield grouping and smell of caramel for presumptive identification and assessment of pathogenicity in the Streptococcus milleri group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, O; Malone, J; Fox, C; Whyte, A S

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caramel smell for presumptive identification was examined, and the relation of the S milleri species, Lancefield group, and SDS-PAGE protein analysis to severity of infection and infection site was investigated. Lower respiratory tract and genital tract specimens, strict anaerobes, group D streptococci, and strains identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae were excluded. Most streptococci occurring in pure or significant growth density were S milleri group (87/100; 87%, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93). Of these, 89.7% (78/87; 0.84-0.96) were associated with infection. Lancefield group F antigen predominated (41/87; 47.1%, 0.38-0.56). Lancefield group F alone or accompanied by the caramel smell had a specificity of 100%, but a sensitivity of only 47.3% for group F alone, and 19.5% for group F accompanied by the caramel smell. There was no significant association between species, Lancefield group, and severity of infection, site of infection, or pathogenicity. SDS-PAGE analysis failed to discriminate between strains. Neither species nor Lancefield antigen was related to the site of infection. The presence of Lancefield group F antigen alone or accompanied by a caramel smell was a useful indicator for the S milleri group when present, but was too insensitive to use as a screening test. Most streptococci occurring in pure culture or in significant growth density were of clinical importance. Such organisms should be identified to species level to

  15. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  17. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  18. 20 CFR 410.414 - Determining the existence of pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or...) However, where the evidence shows a work history reflecting many years of such coal mine employment...) of this section, a finding of total disability due to pneumoconiosis may be made if other relevant...

  19. Presumptions for creating the family - friendly organisation at university in the terms of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sidlauskienė, Virginija

    2011-01-01

    In the Lithuania, particularly since 1998 there has been increased activity in developing equal opportunities legislation and, consequently, in the field of organizational equality between women and men equality policy making. Most academic systems and structures as they exist today are based on models that were constructed centuries ago in a time in which universities were exclusively populated by men. There is a level of scepticisms as to what can be achieved, though. A continuing evident g...

  20. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  1. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  2. The extracellular matrix of porcine mature oocytes: Origin, composition and presumptive roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivko Juraj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM of porcine mature oocytes was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM after treatment with tannic acid and ruthenium red. Present in the perivitelline space (PVS and on the surface of the zona pellucida (ZP, it appeared to be composed of thin filaments and granules at the interconnections of the filaments, which were interpreted respectively as hyaluronic acid chains and bound proteoglycans. In order to determine whether this material is produced by the corona cells (the same ECM was found also on the surface of the zona pellucida and between cumulus cells or by the oocyte itself, the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans was checked by autoradiography on semi-thin and thin sections observed by light and electron microscopy. Immature oocytes within or without cumulus cells, were incubated with L [3H-] fucose or L [3H-] glucosamine – precursors respectively of glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA bound to proteoglycans – for various times (with or without chase and at different stages during in vitro maturation. In the first case, incorporation was found in both cumulus cells and ooplasm (notably in the Golgi area for 3H-fucose and labeled material accumulated in the ECM of the PVS and of the ZP surface. Labeling in the PVS with both precursors was maximum between metaphase I (MI and metaphase II (MII and was partially extracted by hyaluronidase but not by neuraminidase. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, significantly decreased the amount of 3H-fucose labeled molecules in the PVS and increased the incidence of polyspermic penetration during subsequent in vivo fertilization. Since cumulus-free oocytes also secreted 3H-glucosamine containing compounds, both oocyte and cumulus cells probably contribute to the production of the ECM found in the PVS of mature oocytes. ECM and particularly its HA moiety present on both sides of the ZP may constitute a

  3. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  4. One swallow does not a summer make but many swallows do: accumulating clinical evidence for nearly-eliminated peri-procedural and 30-day complications with mesh-covered stents transforms the carotid revascularisation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Musiałek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis (CS continues to be a common cause of acute ischaemic stroke. Optimised medical therapy (OMT, the first-line treatment modality in CS, may reduce or delay – but it does not abolish – CS-related strokes. As per current AHA/ASA and ESC/ESVS/ESO guidelines, carotid artery stenting (CAS is a less-invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA for CS revascularisation in primary and secondary stroke prevention. Ten-year follow-up from the CREST trial in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CS confirmed equipoise of CAS and CEA in the primary endpoint. Nevertheless CAS – using a widely open-cell, first-generation stent and first-generation (distal/filter neuroprotection – has been criticised for its relative excess of (mostly minor strokes by 30 days, a significant proportion of which were post-procedural. Atherosclerotic plaque protrusion through conventional carotid stent struts, confirmed on intravascular imaging, has been implicated as a leading mechanism of the relative excess of strokes with CAS vs. CEA, including delayed strokes with CAS. Different designs of mesh-covered carotid stents have been developed to prevent plaque prolapse. Several multi-centre/multi-specialty clinical studies with CGurad MicroNet-Covered Embolic Prevention Stent System (EPS and RoadSaver/Casper were recently published and included routine DW-MRI cerebral imaging peri-procedurally and at 30 days (CGuard EPS. Data from more than 550 patients in mesh-covered carotid stent clinical studies to-date show an overall 30-day complication rate of ~1% with near-elimination of post-procedural events. While more (and long-term evidence is still anticipated, these results – taken together with optimised intra-procedural neuroprotection in CAS (increased use of proximal systems including trans-carotid dynamic flow reversal and the positive 12-month mesh-covered stent data reports in 2017 – are transforming the carotid

  5. Health centre versus home presumptive diagnosis of malaria in southern Ghana: implications for home-based care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyo, S K; Afari, E A; Koram, K A; Ahorlu, C K; Abubakar, I; Nkrumah, F K

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1997 to compare the accuracy of presumptive diagnosis of malaria in children aged 1-9 years performed by caretakers of the children to that of health centre staff in 2 ecological zones in southern Ghana. Similar symptoms were reported in the children at home and at the health centre. In the home setting, symptoms were reported the same day that they occurred, 77.6% of the children with a report of fever were febrile (axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C) and 64.7% of the reports of malaria were parasitologically confirmed. In the health centre, the median duration of symptoms before a child was seen was 3 days (range 1-14 days), 58.5% of the children with a report of fever were febrile and 62.6% of the clinically diagnosed cases were parasitologically confirmed. In the 2 settings almost all the infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite density was 3 times higher in the health centre cases compared to the home-diagnosed cases. Early and appropriate treatment of malaria detected in children by caretakers may prevent complications that arise as a result of persistence of symptoms and attainment of high parasitaemic levels.

  6. Cost of presumptive source term Remedial Actions Laboratory for energy-related health research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Josephson, G.B.; Lanigan, D.C.; Liikala, T.L.; Newcomer, D.R.; Pearson, A.W.; Teel, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is in progress at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis. The purpose of the RI/FS is to gather sufficient information to support an informed risk management decision regarding the most appropriate remedial actions for impacted areas of the facility. In an effort to expedite remediation of the LEHR facility, the remedial project managers requested a more detailed evaluation of a selected set of remedial actions. In particular, they requested information on both characterization and remedial action costs. The US Department of Energy -- Oakland Office requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to prepare order-of-magnitude cost estimates for presumptive remedial actions being considered for the five source term operable units. The cost estimates presented in this report include characterization costs, capital costs, and annual operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs. These cost estimates are intended to aid planning and direction of future environmental remediation efforts

  7. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  8. [Presumptive identification of Cryptococcus gattii isolated from Terminalia catappa in Montería city, Córdoba, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Orfa Inés; Aycardi Morinelli, María Paulina; Alarcón Furnieles, Jany Luz; Jaraba Ramos, Aparicio Manuel

    2011-01-01

    the members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex are responsible for cryptococcosis in animals and humans. Human infection is thought to be acquired by inhalation of airborne propagules from an environmental source; therefore it is greatly important to study their habitat. to determine the ecological relationship of Cryptococcus gattii with Terminalia catappa trees present in urban areas of Montería city in Colombia. a total of 163 Terminalia catappa trees were selected; some samples were taken from the bark, the leaves, the flowers, the fruits of these trees and from the surrounding soil. The yeast was isolated using the Guizotia abyssinica seed agar medium; it was identified thanks to biochemical and morphologic tests whereas the right variety was determined by L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB), D-proline and D-tryptophan tests. there was obtained 9.050 CFU/g isolate of Cryptococcus spp., 5.795 CFU/g of which were presumptively identified as Cryptococcus gattii. The highest percentage of isolates was found in flowers, followed by bark and fruits, presenting small cellular and capsular sizes. These isolates were more frequent in the south of the city, followed by the center zone and the lowest percentage in the northern zone. these findings confirmed the close relationship of Cryptococcus gattii and Terminalia catappa, being this the first study conducted in Monteria city. These results give us meaningful information for understanding and analyzing the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Monteria city, Colombia.

  9. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Insect sex chromosomes. VI. A presumptive hyperactivation of the male X chromosome in Acheta domesticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S R; Ali, S

    1982-01-01

    The functional status of the X chromosome in Acheta domesticus has been analysed at the whole chromosome level on the basis of (1) 3H-thymidine autoradiography, (2) 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence microscopy (3) in vivo 5-BrdU incorporation and (4) 3H-UdR induced aberrations. The rationale of these techniques in relation to the functional aspect of the X chromosome is that the inactive X chromosome would (1) show asynchrony in DNA synthesis, (2) show differential fluorescence, (3) respond differentially to in vivo 5-BrdU treatment and (4) the active X chromosome would show aberrations when treated with 3H-Uridine. From the results, it appears that the X chromosomes in both male (XO) and female (XX) somatic cells of Acheta are euchromatic (active). Further, the single X in the male is transcriptionally as active as the two X chromosomes in the female. In other words, the single X in the male is hyperactive when compared with the single X in the female. From this it is inferred that the male X chromosome is differentially regulated in order to bring about an equalization of it's gene product(s) to that produced by both Xs in the female. Drosophila melanogaster has a comparable system of dosage compensation. Thus, Acheta is yet another insect showing evidence for an X chromosome regulatory mechanism of dosage compensation. Additionally, it is surmised that sex determination in Acheta is based on an autosomes/X chromosome balance mechanism.

  11. The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Trees; de Ruyter, Doret J

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or prevention of radicalization on the other hand. METHOD: This article is a theoretical literature review. It has analyzed empirical studies-mainly from European countries-about the educational aims, content and style of Muslim parents and parents with (extreme) right-wing sympathies. RESULTS: Research examining similarity in right-wing sympathies between parents and children yields mixed results, but studies among adolescents point to a significant concordance. Research also showed that authoritarian parenting may play a significant role. Similar research among Muslim families was not found. While raising children with distrust and an authoritarian style are prevalent, the impact on adolescents has not been investigated. The empirical literature we reviewed does not give sufficient evidence to conclude that democratic ideal in and an authoritative style of education are conducive to the development of a democratic attitude. CONCLUSION: There is a knowledge gap with regard to the influence of education on the onset or the prevention of radicalization. Schools and families are underappreciated sources of informal social control and social capital and therefore the gap should be closed. If there is a better understanding of the effect of education, policy as well as interventions can be developed to assist parents and teachers in preventing radicalization.

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T; Echeverri, Carolina; Alvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra; Pareja, Luis René

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass.

  13. La noción de presunción más allá del Derecho = The notion of presumption beyond the field of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Es bien conocido que las presunciones juegan un papel de gran importancia en el campo del Derecho. Ahora bien, tal vez no lo es tanto que presunción es una noción que se estudia con un valor en cierta medida diferente más allá de las fronteras de esta disciplina, en campos como la Teoría de la Argumentación, la Epistemología y la Pragmática. En este artículo nos proponemos, de un lado, ofrecer una visión general de qué se entiende por presunción en dichos campos de estudio y, de otro, dar unas pinceladas acerca de su vinculación con la noción jurídica.Abstract: It is common knowledge that presumptions play a paramount role within the field of Law. Nonetheless, it may not be widely known that presumption is a notion that is studied with a partly different meaning beyond the boundaries of this subject, in fields of knowledge such as Argumentation Theory, Epistemology and Pragmatics. In this paper we aim to briefly present what presumption stands for in these fields of knowledge and give some hints on the way in which these uses are related to the legal notion.

  14. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  15. Accumulation of radiation defects in peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyj, A.F.; Panin, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    EPR and NMR evidence on the mechanism of accumulation of γ-irradiation induced defects in molecules has been obtained. Free radicals resulting from the initial radiation-chemical process take part in secondary radical reactions. Data on limiting concentrations of paramagnetic centres appearing by irradiation by particles with different ionization loss values and spur parameters can be helpful for solving problems connected with the effect of large irradiation doses on materials and with the efficiency of radiation destruction of low molecular and polymer compounds

  16. Gene Xpert for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Stool Specimens from Children with Presumptive Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Husseiny Sh; Bayoumi, Faten Sayed; Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Gene Xpert(GX) is a novel real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which was endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and susceptibility to refampicin(RIF). To evaluate GX for direct diagnosis of TB in stool samples from children with suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Children older than one year and younger than 16 years with presumptive PTB were enrolled and classified to five clinical categories based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings: confirmed TB, probable TB, possible TB, Unlikely TB, and not TB. Two stool samples were collected from each child and tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by GX and the obtained results were compared to Lowenstien-Jensen (LJ) culture as a gold standard. In total, 115 children were enrolled. 36 had been confirmed with TB, 61 probably TB, 10 possible TB, 5 unlikely TB, and 3 not TB. GX had a sensitivity of 83.33 and 80.56 % and specificity of 98.73 and 99.36 % by patients and samples respectively. GX was positive in 83.3% of confirmed TB as well as 1.6 and 0.8% of probable TB cases by patients and samples respectively. GX provided timely results with quit acceptable sensitivity and good specificity compared to LJ culture. In this study, sensitivity calculations take into account only children with confirmed TB. GX could not detect TB in children with probable TB, so it should not be used alone for TB diagnosis. Further studies for GX stool protocol optimization and assessment is required. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  18. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  19. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    between sites. Our results underscore the element and taxa specific nature of trace element accumulation, but we provide evidence of accumulation of some trace elements differing among dragonflies that differ in body form and utilize different sub-habitats within a stream reach.

  20. Decision of Habeas Corpus n. 126.292: Relativization of the Principle of Presumption of Innocence and the Constitutional Jurisdiction in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton da Cunha Iribure Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the breach of the presumption of innocence with the anticipation of the sentence before the final judgment of conviction, in a recent decision of the Supreme Court. Adopted documentary analytical methodology. Assumes that fundamental rights are not absolute and must be relativized. Deals with the constitutional jurisdiction in this perspective and the limits of the judicial role in the exercise of interpretation of the law. One of the conclusions is that the relativization of fundamental rights in Brazil follows tendency to give in proceedings other than the Constitutional Court.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Test-Based versus Presumptive Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children under Five Years in an Area of High Transmission in Central Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Baiden, Frank

    2016-01-01

    (ACT) in all suspected malaria patients. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) would make it possible for prescribers to diagnose malaria at point-of-care and better target the use of antimalarials. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the introduction of m......RDTs for management of malaria in under-five children in a high transmission area in Ghana where presumptive diagnosis was the norm in public health centres. Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled trial where thirty-two health centres were randomised into test-based diagnosis of malaria using mRDTs (intervention...

  2. Lipid accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) controls intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes, but it is not known whether ALP .... glutamine, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum and 100 U/ml penicillin ..... by a cascade of transcription factor gene expression.34. Evidence that ALP acts ...

  3. Can Observation Skills of Citizen Scientists Be Estimated Using Species Accumulation Curves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Kelling

    Full Text Available Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project's tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project's outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating in a citizen science projects results in volunteers becoming better observers. Here we present a method for indexing observer variability based on the data routinely submitted by observers participating in the citizen science project eBird, a broad-scale monitoring project in which observers collect and submit lists of the bird species observed while birding. Our method for indexing observer variability uses species accumulation curves, lines that describe how the total number of species reported increase with increasing time spent in collecting observations. We find that differences in species accumulation curves among observers equates to higher rates of species accumulation, particularly for harder-to-identify species, and reveals increased species accumulation rates with continued participation. We suggest that these properties of our analysis provide a measure of observer skill, and that the potential to derive post-hoc data-derived measurements of participant ability should be more widely explored by analysts of data from citizen science projects. We see the potential for inferential results from analyses of citizen science data to be improved by accounting for observer skill.

  4. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  5. GIFTED STUDENTS AND HUMAN CAPITAL ACCUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIPOVSKÁ, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth and well-being of the nation increasingly depends on the human capital. In our study we offer original findings based on our survey Talent 2016. We try to identify who the talented students are, which background they did come from and how the family background influenced them. Our paper provides clear evidence of human capital intergenerational transmission. The vertical immobility in the same generation as well as the vertical mobility between generations was observed. Most of the gifted students came from the complete highly educated families with tradition in their field of interest and long positive attitudes toward accumulating the knowledge. Contrarily, the role of the teachers in the support and guidance is negligible. We have shown that there is close relation between the gifted children premature reading ability and the accumulation of the human capital in their families. The same is valid for the attendance of the 8-years grammar schools. Based on our dataset, we do not observe the Galtonian regression toward the mean. For the future economic growth there must be offered a helping hand for the talented children with less educated family background.

  6. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  7. Presumptive myocarditis with ST-Elevation myocardial infarction presentation in young males as a new syndrome. Clinical significance and long term follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tritto Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocarditis may mimic myocardial infarction, since affected patients complain of "typical" chest pain, the ECG changes are identical to those observed in acute coronary syndromes, and serum markers are increased. We describe a case series of presumptive myocarditis with ST segment elevation on admission ECG. Methods and Results From 1998 to 2009, 21 patients (20 males; age 17-42 years were admitted with chest pain, persistent ST segment elevation, serum enzyme and troponine release. All but one patients had fever and flu-like symptoms prior to admission. No abnormal Q wave appeared in any ECG tracing, and angiography did not show significant coronary artery disease. Patients remained asymptomatic at long term follow-up, except 2 who experienced a late relapse, with the same clinical, electrocardiographic and serum findings as in the first clinical presentation. Conclusion Presumptive myocarditis of possible viral origin characterized by ST elevation mimicking myocardial infarction, good short term prognosis and some risk for recurrence is relatively frequent in young males and appears as a distinct clinical condition.

  8. Camalexin accumulation in Arabis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, M; Leege, L; Jacobson, D; Hammerschmidt, R

    1998-12-01

    Inoculation of leaves of Arabis lyrata with either a bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola strain ES4326 or Cochliobolus carbonum, a fungal nonpathogen of A. lyrata, resulted in the accumulation of a compound with similar chromatographic and fluorescent properties to that of camalexin (I), a phytoalexin produced by Arabidopsis thaliana. A. lyrata is closely related to A. thaliana. High resolution electron impact mass spectroscopic and proton NMR analysis confirmed that the compound produced by A. lyrata is camalexin.

  9. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  10. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, PK; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J.; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L.; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as “presumptions” and the latter as “myths”. Here we present nine myths and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breast-feeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the “Freshman 15”; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight-loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about obesity domain. PMID:24950157

  11. Effect of Test-Based versus Presumptive Treatment of Malaria in Under-Five Children in Rural Ghana--A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Frank; Bruce, Jane; Webster, Jayne; Tivura, Mathilda; Delmini, Rupert; Amengo-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are shifting from the presumptive approach that is based on clinical judgement (CJ) to the test-based approach that is based on confirmation through test with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). It has been suggested that the loss of the prophylactic effect of presumptive-administered ACT in children who do not have malaria will result in increase in their risk of malaria and anaemia. We undertook a cluster-randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of the presumptive approach using clinical judgment (CJ-arm) and the test-based approach using RDTs (RDT-arm in a high-transmission setting in Ghana. A total of 3046 eligible children (1527 in the RDT arm and 1519 in the CJ- arm) living around 32 health centres were enrolled. Nearly half were female (48.7%) and 47.8% were below the age of 12 months as at enrolment. Over 24-months, the incidence of all episodes of malaria following the first febrile illness was 0.64 (95% CI 0.49-0.82) and 0.76 (0.63-0.93) per child per year in the RDT and CJ arms respectively (adjusted rate ratio 1.13 (0.82-1.55). After the first episode of febrile illness, the incidence of severe anaemia was the same in both arms (0.11 per child per year) and that of moderate anaemia was 0.16 (0.13-0.21) vs. 0.17 (0.14-0.21) per child year respectively. The incidence of severe febrile illness was 0.15 (0.09, 0.24) in the RDT arm compared to 0.17 (0.11, 0.28) per child per year respectively. The proportion of fever cases receiving ACT was lower in the RDT arm (72% vs 81%; p = 0.02). The test-based approach to the management of malaria did not increase the incidence of malaria or anaemia among under-five children in this setting. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00832754.

  12. Metabolic encephalopathy and lipid storage myopathy associated with a presumptive mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Biegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurologic examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurologic signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy.

  13. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  14. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  16. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  17. Energy accumulation in photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, G.

    1988-01-01

    The photovoltaic demonstration plant, DELPHOS, in Manfredonia, Italy, is described. The plant was designed to produce 1.2 MW peak. This report assesses the performance, after one year of operation, of the first 300 kW section, developed by ENEA (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energies). This section, not equipped with a D.C. converter, uses a set of fixed photovoltaic panels which supplies an isolated user installation or connects to the national grid. The site of the pilot plant receives 58% of maximum theoretical sunlight. The accumulator set consists of 250 elements in series (500 V nominal voltage) which can put out 2500 A-hours (10 hour discharge period). The camp is subdivided into 6 blocks of 50 kW peak nominal power. In total, 5760 modules, comprising about 300,000 silicon cells, were used. Different makes of polycrystalline cells were chosen to allow comparative evaluation.

  18. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  19. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  20. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  1. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  2. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...... such that the material parameters which influence charge accumulation are clearly identified; viz. the conductivity, permittivity and dimensions of the insulating media. The two former parameters, together with the applied voltage, govern both the magnitude and polarity of the accumulated charge....

  3. Leg fluid accumulation during prolonged sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Rubianto, Jonathan; Popovic, Milos; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of fluid in the legs due to sedentariness can be a health risk in extreme cases. Negative health impacts associated with leg fluid accumulation include leg edema and risk of blood clots. Furthermore, fluid accumulating in the legs is accompanied by fluid shift into the upper body which is also associated with health risks such as: increased blood pressure when lying down, respiratory problems in people with heart failure, and increased sleep apnea. Understanding the pattern by which fluid accumulates in the legs can aid in the development of devices for reducing leg fluid accumulation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of fluid accumulation over a two-and-half-hour seated period. Non-obese participants with sleep apnea and no other co-morbidities were included in the sample as part of a larger study. Leg fluid was measured continuously using a method of bioelectrical impedance. Participants were first asked to lie supine for 30 minutes as a washout, and then sat with their legs still for two and a half hours. The main finding of this study is that the pattern of leg fluid accumulation differed in the first 45 minutes compared to the latter 105 minutes. In the first 45 minutes, fluid accumulated according to first order exponential function. In the latter period, fluid accumulated according to a linear function. The initial exponential accumulation is likely due to the large increase in capillary pressure caused by rapid blood flow into the legs due to gravity, leading to substantial filtration of blood plasma into the tissue spaces. The latter linear portion likely represents continued slow filtration of fluid out of the vasculature and into the tissue spaces. This is the first study to show that fluid accumulation in the legs is a combination of an exponential and linear functions. The linear increase identifies that there is no foreseeable point in which leg fluid stops accumulating while sitting for prolonged periods.

  4. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  5. Potential risks, prognostic indicators, and diagnostic and treatment modalities affecting survival in dogs with presumptive aspiration pneumonia: 125 cases (2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart, Kelly M; Babski, Danielle M; Lee, Justine A

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate a clinical population of dogs diagnosed with presumptive aspiration pneumonia (AP) and determine diagnostic and treatment modalities contributing to survival. Retrospective study. A university veterinary teaching hospital in an urban setting. One hundred and twenty-five dogs with presumed AP treated from 2005 to 2008. None. Dogs with presumptive AP identified by a review of medical records had an overall survival of 81.6% (102/125). Male large-breed dogs (mean 24.9 kg; 82/125) were overrepresented and were more likely to develop AP in this study population. Recent anesthesia had been performed in 16% (20/125), and vomiting was reported in 64% (80/125). The most common radiographic findings were a predominantly alveolar pattern (187/272, [68.8%] total lung lobes) in the right middle lung lobe (80/115, [69.6%]). A mean of 2 lung lobes were involved radiographically, and the relationship between survival and the number of lung lobes affected was statistically significant (P=0.04). Neutrophilia with a left shift was common with no significant change on consecutive daily evaluations. The mean PaO(2) was 77.7 mm Hg (SD, 17.5 mm Hg) (range, 40.7-100 mm Hg) with a median alveolar-arterial gradient of 41.1 mm Hg (range, 8.1-81.8 mm Hg). In this study population, 37.6% (47/125) of dogs had microbial cultures performed and of these, 76.6% (36/47) were positive for growth; Escherichia coli (38.8%), Mycoplasma spp. (21.3%), Pasturella spp. (19.1%), and Staphylococcus spp. (17%) were the most common isolates in either single or multiagent infections. No treatment modality was statistically associated with increased survival. Colloid therapy was a negative prognostic indicator. In this study the overall prognosis for AP was good. Patients with only 1 affected lung lobe appeared more likely to survive. Supportive treatment modalities are warranted for the hospitalized patient, although no individual treatment method was found to be clearly superior to others.

  6. [Job crisis and transformations in the new model of accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerda-Sarmiento, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    The general and structural crisis capitalism is going through is the token of the difficulties accumulation model has been dealing with since 70's in developed countries. This model has been trying to settle down again on the basis of neoliberal principle and a new technical-economical paradigm. The new accumulation pattern has had a effect in employment sphere which have been made evident at all the elements that constitute work relationships. In Colombia, this model implementation has been partial and segmented. However, its consequences (and the long-term current crisis) have been evident in unemployment, precarious work, segmentation, informal work and restricted and private health insurance. Besides, financial accumulation makes labour profits flow at different levels. The economic model current government has aimed to implement leads to strengthening exports, so making population life conditions more difficult. In order to overcome the current state of affairs, the work sphere needs to become more creative. This creative approach should look for new schemes for expression and mobilization of work sphere's claims. This is supposed to be done by establishing a different economic model aimed to build a more inclusive future, with social justice.

  7. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deposition of rough papers, plastics, bottles and other non- biodegradable household refuse (Still and Foxon, 2012). It has been reported that household refuse can contribute, on average, to a 15% increase in the sludge accumulation rate in pit latrines. (Still, 2002). Sludge accumulation rates vary between countries.

  8. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyses the historical data through a triangular matrix of capital accumulation, state reproduction and planning strategies and popular movements pressurizing to benefit from demanded land usages. Capital accumulation is viewed as a process through which wealth produced by labour accrues both to owners ...

  9. Incremental detection of pulmonary tuberculosis among presumptive patients by GeneXpert MTB/RIF® over fluorescent microscopy in Mwanza, Tanzania: an operational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Seni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory confirmation among presumptive tuberculosis (PTB patients is pivotal in ensuring prompt management. Limited information exists in Tanzania regarding the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® in comparison with conventional methods. An operational study was conducted involving 806 PTB patients at Sekou Toure Hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania from June to November 2013. Patients’ information was obtained and their respective sputum samples analyzed by lightemitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED FM and GeneXpert MTB/RIF®. The mean age of study participants was 39.6±16.0 years, with males accounting for 50.5%. The majority of patients (97.5% were new cases. The proportions of PTB patients confirmed by LED FM and GeneXpert MTB/RIF® were 14.1% (114/806 and 23.7% (191/806 respectively, resulting into a 9.6% incremental detection rate by GeneXpert MTB/RIF® over LED FM. The detection rate among HIV positive individuals was also higher [23.6% (63/267 vs 14.2% (38/267, respectively], with an incremental detection of 9.4%. The incremental detection of PTB by GeneXpert MTB/RIF® over LED FM calls for expansion of its use to increase detection of smear negative PTB among people living with HIV.

  10. Comprehensive Laboratory Evaluation of a Highly Specific Lateral Flow Assay for the Presumptive Identification of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Suspicious White Powders and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Jason G; Prentice, Kristin W; DePalma, Lindsay; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S; Chivukula, Sruti; Chapman, Carol; Bell, Melissa; Datta, Shomik; Singh, Ajay; Hoffmaster, Alex; Sarwar, Jawad; Parameswaran, Nishanth; Joshi, Mrinmayi; Thirunavkkarasu, Nagarajan; Krishnan, Viswanathan; Morse, Stephen; Avila, Julie R; Sharma, Shashi; Estacio, Peter L; Stanker, Larry; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran P

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive, multiphase laboratory evaluation of the Anthrax BioThreat Alert(®) test strip, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis spores. The study, conducted at 2 sites, evaluated this assay for the detection of spores from the Ames and Sterne strains of B. anthracis, as well as those from an additional 22 strains. Phylogenetic near neighbors, environmental background organisms, white powders, and environmental samples were also tested. The Anthrax LFA demonstrated a limit of detection of about 10(6) spores/mL (ca. 1.5 × 10(5) spores/assay). In this study, overall sensitivity of the LFA was 99.3%, and the specificity was 98.6%. The results indicated that the specificity, sensitivity, limit of detection, dynamic range, and repeatability of the assay support its use in the field for the purpose of qualitatively evaluating suspicious white powders and environmental samples for the presumptive presence of B. anthracis spores.

  11. Comprehensive laboratory evaluation of a specific lateral flow assay for the presumptive identification of abrin in suspicious white powders and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Jason G; Prentice, Kristin Willner; Morse, Stephen A; Carter, Andrew J; Datta, Shomik; Drumgoole, Rahsaan; Gargis, Shaw R; Griffin-Thomas, Latoya; Hastings, Rebecca; Masri, Heather P; Reed, Matthew S; Sharma, Shashi K; Singh, Ajay K; Swaney, Erin; Swanson, Tanya; Gauthier, Cheryl; Toney, Denise; Pohl, Jan; Shakamuri, Priyanka; Stuchlik, Olga; Elder, Ian A; Estacio, Peter L; Garber, Eric A E; Hojvat, Sally; Kellogg, Richard B; Kovacs, Gerald; Stanker, Larry; Weigel, Linda; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran P

    2014-01-01

    Abrin is a heterodimeric toxin present in the seeds of the Abrus precatorius plant. The easily obtainable seeds can yield a highly toxic product that can be used in various types of biocrimes and terrorism-related activities, including "white-powder" letters. Although the vast majority of these threats are hoaxes, the lack of rapid and reliable detection assays for abrin, such as lateral flow assays (LFAs), can be an impediment to accurate and rapid hazard assessment. One of the complicating factors associated with LFAs is the use of antibodies of poor affinity and specificity that cross-react with near neighbors or that bind to plant lectins, which are capable of nonspecifically cross-linking the capture and detector antibodies. Because of the critical need to promote public safety and public health, we conducted a comprehensive laboratory evaluation of a commercial LFA for the rapid detection of abrin. This study was conducted using comprehensive inclusivity and exclusivity panels of abrin and near-neighbor plant materials, along with panels of lectins, related proteins, white powders, and environmental background material, to determine the sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection, dynamic range, and repeatability of the assay for the specific intended use of evaluating suspicious white powders and environmental samples for the presumptive presence of abrin.

  12. Standardization and evaluation of the CAMP reaction for the prompt, presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) in clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, C L

    1975-02-01

    Primary cultures of clinical material were screened for the presence of colonies suspected of being Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B). Sixty-three such cultures and 108 other isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci (groups A, C, and G), encountered during the first 3 months of the investigation, were studied by Lancefield grouping, sodium hippurate hydrolysis, and a standardized CAMP test. All streptococci were inoculated perpendicularly to streaks of a beta-toxin-producing staphylococcus on sheep blood agar plates and incubated aerobically in a candle jar and anaerobically at 37 C. Plates were examined after 5 to 6 and 18 h of incubation. The production of a distinct "arrowhead" of hemolysis was indicative of a positive CAMP reaction. All group B streptococci produced a positive CAMP reaction in the candle jar or anaerobically, usually within 5 to 6 h, and aerobically after 18 h of incubation. All group A streptococci produced a positive reaction only under anaerobic conditions. Groups C and G streptococci were negative under all atmospheres. The CAMP reaction is a prompt and reliable procedure for the presumptive identification of group B streptococci when a candle jar atmosphere is used during incubation.

  13. Identifying interested parts in the implementation of a radiological waste repository in Brazil: presumption of interests and relationships between stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Mezrahi, Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, like in many countries, the use of radiation sources of various type and activities in industry, medicine, research and development as well as fuel cycle installations and nuclear reactors are increasing yearly. Consequently final disposal of the wastes generated by those activities represent a very important issue. The challenges arise more than ever from the country's plans to expand the nuclear power program and on the increasing use of radioisotopes. The construction of repositories must have specific site characteristics, design, operational procedures, among other peculiarities together with a safety analysis in order to accomplish needed provisions to restrict risks. Public opinion is currently more concerned about the consequences of global warming than the overall impact of nuclear activities on the environment. The success of finding a place for a repository depends on the participation of the interested parts. It is necessary to ensure that their expectations and needs are known and considered by the repository owners. In general, those expectations involve satisfaction of needs, financial compensation, ethical behavior and regional specificities. In this article, an attempt is made to identify these main involved parts, their wills and concerns, as well as other interest relationships that might arise as a result of this entrepreneurship. It is evident that a number of relationships ranging from partnership to antagonism might arise. So different strategies and considerations should be applied by those responsible for the project in order to optimize the positive aspects of the relationship or conduct with the less favorable ones. (author)

  14. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  15. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  16. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  17. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  18. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  19. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  20. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillebrands Jan-Luuk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.

  1. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each accumulator...

  2. Stochastic cooling and the accumulation of antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meer, S

    1985-01-01

    The large project mentioned in the motivation of the 1985 Nobel award in physics includes, in addition to the experiments proper described by Carlo Rubbia, the complex machinery for colliding high-energy protons and antiprotons. Protons (ps) are accelerated to a momentum of 26 GeV/c in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) machine and are used to produce antiprotons (ps) in a copper target. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring accepts a batch of these with momenta around 3.5 GeV/c every 2.4 seconds. After, typically, a day of accumulation, a large number of the accumulated ps ( approximately 10/sup 11/) are extracted from the AA. The author discusses stochastic cooling, a method used to accumulate the antiprotons. (23 refs).

  3. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  4. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  5. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  6. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario....

  7. Genetics of nitrate accumulation in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Reinink, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the prospects of breeding for low nitrate content in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.). A lettuce collection was screened and accessions with low nitrate content were identified. These were used to study the genetics of nitrate accumulation. Nitrate accumulation inherited quantitatively, in a mainly additive fashion with only minor effects of dominance. No important maternal effects were detected. Estimates of the additive genotypic variance and t...

  8. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  9. The impact of routine open nonsuction drainage on fluid accumulation after thyroid surgery: a prospective randomised clinical trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neary, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid drains following thyroid surgery are routinely used despite minimal supportive evidence. Our aim in this study is to determine the impact of routine open drainage of the thyroid bed postoperatively on ultrasound-determined fluid accumulation at 24 hours.

  10. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  11. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  12. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. An update on accumulating exercise and postprandial lipaemia: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical activity was introduced in expert recommendations with the advice that activity can be performed in several short bouts throughout the day with a minimum duration of 10 minutes per activity bout. Although the concept of accumulation has been widely publicised, there is still limited scientific evidence to support it but several studies have investigated the effects of accumulated activity on health-related outcomes to support the recommendations in physical activity guidelines. One area, which is the focus of this review, is the effect of accumulating exercise on postprandial lipaemia. We propose that accumulating exercise will provide additional physical activity options for lowering postprandial TAG concentrations relevant to individuals with limited time or exercise capacity to engage in more structured forms of exercise, or longer bouts of physical activity. The benefits of accumulated physical activity might translate to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the long-term.

  14. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  15. Diffusion versus linear ballistic accumulation: different models for response time with different conclusions about psychological mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Hayes, Brett

    2012-06-01

    Two similar classes of evidence-accumulation model have dominated theorizing about rapid binary choice: diffusion models and racing accumulator pairs. Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers (2011) examined mimicry between the Ratcliff diffusion (RD; Ratcliff & Smith, 2004) and the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008), the 2 least similar models from each class that provide a comprehensive account of a set benchmark phenomena in rapid binary choice. Where conditions differed only in the rate of evidence accumulation (the most common case in past research), simulations showed the models supported equivalent psychological inferences. In contrast, differences in 2 other parameters of key psychological interest, response caution (the amount of information required for a decision), and nondecision time, traded-off when fitting 1 model to data simulated from the other, implying the potential for divergent inferences about latent cognitive processes. However, Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers did not find such inconsistencies between fits of the RD and LBA models in a survey of data sets from paradigms using a range of experimental manipulations. We examined a further data set, collected by Dutilh, Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, and Wagenmakers (2009), which used a manipulation not surveyed by Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers's practice. Dutilh et al.'s RD model fits indicated that practice had large effects on all three types of parameters. We show that in this case the LBA provides a different and simpler account of practice effects. Implications for evidence accumulation modelling are discussed.

  16. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  17. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  18. Outcome of Patients Admitted with Presumptive Diagnosis of Influenza During 2009 Emerging H1N1 Pandemia in Referral Hospital of Ardabil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Habibzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Considering new pandemic attack with new emerging (H1N1 influenza virus, the study was designed for evaluating clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients in Imam Khomeini hospital, admitted with presumptive diagnosis of H1N1 influenza . In all of the patients clinical and paraclinical findings and outcome (including mortality rate and definitive diagnosis were evaluated. Bed occupancy rate in infectious disease ward and ICU and also mean days of admission were calculated.   Methods: This is a cross sectional study . All 118 patients with acute respiratory symptoms and possible diagnosis of emerging H1N1 influenza that had been admitted at least 24 hours in hospital from 20 October to 1 February 2009 were enrolled in the study. Data collection was done based on questionnaires, with a team other than researchers. The questionnaire included demographic data , clinical symptoms , laboratory findings , radiographic manifestations and outcome of patients. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software version16.   Results: A total of 118 patients were studied: 71 patients ( 60.2% were female and 47 patients ( 39.8% were male. Mean ( ± SD age of admitted patients was 33.81 ± 15.64 years old. The most of admitted patients were in age range of 15 to 30 years old. The most common findings in CXR were bilateral respiratory consolidations and the most common symptoms were fever, weakness and fatigue. About 12.7% of patients had diarrhea. Leukopenia (WBC 10000 occurred respectively in 4.58% and 33.2% of cases . Nine patients (7% were admitted in ICU. I n 21 patients (18% RT-PCR test results were positive and three of these patients had been admitted in ICU. In patients admitted in ICU while their diagnosis was confirmed, mortality was 33%. 48.3% of patients had at least one predisposing medical condition . Total admission days were 577 days, consisting 519 days in infectious disease ward and 58 days in ICU. Average of

  19. Risk factors for presumptive melanoma in skin cancer screening: American Academy of Dermatology National Melanoma/Skin Cancer Screening Program experience 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Matthew S; Doucette, John T; Lim, Henry W; Spencer, James; Carucci, John A; Rigel, Darrell S

    2007-07-01

    Since its inception in 1985, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) National Melanoma/Skin Cancer Screening Program has strived to enhance early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) by providing nationwide skin cancer education campaigns in combination with free skin cancer screenings. To analyze the AAD screening data from 2001 to 2005 in order to identify factors associated with MM detection, and thereby derive a model of increased likelihood for MM detection through visual skin examinations at screenings. Patients completed a standardized AAD pre-screening form with historical and phenotypic information. Clinicians then recorded suspected clinical findings noted at visual skin examination. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 14 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill). Five factors, which can be remembered with the acronym HARMM, independently increased the likelihood of suspected MM being found in the 362,804 persons screened: History of previous melanoma (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.8); Age over 50 (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3); Regular dermatologist absent (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.5); Mole changing (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.9-2.2); and Male gender (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.5). Individuals at highest risk (4 or 5 factors) comprised only 5.8% of the total population, yet accounted for 13.6% of presumptive MM findings, and were 4.4 times (95% CI, 3.8-5.1) more likely to be diagnosed with suspected MM than individuals at lowest risk (0 or 1 factor). Receipt of a total skin examination at screening independently increased the likelihood for identifying suspected MM (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6). However, significantly fewer screenees in the highest risk group versus those in the lowest risk group underwent total skin examinations (53.7% vs 62.5%). Risk factors studied limited to variables collected in screenee enrollment form. A higher-risk subgroup of the skin cancer screening population can be identified through assessment of MM

  20. A heat accumulation method and a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricard, Alain; Moracchioli, Robert; Goffinet, Pierre; Kurka, Gerard; Cachard, Maurice de.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thermal accumulation method and to a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a fluid is caused to flow in direct contact with a material for storing heat, said material being in divided form. This can be applied to the storage of energy [fr

  1. Immunodiagnostic confirmation of hydatid disease in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of infection Confirmación inmunodiagnóstica de la hidatidosis en pacientes con diagnóstico presuntivo de la infeccion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Varela-diaz

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Information obtained from the routine application of hydatid immunodiagnostic techniques in different clinical situations over a seven-year period is presented. The Immunoelectrophoresis test was used until it was replaced by the simpler, more sensitive and equally specific arc 5 double diffusion (DD5 test. Examination of sera from 1,888 patients with signs and/or symptoms compatible with hydatid disease revealed that the presurgical confirmation of Echinococcus granulosus infection is only obtained by detection of anti-antigen 5 antibodies. The latter were not found in 1,539 presumptive hydatidosis patients whose definitive diagnoses corresponded to other disease conditions. However, false positive latex agglutination test results were obtained in two cases. In all patients whose preoperative serum showed three or more uncharacteristic bands in the absence of anti-antigen 5 antibodies, hydatid cysts were found sur gically. DD5 testing of a fluid sample collected by puncture established its hydatid etiology. Post-operative monitoring of hydatidosis patients demonstrated that persistence of DD5-positivity two years after surgery established the presence of other cysts. Further evidence was obtained in patients with hydatid cysts in intrathoracic, abdominal or other locations associating cyst membrane integrity, antigen release and immunodiagnostic test positivity.Se presenta la información obtenida de la aplicación de las técnicas inmunodiagnósticas para hidatidosis en diferentes situaciones clínicas durante un período de 7 años. Se empleó la prueba de inmunoelectroforesis hasta que se la sustituyó por la prueba de doble difusión arco 5 (DD5, igualmente específica pero de mayor sensibilidad y sencillez. El examen de sueros de 1 888 pacientes con signos y/o sintomas compatibles con la hidatidosis reveló que la confirmación prequirúrgica de la infeccion por Echinococcus granulosus sólo se obtiene mediante la detección de anticuerpos

  2. Presumption of lawful acquirement of property and confiscation of unlawfully acquired property in the case-law of the Romanian Constitutional Court. The reference constitutional framework for regulating of the extended confiscation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines - from a dual perspective - historical and teleological, the constitutional provisions that enshrine the presumption of lawful acquirement of assets, including the development and interpretation thereof in the case-law of the Constitutional Court, in order to create a framework for analysis of Law no. 63/2012 amending and supplementing the Criminal Code and Law no. 286/2009 on the Criminal Code, a law that establishes the measure of extended confiscation, expression of international regulatory concerns in this area.

  3. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  4. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... nitrate salts supply on nitrate accumulation, amino acid biosynthesis, total protein production, nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate biosynthesis in the roots and leaves of the plants. The results indicate that both sodium and potassium nitrate supplementation had stimulatory effects on all of the.

  5. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  6. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  7. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  8. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  9. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... reductase activity and nitrite accumulation depend on the exogenous nitrate. Nitrite itself is reduced to ammonium by palstidic nitrite reductase. Nitrite reductase is activated by both nitrate and nitrite ions by positive feed forward, whereas nitrate metabolites, most likely ammonium and glutamine; down.

  10. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... factors and metal transporters, biosynthesis of chelating compounds involved in uptake and accumulation mechanisms were identified. .... To validate the mRNA abundance of arsenic related genes, we randomly selected 6 genes .... Arsenic is ubiquitous in the earth's crust in the form of arsenopyrite (Zhao ...

  11. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  12. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  13. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  14. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  15. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  16. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  17. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  18. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accumulation de capital est considérée comme un processus par lequel la richesse produite par le travail ... expense of real investment, a shift in the balance of productive to financial imperatives within the private ... agents, rather than as essential givens, requires specific concepts of what constitutes the economic and the ...

  19. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  20. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  1. Intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, S; Chevalier, J; Cremieux, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in mycobacteria, two methods were used with Mycobacterium smegmatis. A radiometric method (K. V. Cundy, C. E. Fasching, K. E. Willard, and L. R. Peterson, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:491-497, 1991) was used without great modification, but the fluorometric method (P. G. S. Mortimer and L. J. V. Piddock, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:639-653, 1991) was changed considerably. Indeed, adsorption of the quinolone to the bacterial surface was characterized by measuring the level of accumulation of 0 degree C. Taking into account the adsorption, the pH of the washing buffer was increased from 7.0 to 9.0 to improve the desorption of norfloxacin from the cell surface. Both the fluorometric method, with the technical improvement, and the radiometric method could be used to estimate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin, which resulted from the difference between the whole uptake measured at 37 degrees C and the adsorption measured at 0 degrees C. A total of 35 ng of norfloxacin per mg of cells (dry weight) penetrated into the M. smegmatis cell, and the steady state was achieved in 5 min. Use of inhibitors of the proton motive force revealed that transport of norfloxacin was energy independent. Thus, the same mechanisms of quinolone accumulation that occur in eubacteria seem to occur in mycobacteria, at least in M. smegmatis. PMID:8585727

  2. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  3. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hyperaccumulation of arsenic (As) by brake fern Pteris vittata has been described as an important genetic trait that providesan option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of very highconcentration of arsenic in above-ground tissues may be the result of arsenic vacuole ...

  4. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  5. Civil Conflict and Human Capital Accumulation: The Long-Term Effects of Political Violence in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gianmarco

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence of the persistent effect of exposure to political violence on human capital accumulation. I exploit the variation in conflict location and birth cohorts to identify the long- and short-term effects of the civil war on educational attainment. Conditional on being exposed to violence, the average person…

  6. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and

  7. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  8. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis as a systemic disorder characterized by proteoglycan accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD is a debilitating disorder thought to be limited to suspensory ligaments of Peruvian Pasos, Peruvian Paso crosses, Arabians, American Saddlebreds, American Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, and some European breeds. It frequently leads to persistent, incurable lameness and need to euthanize affected horses. The pathogenesis remains unclear, though the disease appears to run in families. Treatment and prevention are empirical and supportive, and not effective in halting the progression of the disease. Presently, the presumptive diagnosis of DSLD is obtained from patient signalment and history, clinical examination, and ultrasonographic examination of clinically affected horses, and is confirmed at post mortem examination. Presently, there are no reliable methods of diagnosing DSLD in asymptomatic horses. The goal of this study was to characterize and define the disorder in terms of tissue involvement at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results We examined tissues and organs from 28 affected horses (22 Peruvian Pasos, 6 horses of other breeds and from 8 control horses. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of excessive amounts of proteoglycans in the following tissues removed from DSLD-affected horses: suspensory ligaments, superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, patellar and nuchal ligaments, cardiovascular system, and sclerae. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in diameters of collagen fibrils in the tendon, and in smooth muscle cells of the media of the aorta compatible with increased cell permeability in DSLD-affected cells. Separation of tendon extracts by gel chromatography revealed the presence of additional proteoglycan(s in extracts from affected, but not control extracts. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that DSLD, a disease process previously thought to be limited to the suspensory ligaments of the distal limbs of

  9. Patterns and Regulation of Silicon Accumulation in Synechococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, M. A.; Krause, J. W.; Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Collier, J.

    2016-02-01

    Culture experiments confirm the accumulation of significant amounts of Si by six clones of marine Synechococcus representing four clades from a variety of marine habitats. Both cellular Si levels and the rate of Si accumulation in Synechococcus respond proportionately to changes in the concentration of silicic acid in the external medium. Si quota is inversely related to growth rate implying growth rate dilution of cellular Si quotas. The rate of Si accumulation as a function of silicic acid concentration is bi-linear between 1 and 500 μM Si(OH)4 with an abrupt increase in the slope at 100 μM. The linear response at environmentally-relevant [Si(OH)4] implies that in the surface ocean Synechococcus acquire Si through diffusion rather than through active transport. However, some evidence was obtained for Si uptake through a phosphate transporter under low-nutrient conditions. If all water-soluble Si associated with Synechococcus cells is internal, internal cellular concentrations would be above seawater silicic acid saturation (i.e. 2 millimolar) implying the existence of a large pool of organically bound silicic acid, as has been hypothesized for diatoms. Organic complexation of intracellular Si would both prevent spontaneous precipitation of amorphous silica and maintain low internal free silicic acid concentrations to drive a diffusive flux of silicic acid into the cell. Our experiments were not designed to address the specific evolutionary or physiological roles played by Si, if any, in Synechococcus. A partial answer will involve determining the chemical environment of Si within Synechococcus and whether the organism has evolved specific molecules that target and bind Si intracellularly or whether the internal complexation of Si is gratuitous.

  10. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    , feedback from our users, project evaluations, and accumulated experiences over the course of careers. These things are not easily shared and often do not find a place in publications because they are too local. But data that comes from a local context is in fact often the most important evidence source thata LIS professional can consult because it gives us information that is directly applicable to, and about our users. For example, usage stats on ejournals, feedback and comments about our services, usability testing on a website, titles on our interlibrary loan requests; these are just a few examples of local evidence that is invaluable to our decision making. This local data doesn’t often mean much to others, but it is of utmost importance to our local knowledge. The trick is to figure out what local information to collect, and how to use it. And remember to use it. This is where others’ experiences of how they use such local evidence can give us ideas and inspiration.As well, we hold a great deal of evidence in our professional knowledge that progressively is built up by library and information professionals over the course of their career. Much of this is tacit, but worthwhile trying to draw out and make explicit. Evidence is shown to us every single day - as we practice our profession, we learn what works and what doesn’t in certain situations. We have practical, real-life experiences to draw upon that are wrapped in different contexts. As professionals we have foundations that form the basis of our knowledge, in a field where we have already learned from our education, training, and on-the-job experience. We build up skills and know-how that are not necessarily written down, but which provide us with a great deal of specialized knowledge. As we learn how to most effectively provide good service, or build quality collections for our users, or build relationships within our community, all these things provide us with evidence of how to be a better professional

  11. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  12. Immaterial Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov N. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated in the article that some of the objects which either could serve as instruments of a crime for criminal actions, or they were obtained through the commission of a crime, are immaterial objects, and they may be conditionally designated as evidence. The author relates to immaterial evidence physical fields, radiation, undocumented information, computer programs, property rights, intangible benefits, heat and electric power, and information processes.

  13. Therapeutic targeting of eosinophil adhesion and accumulation in allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBaiula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.

  14. Cryogenic Displacement and Accumulation of Biogenic Methane in Frozen Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kraev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show, that the biogenic methane (13C ≤ −71‰ which formed before and during soil freezing is presently held in the permafrost. Field and experimental observations show that methane tends to accumulate at the permafrost table or in the coarse-grained lithological pockets surrounded by the sediments less-permeable for gas. Our field observations, radiocarbon dating, laboratory tests and theory all suggest that depending on the soil structure and freezing dynamics, this methane may have been displaced downwards tens of meters during freezing and has accumulated in the lithological pockets. The initial flux of methane from the one pocket disclosed by drilling was at a rate of more than 2.5 kg C(CH4 m−2 h−1. The age of the methane was 8–18 thousand years younger than the age of the sediments, suggesting that it was displaced tens of meters during freezing. The theoretical background provided the insight on the cryogenic displacement of methane in support of the field and experimental data. Upon freezing of sediments, methane follows water migration and either dissipates in the freezing soils or concentrates at certain places controlled by the freezing rate, initial methane distribution and soil structure.

  15. Nodularia spumigena Peptides—Accumulation and Effect on Aquatic Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mazur-Marzec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD. In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs. In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs and aeruginosins (AERs, were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

  16. Probing Spin Accumulation induced Magnetocapacitance in a Single Electron Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Teik-Hui; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2015-09-08

    The interplay between spin and charge in solids is currently among the most discussed topics in condensed matter physics. Such interplay gives rise to magneto-electric coupling, which in the case of solids was named magneto-electric effect, as predicted by Curie on the basis of symmetry considerations. This effect enables the manipulation of magnetization using electrical field or, conversely, the manipulation of electrical polarization by magnetic field. The latter is known as the magnetocapacitance effect. Here, we show that non-equilibrium spin accumulation can induce tunnel magnetocapacitance through the formation of a tiny charge dipole. This dipole can effectively give rise to an additional serial capacitance, which represents an extra charging energy that the tunneling electrons would encounter. In the sequential tunneling regime, this extra energy can be understood as the energy required for a single spin to flip. A ferromagnetic single-electron-transistor with tunable magnetic configuration is utilized to demonstrate the proposed mechanism. It is found that the extra threshold energy is experienced only by electrons entering the islands, bringing about asymmetry in the measured Coulomb diamond. This asymmetry is an unambiguous evidence of spin accumulation induced tunnel magnetocapacitance, and the measured magnetocapacitance value is as high as 40%.

  17. Cytokine accumulation in osteitis fibrosa of renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte M.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow fibrosis occurs in association with a number of pathological states. Despite the extensive fibrosis that sometimes characterizes renal osteodystrophy, little is known about the factors that contribute to marrow accumulation of fibrous tissue. Because circulating cytokines are elevated in uremia, possibly in response to elevated parathyroid hormone levels, we have examined bone biopsies from 21 patients with end-stage renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bone sections were stained with antibodies to human interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-11, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß using an undecalcified plastic embedding method. Intense staining for IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-ß was evident within the fibrotic tissue of the bone marrow while minimal IL-11 was detected. The extent of cytokine deposition corresponded to the severity of fibrosis, suggesting their possible involvement in the local regulation of the fibrotic response. Because immunoreactive TGF-ß and IL-6 were also detected in osteoblasts and osteocytes, we conclude that selective cytokine accumulation may have a role in modulating bone and marrow cell function in parathyroid-mediated uremic bone disease.

  18. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  19. On the occurrence of Obelia medusa blooms and empirical evidence of unusual massive accumulations of Obelia and Amphisbetia hydroids on the Argentina shoreline Bloom de la medusa Obelia y evidencia empírica de una inusual acumulación masiva de hidroides de Obelia y Amphisbetia en la línea de costa en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genzano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medusa blooms are a scarcely known phenomenon. For temperate, southwestern Atlantic waters, reports of such events are almost nonexistent. This research reports the analysis of a total of 1043 plankton samples taken from 1993 to 2006 and benthic samples collected by seasonal SCUBA diving since 1997 along the Buenos Aires coast. The medusa Obelia longissima was observed in very low densities and frequen-cies, except in October 2003, when a bloom of this species was detected. Soon afterward, two consecutive massive accumulations of O. longissima and Amphisbetia operculata colonies were detected on the coast by the mhabitants of Mar del Plata (38°00'S-57°32'W and the coastal Mar Chiquita Lagoon (37°32'S-57°19'W between March and April 2004. The colonies of both species were collected from the shoreline at low tide at both sites. The environmental factors of that period seemed to be particularly appropriate for promoting optimum growth conditions for these hydroid species. This paper reports and describes the mentioned abnormal phe-nomena, providing baseline information on these little-understood events.Los blooms de medusas son un fenómeno escasamente conocido. En las aguas templadas del Atlántico sudoccidental, esta clase de eventos son casi inexistentes. Un total de 1.043 muestras de plancton de 1993 a 2006 fueron analizadas como también aquellas de bentos colectadas por SCUBA estacionalmente desde 1997 en la costa de Buenos Aires. Para la medusa Obelia longissima fueron observadas muy bajas densidades y frecuencias, con excepción de octubre de 2003 cuando un bloom de esta medusa fue detectado. Seguidamente, dos acumulaciones masivas consecutivas de colonias de O. longissima y de Amphisbetia operculata fueron detectadas sobre la línea de costa por habitantes de Mar del Plata (38°00'S-57°32'W y de la laguna costera Mar Chiquita (37°32'S-57°19'W entre marzo y abril del 2004. Las colonias de ambas especies fueron colectadas desde la l

  20. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  1. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  2. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  3. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  4. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  5. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    OpenAIRE

    W. Paul Williams; Gary L. Windham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus , occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible comb...

  6. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  7. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  8. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  9. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  10. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  11. Morphological evidence for phages in Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civerolo Edwin L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presumptive phage particles associated with Xylella fastidiosa strain Temecula-1 grown in PW broth were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM in ultrathin sections of bacterial cell-containing low speed centrifugation pellets and in partially purified preparations from CsCl equilibrium centrifugation density gradients. Ultrathin-sectioned cell pellets contained icosahedral particles of about 45 nm in diameter. Samples collected from CsCl density gradients revealed mostly non-tailed icosahedral but also tailed particles. The icosahedral particles could be divided into two types: a large type (about 45 nm and a small type (about 30 nm. Filamentous phage-like particles (17 × 120 to 6,300 nm were also observed. The presence of different types of phage-like particles resembling to those in several bacteriophage families provides new physical evidence, in addition to X. fastidiosa genomic information, that X. fastidiosa possesses active phages. This is the first report of phage particles released in X. fastidiosa cultures.

  12. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  13. Aluminum accumulation in the roots of Melastoma malabathricum, an aluminum-accumulating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Misawa, S.; Osaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, plants that have Al levels of at least 1000 mg·kg -1 in their leaves are defined as Al accumulators. These plants are often found in very acid soils in the tropics. The mechanisms of Al uptake in strong Al accumulators are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of Al uptake and accumulation in the roots of Melastoma malabathricum L., an Al-accumulating plant that grows in acidic soils in the tropics. Melastoma malabathricum roots hardly absorb any La, possibly because of lower affinity of the root apoplast to La than to Al. Exposure to La did not affect the concentration of citrate in the roots; however, application of Al increased the citrate level considerably, corresponding with the amount of Al accumulation in the symplast. 27 Al NMR analysis revealed that Al complexes with oxalate, but not with citrate, in the roots of M. malabathricum. This investigation revealed that oxalate, which occurs constitutively at high concentrations, is a ligand for Al accumulation in both root and shoot tissue, and that citrate, the synthesis of which is induced by Al application, is a ligand mainly used for Al translocation from the roots to the shoots. (author)

  14. Technological capability accumulation in the 'maquila industry' in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dutrénit

    Full Text Available From the mid-1960s, 'maquila' plants were established in the Mexican Northern border. The Mexican model was based on foreign firms establishing their own assembly plants. Even though this model was less successful than that of East and South East Asian in terms of several techno-economic indicators, it has largely contributed to employment generation. However, as a result of internal learning process and changes in the global firms strategies, several 'maquilas' operating in Mexico have undergone important qualitative changes. During the 1990s there was a change in the nature of their productive and technological activities towards more complex products and more innovative technological activities. In contrast, other dimensions have evolved slowly, such as the engagement of Mexican suppliers in global supply chains. The aim of this paper is to discuss an analytical framework to help study the technological capability accumulation in the 'maquila' industry in Mexico. Based on that the paper seeks to examine levels of technological capability accumulation of three maquilas, and to bring to light some stylized facts of the accumulation process in this industry. The analytical framework proposed draws on the taxonomy of technological capabilities proposed by Bell & Pavitt (1995 for the manufacturing industry in developing countries and its further adaptations and applications carried in Figueiredo (2001 and Ariffin & Figueiredo (2003, 2004. This paper adapts it to the particularities of the 'maquila' industry in Mexico. The new taxonomy includes technical functions that are relevant to this industry and redefines activities that correspond to various levels of accumulation. This paper is based on a case study methodology. The cases are the business lines of three maquilas in Ciudad Juarez: Thomson Multimedia, Philips Corp. and Delphi Corp. Two business lines correspond to the consumer electronics industry and the third is specialized on electronic

  15. MARRIAGE AND MEN'S WEALTH ACCUMULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1860-1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok Chul

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in marital status affected men's wealth accumulation in mid-nineteenth-century America, using a longitudinal sample of Union Army veterans linked to the 1860 and 1870 census manuscript schedules. Controlling for the endogeneity of wealth and marital selection, this paper provides strong evidence that marriage had positive effects on men's wealth accumulation, whereas ending a marriage had negative effects. The estimated wealth premium on married men is about 60 percent per marital year. This substantial wealth premium is closely related to wives' specializing in household production, and farmers and craftsmen economically benefited from the unpaid labor of their wives.

  16. MARRIAGE AND MEN’S WEALTH ACCUMULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1860-1870

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONG, SOK CHUL

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in marital status affected men’s wealth accumulation in mid-nineteenth-century America, using a longitudinal sample of Union Army veterans linked to the 1860 and 1870 census manuscript schedules. Controlling for the endogeneity of wealth and marital selection, this paper provides strong evidence that marriage had positive effects on men’s wealth accumulation, whereas ending a marriage had negative effects. The estimated wealth premium on married men is about 60 percent per marital year. This substantial wealth premium is closely related to wives’ specializing in household production, and farmers and craftsmen economically benefited from the unpaid labor of their wives. PMID:24058226

  17. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.D.; Alloway, B.J.; Dourado, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  18. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P.D. [Royal Horticultural Society' s Garden, Wisley, Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paulalexander@rhs.org.uk; Alloway, B.J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, P.O. Box 233, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Dourado, A.M. [Royal Horticultural Society' s Garden, Wisley, Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil.

  19. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  20. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  1. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  2. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative wound-healing capacity of 23 patients undergoing elective major abdominal, thoracic or urological surgery was tested objectively by the subcutaneous accumulation of hydroxyproline and proline in an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube. Before scheduled...... surgery two ePTFE tubes were implanted for removal after 5 and 10 days. This was repeated for each patient immediately after surgery. After 10 days a higher amount of hydroxyproline was measured before than after operation (median 2.91 (range 0.37-14.45) versus 1.45 (range 0.26-6.94) micrograms/cm, P = 0...

  3. Midbody Accumulation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    cancer cells undergo asymmetric events during cell division that generate different daughter cells. One daughter receives the singular midbody (MB) that is made during every cell division. The cell with this so-called postmitotic midbody derivative accumulates additional MBds with successive divisions. In breast tumor sections, rare cells stain for MBds adjacent to the basal layer, the position of putative breast cancer stem cells. MBds are present in high numbers in several human breast cancer cell lines and in human tumors, but are rarely found in normal breast

  4. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. Th...... capital, and a high level of motivation leads to increased social capital........ The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...

  5. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  6. Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit as a predictor of anaerobic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD has been considered as one of the most adequate measures of anaerobic capacity. It is based on the numerical difference between the total energy demand of a severe exercise bout and the energy portion associated to the total oxygen consumption. However, the debate around the measurement procedures and the validity of the assumptions persist. The present review was done to describe and discuss these measurement procedures, as well as the validity evidences of MAOD. Finally, critical questions about the methodology of measurement of this physiological variable are discussed. RESUMO O máximo déficit acumulado de oxigênio (MAOD vem sendo apontado como uma das medidas mais adequadas de capacidade anaeróbia. Ele se baseia na diferença numérica entre a demanda energética total de um exercício severo e a porção de energia associada ao consumo total de oxigênio. Ainda há debate na literatura sobre seus procedimentos de medida e validade dos pressupostos. A presente revisão foi feita para descrever e discutir esses procedimentos de medida, bem como as evidências de validade do MAOD. Por fim, são discutidas questões críticas da metodologia empregada na medida dessa variável fisiológica.

  7. Potassium Accumulation and Sodium Efflux by Porphyra perforata Tissues in Lithium and Magnesium Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Richard W.

    1959-01-01

    Cells of Porphyra perforata, a red marine alga, accumulate K in the absence of concomitant Na or Li extrusion while immersed in Li- or Mg-sea waters lacking Na. This suggests that the coupling observed between K and Na transport is facultative. No evidence is obtained for net extrusion of Li. Na efflux, with the concentration gradient, is facilitated by K and is proportional to the cellular Na content. Either Na efflux does not involve an ion carrier or the number of Na sites is large. Because K accumulation has been observed in the absence of Na extrusion, but not vice versa, it seems that K uptake is the primary secretory event, with Na extrusion a secondary process dependent upon K accumulation. PMID:13820476

  8. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  9. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos FL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederick L Ramos, Jason S Krahnke, Victor KimDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, mucus, sputum

  10. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  12. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  13. Deleterious mutation accumulation in organelle genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Blanchard, J L

    1998-01-01

    It is well established on theoretical grounds that the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in nonrecombining genomes is a major extinction risk in obligately asexual populations. Sexual populations can also incur mutational deterioration in genomic regions that experience little or no recombination, i.e., autosomal regions near centromeres, Y chromosomes, and organelle genomes. Our results suggest, for a wide array of genes (transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and proteins) in a diverse collection of species (animals, plants, and fungi), an almost universal increase in the fixation probabilities of mildly deleterious mutations arising in mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes relative to those arising in the recombining nuclear genome. This enhanced width of the selective sieve in organelle genomes does not appear to be a consequence of relaxed selection, but can be explained by the decline in the efficiency of selection that results from the reduction of effective population size induced by uniparental inheritance. Because of the very low mutation rates of organelle genomes (on the order of 10(-4) per genome per year), the reduction in fitness resulting from mutation accumulation in such genomes is a very long-term process, not likely to imperil many species on time scales of less than a million years, but perhaps playing some role in phylogenetic lineage sorting on time scales of 10 to 100 million years.

  14. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veri Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (circumstantial evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the characteristics the antimonopoly law which aims to find material truth, the position of indirect evidence is more properly said to be an indication. Owing to its status as an indication, indirect evidence should be exhibited together with the other direct evidence.   Indirect evidenceatau bukti tidak langsung, baik bukti ekonomi atau bukti komunikasi, telah digunakan dalam kasus-kasus kartel di banyak negara, seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, dan lain-lain. Menurut hukum acara pidana Indonesia, posisi bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai indikasi (bukti petunjuk, padahal menurut hukum acara perdata Indonesia, bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai praduga. Mengingat karakteristik hukum anti-monopoli yang bertujuan untuk mencari kebenaran materiil, posisi bukti tidak langsung lebih tepat dikatakan indikasi. Karena statusnya sebagai indikasi, bukti tidak langsung harus dipamerkan bersama dengan bukti langsung lainnya.

  15. Betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase activity in Beta vulgaris L. leaves following copper stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. León Morales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of copper stress on betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD activity in leaves of different age was evaluated in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egyptian plants. In hydroponic culture, plants were treated with 0.3 μM (control, 50 μM, 100 μM, and 250 μM of CuSO4 for 6 days. Copper was taken up and accumulated in old roots but was not translocated to leaves. However in young leaves, the increase of lipid peroxidation and reduction of growth were evident from day 3 of copper exposure; whereas in old leaves, the lipid peroxidation and growth were the same from either copper-treated or control plants. In response to copper exposure, the betacyanin accumulation was evident in young leaves by day 3, and continued to increase until day 6. Betacyanin only were accumulated in old leaves until day 6, but the contents were from 4 to 5 times lower than those observed in young leaves at the same copper concentrations. GPOD activity increased 3.3- and 1.4-fold in young and old leaves from day 3 of copper treatment respectively, but only in the young leaves was sustained at the same level until day 6. Old roots shown betacyanin in the control plants, but the betacyanin level and growth were reduced with the copper exposure. In contrast, young roots emerged by copper effect also accumulated copper and showed the highest betacyanin content of all plant parts assayed. These results indicate that betacyanin accumulation and GPOD activity are defense responses to copper stress in actively growing organs.

  16. Nutrient accumulation in planted red and jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Alban

    1988-01-01

    Compares nutrient accumulation in adjacent plantations of red and jack pine in the upper Great Lakes. Describes equations developed to predict biomass and nutrient accumulation based on stand basal area and height.

  17. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  18. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  19. Millennially Averaged Accumulation Rates for Lake Vostok, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of inferred accumulation rates from three radar layers (26, 35 and 41 thousand years old) in the Vostok Subglacial Lake region. Accumulation...

  20. Tectonic stress accumulation in Bohai–Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BZSZ) in North Chinadeserves close attention. Tectonic stress accumulation state is an important indicator for earthquakes;therefore, this study aims to analyse the stress accumulation state in the BZSZ via three-dimensionalvisco-elastic numerical ...

  1. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  2. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  3. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  4. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  5. The sensitivity and specificity of using a computer aided diagnosis program for automatically scoring chest X-rays of presumptive TB patients compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monde Muyoyeta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs of presumptive tuberculosis (TB patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert. METHOD: Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ≤ 60 or abnormal (CAD score > 60 using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM. RESULTS: Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1% had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2-100, 23.2% (95%CI 18.2-28.9, 33.0% (95%CI 27.6-38.7 and 100% (95% 93.9-100, respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66-0.77. CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r = 0.30, p<0.0001 and with Xpert CT(r = 0.37, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce.

  6. SEED FILLING AND OIL ACCUMULATION IN NOUG [GUIZOTIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out to study the pattern, rate and duration of seed dry weight (SDW) and oil accumulation in ... Key words/phrases: Guizotia abyssinica, oil accumulation, noug, seed dry weight accumulation. INTRODUCTION .... determine the oil content using Nuclear Magnetic. Resonance (NMR) ...

  7. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant. (b...

  8. Arachidonic acid accumulates in the stromal macrophages during thymus involution in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruia, Alexandra T; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Mic, Ani A; Ordodi, Valentin L; Paunescu, Virgil; Mic, Felix A

    2011-07-01

    Diabetes is a debilitating disease with chronic evolution that affects many tissues and organs over its course. Thymus is an organ that is affected early after the onset of diabetes, gradually involuting until it loses most of its thymocyte populations. We show evidence of accumulating free fatty acids with generation of eicosanoids in the diabetic thymus and we present a possible mechanism for the involution of the organ during the disease. Young rats were injected with streptozotocin and their thymuses examined for cell death by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction. Accumulation of lipids in the diabetic thymus was investigated by histology and electron microscopy. The identity and quantitation of accumulating lipids was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography. The expression and dynamics of the enzymes were monitored via immunohistochemistry. Diabetes causes thymus involution by elevating the thymocyte apoptosis. Exposure of thymocytes to elevated concentration of glucose causes apoptosis. After the onset of diabetes, there is a gradual accumulation of free fatty acids in the stromal macrophages including arachidonic acid, the substrate for eicosanoids. The eicosanoids do not cause thymocyte apoptosis but administration of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor reduces the staining for ED1, a macrophage marker whose intensity correlates with phagocytic activity. Diabetes causes thymus involution that is accompanied by accumulation of free fatty acids in the thymic macrophages. Excess glucose is able to induce thymocyte apoptosis but eicosanoids are involved in the chemoattraction of macrophage to remove the dead thymocytes.

  9. Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sophia V., E-mail: sophia.hansson@emg.umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Kaste, James M. [Geology Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Olid, Carolina; Bindler, Richard [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 7}Be, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of {sup 7}Be down to 18–20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of {sup 241}Am without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and smearing of atmospherically deposited elements in the uppermost peat layers. Application of the CRS age–depth model leads to unrealistic peat mass accumulation rates (400–600 g m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}), and inaccurate estimates of past Pb and Hg deposition rates and trends, based on comparisons to deposition monitoring data (forest moss biomonitoring and wet deposition). After applying a newly proposed IP-CRS model that assumes a potential downward transport of {sup 210}Pb through the uppermost peat layers, recent peat accumulation rates (200–300 g m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}) comparable to published values were obtained. Furthermore, the rates and temporal trends in Pb and Hg accumulation correspond more closely to monitoring data, although some off-set is still evident. We suggest that downwashing can be successfully traced using {sup 7}Be, and if this information is incorporated into age–depth models, better calibration of peat records with monitoring data and better quantitative estimates of peat accumulation and past deposition are possible, although more work is needed to characterize how downwashing may vary between seasons or years. - Highlights: • {sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and {sup 7}Be, and tot-Pb and tot Hg were measured in 5 peat cores. • Two age–depth models were applied resulting in different accumulation rates

  10. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i...... in liver and spleen and as little as 3% in kidney. In liver selenium was found in surplus to mercury on a molar basis. Mercury concentrations in the liver and kidneys of Greenlanders were elevated compared to levels in the general population in Japan, Korea and several European countries, except...

  11. Laser-Cooling for Light Ion Accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, N

    2000-01-01

    The ALICE Experiment to be installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will initially look at Pb82+-Pb82+ collisions. In a later stage, collisions of lighter ions are also foreseen. For lead ions, fast electron cooling will be used in the accumulation process at low energy to reach the beam brightness necessary for the experiment. For lighter ions, electron cooling becomes less efficient as the ratio Q2/A decreases (Q and A are respectively charge state and mass number of the ion). For this reason, a study has been made of the possibility to use the maturing technology of laser-cooling of fast ion beams to reach the desired emittances for lighter ions. The main problems encountered are the availability of useful ion species, the availability of corresponding laser systems, and the efficiency with which the transverse emittance can be reduced by the laser-cooling mechanism (which works mainly in the longitudinal plane).

  12. 10Be accumulation in a soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavich, M.J.; Brown, L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be in soil samples from various horizons at six sites, including three independently dated Rappahannock River terraces and a previously undated Piedmont soil to which we have assigned an age. All of the incident 10Be can be accounted for in one of these soils and a second is within a factor of two. In three soils, whose concentrations vary widely with depth, a significant fraction of the incident 10Be cannot be accounted for. Incomplete sampling, and enhanced Be mobility caused by organic components, are the probable reasons for the low inventory of Be from these three soils. Overall, the data from these six sites indicate that 10Be accumulation could be used to assign ages to soils if Be is not mobilized and lost from the soil profile. ?? 1984.

  13. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Mulvad, G.; Pedersen, H. S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  14. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    -dimensional flow is described with a numerical CFD model. The particulate matter is analysed for grain size distributions, settling velocity distributions and corresponding heavy metal and PAH concentration. Erosion/resuspension experiments for detention pond sediments are carried out in the laboratory...... with currents and waves. In general the study shows that the bulk of hydrocarbons, PAH's and heavy metals accumulate in detention pond sediments and the removal efficiency for particulate matter in the detention ponds is around 80 %. An important parameter for retention of particulate matter in Denmark...... of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an arbitrary detention pond to the natural environment. The present thesis is a part of a co-operation between the Danish Road Directorate (Vejdirektoratet) and Aalborg University and is founded in the Danish construction act for new highways...

  15. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  16. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, H.D.; Gilkes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Large amounts of phosphate are applied to agricultural regions in Australia each year. Phosphate is incorporated into organic materials, sorbed onto the surface of clay minerals, carbonates, iron oxides/hydroxides and other colloids or dissolved in soil solution. Phosphate in soil solution may leach into dam, or absorbed and particulate phosphate may be washed into dams during soil erosion and eventually accumulate in sediments. Variable and sometimes high concentrations of phosphate in water and sediments occur in farm dams in the York area of Western Australia. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments (O to about 2 cm) was investigated using chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Concentrations of phosphorus up to 5 ppm in water and 1100 ppm in sediment were observed. The results of this study indicate that the amounts of total, organic and inorganic phosphate in sediment are approximately equal and are linearly related the dissolved phosphate concentration in dam water. High concentrations of nitrogen also exit in sediments and are closely related to the phosphate content of sediment presumably reflecting the high content of organic matter in sediments, ranging from 3 to 7% C. The concentration of phosphate in sediments is closely related to the organic matter concentration measured by LECO CHN analyser. X-ray diffraction patterns show that clay minerals in sediments consist of minor to large amounts of smectite and kaolinite, minor to moderate amounts of illite, mica and feldspars. Minor amounts of calcite and iron oxides were present only in a few samples. Clay minerals and iron oxides have moderate to high phosphate sorption capacities because the reactive sites on crystal surfaces and their high surface area. Thus colloidal minerals, organic materials and organo-mineral complexes may provide reactive sites for phosphate sorption

  17. An Update on Accumulating Exercise and Postprandial Lipaemia: Translating Theory Into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical ...

  18. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.; Barden, Adam O.; VanMiddlesworth, Lester

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  19. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  20. Evidence of accumulated stress in Achilles and anterior knee tendons in elite badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Koenig, Merete Juhl

    2011-01-01

    Tendon-related injuries are a major problem, but the aetiology of tendinopathies is unknown. In tendinopathies as well as during unaccustomed loading, intra-tendinous flow can be detected indicating that extensive loading can provoke intra-tendinous flow. The aim of present study is to evaluate t...

  1. Periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis: the evidence accumulates for complex pathobiologic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Clifton O.; Moni, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review was conducted to focus on the recent clinical and translational research related to the associations between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent findings There is a growing interest in the associations between oral health and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have described associations between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Recent clinical studies continue to support these reports, and are increasingly linked with biological assessments to better understand the nature of these relationships. A number of recent studies have evaluated the periopathogenic roles of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the oral microbiome, and mechanisms of site-specific and substrate-specific citrullination. These are helping to further elucidate the interactions between these two inflammatory disease processes. Summary Studies of clinical oral health parameters, the gingival microenvironment, autoantibodies and biomarkers, and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures are providing a better understanding of the potential mechanisms responsible for rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease associations. The cumulative results and ongoing studies have the promise to identify novel mechanisms and interventional strategies to improve patient outcomes for both conditions. PMID:23455329

  2. The Effect of Career and Technical Education on Human Capital Accumulation: Causal Evidence from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shaun M.

    2018-01-01

    Earlier work demonstrates that career and technical education (CTE) can provide long-term financial benefits to participants, yet few have explored potential academic impacts, with none in the era of high-stakes accountability. This paper investigates the causal impact of participating in a specialized high school-based CTE delivery system on high…

  3. A method of heat accumulation and a direct-contact latent melting heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, Maurice de; Goffinet, Pierre; Kurka, Gerard; Bricard, Alain; Morrachioli, Robert.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the accumulation of heat, and to a direct-contact latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a coolant fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with a material C having a high latent melting-heat, said fluid F and material C being in heat exchange relationship at a temperature in the vicinity of the melting point of C, whereby, when hot fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the later will melt and store heat in the form of latent melting-heat while cooling fluid F, and when cold fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the latter will solidify by transferring heat to fluid F. This can be applied to the manufacturing of heat-exchangers for coupling an electric power-station to a distribution network [fr

  4. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  5. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Zhong, Huan, E-mail: zhonghuan@nju.edu.cn [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  6. Trehalose Accumulation Triggers Autophagy during Plant Desiccation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops. Here, we describe the remarkable stress characteristics of Tripogon loliiformis, an uncharacterised resurrection grass and close relative of the economically important cereals, rice, sorghum, and maize. We show that T. loliiformis survives extreme environmental stress by implementing autophagy to prevent Programmed Cell Death. Notably, we identified a novel role for trehalose in the regulation of autophagy in T.loliiformis. Transcriptome, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analyses directly linked the accumulation of trehalose with the onset of autophagy in dehydrating and desiccated T. loliiformis shoots. These results were supported in vitro with the observation of autophagosomes in trehalose treated T. loliiformis leaves; autophagosomes were not detected in untreated samples. Presumably, once induced, autophagy promotes desiccation tolerance in T.loliiformis, by removal of cellular toxins to suppress programmed cell death and the recycling of nutrients to delay the onset of senescence. These findings illustrate how resurrection plants manipulate sugar metabolism to promote desiccation tolerance and may provide candidate genes that are potentially useful for the development of stress tolerant crops.

  7. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  8. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  9. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Silver tolerance and accumulation in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, M; Staines, A M; Bennett, H; Gadd, G M

    1991-01-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii (NCYC 459 and strain 75-21), Candida albicans (3153A), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (X2180-1B), Rhodotorula rubra (NCYC 797) and Aureobasidium pullulans (IMI 45533 and ATCC 42371) were grown on solid medium supplemented with varying concentrations of AgNO3. Although Ag+ is highly toxic towards yeasts, growth on solid media was still possible at Ag concentrations of 1-2 mM. Further subculture on higher Ag concentrations (up to 5 mM) resulted in elevated tolerance. The extent of Ag tolerance depended on whether Ag-containing plates were exposed to light prior to inoculation since light-mediated reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 resulted in the production of a less toxic silver species. Experimental organisms exhibited blackening of colonies and the surrounding agar during growth on AgNO3-containing medium especially at the highest Ag concentrations tested. All organisms accumulated Ag from the medium; electron microscopy revealed that silver was deposited as electron-dense granules in and around cell walls and in the external medium. X-ray microprobe analysis indicated that these granules were metallic Ag0 although AgCl was also present in some organisms. Volatile and non-volatile reducing compounds were produced by several test organisms which presumably effected Ag+ reduction to Ag0.

  11. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  12. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  13. Novel method of charging an accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    For high power fusion applications, a circular accelerator for heavy ions is not likely to be competitive with a linear accelerator. This is principally because one requires rather high accelerator efficiencies, and quite large average power. Efficiencies greater than or equal to 10 percent, and perhaps 30 and 50 MW of average beam power are needed. On the other hand, the linear accelerator can be built to satisfy these constraints, and in addition, it is ideally suited for multi-turn injection. A difficulty with multi-turn injection is that in typical application it is rather lossy. With care, and sufficient phase space dilution, one might hope to obtain greater than or equal to 90 percent injection efficiency, but even at these levels the large amount of beam power lost in the accumulator might have serious consequences for the machine operation. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to use ''box car'' stacking, which is essentially 100 percent without particle loss. A method of operating the linear accelerator so that the output beam is of suitable instantaneous current to permit box-car stacking with the linac output is proposed

  14. Cobalt accumulation and circulation by blackgum trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees accumulate far greater concentrations of cobalt in mature foliage than do other species on the same site (363 ppM in ash of blackgum, compared with about 3 ppM by mockernut hickory and about 1 ppM by red maple, tulip tree, and white oak). Cobalt concentrations in dormant woody tissues of blackgum also significantly exceed those in the other four species. Inoculation of six blackgums with 60 Co revealed that cobalt remains mobile in the trees for at least 3 years. Foliar concentrations of stable cobalt increase uniformly until senescence. In late August, foliage accounts for only 9 percent of total tree weight but 57 percent of total tree cobalt. Losses of cobalt from trees occur almost entirely by leaf abscission, and the loss rates of weight and cobalt from decomposing litter are similar. Retention of cobalt in the biologically active soil layers perpetuates zones of cobalt concentration created by this species in woodlands

  15. Metal accumulation rates in northwest Atlantic pelagic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.; Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Wilson, T.R.S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of 230 Th, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and twenty-four metals were made on cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain. The sediment is characterized by slowly-accumulating pelagic red clays and rapidly deposited grey clays transported by turbidity currents. Despite their colour differences and the enrichment of certain elements in the red clays, Sr isotope evidence demonstrates that the clays have the same terrigenous origin. The excesses of metals in the red clays have been attributed to metal removal from the water column and a comparison with the grey clays has enabled the authigenic fluxes of metals to be estimated. The results are given for the elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V, Sr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb. Authigenic fluxes of Y, Nb, Cr, Zr, Rb, U and Th were not resolvable. Fluxes appear to be near constant on the Plain but comparison with other areas shows that they are quite variable both between and within ocean basins. The chief factor controlling authigenic fluxes is discussed. (author)

  16. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  17. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  18. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Helium accumulation in groundwater. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; Clarke, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The groundwaters of the Great Artesian Basin (Australia) have been previously shown to be accumulating in-situ production helium for groundwaters ages 100 kyr. New helium isotope measurements show that the observed in-situ production helium ( 3 He/ 4 He ≅ 1.6x10 -8 ) is isotopically distinct from the crustal degassing helium flux ( 3 He/ 4 He ≅ 6.6x10 -8 ). Furthermore, the crustal degassing helium isotope ratio is marginally in excess of the whole crustal production ratio ( 3 He/ 4 He = 3.5x10 -8 ) and the production ratio in a variety of continental rock types. This suggests that the upper limit on volatile transport across the mantle-crust boundary beneath the (relatively) stable and 'complacent' Australian continent can be characterized by a 'conductive-diffusive' helium/heat flux ratio of 6 4 He atoms mW -1 s -1 which is two orders of magnitude less than the 'intrusive-volcanic' ratio of 2.9x10 8 4 He atoms mW -1 s -1 measured at the Galapagos. These results constrain the transcrustal mantle degassing fluxes of 4 He and 40 Ar to be much less than the mid-ocean ridge degassing fluxes; which are much less than the degassing of 4 He and 40 Ar from continental crust. Thus, the degassing of the Earth's interior is dominated by magmatic processes but the dominant fluxes of 4 He and 40 Ar to the atosphere must come from the continental crust. (orig.)

  20. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  1. Land value dynamics with endogenous human and physical capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This study builds a three-sector growth model with endogenous physical and human wealth accumulation. It deals with dynamic interactions among land value, economic structural change, wealth accumulation and human capital growth. The economy consists of industrial, agricultural and education sectors. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, the Ricardian theory, and the Uzawa-Lucas model with Zhang’s utility function. The human capital accumulation is through Arrow’...

  2. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  3. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadnik CR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecretion in COPD.1 The authors highlight the association of mucus hypersecretion with poor outcomes, including increased risk of exacerbations, hospitalization and mortality. These associations have led to interest in the potential benefits of mucus clearance techniques in COPD. As Ramos et al1 point out, although the physiological rationale for airway clearance techniques (ACTs in COPD is strong, clinical efficacy has historically been difficult to establish, perhaps due to the variety of techniques and outcomes that have been employed in small studies. We have recently synthesized this body of evidence in a Cochrane systematic review of ACTs for individuals with COPD. The review demonstrated ACTs are safe and meta-analysis showed they confer small beneficial effects on a limited range of important clinical outcomes, such as the need for and duration of ventilatory assistance during an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD.2View original paper by Ramos and colleagues.

  4. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  5. Nutrient accumulation at the initial growth of pitaya plants according to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the amount of nutrient uptake in pitaya plants helps the balanced fertilizer recommendation for the crop, providing adequate nutrition and contributing to the maximum expression of this species potential. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the growth, nutrient accumulation and efficiency of absorption, transportation and use of P by pitaya according to phosphorus fertilization. A randomized blocks design was used, with five doses of P (0 mg dm-3, 20 mg dm-3, 40 mg dm-3, 80 mg dm-3 and 160 mg dm-3 incorporated into the soil, with four replications, three pots per plot and one cutting per pot. Differences in the nutrient accumulation of all doses were evident in the pitaya shoots and roots, as well as in the efficiency of absorption, transport and use of P, according to phosphorus fertilization. The nutrient accumulation in the pitaya roots was ranked in the following order: N > K > Ca > S > P > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > B ≥ Cu. For the shoots, the order was: K > N > Ca > S > Mg > P > Mn > Fe > Zn > B ≥ Cu. The initial growth of pitaya plants was maximum with 81 mg dm-3 of P, in a Red-Yellow Dystrophic Latosol. The application of 44-67 mg dm3 of P to the soil promoted the highest accumulation of macro and micronutrients in the pitaya.

  6. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose

  7. Vacuolar accumulation of heavy metals in Datura cultured cells is metal concentration dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotz, R.M.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vacuolar-extravacuolar compartmentation studies were performed to determine if the vacuole serves as an accumulation site for Cd, Zn, and Ni, after growth of Datura cultured cells in trace and high levels of these metals. After 3 to 4 days growth with 0.12 μM Cd or 0.02 μM Ni (radiolabeled) no evidence was obtained for vacuolar accumulation of these metals. In contrast, growth with 30 or 45 μM Cd, 11 μM Ni (with or without trace radiolabel), or 300 and 500 μM Zn resulted in isolated vacuoles which were enriched in metal. Compartmentation after exposure to low levels of Zn and also Cu is being investigated as is the subcellular site(s) of Cd-binding peptide formed during growth in high Cd. The hypothesis that Zn is accumulated as vacuolar organic acid salts is being tested directly because no evidence was found for formation of substantial ligand of Cd-peptide in response to Zn exposure

  8. Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The question whether the WHO Healthy Cities project 'works' has been asked ever since a number of novel ideas and actions related to community health, health promotion and healthy public policy in the mid 1980s came together in the Healthy Cities Movement initiated by the World Health Organization....... The question, however, has become more urgent since we have entered an era in which the drive for 'evidence' seems all-pervasive. The article explores the nature of evidence, review available evidence on Healthy Cities accomplishments, and discusses whether enough evidence has been accumulated on different...... performances within the realm of Healthy Cities. A main point of reference is the European Healthy Cities Project (E-HCP). Building on the information gathered through documentary research on the topic, it is concluded that there is fair evidence that Healthy Cities works. However, the future holds great...

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation potential and PHA-accumulating microbial communities in various activated sludge processes of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K; Miyake, S; Iwama, K; Inoue, D; Soda, S; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation potential and the PHA-accumulating microbial community structure in activated sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to identify their influential factors. Nine activated sludge samples were collected from municipal WWTPs employing various biological treatment processes. In acetate-fed 24-h batch experiments under aerobic and nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited conditions, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) content of activated sludge increased from 0-1·3 wt% to 7·9-24 wt%, with PHB yields of 0·22-0·50 C-mol 3-hydroxybutyrate (C-mol acetate)(-1). Microbial community analyses found that activated sludge samples that accumulated >20 wt% of PHB after 24-h PHA accumulation experiments had >5·0 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-mixed liquor-suspended solid of phaC genes. Results indicated that (i) activated sludge in municipal WWTPs can accumulate up to approx. 20 wt% of PHA without enrichment processes, (ii) PHA accumulation potential of activated sludge varied depending on the operational conditions (treatment processes) of WWTPs, and (iii) phaC gene number can provide a simple indication of PHA accumulation potential. This is the first study to compare the PHA accumulation potential and PHA-accumulating microbial communities in activated sludge of various treatment processes. Our findings may be useful for enhancing the resource recovery potential of wastewater treatment systems. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Accumulation of different visual feature descriptors in a coherent framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jeppe Barsøe; Pilz, Florian; Kraft, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted...

  11. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  12. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  13. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of...

  14. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth ...

  15. A Water Accumulation Flooding Potentiality Index (WAFPI) for rating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Water Accumulation Flooding Potentiality Index (WAFPI) is a qualitative risk assessment method based on a factorial scoring system that is aimed at dividing the land into classes that are similar in their susceptibility to flooding due to accumulating water. Such an assessment precedes quantitative flood modeling work, ...

  16. 20 CFR 416.660 - Transfer of accumulated benefit payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of accumulated benefit payments. 416.660 Section 416.660 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.660 Transfer of accumulated benefit...

  17. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  18. Space charge accumulation in polymeric high voltage DC cable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodega, R.

    2006-01-01

    One of the intrinsic properties of the polymeric high voltage (HV) direct current (DC) cable insulation is the accumulation of electrostatic charges. Accumulated charges distort the initial Laplacian distribution of the electric field, leading to a local field enhancement that may cause insulation

  19. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  20. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... randomized design, with six replicates. The salinity affects growth and dry matter accumulation of Tabebuia aurea and promotes soluble sugar accumulation on the leaves and stem, and free amino acids in the roots, leaves and stems. Plants showed a sensibility to the salt levels used during the time they were exposed.

  1. Recrystallization texture in nickel heavily deformed by accumulative roll bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, O. V.; Zhang, Y. B.; Godfrey, A.

    2017-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior of Ni processed by accumulative roll bonding to a total accumulated von Mises strain of 4.8 has been examined, and analyzed with respect to heterogeneity in the deformation microstructure. The regions near the bonding interface are found to be more refined and conta...

  2. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  3. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non-...

  4. Impurity accumulation studies in pellet-refuelled ASDEX discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussmann, G.; Krieger, K.; Nolte, R.; Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pellet injection into ASDEX discharges allows considerable improvement of the confinement properties. Simultaneously with this improvement a strong accumulation of metallic impurities is observed, which leads to intolerable cooling of the plasma core region. We discuss the experimental phenomena and the underlying transport changes associated with the accumulation. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs

  5. Transcript accumulation of putative drought responsive genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... to be associated with drought tolerance in chickpea seedlings in contrast to sequences 214 and 277 which showed no variation in the mRNA accumulation between cultivars. The effect of ABA treatment on the mRNA accumulation of the isolated sequences 192, 214, 219 and H1 was analyzed. Sequences.

  6. Chronology of p53 protein accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    p53 Protein accumulation in early gastric carcinoma was studied in relation to the histological type (Lauren classification) and the type of growth pattern, including the chronology of p53 protein accumulation during carcinogenesis. Forty five, paraffin embedded gastrectomy specimens from early

  7. Carbohydrate Reserves And Metal Accumulation Of The Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the carbohydrate reserves and metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue ...

  8. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusov, G.D.; Kudryashova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  9. Influence of land use on phytomass accumulation in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of indigenous vegetation for production purposes impacts negatively on biodiversity but does this necessarily equate with a decrease in phytomass accumulation, which may influence carbon sequestration? Phytomass accumulation was studied for common land covers of beef ranching or dairy farming ...

  10. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-03

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  11. Accumulation of phenylpropanoid derivatives in chitosan-induced cell suspension culture of Cocos nucifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Moumita; Karun, Anitha; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan-induced elicitation responses of dark-incubated Cocos nucifera (coconut) endosperm cell suspension cultures led to the rapid formation of phenylpropanoid derivatives, which essentially mimics the defense-induced biochemical changes in coconut palm as observed under in vivo conditions. An enhanced accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major wall-bound phenolics was evident. This was followed by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Along with enhanced peroxidases activities in elicited lines, the increase in activities of the early phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes such as, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), p-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase (HBD) in elicited cell cultures were also observed. Furthermore, supplementation of specific inhibitors of PAL, C4H and 4CL in elicited cell cultures led to suppressed accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which opens up interesting questions regarding the probable route of the biosynthesis of this phenolic acid in C. nucifera.

  12. Validez del diagnóstico presuntivo de leishmaniasis cutánea realizado por mediadores comunitarios en Colombia The validity of a presumptive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis performed by community health workers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    captación activa de casos en la comunidad.OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for the presumptive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis based on the observation of clinical-epidemiological criteria, carried out by community health workers in three endemic municipalities in Santander, a department in northeastern Colombia. METHODS: This evaluation study of diagnostic technologies was based on a cross-sectional sampling of suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Rionegro, El Playón, and Landázuri. After being trained, the community health workers carried out the presumptive diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis between October 2004 and November 2005. At the time of diagnosis, the health workers also collected samples for confirmatory diagnosis through Field's stain method, culturing, and polymerase chain reaction. Four criteria were used to assess the validity of the presumptive diagnoses carried out by the health workers: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Replicability among the health workers was estimated through their observed level of agreement. RESULTS: According to the laboratory tests, of the 196 patients studied, 33 (16.8% were negative and 163 (83.2% were positive. For all the levels of certainty of the clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity was between 52% and 98% (k(1, 0 = 39.0% and the specificity between 9% and 55% (k(0, 0 = 14.0%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 56.5% (95% confidence interval: 45.6% to 67.4%. The proportion of positive agreement and of negative agreement was 86.3% and 43.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of the presumptive diagnosis carried out by the health workers surpasses that of the parasitological diagnostic methods generally used in the three endemic areas, but its specificity is much lower. Even though this approach is not useful as a diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis or as a criterion for deciding to proceed

  13. Matrix effect and cross-reactivity of select amphetamine-type substances, designer analogues, and putrefactive amines using the Bio-Quant direct ELISA presumptive assays for amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Luigino G; Whittall, Ian R; Pianca, Dennis J; Kyd, Jennelle M; Maher, William A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Bio-Quant Direct ELISA assays for amphetamine and methamphetamine in the routine presumptive screening of biological fluids. Standard concentration curves of the target analytes were assayed to assess sensitivity, and known concentrations of common amphetamine-type substances (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phentermine), designer analogues (MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MBDB, PMA, 4-MTA, 2CB), and putrefactive amines (phenylethylamine, putrescine, tryptamine, tyramine) were analyzed to determine cross-reactivity. Results of the standard curve studies show the capacity of both Direct ELISA kits to confidently detect down to 3 ng/mL interday (PBS matrix; CVs 6.3-15.5%). Cross-reactivity relative to that of 50 ng/mL preparations of the target compounds demonstrated that the Direct ELISA kit for amphetamine also detected MDA (282%), PMA (265%), 4-MTA (280%), and phentermine (61%), and the Direct ELISA for methamphetamine also assayed positive for MDMA (73%), MDEA (18%), pseudoephedrine (19%), MBDB (8%), and ephedrine (9%). Matrix studies demonstrated that both ELISA kits could be applied to screening of blood, urine, and saliva to a concentration of 6 ng/mL or lower. In conclusion, the Bio-Quant Direct ELISA kits for amphetamine and methamphetamine are fast and accurate and have demonstrated themselves to be useful tools in routine toxicological testing.

  14. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  15. Phenomena and Detection of Gas Accumulation in Piping Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Jeon, S. S.; Hong, S. J.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 2008-01 which provides recommendation and guidance to nuclear power plants for managing gas intrusion and accumulation in safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), Decay Heat Removal (DHR) and Containment Spray (CS) systems. Following the GL2008-01, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) reported NEI 09-10 that gives industry guidance for effective prevention and management of system gas accumulation. All of U.S. utilities responded to the GL2008-01 with evaluation results for gas accumulation in safety systems mentioned above. This paper summarizes key phenomena to be evaluated against gas accumulation in safety systems and detection methods for gas accumulation in subjected systems

  16. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  17. UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in hypocotyls of radish sprouts continues in the dark after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nana; Lu, Yanwu; Wu, Qi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Yan; Xia, Kai; Cui, Jin

    2016-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. cv. Yanghua sprouts are rich in health-promoting anthocyanins; thus hypocotyls show a red color under light. In this study, effects of UV-B irradiation at 5 W m(-2) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts were investigated. Anthocyanins began to accumulate rapidly from 24 h irradiation and increased continuously until 48 h, showing a similar pattern to phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.804. The expression of DFR and ANS paralleled the upward trend in anthocyanin accumulation, while CHS, CHI and F3H were upregulated before accumulation. When sprouts were moved into the dark from UV-B, the anthocyanin accumulation did not stop immediately. By contrast, anthocyanin accumulated continuously for more than 12 h in the dark, which was further supported by the significantly higher PAL activity monitored at 24 h after irradiation. Similarly, the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were much higher over 6 h after 12 h UV-B irradiation. UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation continues in the dark after irradiation, which was supported by unfading PAL activity and high levels of biosynthesis-related genes. This will provide evidence to produce high-quality sprouts with more anthocyanins but less energy wastage in practice. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL – mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  19. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Joint accumulations of FDG in whole body PET scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, G.K. von; Meier, N.; Stumpe, K.D.M. [Dept. of Medical Radiology: Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate FDG accumulations in major joints in a large series of non-absorption corrected partial body and whole body FDG-PET scans, and to determine the frequency and intensity of accumulation. Materials and methods: 354 consecutive PET partial- and whole body non-transmission corrected scans of patients obtained for tumor staging were examined with respect to FDG accumulations in the acromio-clavicular (AC)-, gleno-humeral-, hip,, knee- and talo-tibial joints. FDG-uptake was graded using a semi-quantitative scale from 0 (no accumulation) to 4 (very strong accumulation comparable to brain uptake). Results: Joint activity of grade 1-2 was noted frequently, while grade 3 was rare, occurring only in the knee and shoulder joints, and grade 4 was inexistent. The 43 patients with grade 3 accumulations or with at least 4 joints showing grade 2 uptake were interviewed, but all denied pain specifically referred to a joint. Joint accumulations were seen in 50% of the acromio-clavicular-, 80% in the gleno-humeral-, 50% in the hip-, 90% in the knee and 80% in the talo-tibial joints. The intensities of joint accumulations correlated positively and significantly with patient age, ranging from r = 0.7 and p <0.05 in the knee to r = 0.96 and p <0.0001 in the AC joint. Conclusions: FDG accumulations in the joints in whole body FDG-PET scans are frequent and are very likely not related to symptoms. As there is a strong age correlation, and FDG is known to accumulate in inflammatory lesions, the findings are most likely a result of sub-clinical inflammatory synovial proliferation or other chronic inflammatory processes occurring in aging joints. (orig.)

  1. The blue light signal transduction pathway is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in 'Red Zaosu' pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ruiyan; Bai, Songling; Ni, Junbei; Yang, Qinsong; Zhao, Yuan; Teng, Yuanwen

    2018-03-15

    A conserved blue light sensing and transduction pathway contributes to blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of red pear. Peel color is an economically important characteristic that influences the appearance quality of red pear, whose red color is due to anthocyanin accumulation. The process of coloration in the fruit peel is strongly influenced by light. However, how light quality influences color development remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different light qualities on color development in the red pear 'Red Zaosu', a mutant of the hybrid cultivar 'Zaosu' of Pyrus pyrifolia and P. communis. The results showed that blue light increased anthocyanin accumulation after 72 h of light treatment, while red light had almost no effect. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes showed a similar trend to the anthocyanin accumulation. To clarify the mechanism of blue-light induced coloration, PpCRYs, PpCOP1 and PpHY5 genes were cloned. Gene expression analysis showed that their transcript abundance did not correlate with the expression of anthocyanin-related genes or anthocyanin content, but the yeast two-hybrid system revealed conserved physical interactions among these proteins. In addition, PpHY5 directly bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes PpCHS, PpDFR, PpANS and PpMYB10, and activated the transcription of PpCHS in a Nicotiana benthamiana-based dual-luciferase assay. In summary, our results preliminarily revealed that the conserved blue light signal transduction module CRY-COP1-HY5 contributed to the anthocyanin biosynthesis induced by blue light in red pear. However, our results did not provide evidence for why red light had no effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which needs further study.

  2. The natural history of early versus late disability accumulation in primary progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus W; Greenfield, Jamie; Javizian, Omid; Deighton, Stephanie; Wall, Winona; Metz, Luanne M

    2015-06-01

    Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is the least common MS disease course and carries the worst prognosis. In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) disability accumulation occurs in two distinct phases, but it is unclear whether this is also true for PPMS. Here we investigate factors associated with early and late disability accumulation in PPMS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression to investigate the influence of sex, age at disease onset and onset symptoms on time to, and age at, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 4 and 6, as well as the time from EDSS 4 to 6 in patients with PPMS. We identified 500 patients with PPMS. The analyses on time to EDSS 4 included 358 patients, and those on time to EDSS 6 included 392 patients. The median times to EDSS 4 and EDSS 6 were 5 and 9 years. The analyses on age at EDSS 4 included 360 patients, and those on age at EDSS 6 included 402 patients. The median ages at EDSS 4 and EDSS 6 were 51 and 55 years. Older age at onset and bilateral motor onset symptoms were independently associated with a shorter time to both EDSS 4 and EDSS 6. Sex and other onset symptoms were not associated with time to, or age at, landmark disability. Only age at onset was significantly associated with the time from EDSS 4 to EDSS 6. Age at disease onset is the most important predictor of disability accumulation in PPMS. Bilateral motor onset symptoms were associated with quicker disease progression. In contrast to RRMS, we found no evidence for distinct phases of disability accumulation in PPMS. Disability accumulation in PPMS appears to be affected by the same factors throughout its course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Associations of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2017-01-01

    High amounts of time spent sitting can increase cardiovascular disease risk and are deleteriously associated cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Though evidence suggests that accruing sitting time in prolonged periods may convey additional risk, verification using high-quality measures is needed. We examined this issue in adults from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, using accurate measures of sitting accumulation. In 2011/12, 739 adults aged 36 to 89 years (mean±SD 58±10 years) wore activPAL3™ monitors (which provide accurate objective measures of sitting); 678 provided ≥4 valid days of monitor data and complete cardio-metabolic biomarker and confounder data. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of sitting time, sitting time accrued in ≥30 minute bouts (prolonged sitting time), and three measures of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk markers: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, high- and low- density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-load glucose (PLG). Interactions tests examined whether associations of sitting time with biomarkers varied by usual sitting bout duration. Adjusted for potential confounders, greater amounts of sitting time and prolonged sitting time were significantly (psitting time was also significantly associated with higher PLG. Sitting accumulation patterns of frequently interrupted sitting (compared to patterns with relatively more prolonged sitting) were significantly beneficially associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, PLG, and with FPG. Effect sizes were typically larger for accumulation patterns than for sitting time. Significant interactions (psitting time with HDL, triglycerides and PLG became more deleterious the longer at a time sitting was usually accumulated. Adding to previous evidence reliant on low

  4. Cigarette smoke-induced accumulation of lung dendritic cells is interleukin-1α-dependent in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho Fernando M; Nikota Jake K; Bauer Carla MT; Morissette Mathieu C; Iwakura Yoichiro; Kolbeck Roland; Finch Donna; Humbles Alison A; Stämpfli Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence suggests that dendritic cells accumulate in the lungs of COPD patients and correlate with disease severity. We investigated the importance of IL-1R1 and its ligands IL-1α and β to dendritic cell accumulation and maturation in response to cigarette smoke exposure. Methods Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke using a whole body smoke exposure system. IL-1R1-, TLR4-, and IL-1α-deficient mice, as well as anti-IL-1α and anti-IL-1β blocking antibodies were used to study...

  5. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  6. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  7. A comparative study of aluminium and nutrient concentrations in mistletoes on aluminium-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, M C; Haridasan, M; Franco, A C

    2013-09-01

    Mistletoes offer a unique model to study interactions among Al and nutrients in vascular plants, because they grow and reproduce on hosts with distinct Al uptake strategies. We investigated Al distribution and nutrient relations of mistletoes on Al-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts. We hypothesised that mistletoes would exhibit similar leaf nutrient and Al concentrations as their host plants, but a strong compartmentalisation of Al when growing on Al-accumulators. We measured concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in leaves and Al in leaves, seeds and branches of Phthirusa ovata and Psittacanthus robustus infecting Miconia albicans, an Al-accumulator, and Ph. ovata infecting Byrsonima verbascifolia, a non-Al-accumulator. High leaf concentrations of Al in Ph. ovata only occurred while parasitizing the Al-accumulating host; there was no accumulation in branches or seeds. In P. robustus, large concentrations of Al were found in leaves, branches and seeds. Mistletoe seed viability and leaf nutrient concentrations were not affected by Al accumulation. Passive uptake of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu in mistletoes was evidenced by significant correlations between mistletoes and host leaf concentrations, but not of N, P and K. Al was retranslocated to different plant organs in P. robustus, whereas it was mostly restricted to leaves in Ph. ovata. We suggest that Al might have some specific function in P. robustus, which only parasitizes Al-accumulator hosts, while the host generalist Ph. ovata can be considered a facultative Al-accumulator. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. FRACTAL MODEL OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN SOLID BODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim. Abed Al-Zobaede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a model of damage accumulation in parts of machines and structures which is based on a theory of fractals. Hidden process of destruction prior to the formation of macroscopic cracks is usually associated with the accumulation of micro-damages. Various models of damage accumulation and crack growth under the influence of power and thermal loads. However, models describing the accumulation process of micro-damages and their outgrowth into macro-crack are practically non-existent. Fractal structures with self-similarity are an adequate model of the fracture process. The MacDonald correlation function describing the medium structure allows to present the self-similarity of structures within a certain range of scales.The paper reviews models of damage accumulation near an opening in a composite medium and at layer boundaries. The Cantor model in a forward algorithm and a backward algorithm have been used in order to describe the model of damage accumulation. As it is known, the Cantor fractal (Cantor dust is obtained by using a recursive algorithm being applied to fracture mechanics can be regarded as a model of stepwise formation of dispersed micro-damages. The process of damage accumulation (latent destruction phase and its transition in the formation process of macro-cracks and their unification in a through-thickness crack can be described, for example, by the Paris' law.

  9. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  10. Accumulation of radiocesium by Pleurotus citrinopileatus species of edible mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Lahiri, S.; Nag, M.; Laskar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus, a species of edible mushrooms, is widely accepted food component, especially in Indian subcontinent. The accumulating susceptibility of this edible mushroom species towards long-lived radioisotopes of cesium was studied in controlled laboratory condition using the 134 Cs (T 1/2 = 2.06 y) radioisotope. It was observed that the experimental mushroom species accumulated 134 Cs and maximum accumulation took place in the cap portion. The pileus (cap)/stipes (stem) ratio of each 134 Cs accumulated mushroom sample was determined and found 2.22±0.74. The protein and fat fractions of the experimental mushroom species were extracted separately after accumulation of radiocesium and it was found that most of the radiocesium accumulation occurred in the protein fraction of the mushroom. The mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus which is white in color, turned completely black after radiocesium accumulation. The black mushroom so obtained was produced up to fourth generation by tissue culture method without using any radiocesium further. All the successors were found to be black indicating a permanent mutation of the mushroom species. (author)

  11. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  12. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  13. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  14. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  15. 17 CFR 256.190 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... proprietary capital ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.190 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a...

  16. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobin; Zhou Yong; Chen Wuxing; Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  17. Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of zinc exposure on the accumulation, haematology and immunology of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ekrem Şanver Çelik, Hasan Kaya, Sevdan Yilmaz, Mehmet Akbulut, Arınç Tulgar ...

  18. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in plants growing in abandoned mining-district area. HK Chakroun, F Souissi, JL Bouchardon, R Souissi, J Moutte, O Faure, E Remon, S Abdeljaoued ...

  19. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  20. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  1. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...

  2. Accumulation of humic acid in DET/DGT gels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Van der Veeken, P.L.R.; Chakraborty, P.; Van Leeuwen, H.P.

    in Thin film) that these natural complexing agents do enter the gel layer, and that humic acids even appear to accumulate in the gel, with enrichment factors typicallyonthe order of 10. The results have consequences for the interpretation of DGT...

  3. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  4. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  5. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  6. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  7. Reduction of B-Integral Accumulation in Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, David D.; Konoplev, Oleg A.

    1998-06-05

    A pulsed laser is provided wherein the B-integral accumulated in the laser pulse is reduced using a semiconductor wafer. A laser pulse is generated by a laser pulse source. The laser pulse passes through a semiconductor wafer that has a negative nonlinear index of refraction. Thus, the laser pulse accumulates a negative B-integral. The laser pulse is then fed into a laser amplification medium, which has a positive nonlinear index of refraction. The laser pulse may make a plurality of passes through the laser amplification medium and accumulate a positive B-integral during a positive non-linear phase change. The semiconductor and laser pulse wavelength are chosen such that the negative B-integral accumulated in the semiconductor wafer substantially cancels the positive B-integral accumulated in the laser amplification medium. There may be additional accumulation of positive B-integral if the laser pulse passes through additional optical mediums such as a lens or glass plates. Thus , the effects of self-phase modulation in the laser pulse are substantially reduced.

  8. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  9. On the accumulation of radionuclids by lichen symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, dUrably cUltivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fUngi and seaweeds is estimated according to accUmulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of eXperiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweek and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of 137 Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus

  10. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  11. Mass spectrometric quantification of glycogen to assess primary substrate accumulation in the Pompe mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Maria; Duplock, Stephen; Turner, Christopher; Davey, Philippa; Brooks, Doug A; Hopwood, John J; Meikle, Peter J

    2012-02-15

    Glycogen storage in the α-glucosidase knockout((6neo/6neo)) mouse recapitulates the biochemical defect that occurs in the human condition; as such, this mouse serves as a model for the inherited metabolic deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase known as Pompe disease. Although this model has been widely used for the assessment of therapies, the time course of glycogen accumulation that occurs as untreated Pompe mice age has not been reported. To address this, we developed a quantitative method involving amyloglucosidase digestion of glycogen and quantification of the resulting free glucose by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was sensitive enough to measure as little as 0.1 μg of glycogen in tissue extracts with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of less than 12%. Quantification of glycogen in tissues from Pompe mice from birth to 26 weeks of age showed that, in addition to the accumulation of glycogen in the heart and skeletal muscle, glycogen also progressively accumulated in the brain, diaphragm, and skin. Glycogen storage was also evident at birth in these tissues. This method may be particularly useful for longitudinal assessment of glycogen reduction in response to experimental therapies being trialed in this model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anion channels and the stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation by blue light in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, B.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Activation of anion channels by blue light begins within seconds of irradiation in seedlings and is related to the ensuing growth inhibition. 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) is a potent, selective, and reversible blocker of these anion channels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that 20 microM NPPB blocked 72% of the blue-light-induced accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in seedlings. Feeding biosynthetic intermediates to wild-type and tt5 seedlings provided evidence that NPPB prevented blue light from up-regulating one or more steps between and including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone isomerase. NPPB was found to have no significant effect on the blue-light-induced increase in transcript levels of PAL1, CHS, CHI, or DFR, which are genes that encode anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Immunoblots revealed that NPPB also did not inhibit the accumulation of the chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, or flavanone-3-hydroxylase proteins. This is in contrast to the reduced anthocyanin accumulation displayed by a mutant lacking the HY4 blue-light receptor, as hy4 displayed reduced expression of the above enzymes. Taken together, the data indicate that blue light acting through HY4 leads to an increase in the amount of biosynthetic enzymes but blue light must also act through a separate, anion-channel-dependent system to create a fully functional biosynthetic pathway.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  14. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in mesophyll cells of sugarcane and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear biodegradable polyesters produced by bacteria as a carbon store and used to produce a range of bioplastics. Widespread polyhydroxyalkanoate production in C4 crops would decrease petroleum dependency by producing a renewable supply of biodegradable plastics along with residual biomass that could be converted into biofuels or energy. Increasing yields to commercial levels in biomass crops however remains a challenge. Previously, lower accumulation levels of the short side chain polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), were observed in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (M) cells compared to bundle sheath (BS) cells in transgenic maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) leading to a significant decrease in the theoretical yield potential. Here we explore various factors which might affect polymer accumulation in mesophyll cells, including targeting of the PHB pathway enzymes to the mesophyll plastid and their access to substrate. Results The small subunit of Rubisco from pea effectively targeted the PHB biosynthesis enzymes to both M and BS chloroplasts of sugarcane and switchgrass. PHB enzyme activity was retained following targeting to M plastids and was equivalent to that found in the BS plastids. Leaf total fatty acid content was not affected by PHB production. However, when fatty acid synthesis was chemically inhibited, polymer accumulated in M cells. Conclusions In this study, we provide evidence that access to substrate and neither poor targeting nor insufficient activity of the PHB biosynthetic enzymes may be the limiting factor for polymer production in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. PMID:25209261

  15. Dynamics and genetics of PrPSc placental accumulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, C; Corbière, F; Tabouret, G; Lugan, S; Costes, P; Mathey, J; Delmas, J M; Weisbecker, J L; Foucras, G; Cassard, H; Elsen, J M; Schelcher, F; Andréoletti, O

    2007-03-01

    Placentae from scrapie-affected ewes are an important source of contamination. This study confirmed that scrapie-incubating ewes bearing susceptible genotypes could produce both abnormal prion protein (PrPSc)-positive and -negative placentae, depending only on the PRP genotype of the fetus. The results also provided evidence indicating that scrapie-incubating ARR/VRQ ewes may be unable to accumulate prions in the placenta, whatever the genotype of their progeny. Multinucleated trophoblast cells appeared to play a key role in placental PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc accumulation began in syncytiotrophoblasts before disseminating to uninucleated trophoblasts. As these result from trophoblast/uterine epithelial cell fusion, syncytiotrophoblast cells expressed maternal and fetal PrPC, whilst uninucleated trophoblast cells only expressed fetal PrPC. In ARR/VRQ scrapie-infected ewes, expression of the ARR allele by syncytiotrophoblasts appeared to prevent initiation of PrPSc placental deposition. The absence of prions in affected ARR/VRQ sheep placentae reinforces strongly the interest in ARR selection for scrapie control.

  16. Biology of PrPsc accumulation in two natural scrapie-infected sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplazi, Patrick; O'Rourke, Katherine; Wolf, Cynthia; Shaw, Daniel; Baszler, Timothy V

    2004-11-01

    Sheep scrapie is a prion disease that requires interaction of exogenous prions with host prion protein (PrP) supporting prion formation. Disease is associated with deposition of a host-generated conformational variant of PrP, PrPsc, in a variety of tissues, including brain, resulting in fatal spongiform encephalopathy. Efficiency of PrPsc formation is determined by polymorphisms in the PrP-coding sequence. This article adds to previous data of natural sheep scrapie, concentrating on the effect of host genotype and age on PrPsc accumulation patterns during preclinical and clinical disease. Two entire scrapie-infected, predominantly Suffolk-cross, sheep flocks euthanized for regulatory purposes were genotyped and analyzed for PrPsc deposition in various tissues using single- and dual-label immunohistochemistry. Scrapie, as defined by PrPsc deposition, occurred in 13/80 sheep. Preclinical disease was evident in nearly 70% of infected sheep, ranging in age from 14 months to 7 years. PrPsc accumulated systemically in the nervous tissue, various lymphoid tissues, both alimentary tract related and non-alimentary tract related, and the placenta. Clinical neurological illness was always associated with spongiform encephalopathy and PrPsc deposition in the brain. Only 6 of 9 sheep with preclinical scrapie had PrPsc deposition in the brain but widespread PrPsc deposition in peripheral lymphoid tissue, supporting previous data showing peripheral PrPsc accumulation preceding deposition in the brain. PrPsc colocalized with a marker for follicular dendritic cells throughout the lymphoid system. PrPsc also accumulated in the peripheral nervous system, particularly the nervous supply of the gastrointestinal tract. Abundant PrPsc was evident in trophoblast cells of placentomes but not in the endometrium, myometrium, or associated nervous plexus. PrPsc deposits were not observed in the mammary parenchyma or bone marrow. Scrapie susceptibility was defined genetically by PrP codon 171

  17. Presymbiotic factors released by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita induce starch accumulation in Lotus japonicus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Novero, Mara; Guether, Mike; Montanari, Ombretta; Udvardi, Michael; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    * Nutrient exchange is the key symbiotic feature of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). As evidence is accumulating that plants sense presymbiotic factors from AM fungi and prepare for colonization, we investigated whether modifications in plant sugar metabolism might be part of the precolonization program. * Inoculation of Lotus japonicus roots in a double Millipore sandwich with the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita prevented contact between the symbionts but allowed exchange of signal molecules. Starch content was used as a marker for root carbohydrate status. * Mycorrhizal colonization of L. japonicus roots led to a decrease in starch concentration. In roots inoculated in the double sandwich, the polysaccharide accumulated after 1 wk and persisted for at least 4 wk. The response was absent in the castor myc(-) mutant, sym4-2, while transcript levels of both CASTOR and POLLUX were slightly enhanced in the wild-type L. japonicus roots, suggesting a requirement of the corresponding proteins for the starch-accumulation response. Exudates obtained from fungal spores germinated in the absence of the plant also induced starch accumulation in wild-type L. japonicus roots. * We conclude that factors released from germinating AM fungal spores induce changes in the root carbon status, possibly by enhancing sugar import, which leads to starch accumulation when colonization is prevented.

  18. Fruit calcium accumulation coupled and uncoupled from its transpiration in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Lang, Alexander; Mininni, Alba N; Xiloyannis, Cristos

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of Ca in several fleshy fruit is often supposed to depend, among others, by climatic variables driving fruit transpiration. This study tests the whole causal chain hypothesis: VPD → fruit transpiration → Ca accumulation. Also there are evidences that relationship between fruit transpiration and Ca content is not always clear, hence the hypothesis that low VPD reduces the fraction of xylemic water destined to transpiration was tested by examining the water budget of fruit. Attached fruits of Actinidia deliciosa were subjected to Low (L) and High (H) VPD. Their transpiration was measured from early after fruit-set to day 157 after full bloom (DAFB). Fruits were picked at 70, 130 and 157 DAFB for Ca and K determinations and for water budget analysis. Cumulative transpired water was ∼ 70 g and ∼ 16 g H2O f(-1) in HVPD and LVPD, respectively. Calcium accumulated linearly (R(2) = 0.71) with cumulative transpiration when VPD was high, while correlation was weaker (R(2) = 0.24) under LVPD. Under low VPD the fraction of xylem stream destined to transpiration declined to 40-50%. Results suggest that Ca accumulation is coupled to cumulative transpiration under high VPD because under that condition cumulative transpiration equals xylem stream (which carry the nutrient). At LVPD, Ca gain by fruit is uncoupled from transpiration because ∼ 60% of the xylemic water is needed to sustain fruit growth. Results will apply to most fruits (apples, tomatoes, capsicum, grapes etc.) since most suffer Ca deficiency disorders and grow in changing environments with variable VPD, also they could be supportive for the implementation of fruit quality models accounting also for mineral compositions and for a reinterpretation of certain field practices aimed at naturally improve fruit Ca content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath S Palanisamy

    Full Text Available The typical host response to infection of humans and some animals by M. tuberculosis is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generating inflammatory cells into discrete granulomas, which frequently develop central caseous necrosis. In previous studies we showed that infection of immunologically naïve guinea pigs with M. tuberculosis leads to localized and systemic oxidative stress that results in a significant depletion of serum total antioxidant capacity and the accumulation of malondialdehyde, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation. Here we show that in addition, the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo resulted in the accumulation of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL in pulmonary and extrapulmonary granulomas, serum and lung macrophages collected by bronchoalveolar lavage. Macrophages from immunologically naïve guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis also had increased surface expression of the type 1 scavenger receptors CD36 and LOX1, which facilitate the uptake of oxidized host macromolecules including OxLDL. Vaccination of guinea pigs with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG prior to aerosol challenge reduced the bacterial burden as well as the intracellular accumulation of OxLDL and the expression of macrophage CD36 and LOX1. In vitro loading of guinea pig lung macrophages with OxLDL resulted in enhanced replication of bacilli compared to macrophages loaded with non-oxidized LDL. Overall, this study provides additional evidence of oxidative stress in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs and the potential role OxLDL laden macrophages have in supporting intracellular bacilli survival and persistence.

  20. The cortical contrast accumulation from brain computed tomography after endovascular treatment predicts symptomatic hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Park, K Y; Lee, W J; Byun, J S; Kim, J K; Park, M S; Ahn, S W; Shin, H W

    2015-11-01

    The prognostic value of contrast accumulation from non-contrast brain computed tomography taken immediately after endovascular reperfusion treatment in acute ischaemic stroke patients to predict symptomatic hemorrhage was studied. Between July 2007 and August 2014, acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients who were treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis or thrombectomy were included. Contrast accumulation was defined as a high attenuation area from non-contrast brain computed tomography immediately taken after endovascular reperfusion treatment, and patients were categorized into three groups according to the presence and location of contrast: (i) negative, (ii) cortical involvement and (iii) non-cortical involvement. The rates of symptomatic hemorrhage after 24 h and functional outcome at discharge were compared between patients with and without cortical involvement. Of 64 patients who were treated by endovascular intervention, contrast accumulation was detected in 56, including 33 patients with cortical involvement and 23 patients without cortical involvement. The cortical involvement pattern was more frequently associated with symptomatic hemorrhage (13 vs. 1 patient, P = 0.003) and with grave outcome at discharge with modified Rankin Scale 5 or 6 (14 vs. 4, P = 0.048) than the non-cortical involvement group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including initial collateral status and occlusion site disclosed that cortical involvement pattern independently predicted symptomatic hemorrhage after endovascular treatment (odds ratio 19.0, confidence interval 1.6-227.6, P = 0.020). Our study provides evidence that the cortical involvement of contrast accumulation is associated with symptomatic hemorrhage after endovascular reperfusion treatment. © 2015 EAN.

  1. Contribution of the GABA shunt to hypoxia-induced alanine accumulation in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yo; Good, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    When subjected to low oxygen stress, plants accumulate alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To investigate the function of GABA metabolism under hypoxia and its contribution to alanine accumulation, we studied the genes that encode the two key enzymes of the GABA shunt, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Among the five homologous GAD genes found in Arabidopsis thaliana, GAD1 expression was predominantly found in roots, while GAD2 expression was evident in all organs. Expression of the other three GAD genes was generally weak. In response to hypoxia, transcriptional induction was observed for GAD4 only. For GABA-T1, its expression was detected in all organs, but there was no significant transcriptional change under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, we have isolated and characterized Arabidopsis mutants defective in GAD1 and GABA-T1. In gad1 mutants, GAD activity was significantly reduced in roots but was not affected in shoots. In the gaba-t1 mutant, GABA-T activity was decreased to negligible levels in both shoots and roots. These mutants were phenotypically normal under normal growth conditions except for the reduced seed production of the pop2 mutants as described previously. However, metabolite analysis revealed significant changes in GABA content in gad1 and gaba-t1 mutants. The levels of alanine under hypoxic conditions were also affected in the roots of gad1 and gaba-t1 mutants. The partial inhibition of the hypoxia-induced alanine accumulation in roots of these mutants suggests that the GABA shunt is, in part, responsible for the alanine accumulation under hypoxia.

  2. Anthropogenic N deposition increases soil organic matter accumulation without altering its biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Donald R; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Steffens, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that future rates of atmospheric N deposition have the potential to increase soil C storage by reducing the decay of plant litter and soil organic matter (SOM). Although the microbial mechanism underlying this response is not well understood, a decline in decay could alter the amount, as well as biochemical composition of SOM. Here, we used size-density fractionation and solid-state 13 C-NMR spectroscopy to explore the extent to which declines in microbial decay in a long-term (ca. 20 yrs.) N deposition experiment have altered the biochemical composition of forest floor, bulk mineral soil, as well as free and occluded particulate organic matter. Significant amounts of organic matter have accumulated in occluded particulate organic matter (~20%; oPOM); however, experimental N deposition had not altered the abundance of carboxyl, aryl, alkyl, or O/N-alkyl C in forest floor, bulk mineral soil, or any soil fraction. These observations suggest that biochemically equivalent organic matter has accumulated in oPOM at a greater rate under experimental N deposition, relative to the ambient treatment. Although we do not understand the process by which experimental N deposition has fostered the occlusion of organic matter by mineral soil particles, our results highlight the importance of interactions among the products of microbial decay and the chemical and physical properties of silt and clay particles that occlude organic matter from microbial attack. Because oPOM can reside in soils for decades to centuries, organic matter accumulating under future rates of anthropogenic N deposition could remain in soil for long periods of time. If temperate forest soils in the Northern Hemisphere respond like those in our experiment, then unabated deposition of anthropogenic N from the atmosphere has the potential to foster greater soil C storage, especially in fine-texture forest soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta - a predictor for synaptic dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Bayer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite of long-standing evidence that beta-amyloid (Aβ peptides have detrimental effects on synaptic function, the relationship between Aβ, synaptic and neuron loss is largely unclear. During the last years there is growing evidence that early intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ peptides is one of the key events leading to synaptic and neuronal dysfunction. Many studies have been carried out using transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which have been proven to be valuable model system in modern AD research. The present review discusses the impact of intraneuronal Aβ accumulation on synaptic impairment and neuron loss and provides an overview of currently available AD mouse models showing these pathological alterations.

  4. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  5. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  6. Photosynthate accumulation in solar-powered sea slugs - starving slugs survive due to accumulated starch reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laetz, Elise M J; Moris, Victoria C; Moritz, Leif; Haubrich, André N; Wägele, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Solar-powered sea slugs are famed for their ability to survive starvation due to incorporated algal chloroplasts. It is well established that algal-derived carbon can be traced in numerous slug-derived compounds, showing that slugs utilize the photosynthates produced by incorporated plastids. Recently, a new hypothesis suggests that the photosynthates produced are not continuously made available to the slug. Instead, at least some of the plastid's photosynthetic products are stored in the plastid itself and only later become available to the slug. The long-term plastid-retaining slug, Elysia timida and its sole food source, Acetabularia acetabulum were examined to determine whether or not starch, a combination of amylose and amylopectin and the main photosynthate produced by A. acetabulum , is produced by the stolen plastids and whether it accumulates within individual kleptoplasts, providing an energy larder, made available to the slug at a later time. Histological sections of Elysia timida throughout a starvation period were stained with Lugol's Iodine solution, a well-known stain for starch granules in plants. We present here for the first time, an increase in amylose concentration, within the slug's digestive gland cells during a starvation period, followed by a sharp decrease. Chemically blocking photosynthesis in these tissues resulted in no observable starch, indicating that the starch in untreated animals is a product of photosynthetic activity. This suggests that kleptoplasts function as both, a nutritive producer and storage device, holding onto the polysaccharides they produce for a certain time until they are finally available and used by the starving slug to withstand extended starvation periods.

  7. Contemporary management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease: an evidence-based review with recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua M.; Rudmik, Luke; Peters, Anju T.; Wise, Sarah K.; Rotenberg, Brian W.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) represents a recalcitrant form of sinonasal inflammation for which a multidisciplinary consensus on patient management has not been reached. Several medical interventions have been investigated, but a formal comprehensive evaluation of the evidence has never been performed. The purpose of this article is to provide an evidence-based approach for the multidisciplinary management of CRS in AERD. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed and the guidelines for development of an evidence-based review with recommendations were followed. Study inclusion criteria included: adult population>18 years old; CRS based on published diagnostic criteria and a presumptive diagnosis of AERD. We focused on reporting higher-quality studies (level 2 or higher) when available, but reported lower-quality studies if the topic contained insufficient evidence. Treatment recommendations were based on American Academy of Otolaryngology guidelines, with defined grades of evidence and evaluation of research quality and risk/benefits associated with each treatment. Results This review identified and evaluated the literature on 3 treatment strategies for CRS in AERD: dietary salicylate avoidance, leukotriene modification and desensitization with daily aspirin therapy. Conclusion Based on the available evidence, dietary salicylate avoidance and leukotriene modifying drugs are options following appropriate treatment with nasal corticosteroids and saline irrigation. Desensitization with daily aspirin therapy is recommended following revision ESS. PMID:27480830

  8. Correlation between intracellular accumulation of peptidoglycan precursors and streptomycin formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimi, Osamu; Kawashima, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Masanori; Nomi, Ryosaku

    1984-01-01

    When the mycelium of Streptomyces HUT 6037 was suspended in 0.5% NaCl solution containing 14 C-glucosamine, peptidoglycan precursors accumulated in the cells. While UDP-N-acetylglucosamine accumulated in the largest amount among the precursors, extracellularly added and intracellularly accumulated UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were not used to synthesize streptomycin and were probably used for peptidoglycan formation. On the other hand, correlation was recognized between accumulation of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) and streptomycin formation. Addition of an inhibitor of peptidoglycan synthesis such as enduracidin, vancomycin or cycloserine to a mycelium-suspended culture changed the ratio of accumulated peptidoglycan precursors. When streptomycin formation was stimulated by addition of enduracidin or vancomycin, intracellular GlcN-6P remarkably increased and then decreased rapidly. On the contrary, when cycloserine was added to the culture, no increase of GlcN-6P was observed and streptomycin formation was not stimulated. These results suggest that an increase in the intracellular concentration of GlcN-6P is required for activation or induction of the system for utilizing GlcN-6P for streptomycin formation. (author)

  9. Accumulation and function of trigonelline in non-leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shin

    2014-06-01

    As part of our studies of the occurrence, biosynthesis, function and human use of trigonelline, we looked at trigonelline-accumulating plant species and at the distribution of trigonelline in different organs of trigonelline-accumulating non-leguminous plants. There are many trigonelline-synthesizing plant species, but apart from legume seeds only a few species accumulate high concentrations of trigonelline. We have found only three species that accumulate high levels of trigonelline: Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine), Coffea arabica (coffee) and Mirabilisjalapa (four o'clock flower). Trigonelline was found in all parts of Murraya paniculata seedlings at 4-13 micromol/g fresh weight; more than 70% was distributed in the leaves. In the coffee plant, trigonelline was found in all organs, and the concentrations in the upper stems, including tips (48 micromol/g FW) and seeds (26 micromol/g FW), were higher than in other organs. In Mirabilis jalapa plants, trigonelline was found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds; the concentration varied from 0.3 to 13 micromol/g FW and was generally higher in young tissues than in mature tissues, except for seeds. Exogenously supplied nicotinamide increases the trigonelline content. The in planta role of trigonelline and the possible use oftrigonelline-accumulating plants in herbal medicine are discussed.

  10. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  11. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  12. Evidence Supporting Broader Access To Safe Legal Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Faundes; Anibal; Shah; Iqbal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal con...

  13. 12 CFR 925.17 - Rebuttable presumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES... are in substantial compliance with all aspects of the enforcement action; or (ii) Written analysis. A written analysis acceptable to the Bank indicating that the applicant or its directors or senior officers...

  14. Presumptive Versus Directed Treatment Of Uncomplicated Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    placed in the OPD and thick blood films were prepared ... film results. Prescribers in the OPD were aware of the screening process. Daily tallies in the Pharmacy were made as described above. Phase III: Two weeks prior to Phase III, the results of. Phase II were .... nual yearly drug budget for the Dept of Orthopaedics.

  15. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.341-3 - Presumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the transactions described in § 1.341-1 the fair market value of the section 341 assets held by it constitutes 50 percent or more of the fair market value of its total assets and the fair market value of the... accrual basis, on July 31, 1955, owned assets with the following fair market values: Cash, $175,000; note...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF SELENIUM IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of establishing the levels of selenium accumulation in fish Marine has consistently attracted the attention of researchers. This is due, no doubt, with a surprisingly high concentrations of trace elements in fishmuscle mass compared with terrestrial animals and the wide spread lack of public consumption of selenium in most countries of the world. By the ability to accumulate selenium species investigated can be arranged in series: carp < rudd < pike Kutum < perch < carp < mullet < silverside < pike < roach < sprat common < gobies < sprat anchovy << sturgeon. It is known that the main source of selenium to fish is the food, although there is some element passes through the gills during respiration. Comparing the results with data accumulation of selenium muscle tissue of fish from different regions of the world indicates the absence of express selenodefitsita in the Caspian Sea.

  18. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  19. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  20. Brain lipopigment accumulation in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Dan; Riga, Sorin; Halalau, Florin; Schneider, Francisc

    2006-05-01

    A principal marker of brain vulnerability, stress, aging, and related pathology is represented by lipopigments (LPs)--lipofuscin, and ceroid. During ontogenesis, neuronal LP accumulations are significantly correlated with important changes in nerve cell morphology and biochemistry. In the aged neurons, LPs are present in all cellular compartments. Moreover, neuronal LP accumulations coexist with glial LP storage, especially in microglia. Owing to their transporting properties, and the migration capacity of microglia, glial cells deposit LP clusters in pericapillary areas. Thus, LP conglomerates appear in the whole nervous tissue, creating specific patterns of LP architectonics. Direct interrelations, critical LP concentrations, which generate cascades of negative subcellular events, and indirect impairment correlations determine characteristic neuropathologic aging profiles. These specific and associated negative neuropathologic consequences of LP accumulation have multiple and detrimental impacts on neuron and glia homeostasis, ranging from neuronal function to central nervous system physiology.

  1. Accumulation of some metal ions on Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; El-Desouky, W.; Fouad, A.

    2001-01-01

    Pure species of Bacillus licheniformis was used to remove ions from aqueous and simulated waste solutions. Metal ion accumulation on B. licheniformis was fast. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 4± 0.5 and at 25 ± 3 deg C. One gram of dry B. licheniformis was found to accumulate 115 mg cerium, 34 mg copper and 11 mg cobalt from aqueous solutions. The presence of certain foreign ions such as calcium, sodium and potassium decreased the uptake of ions by B. licheniformis, while citrate and EDTA prevent the uptake. Electron microscopic investigations showed that cerium (III), copper (II) and cobalt (II) accumulated extracellulary around the surface wall of B. licheniformis cells. A bio-adsorption mechanism between the metal ions and B. licheniformis cell wall was proposed. (author)

  2. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  3. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  4. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Hugo de Vries Laboratory)

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m[sup -]2a[sup -1]) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  5. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m - 2a -1 ) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  6. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2010-01-01

    significant amount within 24 h incubation. The accumulation and cytotoxicity of HSA-Pt was compared to 10 µmol L¿¹ cisplatin for which a larger accumulation and cytotoxicity were observed in EATC compared to Lettré. The experiment was performed with cell medium exchange every fourth hour as HSA......-Pt and cisplatin were not stable in RPMI-1640 with 10% serum. The stability was determined using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and after 4 h new platinum peaks were observed. These findings indicate that before conducting cell experiments, the stability......The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any...

  7. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benco, C.; Cannarsa, S.; Ceppodomo, I.; Zattera, A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  8. The distribution and phylogeny of aluminium accumulating plants in the Ericales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Watanabe, T.; Caris, P.; Geuten, K.; Lens, F.; Pyck, N.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of aluminium (Al) accumulation in the Ericales is surveyed, based on semi-quantitative tests of 114 species and literature data. Al accumulation mainly characterises the families Diapensiaceae, Pentaphylacaceae, Symplocaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, and Theaceae. Al accumulation is

  9. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-07-27

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  10. A model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to develop a calculation model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products, both whilst in use and when in landfills, and to apply the model to Portugal as an example.Area of study: The model is applicable worldwide and the case-study is Portugal.Material and methods: The model adopts a flux-data method based on a lifetime analysis and quantifies carbon accumulation in cork products according to three approaches that differ on how carbon stocks (or emissions are allocated to cork product consuming and producing countries. These approaches are: stock-change, production and atmospheric-flow. The effect on carbon balance of methane emissions from the decay of cork products in landfills is also evaluated.Main results: The model was applied to Portugal and the results show that carbon accumulation in cork products in the period between 1990 and 2010 varied between 24 and 92 Gg C year-1. The atmospheric-flow approach provided the highest carbon accumulation over the whole period due to the net export of carbon in cork products. The production approach ranked second because exported cork products were mainly manufactured from domestically produced cork. The net carbon balance in cork products was also a net carbon accumulation with all the approaches, ranging from 5 to 81 Gg C eq year-1.Research highlights: The developed model can be applied to other countries and may be a step forward to consider carbon accumulation in cork products in national greenhouse gas inventories, as well as in future climate agreements.Keywords: Atmospheric-flow approach; Greenhouse gas balance; Modelling; Production approach; Stock-change approach.

  11. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Melchior van Wessem, J.; Roberts, Jason; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Fudge, Tyler J.; Vallelonga, Paul; Medley, Brooke; Lenaerts, Jan; Bertler, Nancy; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Stenni, Barbara; Curran, Mark; Ekaykin, Alexey A.

    2017-11-01

    Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB) from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves) has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ˜ 0.02 mm decade-1 since 1800 and ˜ 0.04 mm decade-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (˜ 75 %) where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001-2010) is 123 ± 44 Gt yr-1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  12. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade−1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ∼ 0.02 mm decade−1 since 1800 and ∼ 0.04 mm decade−1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (∼ 75 % where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001–2010 is 123 ± 44 Gt yr−1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  13. Understanding Accumulation: The Relevance of Marx’s Theory of Primitive Accumulation in Media and Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Ekman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss and use Marx’s theory on primitive accumulation, outlined in the first volume of Capital, in relation to media and communication research. In order to develop Marx’s argument the discussion is revitalized through Harvey’s concept of accumulation by dispossession. The article focuses on two different fields within media and communication research where the concept of accumulation by dispossession is applicable. First, the role of news media content, news flows and news media systems are discussed in relation to social mobilization against capitalism, privatizations, and the financial sector. Second, Marx’s theory is used to examine how communication in Web 2.0 and the development of ICTs could advance the processes of capital accumulation by appropriating the work performed by users of Web 2.0 and by increasing the corporate surveillance of Internet users. In conclusion, by analyzing how primitive accumulation is intertwined with contemporary expanded reproduction of capital, the article shows that Marx’s theory can contribute to critical media and communication research in several ways.

  14. The Installation Status of the SNS Accumulator Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hechler, Michael; Error, Joseph; McGahern, William J

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS*) SNS accumulator Ring, when completed in 2006, will be capable of delivering a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. This paper presents an overview of the issues and logistics associated with the preparation and installation of the accumulator Ring. The preparatory activities which occurred at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, vendors and at the SNS will be discussed as well as the installation sequence and procedures.

  15. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every contin...

  16. On 60Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikov, A.V.; Trapeznikova, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of 60 Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of 60 Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt

  17. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.

  18. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  19. ION EFFECTS IN THE APS PARTICLE ACCUMULATOR RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvey, J.; Harkay, K.; Yao, CY.

    2017-06-25

    Trapped ions in the APS Particle Accumulator Ring (PAR) lead to a positive coherent tune shift in both planes, which increases along the PAR cycle as more ions accumulate. This effect has been studied using an ion simulation code developed at SLAC. After modifying the code to include a realistic vacuum profile, multiple ionization, and the effect of shaking the beam to measure the tune, the simulation agrees well with our measurements. This code has also been used to evaluate the possibility of ion instabilities at the high bunch charge needed for the APS-Upgrade.

  20. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products in canine atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, K; Vandenberge, V; Ducatelle, R

    2010-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is an uncommon lesion in animals and particularly in dogs. Prominent atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries are described in three dogs. These comprised an expansion of the tunica media by the accumulation of foam cells and/or cholesterol crystals, with subsequent narrowing of the vascular lumen. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foam cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. As in man, these findings suggest a possible role of AGEs in the development of canine atherosclerosis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  2. Transverse Phase Space Painting for SNS Accumulator Ring Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y. Y.; Raparia, D.; Wei, J.

    1999-01-01

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system are presented and discussed

  3. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  4. Effect of ischemia and reperfusion on neutrophil accumulation in equine microvascular tissue flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W M; Fowler, J D; Matte, G; Allen, A L; Wilkinson, A A; Bailey, J V; Fretz, P B

    1999-01-01

    To investigate neutrophil accumulation after ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in microvascular tissue flaps in horses. Randomized controlled experiment. A total of 8 horses between 1 and 10 years of age, 4 of each sex. Control and experimental myocutaneous island flaps based on the superficial branch of the deep circumflex iliac vessels were dissected on each horse. Atraumatic vascular clamps were applied to the pedicle of the experimental flap for 90 minutes and then removed to allow reperfusion. Based on the assumption that rapid infiltration of neutrophils into affected tissues is a hallmark of IR injury, radiolabeled autogenous leukocytes were used to indirectly quantify neutrophil accumulation in flap tissues. Labeled leukocytes were administered through a jugular catheter 30 minutes before flap reperfusion. Biopsies were collected from each flap over a 6 hour postischemia time period; in group 1 (n = 4) from 0 to 6 hours postischemia, and in group 2 (n = 4) from 24 to 30 hours postischemia. Biopsies were examined scintigraphically and histologically for evidence of neutrophil infiltration. All control flaps survived and 6 of 8 experimental flaps survived. There was no significant evidence of acute neutrophil infiltration into flap tissues after reperfusion in either group. The results of this study suggest that equine myocutaneous flap tissues can survive a 90-minute ischemic period and reperfusion. No significant evidence of the occurrence of IR injury in flap tissues was found. The reasons for the previously reported failures of equine free tissue transfer remain uncertain, but they do not appear to be caused by neutrophil mediated injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion.

  5. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  6. Nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD is frequently detected in human epithelial cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Ralhan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of the intracellular domain (Ep-ICD of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM accompanied by a reciprocal reduction of its extracellular domain (EpEx, occurs in aggressive thyroid cancers. This study was designed to determine whether similar accumulation of Ep-ICD is a common event in other epithelial cancers. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Ten epithelial cancers were immunohistochemically analyzed using Ep-ICD and EpEx domain-specific antibodies. The subcellular localization of EpEx and Ep-ICD in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line CX-1 was observed using immunofluorescence. Nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD expression was increased in cancers of the breast (31 of 38 tissues, 82%, prostate (40 of 49 tissues, 82%, head and neck (37 of 57 tissues, 65% and esophagus (17 of 46 tissues, 37% compared to their corresponding normal tissues that showed membrane localization of the protein. Importantly, Ep-ICD was not detected in the nuclei of epithelial cells in most normal tissues. High nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD accumulation also occurred in the other six epithelial cancer types analyzed - lung, colon, liver, bladder, pancreatic, and ovarian. A concomitant reduction in membrane EpEx expression was observed in a subset of all cancer types. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed nuclear Ep-ICD distinguished breast cancers with 82% sensitivity and 100% specificity and prostate cancers with 82% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Similar findings were observed for cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in these cancers. We provide clinical evidence of increased nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD accumulation and a reduction in membranous EpEx in these cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Increased nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD was observed in all epithelial cancers analyzed and distinguished them from normal tissues with high-sensitivity, specificity, and AUC. Development of a

  7. Methane fluxes above the Hainich forest by True Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebicke, Lukas; Gentsch, Lydia; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    , based on preliminary evidence, that the Hainich forest acted as a moderate net sink for methane during the investigation. This supports earlier findings from chamber measurements at the Hainich forest site and is similar to findings from other forest sites. Our observations will be continued through 2016 and beyond to provide longer-term methane flux time series spanning entire seasons. However, the current data set already provides a basis for further consolidating methods of measurements and analysis of turbulent methane fluxes using eddy covariance and true eddy accumulation.

  8. Carbonate-silicate cycle models of the long-term carbon cycle, carbonate accumulation in the oceans, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Several models of the long-term carbon cycle, incorporating models of the carbonate-silicate cycle, were developed and utilized to investigate issues relating to global climate and the causes and consequences of changes in calcium carbonate accumulation in the oceans. Model results indicate that the marked mid-Cretaceous (120 Ma) global warming could be explained by increased rates of release of carbon dioxide from subduction-zone metamorphism and mid-ocean-ridges, in conjunction with paleogeographic factors. Since the mid-Cretaceous, the primary setting for calcium carbonate accumulation in the oceans has shifted from shallow-water to deep-water environments. Model results suggest that this shift could have major consequences for the carbonate-silicate cycle and climate, and lead to significant increases in the flux of metamorphic carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Increases in pelagic carbonate productivity, and decreases in tropical shallow-water area available for neritic carbonate accumulation, have both been proposed as the primary cause of this shift. Two lines of evidence developed here (one involving a statistical analysis of Tertiary carbonate-accumulation and oxygen-isotope data, and another based on modeling the carbonate-silicate cycle and ocean chemistry) suggest that a decrease in tropical shallow-water area was more important than increased pelagic productivity in explaining this shift. Model investigations of changes in ocean chemistry at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary (66 Ma) indicate that variations in deep-water carbonate productivity may affect shallow-water carbonate accumulation rates through a mechanism involving surface-water carbonate-ion concentration. In the aftermath of the K/T boundary event, deep-water carbonate production and accumulation were significantly reduced as a result of the extinction of calcareous plankton

  9. Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, Cd accumulation in fine roots reached to 390 μg/g DW under the treatment Cd200. Oxalic and citric acids were the two most abundant organic acids in S. alterniflora. Contents of oxalic acid in inflorescences, stems and fine roots were all positively related with Cd bioaccumulations indicating that oxalic acid ...

  10. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater in tropical savannah zone, Nigeria. HI Mustapha, OB Adeboye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Spin Heat Accumulation Induced by Tunneling from a Ferromagnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Marun, I.J.; Wees, B.J. van; Jansen, R.

    2014-01-01

    An electric current from a ferromagnet into a nonmagnetic material can induce a spin-dependent electron temperature. Here, it is shown that this spin heat accumulation, when created by tunneling from a ferromagnet, produces a non-negligible voltage signal that is comparable to that due to the

  12. Regulation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accumulation in plant kingdom. Therefore a deeper insight in mutualistic symbiosis is of great importance for biological applications: (1) the plant/microbial co-culture system in vitro may be perfectly useful to guide the cultivation of medicinal plants for obtaining high level of bioactive compounds; (2) manipulating plant ...

  13. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...

  14. Dry Matter Accumulation As A Yield Indicator For Soyabeans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to assess the efficiency of dry matter accumulation in the leaves, petioles, stems and biomass as a yield indicator for soybean variety TGX 536-02D at different developmental stages in the humid tropical rainforest. Linear regressions of the dry matter at the different growth stages on pod and grain ...

  15. Germination, seedling growth and ion accumulation of bitter vetch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of NaCl levels on germination and seedling growth, and ion accumulation in five bitter vetch lines. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (MGT, day), emergence percentage (%), shoot and root length (mm), shoot and root fresh and dry weight (mg/plant) and the ...

  16. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds...

  17. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...

  18. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  19. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp was investigated. Growth rates and survival do not appear to be sensitive indicators of dietary As(III) toxicity under lower exposure concentration. However, the toxicity increases as As(III) exposure concentration increase, ...

  20. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum areas of Kampala City, Uganda. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... methods such as open defecation and emptying into storm drainages are employed which consequently contribute to environmental and health-related challenges.