WorldWideScience

Sample records for presumed inactive molecules

  1. What is presumed when we presume consent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierscionek Barbara K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organ donor shortfall in the UK has prompted calls to introduce legislation to allow for presumed consent: if there is no explicit objection to donation of an organ, consent should be presumed. The current debate has not taken in account accepted meanings of presumption in law and science and the consequences for rights of ownership that would arise should presumed consent become law. In addition, arguments revolve around the rights of the competent autonomous adult but do not always consider the more serious implications for children or the disabled. Discussion Any action or decision made on a presumption is accepted in law and science as one based on judgement of a provisional situation. It should therefore allow the possibility of reversing the action or decision. Presumed consent to organ donation will not permit such reversal. Placing prime importance on the functionality of body organs and their capacity to sustain life rather than on explicit consent of the individual will lead to further debate about rights of ownership and potentially to questions about financial incentives and to whom benefits should accrue. Factors that influence donor rates are not fully understood and attitudes of the public to presumed consent require further investigation. Presuming consent will also necessitate considering how such a measure would be applied in situations involving children and mentally incompetent adults. Summary The presumption of consent to organ donation cannot be understood in the same way as is presumption when applied to science or law. Consideration should be given to the consequences of presuming consent and to the questions of ownership and organ monetary value as these questions are likely to arise should presumed consent be permitted. In addition, the implications of presumed consent on children and adults who are unable to object to organ donation, requires serious contemplation if these most vulnerable

  2. Inaction inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, M.; Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, E.; Tykocinski, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Inaction inertia occurs when bypassing an initial action opportunity has the effect of decreasing the likelihood that subsequent similar action opportunities will be taken. This overview of the inaction inertia literature demonstrates the impact of inaction inertia on decision making. Based on

  3. Organ procurement: let's presume consent

    OpenAIRE

    Moustarah, F

    1998-01-01

    IN WINNING FIRST PRIZE in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Dr. Fady Moustarah made a strong and compelling argument in favour of presumed consent in the procurement of donor organs. He stressed that a major education campaign will be needed when such a policy is adopted lest some people begin to regard physicians as "organ vultures."

  4. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  5. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  6. Presumed hereditary retinal degenerations: Ibadan experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the clinical presentation of RP, the prevalence of associated treatable disorders and the characteristics of patients with severe visual impairment and blindness. Method: A retrospective review of 52 cases presumed and diagnosed to have RP was performed on patients who presented at the Eye Clinic, ...

  7. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  8. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  9. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain...

  10. Laparoscopic power morcellation of presumed fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolmann, Hans A; Sizzi, Ornella; Hehenkamp, Wouter J; Rossetti, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a highly prevalent benign gynecologic neoplasm that affects women of reproductive age. Surgical procedures commonly employed to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids include myomectomy or total or sub-total hysterectomy. These procedures, when performed using minimally invasive techniques, reduce the risks of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, in order to remove bulky lesions from the abdominal cavity through laparoscopic ports, a laparoscopic power morcellator must be used, a device with rapidly spinning blades to cut the uterine tissue into fragments so that it can be removed through a small incision. Although the minimal invasive approach in gynecological surgery has been firmly established now in terms of recovery and quality of life, morcellation is associated with rare but sometimes serious adverse events. Parts of the morcellated specimen may be spread into the abdominal cavity and enable implantation of cells on the peritoneum. In case of unexpected sarcoma the dissemination may upstage disease and affect survival. Myoma cells may give rise to 'parasitic' fibroids, but also implantation of adenomyotic cells and endometriosis has been reported. Finally the morcellation device may cause inadvertent injury to internal structures, such as bowel and vessels, with its rotating circular knife. In this article it is described how to estimate the risk of sarcoma in a presumed fibroid based on epidemiologic, imaging and laboratory data. Furthermore the first literature results of the in-bag morcellation are reviewed. With this procedure the specimen is contained in an insufflated sterile bag while being morcellated, potentially preventing spillage of tissue but also making direct morcellation injuries unlikely to happen.

  11. Conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba Conjunctivitis presumably due to Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Carvalho Ruthes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Abordar quatro casos de conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba, descrevendo o diagnóstico, considerando sinais e sintomas e o tratamento instituído. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados casos de conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba diagnosticados no Hospital de Olhos do Paraná (HOP, no período de setembro/1998 a janeiro/2002. Todos os olhos estudados foram submetidos a um protocolo de investigação que incluía exame oftalmológico completo, microbiologia e cultura de secreções conjuntivais. RESULTADOS: Os exames laboratoriais de microscopia e cultura do material colhido estes pacientes revelaram o diagnóstico de Acanthamoeba. A maioria dos pacientes referia olhos vermelhos e irritação ocular de longa data. Os autores encontraram correlação entre a cultura e o exame direto, em que se evidenciou a presença de cistos e trofozoítas do protozoário. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro relato de conjuntivite provavelmente por Acanthamoeba de acordo com a literatura revisada. Pacientes selecionados e refratários ao tratamento habitual de infecção ocular externa devem ser considerados para estudo laboratorial adequado à procura etiológica da doença.PURPOSE: To describe four cases of conjunctivitis presumably due to Acanthamoeba considering diagnosis, signs, symptoms and treatment. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who presented a clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba conjunctivitis between September/1998 to January/2001 at the "Hospital de Olhos do Paraná (HOP". All eyes were submitted to a protocol of investigation that included ophthalmologic examination, microscopic examination and culture exams of conjunctival smears for adequate treatment. RESULTS: The laboratorial results of conjunctival smears revealed contamination with Acanthamoeba by direct examination and thereafter, confirmed by culture. The authors observed cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of

  12. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  13. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  14. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  15. Retributivist Arguments against Presuming Innocence : Answering to Duff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Factors justifying not presuming innocence are generally incorporated into the Presumption of Innocence (PoI). A confusing discourse has resulted: numerous guilt-presuming acts are deemed consistent with the PoI. I argue for an unusually broad PoI: any act that might convey to a reasonable actor

  16. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presuming cost-effectiveness results. 436.13 Section 436... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to...

  17. 27 CFR 70.52 - Signature presumed authentic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature presumed authentic. 70.52 Section 70.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Collection-General Provisions § 70.52 Signature presumed...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6064-1 - Signature presumed authentic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature presumed authentic. 301.6064-1 Section 301.6064-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6064-1 Signature presumed authentic. An individual's name signed to a return, statement, or other...

  19. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  20. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  1. Molecules and morphology reveal overlooked populations of two presumed extinct Australian sea snakes (Aipysurus: Hydrophiinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate Laura; Schroeder, Tina; Guinea, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    in northwest Australia are widely threatened by infrastructure developments and sea snakes are presently omitted from environmental impact assessments for industry. Further studies are urgently needed to assess these species’ remaining distributions, population structure, and extent of occurrence in protected...

  2. Presumed Optic Disc Melanocytoma in a Young Nigerian: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homogenous soft tissue mass with broad base arising from the choroid in the optic nerve area and projecting into the vitreous cavity. No retinal detachment or sub-retinal fluid was seen. An assessment of right presumed ODM was made. She was refracted with visual acuity improvement to 6/5 in either eye and spectacles ...

  3. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological

  4. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...

  5. Sucessfull management of bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophtalmitis following pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, and frequently devastating, ophthalmic disease. It occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, or those with diabetes mellitus, cancer or intravenous drugs users. Candida infection is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular candidiasis develops within days to weeks of fungemia. The association of treatment for pancreatitis with endophthalmitis is unusual. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition may explain endogenous endophthalmitis. We report the case of a patient with pancreatitis treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition who developed bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis that was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B.

  6. Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Lorenzen, Jan; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    Title: Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients Yijuan Xu1, Jan Lorenzen1, Trine Rolighed Thomsen1,2, Kathrin Kluba3, Kathrin Chamaon3, Christoph Lohmann3 1. Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark 2. Center for Microbial Communities, Department of Biotech......Title: Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients Yijuan Xu1, Jan Lorenzen1, Trine Rolighed Thomsen1,2, Kathrin Kluba3, Kathrin Chamaon3, Christoph Lohmann3 1. Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark 2. Center for Microbial Communities, Department...... of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark 3. Department of Orthopaedics, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, Germany Aim: ”The HypOrth project (New approaches in the development of Hypoallergenic implant material in Orthopaedics: Steps to personalised medicine......) aims to investigate adverse immune reactions to implant materials. For this project, it is of utmost importance to exclude patients with periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The aim of this study was to rule out PJIs in included patients using prolonged culture and next generation sequencing (NGS...

  7. Reactivation of presumed adenoviral keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Nilgün; Bilgihan, Kamil; Gürelik, Gökhan; Ozdek, Sengül; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2002-04-01

    We report a patient with reactivation of presumed adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to correct high myopia. The preoperative refraction was -13.00 diopters (D) in the right eye and -14.00 D in the left eye, and the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. On the first postoperative day, mild conjunctival hyperemia and multiple subepithelial infiltrations localized in the flap zone consistent with adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were seen. After prompt treatment, the lesions resolved. As a consequence, LASIK successfully corrected the high myopia. Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis can be reactivated after LASIK, unlike after photorefractive keratectomy, despite the absence of symptomatic and clinical findings before the procedure.

  8. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Morin

    Full Text Available In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH assemblages conservatively dated to ≈ 100-60 kilo-years (ka ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS 5b (≈ 90 ka and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka. The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions.

  9. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ≈ 100-60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (≈ 90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions.

  10. Inactive fibrotic lesions versus pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsona Peiró, Jordi; de Souza Galvão, Maria Luiza; Altet Gómez, Maria Neus

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes the concept of inactive fibrotic lesions of presumed tuberculous origin (old healed tuberculosis), defined by radiological characteristics and a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), and we examine the evidence-based foundation for the indication of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in these cases. We explore the risk of reactivation in older and recent literature, and the problems raised by the differential diagnosis with active tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. We also analyze data on the prevalence of fibrotic lesions in the recent literature. We examine the possible role of Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) versus TST and other molecular antigen detection techniques in sputum that can aid in establishing the diagnosis and we discuss the current indications for chemoprophylaxis and the different options available. We propose diagnostic guidelines and therapeutic algorithms based on risk stratification by age and other factors in the management of radiological lesions that raise a differential diagnosis between fibrotic lesions and active pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  12. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  13. Socioeconomic Determinants of Physical Inactivity among Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Narimasa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Half of Japanese workers are physically inactive, but there are no studies on the relation between the leisure-time physical inactivity of Japanese workers and their socioeconomic status. The proportion of female workers who are physically inactive has been larger than that of male workers. Objectives: Using micro-data from nationwide surveys in Japan, this study explored the gender differences in socioeconomic determinants of leisure-time physical inactivity. Methods: We first es...

  14. The role of methotrexate in resolving ocular inflammation after specific therapy for presumed latent syphilitic uveitis and presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ozlem; Ziaei, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activity of oral and intravitreal methotrexate (MTX) suppresses intraocular inflammation in patients with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis and presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis. Interventional prospective study including three cases with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis treated with intravenous penicillin and oral MTX, and two cases with presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis treated with standard antituberculosis therapy and intravitreal MTX injections. Treatment efficacy of all cases was assessed by best-corrected visual acuity, fundus fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Four eyes of 3 patients with presumed latent syphilitic uveitis had improved best-corrected visual acuity, suppression of intraocular inflammation, and resolution of cystoid macular edema in 6 months with oral MTX therapy. No recurrence of intraocular inflammation was observed in 6 months to 18 months of follow-up period after cessation of MTX. Two eyes of two patients with presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis showed improved best-corrected visual acuity, suppression of intraocular inflammation, and resolution of cystoid macular edema after intravitreal injections of MTX. No recurrence of intraocular inflammation was observed in 6 months to 8 months of follow-up period after cessation of antituberculous therapy. For the first time in the treatment of presumed latent syphilitic uveitis and presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis, we believe that MTX might have an adjunctive role to suppress intraocular inflammation, reduce uveitic macular edema, and prevent the recurrences of the diseases.

  15. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  16. Molecule nanoweaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II; Rex, E [Brookfield, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Diaz, Rocio [Chicago, IL; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  17. Identification of inactivity behavior in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujaud, J; Noury, N; Lundy, J-E

    2008-01-01

    To help elderly people live independently at home, the TIMC-IMAG laboratory developed Health Smart Homes called 'HIS'. These smart Homes are composed of several sensors to monitor the activities of daily living of the patients. Volunteers have accepted to be monitored during 2 years in their own flats. During one year, we carried out our survey on one elderly patient. Thanks to this experimentation, we will access to relevant information like physiological, environmental and activity. This paper focuses on daily living activity. We will introduce an original data splitting method based on the relationship between the frame of time and the location in the flat. Moreover we will present two different methods to determine a threshold of critical inactivity and eventually we will discuss their possible utilities.

  18. A retraining program for inactive physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Sakai, F J; Selzer, A

    1969-11-01

    During the past two years a pilot project was conducted in which 19 inactive physicians were retrained in preparation for resumption of active practice. The initial program consisted of a flexible training program of six months to one year patterned after conventional internship-residency concepts. During the second year the program was modified by providing an initial condensed indoctrination period of two months' duration especially designed for this purpose, followed by a preceptorship type of training. The project was considered successful in permitting trainees to enter some form of active medical work, or to enroll in formal specialty training. The observations made by the faculty of the program and its accomplishments are discussed in the light of the effort expended and the cost of the project.

  19. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  1. Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongkosuwito, J.V.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Lelij, van der A.; Molicka, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Smet, de M.D.; Suttrop-Schulten, M.S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Methods. 23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis

  2. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  3. Inactive Publics: The Forgotten Publics in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Notes that recent public relations theory has largely ignored inactive publics, stakeholder groups that demonstrate low levels of knowledge and involvement in the organization or its products, services, candidates, or causes, but are important to an organization. Examines the nature of inactive publics and proposes a model that locates inactive…

  4. The inaction effect in the psychology of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Bos, Kees; van Dijk, Eric; Pieters, Rik

    2002-03-01

    Previous research showed that decisions to act (i.e., actions) produce more regret than decisions not to act (i.e., inactions). This previous research focused on decisions made in isolation and ignored that decisions are often made in response to earlier outcomes. The authors show in 4 experiments that these prior outcomes may promote action and hence make inaction more abnormal. They manipulated information about a prior outcome. As hypothesized, when prior outcomes were positive or absent, people attributed more regret to action than to inaction. However, as predicted and counter to previous research, following negative prior outcomes, more regret was attributed to inaction, a finding that the authors label the inaction effect. Experiment 4, showing differential effects for regret and disappointment, demonstrates the need for emotion-specific predictions.

  5. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present...... literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...... of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...

  6. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  7. Atkins' molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peters

    2003-01-01

    Originally published in 2003, this is the second edition of a title that was called 'the most beautiful chemistry book ever written'. In it, we see the molecules responsible for the experiences of our everyday life - including fabrics, drugs, plastics, explosives, detergents, fragrances, tastes, and sex. With engaging prose Peter Atkins gives a non-technical account of an incredible range of aspects of the world around us, showing unexpected connections, and giving an insight into how this amazing world can be understood in terms of the atoms and molecules from which it is built. The second edition includes dozens of extra molecules, graphical presentation, and an even more accessible and enthralling account of the molecules themselves.

  8. Interstellar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  9. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated in humans, and further studies are required to substantiate this hypothesis, which could expand our knowledge of the potential link between lifestyle-related diseases and muscle oxidative capacity. Furthermore, even though a large body of literature reports the effect of physical training on muscle oxidative capacity, the adaptations that occur with physical inactivity may not always be opposite to that of physical training. Thus, it is concluded that studies on the effect of physical inactivity per se on muscle oxidative capacity in functional human skeletal muscle are warranted.

  10. Presumed consent in organ donation: the devil is in the detail

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Odette

    2008-01-01

    This article follows the recent publication of the Organs for Donation Task Force report, "Organs for Transplants", and considers the debate surrounding a change in the law in favour of presumed consent in organ donation.

  11. Evaluation of autopsy imaging (postmortem CT) to presume causes of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Keisuke; Sugihara, Shuji; Morioka, Nobuo; Sato, Shinya; Tsukamoto, Kazumichi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    A total of 123 patients arrived at the emergency room in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest were examined by CT after death. Forty one patients (33.3%) were presumed the causes of death by autopsy imaging (Ai). Only 30 patients (24.4%) could be presumed causes of death with postmortem inspection and clinical information. However, presumption rate of cause of death was improved up to 46.3% (22.0 points increase) by adding information provided in Ai. (author)

  12. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  13. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  14. Adhesion molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Preedy, Victor R

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the structure and classification of adhesion molecules in relation to signaling pathways and gene expression. It discusses immunohistochemical localization, neutrophil migration, and junctional, functional, and inflammatory adhesion molecules in pathologies such as leukocyte decompression sickness and ischemia reperfusion injury. Highlighting the medical applications of current research, chapters cover diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome; hypoxia; kidney disease; smoking, atrial fibrillation, and heart disease, the brain and dementia; and tumor proliferation. Finally, it looks at molecular imaging and bioinformatics, high-throughput technologies, and chemotherapy.

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  18. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  19. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference.

  20. Comparative magnetic resonance imaging findings between gliomas and presumed cerebrovascular accidents in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Vicente; Mai, Wilfried; Vite, Charles H; Johnson, Victoria; Dayrell-Hart, Betsy; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, and gliomas are common intraaxial brain lesions in dogs. An accurate differentiation of these two lesions is necessary for prognosis and treatment decisions. The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of 21 dogs with a presumed cerebrovascular accident and 17 with a glioma were compared. MR imaging findings were reviewed retrospectively by three observers unaware of the final diagnosis. Statistically significant differences between the appearance of gliomas and cerebrovascular accidents were identified based on lesion location, size, mass effect, perilesional edema, and appearance of the apparent diffusion coefficient map. Gliomas were predominantly located in the cerebrum (76%) compared with presumed cerebrovascular accidents that were located mainly in the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and brainstem (76%). Gliomas were significantly larger compared with presumed cerebrovascular accidents and more commonly associated with mass effect and perilesional edema. Wedge-shaped lesions were seen only in 19% of presumed cerebrovascular accidents. Between the three observers, 10-47% of the presumed cerebrovascular accidents were misdiagnosed as gliomas, and 0-12% of the gliomas were misdiagnosed as cerebrovascular accidents. Diffusion weighted imaging increased the accuracy of the diagnosis for both lesions. Agreement between observers was moderate (kappa = 0.48, P < 0.01).

  1. 41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section 301-72.1 Public Contracts... Transportation § 301-72.1 Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? Travel by common carrier is presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation because it...

  2. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  3. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  4. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  5. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  6. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  7. Presumed cultural similarity paradox : Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.L.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research

  8. Presumed cultural similarity paradox: expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and

  9. Presumed atypical HDR syndrome associated with Band Keratopathy and pigmentary retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cinoo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Kwon, Ji Won

    2011-01-01

    This report describes presumed atypical hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome associated with unexpected ocular findings. The patient had exotropia, bilateral band keratopathy, and pigmentary retinopathy, including attenuated retinal vessels and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Even though the calcific plaques were successfully removed, visual acuity in both eyes gradually decreased and electroretinography was extinguished. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin: is aspirin still the touchstone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Algra (Ale); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); J. van Gijn (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPatients who have had a transient ischaemic attack or nondisabling ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin have an annual risk of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction that ranges between 4% and 11% without treatment. In the

  11. Presumed PDF modeling of microjet assisted CH4–H2/air turbulent flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouaieb, Sirine; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air turbulent flames are numerically investigated. • Temperature, species and soot are well predicted by the Presumed PDF model. • An inner flame is identified due to the microjet presence. • The addition of hydrogen to the microjet assisted flames enhances mixing. • Soot emission is reduced by 36% for a 10% enriched microjet assisted flame. - Abstract: The characteristics of microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air flames in a turbulent mode are numerically investigated. Simulations are performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics code Fluent. The Presumed PDF and the Discrete Ordinates models are considered respectively for combustion and radiation modeling. The k–ε Realizable model is adopted as a turbulence closure model. The Tesner model is used to calculate soot particle quantities. In the first part of this paper, the Presumed PDF model is compared to the Eddy Dissipation model and to slow chemistry combustion models from literature. Results show that the Presumed PDF model predicts correctly thermal and species fields, as well as soot formation. The effect of hydrogen enrichment on CH 4 /air confined flames under the addition of an air microjet is investigated in the second part of this work. The found results show that an inner flame was identified due to the air microjet for the CH 4 –H 2 /air flames. Moreover, the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel mixture leads to mixing enhancement and consequently to considerable soot emission reduction.

  12. Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2010-01-01

    Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and…

  13. 28 CFR 104.44 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for decedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for decedents. 104.44 Section 104.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.44...

  14. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.46 Section 104.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for...

  15. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    percentage of participants were 'inactive', in spite of belonging to a group which is presumed to be knowledgeable regarding the benefits of physical activity. A significant negative attitude towards physical activity was observed in this cohort of young-adults. This seems to stem from earlier in life, due to lack of support and motivation for physical exercise and sports, received during primary and secondary schooling. This negative attitude has become a significant 'internal' barrier, which has not been changed in spite of their education.

  16. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  17. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  18. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 12. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules - Noble Gas Clusters are London Molecules! E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 12 December 2009 pp 1210-1222 ...

  19. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojkovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5 need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy?Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5 back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%.Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months. 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  20. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  1. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  2. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  3. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  4. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  5. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  6. Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Contributes to Physical Inactivity in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Devarakonda, Kavya; O'Neal, Timothy J; Skirzewski, Miguel; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kaplan, Alanna R; Liow, Jeih-San; Guo, Juen; Rane, Sushil G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-07

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring G i signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice. Surprisingly, although mice with low D2Rs were less active, they were not more vulnerable to diet-induced weight gain than control mice. We conclude that deficits in striatal D2R signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity, but inactivity is more a consequence than a cause of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for

  8. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  9. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  10. Presuming consent in the ethics of posthumous sperm procurement and conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederick

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares standard conceptions of consent with the conception of consent defended by Kelton Tremellen and Julian Savulescu in their attempt to re-orient the ethical debate around posthumous sperm procurement and conception, as published in Reproductive BioMedicine Online in 2015. According to their radical proposal, the surviving partner's wishes are, in effect, the only condition that needs to be considered for there to be a legitimate moral case for these procedures: the default should be presumed consent to the procedures, whether or not the agent did consent or would have consented. The present paper argues that Tremellen and Savulescu's case for this position is flawed, but offers a reconstruction that articulates what may well be a hidden, and perhaps reasonable, assumption behind the argument. But while the new argument appears more promising, the reconstruction also suggests that the position of presumed consent is currently unlikely to be acceptable as policy.

  11. Presuming consent in the ethics of posthumous sperm procurement and conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Kroon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares standard conceptions of consent with the conception of consent defended by Kelton Tremellen and Julian Savulescu in their attempt to re-orient the ethical debate around posthumous sperm procurement and conception, as published in Reproductive BioMedicine Online in 2015. According to their radical proposal, the surviving partner’s wishes are, in effect, the only condition that needs to be considered for there to be a legitimate moral case for these procedures: the default should be presumed consent to the procedures, whether or not the agent did consent or would have consented. The present paper argues that Tremellen and Savulescu’s case for this position is flawed, but offers a reconstruction that articulates what may well be a hidden, and perhaps reasonable, assumption behind the argument. But while the new argument appears more promising, the reconstruction also suggests that the position of presumed consent is currently unlikely to be acceptable as policy.

  12. Safety of a Brief Emergency Department Observation Protocol for Patients With Presumed Fentanyl Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermeyer, Frank X; DeWitt, Christopher; Christenson, Jim; Grunau, Brian; Kestler, Andrew; Grafstein, Eric; Buxton, Jane; Barbic, David; Milanovic, Stefan; Torkjari, Reza; Sahota, Indy; Innes, Grant

    2018-03-09

    Fentanyl overdoses are increasing and few data guide emergency department (ED) management. We evaluate the safety of an ED protocol for patients with presumed fentanyl overdose. At an urban ED, we used administrative data and explicit chart review to identify and describe consecutive patients with uncomplicated presumed fentanyl overdose (no concurrent acute medical issues) from September to December 2016. We linked regional ED and provincial vital statistics databases to ascertain admissions, revisits, and mortality. Primary outcome was a composite of admission and death within 24 hours. Other outcomes included treatment with additional ED naloxone, development of a new medical issue while in the ED, and length of stay. A prespecified subgroup analysis assessed low-risk patients with normal triage vital signs. There were 1,009 uncomplicated presumed fentanyl overdose, mainly by injection. Median age was 34 years, 85% were men, and 82% received out-of-hospital naloxone. One patient was hospitalized and one discharged patient died within 24 hours (combined outcome 0.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04% to 0.8%). Sixteen patients received additional ED naloxone (1.6%; 95% CI 1.0% to 2.6%), none developed a new medical issue (0%; 95% CI 0% to 0.5%), and median length of stay was 173 minutes (interquartile range 101 to 267). For 752 low-risk patients, no patients were admitted or developed a new issue, and one died postdischarge; 3 (0.4%; 95% CI 0.01% to 1.3%) received ED naloxone. In our cohort of ED patients with uncomplicated presumed fentanyl overdose-typically after injection-deterioration, admission, mortality, and postdischarge complications appear low; the majority can be discharged after brief observation. Patients with normal triage vital signs are unlikely to require ED naloxone. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its reversal with sugammadex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ross J; McFadzean, Jillian; McCormack, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 2-day-old male infant who received rocuronium as part of general anesthesia for a tracheal esophageal fistula repair. Postoperatively, he had prolonged central and peripheral neuromuscular blockade despite cessation of the rocuronium infusion several hours previously. This case discusses the presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its effective reversal with sugammadex. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Presumed Cases of Mumps in Pregnancy: Clinical and Infection Control Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Lozo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a mumps outbreak in New York and New Jersey was reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Subsequently, the dissemination of the disease was rapid, and, from June 28th 2009 through January 29th 2010, a total of 1,521 cases of mumps were reported in New York and New Jersey. Seven presumed cases occurred in pregnant women cared for at our institution. Mumps diagnosis as per the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was based on clinical manifestations, particularly parotitis. Prior immunizations with mumps vaccine and negative IgM were not adequate to rule out mumps infections. All of our seven patients had exposure to mumps in either their household or their community, and some of the them had symptoms of mumps. Due to the difficulties in interpreting serologies of these patients, their cases led to a presumed diagnosis of mumps. The diagnosis of mumps lead to the isolation of patients and health care personnel that were in contact with them. In this paper, we detail the presenting findings, diagnostic dilemmas and infection control challenges associated with presumed cases of mumps in pregnancy.

  15. Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in presumed congenital simple retinal pigment epithelium hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, Prabu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Presumed congenital simple retinal pigment epithelium hamartoma is a rare benign lesion of the macula that mimics congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and combined hamartoma of the retina and the RPE; newer imaging modalities can help in diagnosis. We report three patients with presumed congenital simple RPE hamartoma, and describe the enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF findings. Methods: Two patients were asymptomatic; one had an intraocular foreign body in addition to the hamartoma. All had a similar jet black, elevated lesion in the macula, sparing the fovea. EDI-OCT showed a characteristic hyperreflective layer with complete optical shadowing of the deeper layers; FAF showed pronounced hypoautofluorescence of the lesion. Conclusion: Multimodal imaging with FAF and EDI-OCT can help to differentiate simple RPE hamartoma from similar RPE lesions, and may serve as a useful adjunct to clinical diagnosis of this rare tumor. We present the second largest series of presumed congenital simple RPE hamartoma, and – to the best of our knowledge – the first report of FAF findings of this tumor.

  16. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Excipients used in lyophilization of small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baheti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the excipients used in various lyophilized formulations of small molecules. The role of excipients such as bulking agents, buffering agents, tonicity modifiers, antimicrobial agents, surfactants and co-solvents has been discussed. Additionally, a decision making process for their incorporation into the formulation matrix has been proposed. A list of ingredients used in lyophilized formulations marketed in USA has been created based on a survey of the Physician Desk Reference (PDR and the Handbook on Injectable Drugs. Information on the recommended quantities of various excipients has also been provided, based on the details given in the Inactive Ingredient Guide (IIG.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnam, M H; Shell, W E [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-08-27

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. /sup 125/I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 ..mu..g equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity.

  19. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  20. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnam, M.H.; Shell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. 125 I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 μg equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity. (Auth.)

  1. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  2. Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical activity and their role in the development of health conditions is an ongoing topic of research. This debate paper presents arguments in favour and against the statement: “Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?” The paper finishes with recommendations for future research in the field of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and public health.

  3. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  4. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  5. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  6. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  7. The Antibiotic Prescribing Pathway for Presumed Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Scales, Kezia; Ward, Kimberly; Weber, David; Reed, David; McClester, Mallory; Sloane, Philip D

    2017-08-01

    Due to the high rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for presumed urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home (NH) residents, we sought to examine the antibiotic prescribing pathway and the extent to which it agrees with the Loeb criteria; findings can suggest strategies for antibiotic stewardship. Chart review of 260 randomly-selected cases from 247 NH residents treated with an antibiotic for a presumed UTI in 31 NHs in North Carolina. We examined the prescribing pathway from presenting illness, to the prescribing event, illness work-up and subsequent clinical events including emergency department use, hospitalization, and death. Analyses described the decision-making processes and outcomes and compared decisions made with Loeb criteria for initiation of antibiotics. Of 260 cases, 60% had documented signs/symptoms of the presenting illness and 15% met the Loeb criteria. Acute mental status change was the most commonly documented sign/symptom (24%). NH providers (81%) were the most common prescribers and ciprofloxacin (32%) was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic. Fourteen percent of presumed UTI cases included a white blood cell count, 71% included a urinalysis, and 72% had a urine culture. Seventy-five percent of cultures grew at least one organism with ≥100,000 colony-forming units/milliliter and 12% grew multi-drug resistant organisms; 28% of antibiotics were prescribed for more than 7 days, and 7% of cases had a subsequent death, emergency department visit, or hospitalization within 7 days. Non-specific signs/symptoms appeared to influence prescribing more often than urinary tract-specific signs/symptoms. Prescribers rarely stopped antibiotics, and a minority prescribed for overly long periods. Providers may need additional support to guide the decision-making process to reduce antibiotic overuse and antibiotic resistance. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three large Italian dog breeds in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Adolfo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Santillo, Daniele; Andreani, Valentina; Corvi, Roberta; Bandini, Marina; Peruccio, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology and the types of eye disorders that are presumed to be inherited (PIED) in three large Italian dog breeds. Three large Italian dog breeds: Neapolitan Mastiff (FCI code: 197), Maremma Sheepdog (FCI code: 201), and Italian Corso dog (FCI code: 343). All dogs that underwent a complete ophthalmic examination between 1992 and 2012 were included in this prospective observational study. The prevalence of eye disorders with 95% confidence intervals was reported for presumed healthy dogs and for dogs referred to a veterinary center for an ophthalmic consultation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to generate odds ratios. Of 605 dogs examined during the study period, 351 dogs were affected by at least one PIED (58%; 95% CI: 54-62%). The prevalence of PIED was significantly lower in dogs presented for ophthalmic examination (53.8%) as compared to presumed healthy dogs (62.2%)(OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.02-1.9; P = 0.037). Also after multivariate adjustment for the period of observation, the odds of Neapolitan Mastiff (92.1%; OR: 21.4; 95% CI: 11.1-41.4) and of Cane Corso (57.7%; OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.7-3.6) suffering a PIED were greater than the Maremma Sheepdog (35.4%). The most common PIED in each breed were entropion (24.3% of all the PIED) in the Neapolitan Mastiff, ectropion (36.6%) in the Corso dog, and cataract (27.9%) in the Maremma Sheepdog. Clinicians should be aware that three large Italian dog breeds frequently suffer PIED. Breed standards should be reconsidered, and breeding programs should be directed at limiting such disorders. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Physical inactivity of adults and 1-year health care expenditures in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codogno, J.S.; Turi, B.C.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Monteiro, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between physical inactivity in different domains and direct public healthcare expenditures in adults and to identify whether the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains would contribute to increased public healthcare. Methods: The sample composed

  10. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  11. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  12. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  13. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules - Rg•••HF Complexes are Debye Molecules! E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 667-674. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  15. Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleusa C.; Feitosa, Fabiana G.; Ribeiro, Maria C.; Menge, Paulo; Lira, Izabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. Methods An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants. In 80 infants, the test was not performed because it was not available at that time. All infants had negative serology for HIV, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. A complete transthoracic two-dimensional, M-mode, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiographic (PHILIPS HD11XE or HD15) examination was performed on all infants. Results 14/103 (13.5%) echocardiograms were compatible with congenital heart disease: 5 with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 8 had a hemodynamically insignificant small apical muscular ventricular septal defect and one infant with dyspnea had a large membranous ventricular septal defect. The echocardiograms considered normal included 45 infants with a persistent foramen ovale and 16 with a minimum patent ductus arteriosus. Conclusions Preliminarily this study suggests that congenital Zika syndrome may be associated with an increase prevalence of congenital heart disease. However the types of defects noted were septal defects, a proportion of which would not be hemodynamically significant. PMID:28426680

  16. Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Di Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome.An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP, Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants. In 80 infants, the test was not performed because it was not available at that time. All infants had negative serology for HIV, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. A complete transthoracic two-dimensional, M-mode, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiographic (PHILIPS HD11XE or HD15 examination was performed on all infants.14/103 (13.5% echocardiograms were compatible with congenital heart disease: 5 with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 8 had a hemodynamically insignificant small apical muscular ventricular septal defect and one infant with dyspnea had a large membranous ventricular septal defect. The echocardiograms considered normal included 45 infants with a persistent foramen ovale and 16 with a minimum patent ductus arteriosus.Preliminarily this study suggests that congenital Zika syndrome may be associated with an increase prevalence of congenital heart disease. However the types of defects noted were septal defects, a proportion of which would not be hemodynamically significant.

  17. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  18. Therapeutic High-Density Barium Enema in a Case of Presumed Diverticular Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthalee Pausawasdi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding do not have an identifiable source of bleeding at colonoscopy. A significant percentage of these patients will have recurrent bleeding. In many patients, the presence of multiple diverticula leads to a diagnosis of presumed diverticular bleeding. Current treatment options include therapeutic endoscopy, angiography, or surgical resection, all of which depend on the identification of the diverticular source of bleeding. This report describes a case of recurrent bleeding in an elderly patient with diverticula but no identifiable source treated successfully with barium impaction therapy. This therapeutic modality does not depend on the identification of the bleeding diverticular lesion and was well tolerated by our 86-year-old patient.

  19. Predictors for the need for endoscopic therapy in patients with presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Sun; Kim, Kyung Up; Kim, Sung Jun; Seo, Seung In; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Hak Yang; Shin, Woon Geon

    2017-12-15

    Selecting patients with an urgent need for endoscopic hemostasis is difficult based only on simple parameters of presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study assessed easily applicable factors to predict cases in need of urgent endoscopic hemostasis due to acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The consecutively included patients were divided into the endoscopic hemostasis and nonendoscopic hemostasis groups. We reviewed the enrolled patients' medical records and analyzed various variables and parameters for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding outcomes such as demographic factors, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, rebleeding rate, and mortality to evaluate simple predictive factors for endoscopic treatment. A total of 613 patients were analyzed, including 329 patients in the endoscopic hemostasis and 284 patients in the non-endoscopic hemostasis groups. In the multivariate analysis, a bloody nasogastric lavage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.786; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.990 to 11.543; p upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Presumed appendiceal abscess discovered to be ruptured Meckel diverticulum following percutaneous drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeannie C.; Ostlie, Daniel J. [Children' s Mercy Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kansas City, MO (United States); Rivard, Douglas C.; Morello, Frank P. [Children' s Mercy Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A Meckel diverticulum is an embryonic remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct that occurs in approximately 2% of the population. Most are asymptomatic; however, they are vulnerable to inflammation with subsequent consequences including diverticulitis and perforation. We report an 11-year-old boy who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis at an outside institution. During his convalescence he underwent percutaneous drainage of a presumed postoperative abscess. A follow-up drain study demonstrated an enteric fistula. The drain was slowly removed from the abdomen over a period of 1 week. Three weeks following drain removal the patient reported recurrent nausea and abdominal pain. A CT scan demonstrated a 3.7-cm rim-enhancing air-fluid level with dependent contrast consistent with persistent enteric fistula and abscess. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, at which time a Meckel diverticulum was identified and resected. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge and limitations of conventional radiology in complicated Meckel diverticulum. (orig.)

  1. Undiagnosed and comorbid disorders in patients with presumed chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariman, An; Delesie, Liesbeth; Tobback, Els; Hanoulle, Ignace; Sermijn, Erica; Vermeir, Peter; Pevernagie, Dirk; Vogelaers, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    To assess undiagnosed and comorbid disorders in patients referred to a tertiary care center with a presumed diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients referred for chronic unexplained fatigue entered an integrated diagnostic pathway, including internal medicine assessment, psychodiagnostic screening, physiotherapeutic assessment and polysomnography+multiple sleep latency testing. Final diagnosis resulted from a multidisciplinary team discussion. Fukuda criteria were used for the diagnosis of CFS, DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychiatric disorders, ICSD-2 criteria for sleep disorders. Out of 377 patients referred, 279 (74.0%) were included in the study [84.9% female; mean age 38.8years (SD 10.3)]. A diagnosis of unequivocal CFS was made in 23.3%. In 21.1%, CFS was associated with a sleep disorder and/or psychiatric disorder, not invalidating the diagnosis of CFS. A predominant sleep disorder was found in 9.7%, 19.0% had a psychiatric disorder and 20.8% a combination of both. Only 2.2% was diagnosed with a classical internal disease. In the total sample, a sleep disorder was found in 49.8%, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, followed by psychophysiologic insomnia and periodic limb movement disorder. A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 45.2%; mostly mood and anxiety disorder. A multidisciplinary approach to presumed CFS yields unequivocal CFS in only a minority of patients, and reveals a broad spectrum of exclusionary or comorbid conditions within the domains of sleep medicine and psychiatry. These findings favor a systematic diagnostic approach to CFS, suitable to identify a wide range of diagnostic categories that may be subject to dedicated care. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Muhammad M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD age was 32(9 year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002. Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p vs. 8[4,9], p vs. 5[2,7], p  Conclusions We conclude that: 1 most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2 mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3 there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4 financial (especially in females and medical (especially in males incentives reduced preference.

  3. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Suchyta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7, the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1.

  4. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002-2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002-2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73-1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels.

  6. Shifting the Physical Inactivity Curve Worldwide by Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore M; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Brown, Wendy J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program. Absolute and relative gender differences were calculated for countries according to four HDI categories. The potential effects of increasing women's activity levels on achievement of the WHO physical inactivity target were computed. Overall inactivity prevalence was higher in women (27%) than in men (20%). Women were more inactive than men in all except eight countries. Absolute gender differences [median 7.5% (range -10.1 to 33.2)] did not vary by HDI category, but there was a small negative correlation between relative gender difference in inactivity and HDI (rho -0.19; p = 0.02), which was mostly influenced by three outlier countries with low HDI. A decrease in inactivity levels of 4.8% points among women across the world would achieve the WHO target of reducing global levels of inactivity by 10%. Gender differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity were highly variable, both within and across categories of HDI. Interventions which result in small changes in inactivity prevalence in women would achieve the 2025 WHO global target for inactivity, without any change to the prevalence in men.

  7. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  8. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD) age was 32(9) year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p < 0.001), donor-only informed consent (5[3,7], p < 0.001), and presumed consent (7[3,10], p < 0.001). The addition of a financial or medical incentive, respectively, reduced ranking of mandated choice to 7[4,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,8], p < 0.001; for donor-or-surrogate informed consent to 7[5,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.004; and for donor-only informed consent to 8[6,10], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.56. Distribution of ranking score of perception of norm and preference were similar except for no-organ donation (11[7,11] vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002). Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p < 0.001), more preferred mandated choice with financial incentive option (6[3,8] vs. 8[4,9], p < 0.001), and

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Hysterectomy With Morcellation Compared With Abdominal Hysterectomy for Presumed Myomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, Sarah E; Siedhoff, Matthew T; Geller, Elizabeth J; Doll, Kemi M; Wu, Jennifer M; Clarke-Pearson, Daniel L; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy for presumed leiomyomata is 1 of the most common surgical procedures performed in nonpregnant women in the United States. Laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) with morcellation is an appealing alternative to abdominal hysterectomy (AH) but may result in dissemination of malignant cells and worse outcomes in the setting of an occult leiomyosarcoma (LMS). We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of LH versus AH. Decision-analytic model of 100 000 women in the United States assessing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in dollars per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (Canadian Task Force classification III). U.S. hospitals. Adult premenopausal women undergoing LH or AH for presumed benign leiomyomata. We developed a decision-analytic model from a provider perspective across 5 years, comparing the cost-effectiveness of LH to AH in terms of dollar (2014 US dollars) per QALY gained. The model included average total direct medical costs and utilities associated with the procedures, complications, and clinical outcomes. Baseline estimates and ranges for cost and probability data were drawn from the existing literature. Estimated overall deaths were lower in LH versus AH (98 vs 103). Death due to LMS was more common in LH versus AH (86 vs 71). Base-case assumptions estimated that average per person costs were lower in LH versus AH, with a savings of $2193 ($24 181 vs $26 374). Over 5 years, women in the LH group experienced 4.99 QALY versus women in the AH group with 4.91 QALY (incremental gain of .085 QALYs). LH dominated AH in base-case estimates: LH was both less expensive and yielded greater QALY gains. The ICER was sensitive to operative costs for LH and AH. Varying operative costs of AH yielded an ICER of $87 651/QALY gained (minimum) to AH being dominated (maximum). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses, in which all input parameters and costs were varied simultaneously, demonstrated a relatively robust model. The AH approach was dominated

  10. The presumed reader in car advertisements published in Teresina's printed newspapers, from 1950 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present how the image of the presumed reader has been built in the printed newspapers of the city of Teresina (Piaui State, Brazil, with them being the following: O Piauí, Folha da Manhã, O Dia, and Diário do Povo. In order to do so, we have researched the bibliography referent to the studies of authors such as Charles Bazerman (2011, Carolyn Miller (2009 [1984], and Amy Devitt (2004, representatives of Gender Rhetorical Studies. Besides these, we have consulted Bakhtin's assumptions for studying genre, mainly extracted from Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, and Aesthetics of Verbal Creation, as well as Brazilian authors related to the study of discursive genres, such as Fiorin (2008, Marcuschi (2008, and Faraco (2009. With the research, we could confirm that the advertisements actually build social-historic blocks capable of mirroring the values of a society, but also capable of contributing directly for determined values to be restored or forgotten.

  11. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  12. A discussion supporting presumed consent for posthumous sperm procurement and conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, Kelton; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Conception of a child using cryopreserved sperm from a deceased man is generally considered ethically sound provided explicit consent for its use has been made, thereby protecting the man's autonomy. When death is sudden (trauma, unexpected illness), explicit consent is not possible, thereby preventing posthumous sperm procurement (PSP) and conception according to current European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines. Here, we argue that autonomy of a deceased person should not be considered the paramount ethical concern, but rather consideration of the welfare of the living (widow and prospective child) should be the primary focus. Posthumous conception can bring significant advantages to the widow and her resulting child, with most men supporting such practice. We suggest that a deceased man can benefit from posthumous conception (continuation of his 'bloodline', allowing his widow's wishes for a child to be satisfied), and has a moral duty to allow his widow access to his sperm, if she so wishes, unless he clearly indicated that he did not want children when alive. We outline the arguments favouring presumed consent over implied or proxy consent, plus practical considerations for recording men's wishes to opt-out of posthumous conception. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for presumable feline origin of sporadic G6P[9] rotaviruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Corinna; Liebert, Uwe G

    2018-05-31

    Species A rotaviruses are highly diverse and impose a substantial burden to human and animal health. Interspecies transmission between livestock, domestic animals and humans is commonly observed, but spread of animal-like rotaviruses within the human population is limited. During the continued monitoring of rotavirus strains in Germany, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus strain was detected in feces of a child. The complete rotavirus coding sequences revealed a unique G6-P[9]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T3-E2-H3 genotype constellation. The virus was phylogenetically related to feline G3P[9] strains and other human G6P[9] rotaviruses of presumable zoonotic origin. Analysis of primer binding sites of G6 specific genotyping revealed further evidence of a G6P[9] feline reservoir. Moreover, substantial deficits of conventional semi-nested PCR genotyping approaches in detecting contemporary G6P[9] were revealed. Rotavirus strain GER29-14 most likely resulted from a direct or recent interspecies transmission from a cat to human. Further studies could assess nucleic acid sequences and genotype constellations of feline rotavirus to confirm the likely feline origin of sporadic human G6P[9] strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  15. Presumed congenital infection by Zika virus: findings on psychomotor development - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Gomes Botelho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the identification of Zika virus (ZikV in the amniotic fluid, in the placenta and in newborns' brains suggests a neurotropism of this agent in the brain development, resulting in neuro-psycho-motor alterations. Thus, this present study reports the assessment of children diagnosed by a congenital infection, presumably by ZikV, followed-up at the Rehabilitation Center Prof. Ruy Neves Baptist at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP. Description: as proposed by the Ministry of Health, the following instruments were used to evaluate the neuro-motor functions of four children with microcephaly aged between three and four months: The Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP; the functional vision assessment; the manual function scale development; and the clinical evaluation protocol on pediatric dysphagia (PAD-PED. Discussion: the children evaluated presented atypical motor performance, muscle tone and spontaneous motricity which encompass the symmetry and the motion range of the upper and lower limbs proven to be altered. The functional vision showed alterations which can cause limitations in the performance of functional activities and the learning process. Regarding to the speech articulator's functions observed that the maturation and coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing did not yet encounter the appropriate age maturity level.

  16. Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Mao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%. The mean ablation depth was 114.39±45.51 μm and diameter of ablation was 4.06±1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8±5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9% showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8% still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

  17. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  18. A case of primary hormonally inactive suprarenal corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Petkov, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present announcement is to focus the clinician s attention to the diagnosis of a rare tumor - the hormonally inactive suprarenal corticosterome. Corticosteromes cause from 0.05 to 0.2% of deaths related to this kind of tumour. We show a patient who was diagnosed late, as a result, her chances of successful outcome were significantly diminished. The most reliable/conclusive diagnostic methods are sonography (ultrasound), CT of the abdomen and selective or non-selective renovasography. Despite the late diagnosis surgical treatment in many cases is possible. Radical surgical treatment includes suprarenalectomy, very often combined with nephrectomy because the kidney is often affected. The removal of both organs makes it possible to perform a thorough periaortic or pericaval lymphatic dissection

  19. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  20. Long Term Inactive Well Program requirements : interim directive ID 97-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the petroleum industry have agreed that industry must take proactive measures to reduce the number of long term inactive wells in Alberta. This interim directive outlines the requirements of the Long Term Inactive Well Program, and provides a schedule for industry to reduce the number of inactive wells. EUB estimates that there are currently 35,000 inactive wells in Alberta, 10,000 of which have been inactive for more than 10 consecutive years. These wells pose a financial risk to the Abandonment Fund which was established to help fund the abandonment of orphan wells. The Long Term Inactive Well Program was created based on the recommendations of a joint government/industry committee, and will operate for five years. 5 tabs

  1. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie, E-mail: slhawley@uw.edu [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  2. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  3. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E K p > 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate

  4. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  5. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002?2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n?=?196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. ...

  6. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  7. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  8. Chorioretinal Lesions Presumed Secondary to Zika Virus Infection in an Immunocompromised Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christopher R; Al-Attar, Luma; Cruz-Chacón, Alexis M; Davis, Janet L

    2017-04-01

    Zika virus has spread rapidly throughout the Americas since 2015. The public health implications of Zika virus infection lend special importance to identifying the virus in unsuspected hosts. To describe relevant imaging studies and clinical features of chorioretinal lesions that are presumably associated with Zika virus and that share analogous features with chorioretinal lesions reported in cases of Dengue fever and West Nile virus. This is a case report from an academic referral center in Miami, Florida, of a woman in her 60s from Guaynabo, Puerto Rico, who presented with reduced visual acuity and bilateral diffuse, subretinal, confluent, placoid, and multifocal chorioretinal lesions. The patient was observed over a 5-month period. Visual acuity, clinical course, and multimodal imaging study results. Fluorescein angiography revealed early hypofluorescence and late staining of the chorioretinal lesions. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated outer retinal disruption in the placoid macular lesions. Zika RNA was detected in a plasma sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and was suspected to be the cause of chorioretinal lesions after other viral and infectious causes were ruled out. Three weeks after the onset of symptoms, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/60 OD and 20/25 OS, with intraocular pressures of 18 mm Hg OD and 19 mm Hg OS. In 6 weeks, the chorioretinal lesions had healed and visual acuity had improved to 20/25 OD and 20/20 OS. Follow-up optical coherence tomography demonstrated interval recovery of the outer retina and photoreceptors. Acute-onset, self-resolving, placoid, or multifocal nonnecrotizing chorioretinal lesions may be a feature of active Zika virus chorioretinitis, as reported in other Flavivirus infections in adults. Similar findings in potentially exposed adults suggest that clinicians should consider IgM antibody or polymerase chain reaction testing for Zika virus as well as diagnostic

  9. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Sebbag

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS. The ocular surface of both eyes (OU had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1 and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days or orally (19 days, and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days. Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. Relevance and novel information The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  10. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  11. Neuropathological and biochemical criteria to identify acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease among presumed sporadic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Parchi, Piero; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    As an experimental model of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we performed transmission studies of sporadic CJD using knock-in mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). In this model, the inoculation of the sporadic CJD strain V2 into animals homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129 M/M) of the PRNP gene produced quite distinctive neuropathological and biochemical features, that is, widespread kuru plaques and intermediate type abnormal PrP (PrP(Sc) ). Interestingly, this distinctive combination of molecular and pathological features has been, to date, observed in acquired CJD but not in sporadic CJD. Assuming that these distinctive phenotypic traits are specific for acquired CJD, we revisited the literature and found two cases showing widespread kuru plaques despite the 129 M/M genotype, in a neurosurgeon and in a patient with a medical history of neurosurgery without dura mater grafting. By Western blot analysis of brain homogenates, we revealed the intermediate type of PrP(Sc) in both cases. Furthermore, transmission properties of brain extracts from these two cases were indistinguishable from those of a subgroup of dura mater graft-associated iatrogenic CJD caused by infection with the sporadic CJD strain V2. These data strongly suggest that the two atypical CJD cases, previously thought to represent sporadic CJD, very likely acquired the disease through exposure to prion-contaminated brain tissues. Thus, we propose that the distinctive combination of 129 M/M genotype, kuru plaques, and intermediate type PrP(Sc) , represents a reliable criterion for the identification of acquired CJD cases among presumed sporadic cases. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  13. Performance of thirteen clinical rules to distinguish bacterial and presumed viral meningitis in Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Huy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. RESULTS: Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85-90%. CONCLUSIONS: No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50% with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

  14. An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of biomarkers (FibroTest-ActiTest and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ngo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The combination of transaminases (ALT, biopsy, HBeAg and viral load have classically defined the inactive status of carriers of chronic hepatitis B. The use of FibroTest (FT and ActiTest (AT, biomarkers of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, has been previously validated as alternatives to biopsy. We compared the 4-year prognostic value of combining FT-AT and viral load for a better definition of the inactive carrier status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,300 consecutive CHB patients who had been prospectively followed since 2001 were pre-included. The main endpoint was the absence of liver-related complications, transplantation or death. We used the manufacturers' definitions of normal FT (< = 0.27, normal AT (< = 0.29 and 3 standard classes for viral load. The adjustment factors were age, sex, HBeAg, ethnic origin, alcohol consumption, HIV-Delta-HCV co-infections and treatment. RESULTS: 1,074 patients with baseline FT-AT and viral load were included: 41 years old, 47% African, 27% Asian, 26% Caucasian. At 4 years follow-up, 50 complications occurred (survival without complications 93.4%, 36 deaths occurred (survival 95.0%, including 27 related to HBV (survival 96.1%. The prognostic value of FT was higher than those of viral load or ALT when compared using area under the ROC curves [0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.93 vs 0.64 (0.55-0.71 vs 0.53 (0.46-0.60 all P<0.001], survival curves and multivariate Cox model [regression coefficient 5.2 (3.5-6.9; P<0.001 vs 0.53 (0.15-0.92; P = 0.007 vs -0.001 (-0.003-0.000;P = 0.052] respectively. A new definition of inactive carriers was proposed with an algorithm combining "zero" scores for FT-AT (F0 and A0 and viral load classes. This new algorithm provides a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of liver related complications or death. Among the 275 patients with the classic definition of inactive carrier, 62 (23% had fibrosis presumed with FT, and 3 died or had complications at 4 year

  15. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C T; van de Mheen, H; Mackenbach, J P

    1998-12-01

    In this study we aim to explain educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity in terms of psychosocial and material factors. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline of the Dutch GLOBE study in 1991, including 2598 men and women, aged 15-74 years. Physical inactivity during leisure time was defined as not participating in any activity, such as sports, gardening, walking or cycling. Psychosocial factors included in the study were coping resources, personality, and stressors. Material factors were financial situation, employment status, and living conditions. Logistic regression models were used to calculate educational differences in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was more prevalent in lower educational groups. Psychosocial factors related to physical inactivity were locus of control, parochialism, neuroticism, emotional social support, active problem focussing, optimistic and palliative coping styles. Material factors associated with physical inactivity were income, employment status and financial problems. All correlates of physical inactivity were unequally distributed over educational groups, except optimistic and palliative coping. Personality and coping style were the main contributors to the observed educational differences in physical inactivity. That is to say, parochialism, locus of control, neuroticism and active problem focussing explained about half of elevated odds ratios of physical inactivity in the lower educational groups. The material factors, equivalent income and employment status explained about 40% of the elevated odds ratios. Psychosocial and material correlates together reduced the odds ratios of lower educational groups by on average 75%. These results have practical consequences for the design of more effective interventions to promote physical activity. In particular, personality and coping style of risk groups, such as lower educational groups, should be taken into consideration at the future

  16. Clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household domains among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, G F; Nahas, M V; de Sousa, T F; Mota, J; Hallal, P C; Peres, K G

    2013-06-01

    To identify the clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household contexts, and the sociodemographic factors associated with the clustering of inactive behaviour in different domains among Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional population-based study. The study was performed in Florianopolis, capital of Santa Catarina, one of the southern states of Brazil, from September 2009 to January 2010. Adults aged 20-59 years were interviewed. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as non-participation in specific physical activities, using a validated Brazilian questionnaire. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified by the ratio between observed prevalence and expected prevalence of 16 different combinations. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the analysis of sociodemographic factors associated with clustering of physical inactivity. Of the 1720 interviewees, the greatest differences between the observed and expected proportions were observed in simultaneous physical inactivity in the leisure and household domains for men, and physical inactivity in the leisure domain alone for women (59% and 88%, respectively); these differences were higher than expected if the behaviours were independent. Physical inactivity in two or more domains was observed more frequently in men and in individuals with a higher per-capita family income. Ageing was associated with physical inactivity in three or four domains. Physical inactivity was observed in different domains according to gender. Men and older individuals with a higher per-capita family income were more likely to exhibit physical inactivity when all domains were considered together. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Silva, Shana Ginar da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  18. Electrical double layer structure at the gallium metals in a methanol solution of a surface-inactive electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emets, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of double electric layer on Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes in methanol solutions of surface-inactive electrolyte has been studied. It is shown that in the absence of chemisorption interaction between metal and solvent, the distance of the nearest approach of methanol dipoles to the surface of Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes is practically the same. Accordingly, the specificity of the metals contact with solvent is reduced solely to their chemisorption interaction. In the zero charge area and for negative charges the chemisorption interaction with methanol molecules increases in the sequence Tl-Ga< In-Ga< Ga. The growth correlates both with the metals acceptor ability towards electron, which is characterized by the work of metal electron escape to vacuum, and donor ability of the solvent characterized by its donor number

  19. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  20. "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures": Correction to Kaiser et al. (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures" by Cheryl R. Kaiser, Brenda Major, Ines Jurcevic, Tessa L. Dover, Laura M. Brady and Jenessa R. Shapiro (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013[Mar], Vol 104[3], 504-519). In the article, a raw data merging error in one racial discrimination claim condition from Experiment 6 inadvertently resulted in data analyses on an inaccurate data set. When the error was discovered by the authors and corrected, all analyses reported in Experiment 6 for claim validity, seriousness of the claim, and support for the claimant were inaccurate and none were statistically significant. The conclusions should be altered to indicate that participants with management experience who reflected on their own workplace diversity policies did not show the predicted effects. The literature review, remaining five studies, and remaining conclusions in the article are unaffected by this error. Experiment 6 should also report that 26.4% (not 26.4.7%) of participants had a graduate degree and eight participants (not 8%) did not provide educational data. Experiment 5 should have referred to the claim validity measure as a six-item measure ( .92) rather than a five-item measure; analyses on claim validity are accurate in text. Table 2's note should have said standard errors, not standard deviations. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-31077-001.) This research tests the hypothesis that the presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity structures causes high-status group members (Whites, men) to perceive organizations with diversity structures as procedurally fairer environments for underrepresented groups (racial minorities, women), even when it is clear that underrepresented groups have been unfairly disadvantaged within these organizations. Furthermore, this illusory sense of fairness derived from the mere presence of diversity structures causes high

  1. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  2. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  3. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  4. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  5. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  6. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  7. Accumulation of Domain-Specific Physical Inactivity and Presence of Hypertension in Brazilian Public Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system. 963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis. Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]). The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

  8. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H.; Goossens, Richard H. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors

  9. Barrier-beliefs about physical activity in active and inactive adults : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Adrie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Perceived barriers are often a reason why people do not start physical activity or relapse to inactivity. From a psychological perspective, barriers can be seen as beliefs about what is obstructing people’s behavior. To understand inactivity and relapse from physical activity, this study

  10. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Robin [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  11. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  12. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  13. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Leisure-time physical inactivity among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Araújo, Tania Maria

    2018-01-15

    To estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI) and associated factors among healthcare workers. The cross-sectional study carried out with 2684 healthcare workers from 4 municipalities from the northeast region, Brazil. The LTPI was assessed by dichotomous question. The association between LTPI and the various independent variables was examined through the multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted). The prevalence of LTPI was 47.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 46.01-48.80). The adjusted analysis (sociodemographic and occupational characteristics) showed that women and individuals with higher levels of education were more LTPI (p = 0.05). The prevalence of LTPI was high among the population investigated, especially among women and individuals with higher education. These results show the importance of developing actions to encourage adherence to physical activity during leisure time among workers, especially among the most vulnerable groups (people with higher education and women), given the benefits of this behavior to health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):251-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  16. Examination of race disparities in physical inactivity among adults of similar social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Bleich, Sara N; Ford, Jean G; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB; N=1350) Study and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; N = 67790). Respondents who reported no levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity, during leisure time, over a usual week were considered physically inactive. After controlling for confounders, Blacks had higher adjusted odds of physical inactivity compared to Whites in the national sample (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-1.51). In EHDIC-SWB, Blacks and Whites had a similar odds of physical inactivity (OR = 1.09; 95% CI .86-1.40). Social context contributes to our understanding of racial disparities in physical inactivity.

  17. The status of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical status of hadronic molecules, which are weakly-bound states of two or more hadrons. We begin with a brief history of the subject and discuss a few good candidates, and then abstract some signatures for molecules which may be of interest in the classification of possible molecule states. Next we argue that a more general understanding of 2 → 2 hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes will be crucial for molecule searches, and discuss some of our recent work in this area. We conclude with a discussion of a few more recent molecule candidates (notably the f o (1710)) which are not well established as molecules but satisfy some of the expected signatures. (Author)

  18. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  19. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  20. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity maps can help guide policy and program

  1. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Li, Xiao; Staudt, Amanda

    2017-11-03

    Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009). An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  2. LIFETIME PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG CANCER RISK AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; LaMonte, Michael J; Ray, Andrew D; Joseph, Janine M; Al Qassim, Emad; Eng, Kevin H; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the independent associations of physical inactivity with cancer endpoints have been mounting in the epidemiological literature, in part due to the high prevalence of physical inactivity among cancer patients and to evidence that inactivity associates with carcinogenesis via pathways independent of obesity. Yet, physical inactivity is not currently recognized as a well-established risk or prognostic factor for lung cancer. As such, we examined the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with lung cancer risk and mortality in a hospital-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: The analyses included data from 660 lung cancer patients and 1335 matched cancer-free controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk, and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the association between lifetime physical inactivity and mortality among lung cancer cases. Results: We observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk: [Odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.81]; the association remained significant among never smokers (OR=3.00, 95% CI:1.33-6.78) and non-smokers (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.79-3.02). We also observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer mortality [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71]; the association remained significant in non-smokers (HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.16-1.95). These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity is an independent risk and prognostic factor for cancer. Additional research utilizing prospectively collected data is needed to substantiate the current findings.

  3. Cold Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. These include research on novel types of Rydberg molecules. Three types of molecules will be reviewed. Long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules, first predicted in [1] and observed in [2], are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium [3]). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules [3]. A classification into Hund's cases [3, 4, 5] will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction term of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is between two dipoles, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is between a dipole and a monopole. NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  4. Career redevelopment programmes for inactive nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Serizawa, Takako; Sakaguchi, Chizuru

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and problems in using career redevelopment programmes and individual hospital programmes to prepare inactive nurses to re-enter into the workforce in Japan. It is critical to supply sufficient skilled health human resources for medical care. Although, Japan has a mandatory retraining programme for supporting nurses to return to the workplace after a career break, it is unclear to what extent there are benefits to nurses from these programmes. The research of career redevelopment programme was undertaken in three administrative divisions' nurse centres in local prefecture A, B and C. A survey of nurses participating in the programme running in T Hospital was also conducted. The issues examined were the background and motivations of participants, the length of career break, the percentages returning to work and the effectiveness of each programme. The average age of participants was 40 years, ranging widely from the 20-60 years. Local prefecture A tended to have narrower age range than others, namely from the 30-50 years. The average period of career break was around eight years at two of three. Length of experience was quite varied from entry level to 20 or 30 years in nursing. Feedback from nurses in the case study T Hospital suggests that the most effective ways of providing support through the programme was to meet the need for continuing support, including working styles after return to work and using the resources programme in their own area of domicile. In the potential return of the nurse, the following are important: (i) job support system by using social resources effectively in the community level; and (ii) introduction of diverse working styles that take account of varying work-life balance, as well as childcare support, by using existing facilities or human resources.

  5. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  6. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atoms in a molecule generally prefer, particularly among the neighbouring ones, certain optimmn geometrical relationships. These are manifested in specific ranges of bond lengths, bond angles, torsion angles etc. As it always happens, chemists are interested in making molecules where these 'standard relationships' are ...

  7. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclo bu tadiene (1) has been one of the most popular molecules for experimentalists and theoreticians. This molecule is unstable as . it is antiaromatic ( 4,n electrons in a cyclic array). Even though some highly substituted cyclobutadienes, for example, compound 2 and the Fe(CO)3 complex of cyclobutadiene (3) are ...

  8. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Single molecule conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis represents an excursion into the world of molecular electronics, i.e. the field of research trying to use individual (organic) molecules as electronic components; in this work various experimental methods have been explored to connect individual molecules to metallic contacts and

  10. Small-molecule AT2 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallberg, Mathias; Sumners, Colin; Steckelings, U Muscha

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the first selective, small-molecule ATR receptor (AT2R) agonist compound 21 (C21) (8) that is now extensively studied in a large variety of in vitro and in vivo models is described. The sulfonylcarbamate derivative 8, encompassing a phenylthiofen scaffold is the drug-like agonist...... with the highest affinity for the AT2R reported to date (Ki = 0.4 nM). Structure-activity relationships (SAR), regarding different biaryl scaffolds and functional groups attached to these scaffolds and with a particular focus on the impact of various para substituents displacing the methylene imidazole group of 8......, are discussed. Furthermore, the consequences of migration of the methylene imidazole group and presumed structural requirements for ligands that are aimed as AT2R agonists (e.g. 8) or AT2R antagonists (e.g. 9), respectively, are briefly addressed. A summary of the pharmacological actions of C21 (8) is also...

  11. Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Inactivity in a Scandinavian Population: A Basis for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Schelin, Maria E C

    2016-11-01

    Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insufficiently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 42% of participants were classified as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defined by specific factors associated with physical inactivity could be an efficient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.

  12. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  13. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  14. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecules in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, T.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, research related to molecules in stars has rapidly expanded because of progress in related fields. For this reason, it is almost impossible to cover all the topics related to molecules in stars. Thus, here the authors focus their attention on molecules in the atmospheres of cool stars and do not cover in any detail topics related to circumstellar molecules originating from expanding envelopes located far from the stellar surface. However, the authors do discuss molecules in quasi-static circumstellar envelopes (a recently discovered new component of circumstellar envelopes) located near the stellar surface, since molecular lines originating from such envelopes show little velocity shift relative to photospheric lines, and hence they directly affect the interpretation and analysis of stellar spectra

  16. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jané; Norman, Rosana; Lambert, Estelle V; Groenewald, Pam; Schneider, Michelle; Bull, Fiona; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2007-08-01

    To quantify the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in persons 15 years or older, by age group and sex, in South Africa for 2000. The global comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology of the World Health Organization was followed to estimate the disease burden attributable to physical inactivity. Levels of physical activity for South Africa were obtained from the World Health Survey 2003. A theoretical minimum risk exposure of zero, associated outcomes, relative risks, and revised burden of disease estimates were used to calculate population-attributable fractions and the burden attributed to physical inactivity. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. South Africa. Adults >or= 15 years. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, breast cancer, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overall in adults >or= 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17,037 (95% uncertainty interval 11,394 - 20,407), or 3.3% (95% uncertainty interval 2.2 - 3.9%) of all deaths in 2000, and 176,252 (95% uncertainty interval 133,733 - 203,628) DALYs, or 1.1% (95% uncertainty interval 0.8 - 1.3%) of all DALYs in 2000. Compared with other regions and the global average, South African adults have a particularly high prevalence of physical inactivity. In terms of attributable deaths, physical inactivity ranked 9th compared with other risk factors, and 12th in terms of DALYs. There is a clear need to assess why South Africans are particularly inactive, and to ensure that physical activity/inactivity is addressed as a national health priority.

  17. The metabolite beta-aminoisobutyric acid and physical inactivity among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Ammann, Thomas; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Lai, Silvia; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Chiappini, Maria Grazia; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), and represents a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a contraction-induced myokine, the plasma levels of which increase with exercise and are inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether physical inactivity and clinical parameters relate to plasma BAIBA levels in this patient population. Adult patients on HD were included, and the presence of physical inactivity was assessed. BAIBA levels were measured in these patients and in healthy individuals. We assessed barriers to physical activity, including 23 items regarding psychophysical and financial barriers. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometer. Nonparametric tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-nine patients on HD were studied; 49% were physically active and 51% were inactive. Of the patients, 43 reported barriers to physical activity and 61% of inactive patients reported three or more barriers. BAIBA levels were lower in patients on HD with respect to controls (P HD patients as active and inactive, both groups showed significantly lower BAIBA levels versus controls (P = 0.0005, P HD showed increased BAIBA levels compared with diabetic patients (P HD endorsing the two most frequent barriers showed lower BAIBA levels than those not reporting these barriers (P = 0.006). Active patients showed higher intracellular water (%) (P = 0.008), and active and inactive patients showed significant correlation between total body muscle mass and handgrip strength (P = 0.04, P = 0.005, respectively). Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among patients on HD and BAIBA correlates with barriers to physical activity reported by inactive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  20. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  1. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  2. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  3. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed.

  4. Maternal inactivity: 45-year trends in mothers' use of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Lavie, Carl J; McDonald, Samantha M; Thomas, Diana M; Hébert, James R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; McIver, Kerry L; Malina, Robert M; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To examine 45-year trends in time use and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in a nationally representative sample of US mothers. We quantified time allocation to physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SED), and PAEE from 1965 to 2010 in mothers with older children (MOC) (>5 to ≤18 years) and mothers with younger children (MYC) (≤5 years). Physical activity was the sum of time allocated to housework, child care, laundry, food preparation, postmeal cleanup, and exercise. Sedentary behavior was the sum of time spent in a vehicle and using screen-based media. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. From 1965 to 2010, the time allocated to PA decreased by 11.1 h/wk (from 32.0 to 20.9 h/wk) in MOC and by 13.9 h/wk (from 43.6 to 29.7 h/wk) in MYC. The time spent in SED increased by 7.0 h/wk in MOC (from 17.7 to 24.7 h/wk) and increased by 5.7 h/wk in MYC (from 17.0 to 22.7 h/wk). Physical activity energy expenditure decreased by 1237.6 kcal/wk (176.8 kcal/d) in MOC (from 5835.3 to 4597.7 kcal/wk), and in MYC, PAEE decreased by 1572.5 kcal/wk (224.6 kcal/d), from 7690.5 to 6118.0 kcal/wk. There was a significant reallocation of time by mothers from PA (eg, housework) to SED (eg, watching television) between 1965 and 2010. Given the essential role of PA for health and the potential for the intergenerational transmission of obesity and obesogenic behaviors, these results suggest that maternal inactivity may be an important target for the primary prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment outcome in patients with presumed tubercular uveitis at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Leslie; Kee, Aera; Yeo, Tun Hang; Dinesh, V G; Ho, Su Ling; Teoh, Stephen C; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2018-02-01

    To report the clinical features and outcome of patients with presumed tubercular uveitis (TBU). Retrospective analysis of patients with presumed TBU at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore between 2007 and 2012 was done. Main outcome measures were failure of complete resolution of uveitis or recurrence of inflammation. Fifty three patients with mean age of 44.18 ± 15.26 years with 54.72% being males were included. 19 (35.85%) had bilateral involvement, with panuveitis and anterior uveitis being the most common presentations. 36 (67.92%) patients received antitubercular therapy (ATT), and 28 received concurrent systemic steroids. 15 (28.30%) eyes of 11 (30.55%) patients in the ATT group and 4 (21.05%) eyes of 3 (17.64%) patients in the non-ATT group had treatment failure (p value = 0.51). The use of ATT, with or without concurrent corticosteroid, may not have a statistically significant impact in improving treatment success in patients with presumed TBU.

  6. On the shapes of the presumed probability density function for the modeling of turbulence-radiation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Xu, X.; Chen, Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    The laminar flamelet equations in combination with the joint probability density function (PDF) transport equation of mixture fraction and turbulence frequency have been used to simulate turbulent jet diffusion flames. To check the suitability of the presumed shapes of the PDF for the modeling of turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI), two types of presumed joint PDFs are constructed by using the second-order moments of temperature and the species concentrations, which are derived by the laminar flamelet model. The time-averaged radiative source terms and the time-averaged absorption coefficients are calculated by the presumed joint PDF approaches, and compared with those obtained by the laminar flamelet model. By comparison, it is shown that there are obvious differences between the results of the independent PDF approach and the laminar flamelet model. Generally, the results of the dependent PDF approach agree better with those of the flamelet model. For the modeling of TRI, the dependent PDF approach is superior to the independent PDF approach

  7. Evaluation of Presumed Probability-Density-Function Models in Non-Premixed Flames by using Large Eddy Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong-Jun; Zhang Hui-Qiang; Lin Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Four kinds of presumed probability-density-function (PDF) models for non-premixed turbulent combustion are evaluated in flames with various stoichiometric mixture fractions by using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES code is validated by the experimental data of a classical turbulent jet flame (Sandia flame D). The mean and rms temperatures obtained by the presumed PDF models are compared with the LES results. The β-function model achieves a good prediction for different flames. The predicted rms temperature by using the double-δ function model is very small and unphysical in the vicinity of the maximum mean temperature. The clip-Gaussian model and the multi-δ function model make a worse prediction of the extremely fuel-rich or fuel-lean side due to the clip at the boundary of the mixture fraction space. The results also show that the overall prediction performance of presumed PDF models is better at mediate stoichiometric mixture fractions than that at very small or very large ones. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  8. Dynamics of Activated Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, Amy S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Experimental studies have been performed to investigate the collisional energy transfer processes of gas-phase molecules that contain large amounts of internal energy. Such molecules are prototypes for molecules under high temperature conditions relevant in combustion and information about their energy transfer mechanisms is needed for a detailed understanding and modeling of the chemistry. We use high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy to measure the full, nascent product distributions for collisions of small bath molecules that relax highly vibrationally excited pyrazine molecules with E=38000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. To perform these studies, we developed new instrumentation based on modern IR light sources to expand our experimental capabilities to investigate new molecules as collision partners. This final report describes our research in four areas: the characterization of a new transient absorption spectrometer and the results of state-resolved collision studies of pyrazine(E) with HCl, methane and ammonia. Through this research we have gained fundamental new insights into the microscopic details of relatively large complex molecules at high energy as they undergo quenching collisions and redistribute their energy.

  9. Dissociation in small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The study of molecular dissociation processes is one of the most interesting areas of modern spectroscopy owing to the challenges presented bt even the simplest of diatomic molecules. This paper reviews the commonly used descriptions of molecular dissociation processes for diatomic molecules, the selection rules for predissociation, and a few of the principles to be remembered when one is forced to speculate about dissociation mechanisms in a new molecule. Some of these points will be illustrated by the example of dissociative ionization in O 2

  10. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  11. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  12. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  13. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  14. Government inaction on ratings and government subsidies to the US film industry help promote youth smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Millett; Jonathan R Polansky; Stanton A Glantz

    2011-01-01

    Christopher Millett and colleagues examine government inaction on the WHO recommendation for adult content ratings in films with smoking, and highlight the generous film industry subsidies these countries provide.

  15. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity...... and mortality. Methods: Participants included 6806 women with a primary diagnosis of invasive EOC. In accordance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. We utilised Cox proportional hazard models...... to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) representing the associations of inactivity with mortality censored at 5 years. Results: In multivariate analysis, inactive women had significantly higher mortality risks, with (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.52) and without (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 1...

  16. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  17. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  18. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  19. Molecules to Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evolved as a new line of thinking wherein a single molecule or perhaps a collection .... In photonic communication processes, laser light has to be modulated and .... The author wishes to thank G Rajaram for a critical reading of the manuscript.

  20. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    overall absorption spectrum of a molecule is a superposition of many such sharp lines .... dilute solution of the enzyme and the substrate over few drops of silicone oil placed ..... Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM): Development.

  1. Quantum dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.

  2. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month - Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Keywords. Adamantane; diamondoid systems; plastic crystals. ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  4. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Johanna G; Volkers, Karin M; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H; Goossens, Richard H M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-28

    Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors that influence the amount of inactivity. The aim of this review was to review setting-related factors (including the social and physical environment) that may contribute to the amount of older adults' physical inactivity in a wide range of residential care settings (e.g., nursing homes, assisted care facilities). Five databases were systematically searched for eligible studies, using the key words 'inactivity', 'care facilities', and 'older adults', including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Additional studies were selected from references used in articles included from the search. Based on specific eligibility criteria, a total of 12 studies were included. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Based on studies using different methodologies (e.g., interviews and observations), and of different quality (assessed quality range: 25-100%), we report several aspects related to the physical environment and caregivers. Factors of the physical environment that may be related to physical inactivity included, among others, the environment's compatibility with the abilities of a resident, the presence of equipment, the accessibility, security, comfort, and aesthetics of the environment/corridors, and possibly the presence of some specific areas. Caregiver-related factors included staffing levels, the available time, and the amount and type of care being provided. Inactivity levels in residential care settings may be reduced by improving several features of the physical environment and with the help of caregivers. Intervention studies could be performed in order to gain more insight into causal effects of improving setting-related factors on

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

  6. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  7. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  8. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  9. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  11. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  12. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  13. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-04-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. © 2015 Chaligné et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Sequence diversities of serine-aspartate repeat genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different hosts presumably by horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huping Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is recognized as one of the major forces for bacterial genome evolution. Many clinically important bacteria may acquire virulence factors and antibiotic resistance through HGT. The comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT in emerging pathogens. In this study, the Serine-Aspartate Repeat (Sdr family has been compared among different sources of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus to discover sequence diversities within their genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four sdr genes were analyzed for 21 different S. aureus strains and 218 mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates from Canada. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis (RF122 and mastitis isolates in this study, ovine mastitis (ED133, pig (ST398, chicken (ED98, and human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (TCH130, MRSA252, Mu3, Mu50, N315, 04-02981, JH1 and JH9 were highly associated with one another, presumably due to HGT. In addition, several types of insertion and deletion were found in sdr genes of many isolates. A new insertion sequence was found in mastitis isolates, which was presumably responsible for the HGT of sdrC gene among different strains. Moreover, the sdr genes could be used to type S. aureus. Regional difference of sdr genes distribution was also indicated among the tested S. aureus isolates. Finally, certain associations were found between sdr genes and subclinical or clinical mastitis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Certain sdr gene sequences were shared in S. aureus strains and isolates from different species presumably due to HGT. Our results also suggest that the distributional assay of virulence factors should detect the full sequences or full functional regions of these factors. The traditional assay using short conserved regions may not be accurate or credible. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that may

  15. Increased Incidence of Benign Pancreatic Pathology following Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Presumed Malignancy over 10 Years despite Increased Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi S. Yarandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite using imaging studies, tissue sampling, and serologic tests about 5–10% of surgeries done for presumed pancreatic malignancies will have benign findings on final pathology. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS is used with increasing frequency to study pancreatic masses. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of EUS on prevalence of benign diseases undergoing Whipple over the last decade. Patients who underwent Whipple procedure for presumed malignancy at Emory University Hospital from 1998 to 2011 were selected. Demographic data, history of smoking and drinking, history of diabetes and pancreatitis, imaging data, pathology reports, and tumor markers were extracted. 878 patients were found. 95 (10.82% patients had benign disease. Prevalence of benign finding had increased over the recent years despite using more EUS. Logistic regression models showed that abdominal pain (OR: 5.829, 95% CI 2.681–12.674, P ≤ 0.001 and alcohol abuse (OR: 3.221, CI 95%: 1.362–7.261, P: 0.002 were predictors of benign diseases. Jaundice (OR: 0.221, 95% CI: 0.084–0.58, P: 0.002, mass (OR: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.043–0.485, P: 0.008, and ductal dilation (OR: 0.297, 95% CI 0.134–0.657, P: 0.003 were associated with malignancy. Use of imaging studies, ERCP, and EUS has not decreased the percentage of benign findings after surgery for presumed pancreatic malignancy.

  16. Electron-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, I.; Takayanagi, K.

    1984-01-01

    The study of collision processes plays an important research role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made by means of collision experiments. Based on theoretical, experimental, and computational studies, this volume presents an overview detailing the basic processes of electron-molecule collisions. The editors have collected papers-written by a group of international experts-that consider a diverse range of phenomena occurring in electronmolecule collisions. The volume discusses first the basic formulation for scattering problems and then gives an outline of the physics of electron-molecule collisions. The main topics covered are rotational transitions, vibrational transitions, dissociation of molecules in slow collisions, the electron-molecule collision as a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular electronic structures, and experimental and computational techniques for determining the cross sections. These well-referenced chapters are self-contained and can be read independently or consecutively. Authoritative and up-to-date, Electron-Molecule Collisions is a useful addition to the libraries of students and researchers in the fields of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics, and physical chemistry

  17. How to determine decisional capacity in critically ill patients. Presume the patient can make decisions unless proven otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C; Momin, Z A; Brensilver, J M; Brandstetter, R D

    1995-03-01

    Decisional capacity includes ability to comprehend information, to make an informed choice, and to communicate that choice; it is specific to the decision at hand. Presume a patient has decisional capacity; an evaluation of incapacity must be justified. Administer a standardized mental status test to help assess alertness, attention, memory, and reasoning ability. A patient scoring below 10 on the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (maximum score, 30) probably does not have decisional capacity; one scoring from 10 to 15 probably can designate a proxy but not make complex health care decisions. Obtain psychiatric consultations for a patient who exhibits psychological barriers to decision making.

  18. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V; Graugaard, Christian; Frisch, Morten

    2011-07-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting. To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex. We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women. Obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men ≥102 cm; women ≥88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85). In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier

  19. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  20. Physical inactivity among older adults across Europe based on the SHARE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos; Figueiredo, Daniela; Teixeira, Laetitia; Poveda, Verónica; Paúl, Constança; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2017-01-20

    Regular physical activity is one of the key components of a healthy lifestyle. It is associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in later life and with increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of, and factors related to, physical inactivity among older adults across Europe. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used data from participants aged 55 or older in Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) database, a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database covering health, socioeconomic status, and social and family networks. Individuals included in this study were classified as physically active or physically inactive. Clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were evaluated for their association with physical inactivity. From the total of 58,489 individuals in SHARE, we selected 19,298 people age 55 or older (mean age 67.8 ± 8.9 years; 11,430 (59.2%) female). The overall prevalence of inactivity among individuals age 55 or older in the 16 included countries was 12.5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity varied between countries, ranging from 4.9% (Sweden) to 29% (Portugal). Increasing age, depression, physical limitations, poor sense of meaning in life, social support and memory loss were significant variables associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity can be explained by physical, cognitive and psychological conditions. Interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among older people are needed to address this diversity of factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs.

  2. MOLECULES IN η CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection toward η Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO + , HCN, HNC, and N 2 H + , and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, 13 CO and H 13 CN. The line profiles are moderately broad (∼100 km s –1 ), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO + do not appear to be underabundant in η Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the 13 C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of η Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  3. Enzyme Inhibitory and Molecular Docking Studies on Some Organic Molecules of Natural Occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M. A.; Hussain, G.; Rehman, A. U.; Shahwar, D.; Mohyuddin, A.; Ashraf, M.; Rahman, J.; Lodhi, M. A.; Khan, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro enzyme inhibitory studies on cinchonidine (1), cinchonine (2), quinine (3), noscapine (narcotine, 4) and santonine (5) were carried out. The various enzymes included in the study were lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase and protease. The results revealed that 2, 3, and 4 were moderate active against lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The molecule 3 possessed weak activity against butyryl cholinesterase enzyme while remaining molecules were inactive against this enzyme. However, all these compounds were inactive against acetyl cholinestrase and protease enzymes. The synthesized compounds were computationally docked into the active site of lipoxygenase enzyme. The compounds 3 and 4 showed decent interactions, hence strengthening the observed results. (author)

  4. Electron Accumulative Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buades, Ana B; Sanchez Arderiu, Víctor; Olid-Britos, David; Viñas, Clara; Sillanpää, Reijo; Haukka, Matti; Fontrodona, Xavier; Paradinas, Markos; Ocal, Carmen; Teixidor, Francesc

    2018-02-28

    With the goal to produce molecules with high electron accepting capacity and low reorganization energy upon gaining one or more electrons, a synthesis procedure leading to the formation of a B-N(aromatic) bond in a cluster has been developed. The research was focused on the development of a molecular structure able to accept and release a specific number of electrons without decomposing or change in its structural arrangement. The synthetic procedure consists of a parallel decomposition reaction to generate a reactive electrophile and a synthesis reaction to generate the B-N(aromatic) bond. This procedure has paved the way to produce the metallacarboranylviologen [M(C 2 B 9 H 11 )(C 2 B 9 H 10 )-NC 5 H 4 -C 5 H 4 N-M'(C 2 B 9 H 11 )(C 2 B 9 H 10 )] (M = M' = Co, Fe and M = Co and M' = Fe) and semi(metallacarboranyl)viologen [3,3'-M(8-(NC 5 H 4 -C 5 H 4 N-1,2-C 2 B 9 H 10 )(1',2'-C 2 B 9 H 11 )] (M = Co, Fe) electron cumulative molecules. These molecules are able to accept up to five electrons and to donate one in single electron steps at accessible potentials and in a reversible way. By targeted synthesis and corresponding electrochemical tests each electron transfer (ET) step has been assigned to specific fragments of the molecules. The molecules have been carefully characterized, and the electronic communication between both metal centers (when this situation applies) has been definitely observed through the coplanarity of both pyridine fragments. The structural characteristics of these molecules imply a low reorganization energy that is a necessary requirement for low energy ET processes. This makes them electronically comparable to fullerenes, but on their side, they have a wide range of possible solvents. The ET from one molecule to another has been clearly demonstrated as well as their self-organizing capacity. We consider that these molecules, thanks to their easy synthesis, ET, self-organizing capacity, wide range of solubility, and easy processability, can

  5. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  6. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  7. Differential expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM 140 in human pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Aletsee-Ufrecht, M. C.; Langley, O. K.; Gratzl, O.; Gratzl, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression of the intracellular marker protein neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin (SYN) and of the cell surface marker NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) in both normal human hypophysis and in pituitary adenomas in order to explore their potential use as diagnostic tools. All adenomas (4 prolactinomas, 3 growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas and 4 inactive adenomas) showed SYN and NSE immunoreactivity on tissue sections and this was confirmed by immunoblots. ...

  8. 80,000 Inactive Oil Wells: A Blessing or a Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Muehlenbachs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For a century, oil and gas wells have been Alberta’s economic pride. That there could be a hidden cost in maintaining these wells past their productive life is difficult to imagine, much less accept. The financial burden of abandoning a well officially is no doubt why Alberta producers delay doing so as long as possible. Turning a blind eye, they routinely keep non-producing wells in a state of “inactive” suspension and refuse to rule out the possibility that someday oil prices or technology, or both, will change significantly enough to make those wells profitable again. In most cases that will never happen, but the province plays along anyway: It enforces no limit on how long a well can be kept inactive before it must be reactivated or abandoned. While a convenience for well owners, there is no benefit to Albertans. They are exposed to the risk of thousands of inactive wells becoming a hazardous threat to public safety. The longer a well is inactive, the higher the likelihood that its owner may no longer be around to arrange and pay for its official abandonment, a process whereby wells are permanently sealed using regulated methods that insure they cause no environmental damage. Oil and gas producers come and go. Periodic price shocks, like the one that recently ravaged the sector, drive companies into insolvency. When the owner of an inactive well is no longer around to pay for its abandonment costs, the well becomes orphaned. Alberta’s permissive policies have led to a situation where there are now more than 80,000 inactive wells in the province. Some have been inactive for decades. If the possibility existed that they could eventually become economical, those wells might be considered a blessing. However, the simulations that model scenarios where prices are substantially higher or where production technology is significantly improved, clearly show that the vast majority of these wells will never be reactivated, no matter how

  9. Deep learning for single-molecule science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tim; Slabaugh, Gregory; Alonso, Eduardo; Al-Arif, SM Masudur R.

    2017-10-01

    Exploring and making predictions based on single-molecule data can be challenging, not only due to the sheer size of the datasets, but also because a priori knowledge about the signal characteristics is typically limited and poor signal-to-noise ratio. For example, hypothesis-driven data exploration, informed by an expectation of the signal characteristics, can lead to interpretation bias or loss of information. Equally, even when the different data categories are known, e.g., the four bases in DNA sequencing, it is often difficult to know how to make best use of the available information content. The latest developments in machine learning (ML), so-called deep learning (DL) offer interesting, new avenues to address such challenges. In some applications, such as speech and image recognition, DL has been able to outperform conventional ML strategies and even human performance. However, to date DL has not been applied much in single-molecule science, presumably in part because relatively little is known about the ‘internal workings’ of such DL tools within single-molecule science as a field. In this Tutorial, we make an attempt to illustrate in a step-by-step guide how one of those, a convolutional neural network (CNN), may be used for base calling in DNA sequencing applications. We compare it with a SVM as a more conventional ML method, and discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In particular, a ‘deep’ neural network has many features of a ‘black box’, which has important implications on how we look at and interpret data.

  10. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  11. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Anoj Kumar; Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Patra, R.P.; Vikas Kumar; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes about the experience gained during the radiation monitoring of inactive scrap generated at various nuclear facilities. This type surveillance is carried out to prevent the spread of radioactivity in public domain and also as requirement by regulatory authorities. The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that no radioactive material reaches public domain. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Inactive scraps (metallic and non metallic) generated from various nuclear facilities of BARC, Trombay is dispatched to Trombay Village Store (TVS) for temporary storage before auction to the public. The monitoring at the facility includes visual inspection and radiation measurement before loading the scrap in the truck. An online PC based monitoring system and portable monitoring instruments in the range (nSv/h-µSv/h) are used to carry out radiation monitoring of inactive scrap loaded in a vehicle. Radioactive source of high activity with potential for serious environmental hazard has not been detected, but few cases of presence of radioactive/contaminated material (MS plate/equipments with low level of 137 Cs contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. Implementation of strict regulatory measures and radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities can minimize the probability of radioactive material reaching the public domain. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of radioactivity in scrap if any. (author)

  12. Decomposing socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity: the case of Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Almorox, Eduardo; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2016-07-12

    Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and entails a substantial economic burden for health systems. Also, the analysis of inequality in lifestyles for young populations may contribute to reduce health inequalities during adulthood. This paper examines the income-related inequality regarding leisure-time physical inactivity in Spanish children. In this cross-sectional study based on the Spanish National Health Survey for 2011-12, concentration indices are estimated to measure socioeconomic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity. A decomposition analysis is performed to determine the factors that explain income-related inequalities. There is a significant socioeconomic gradient favouring the better-off associated with leisure-time physical inactivity amongst Spanish children, which is more pronounced in the case of girls. Income shows the highest contribution to total inequality, followed by education of the head of the household. The contribution of several factors (education, place of residence, age) significantly differs by gender. There is an important inequity in the distribution of leisure-time physical inactivity. Public policies aimed at promoting physical activity for children should prioritize the action into the most disadvantaged subgroups of the population. As the influence of determinants of health styles significantly differ by gender, this study points out the need of addressing the research on income-related inequalities in health habits from a gender perspective.

  13. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  14. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  15. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Molecule of the Month Isomers of Benzene - Still Pursuing Dreams. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 80-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  17. Electrons in Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structure and properties (includingreactivt'ty) - both static (independent of time) and ... Furthermore, since the energy of H2 + in the ground state must be lower than that of .... (Figure 2b); note also that dp is positive in parts of the antibinding regions behind the two ... But, now both the sizes and shapes of molecules enter into.

  18. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - A Stable Dibismuthene - A Compound with a Bi-Bi Double Bond. V Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 ... Author Affiliations. V Chandrasekhar1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  19. OMG: Open molecule generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peironcely, J.E.; Rojas-Chertó, M.; Fichera, D.; Reijmers, T.; Coulier, L.; Faulon, J.-L.; Hankemeier, T.

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical

  20. Molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Employing self-assembly methods, it is possible to engineer a bulk molecular material ... synthesis of molecular magnets in 1986, a large variety of them have been synthesized, which can be catego- ... maintained stably per organic molecule, stabilization of a ..... rotating freely under an applied field because it is a magne-.

  1. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Exotic helium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, M.

    2007-12-01

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 P 0 ) molecule, or a 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 ± 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime τ = (1.4 ± 0.3) μs is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  3. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  4. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peironcely Julio E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG, which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  5. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  6. Model and Reduction of Inactive Times in a Maintenance Workshop Following a Diagnostic Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Beda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of maintenance workshops in manufacturing factories are hierarchical. This arrangement permits quick response in advent of a breakdown. Reaction of the maintenance workshop is done by evaluating the characteristics of the breakdown. In effect, a diagnostic error at a given level of the process of decision making delays the restoration of normal operating state. The consequences are not just financial loses, but loss in customers’ satisfaction as well. The goal of this paper is to model the inactive time of a maintenance workshop in case that an unpredicted catalectic breakdown has occurred and a diagnostic error has also occurred at a certain level of decision-making, during the treatment process of the breakdown. We show that the expression for the inactive times obtained, is depended only on the characteristics of the workshop. Next, we propose a method to reduce the inactive times.

  7. The relationship between coping, health competence and patient participation among patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Seema; Jedel, S; Hood, M M; Mutlu, E; Swanson, G; Keshavarzian, A

    2014-05-01

    Coping is an integral part of adjustment for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease but has not been well described in the literature. This study explored the relationship between coping, perceived health competence, patient preference for involvement in their treatment, depression and quality of life, particularly among patients with inactive disease (in remission). Subjects (n=70) with active and inactive IBD completed questionnaires, including the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Health Competence Scale and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The Harvey Bradshaw Index measured disease activity. Patients with inactive IBD demonstrated significantly more interest in participating in their treatment (pperceived health competence (p=.001), less depressive symptoms (pperceived control of their health, and exhibit less depression symptoms. Our findings may increase awareness of the importance of identifying coping strategies for IBD patients, including those in remission. © 2013.

  8. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  9. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were...... found in 14% of the respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds for being physically inactive were almost doubled in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes 1.74 (95% CI 1.32-2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of depressive symptoms almost doubles the likelihood of physical inactivity...

  10. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  12. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  13. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  14. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Linda S; Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  15. The effects of smoking and physical inactivity on advancing mortality in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the rate advancement period (RAP) by which deaths for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality is advanced by smoking and physical inactivity among U.S. adults aged 18 years or more who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were followed to December 31, 2006. Mortality status was determined using the underlying cause of death. Cox regression was used to calculate the advanced time of deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among exposed adults relative to their nonexposed counterparts. Deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were advanced by 7.9 and 5.1 years among current smoker adults. For physically inactive adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were 4.0 and 2.4 years, respectively. The joint effects of current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity resulted in early all-cause and CVD-specific deaths of 14.2 and 12.2 years. For current smokers, physically inactive, and overweight adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific deaths were 7.9 and 8.9 years, respectively. Our findings suggest that smoking and physical inactivity could significantly advance the time of death associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality by at least 2.4 years among U.S. adults. Moreover, the advancement death period for the joint effects of smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity could be at least 7.9 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  17. An initial study of the behaviour under repository conditions of inactive components of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    This review extends the appreciation of repository behaviour to include the inactive components of wastes and their degradation products. These materials include a wide range of metals and organics, sludges and decommissioning wastes. The effect of degradation products on the solubility of long-lived radionuclides and any active daughters and their sorption on surfaces of the repository are assessed. Research requirements are identified that may help to improve significantly the assessment of the effects of inactive materials. Data required to improve the quality of inventory data on nuclear wastes are listed. (author)

  18. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Zheng, Zhonghui; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2014-07-22

    Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11-18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p physical activity (No PA) in males [0-2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0-2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24-2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with grade and decreased with socioeconomic status. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors were prevalent in Chinese adolescents. Further support, including parental guidance and the provision of

  19. Application of inactive cycle stopping criteria for Monte Carlo Wielandt calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, H. J.; Kim, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Wielandt method is incorporated into Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation as a way to speed up fission source convergence. To make the most of the MC Wielandt method, however, it is highly desirable to halt inactive cycle runs in a timely manner because it requires a much longer computational time to execute a single cycle MC run than the conventional MC eigenvalue calculations. This paper presents an algorithm to detect the onset of the active cycles and thereby to stop automatically the inactive cycle MC runs based on two anterior stopping criteria. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to a slow convergence problem. (authors)

  20. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  1. For Fit's Sake: A Norms-Based Approach to Healthy Behaviors Through Influence of Presumed Media Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Lee, Edmund W J; Ng, Kaijie; Leong, Grace S H; Tham, Tiffany H M

    2016-09-01

    Based on the influence of presumed media influence (IPMI) model as the theoretical framework, this study examines how injunctive norms and personal norms mediate the influence of healthy lifestyle media messages on public intentions to engage in two types of healthy lifestyle behaviors-physical activity and healthy diet. Nationally representative data collected from 1,055 adults in Singapore demonstrate partial support for the key hypotheses that make up the extended IPMI model, highlighting the importance of a norms-based approach in health communication. Our results indicate that perceived media influence on others indirectly shaped public intentions to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors through personal norms and attitude, providing partial theoretical support for the extended IPMI model. Practical implications for health communicators in designing health campaigns media messages to motivate the public to engage in healthy lifestyle are discussed.

  2. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  3. Superexcited states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Takagi, Hidekazu.

    1990-01-01

    The report addresses the nature and major features of molecule's superexcited states, focusing on their involvement in dynamic processes. It also outlines the quantum defect theory which allows various processes involving these states to be treated in a unified way. The Rydberg state has close relation with an ionized state with a positive energy. The quantum defect theory interprets such relation. Specifically, the report first describes the quantum defect theory focusing on its basic principle. The multi-channel quantum defect theory is then outlined centering on how to describe a Rydberg-type superexcited state. Description of a dissociative double-electron excited state is also discussed. The quantum defect theory is based on the fact that the physics of the motion of a Rydberg electron vary with the region in the electron's coordinate space. Finally, various molecular processes that involve a superexcited state are addressed focusing on autoionization, photoionization, dissociative recombination and bonding ionization of diatomic molecules. (N.K.)

  4. Amyloid arthropathy of the hip joint: MR demonstration of presumed amyloid lesions in 152 patients with long-term hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, S.; Yamana, D.; Tsuruta, Y.; Mizutani, H.; Ohba, S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of MR findings of presumed amyloid arthropathy of the hip joints in patients on long-term hemodialysis. We prospectively performed T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo imaging on 152 consecutive patients on hemodialysis. The duration of hemodialysis ranged from 5 months to 24 years, 2 months (mean: 8 years, 8 months). The frequency, location, and signal intensity of bone lesions were assessed. In 12 cases with contrast-enhanced MR examination, enhancement pattern of bone lesions, synovial lesions, and intra-articular lesions were characterized. Bone lesions presumed to be amyloid deposits were identified in 60 patients (39 %). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that amyloid lesions were more extensive than anticipated by plain radiographs. All bone lesions showed decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, bone lesions showed increased signal intensity in 32 patients (54 %), decreased signal intensity in 11 patients (18 %), and both increased and decreased signal intensity in 17 patients (28 %). Following intravenous injection of gadolinium-based contrast, all bone lesions showed moderate enhancement. Synovial thickening could not be identified on T1- and T2-weighted images. However, contrast-enhanced images showed thickened synovial membrane, which could be differentiated from joint fluid. Intra-articular nodules showed decreased or intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images; the intra-articular nodules were contiguous with subchondral bone lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for evaluating the distribution and extent of amyloidosis of the hip joints in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. (orig.) (orig.)

  5. Transverse comparisons between ultrasound and radionuclide parameters in children with presumed antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, Hong Phuoc; Janssen, Francoise; Hall, Michelle; Ismaili, Khalid [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Piepsz, Amy [Hopital Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Ghent (Belgium); Khelif, Karim; Collier, Frank [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Urology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussel (Belgium); Man, Kathia de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damry, Nash [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussel (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    The main criteria used for deciding on surgery in children with presumed antenatally detected pelviureteric junction obstruction (PPUJO) are the level of hydronephrosis (ultrasonography), the level of differential renal function (DRF) and the quality of renal drainage after a furosemide challenge (renography), the importance of each factor being far from generally agreed. Can we predict, on the basis of ultrasound parameters, the patient in whom radionuclide renography can be avoided? We retrospectively analysed the medical charts of 81 consecutive children with presumed unilateral PPUJO detected antenatally. Ultrasound and renographic studies performed at the same time were compared. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter (APD) and calyceal size were both divided into three levels of dilatation. Parenchymal thickness was considered either normal or significantly decreased. Acquisition of renograms under furosemide stimulation provided quantification of DRF, quality of renal drainage and cortical transit. The percentages of patients with low DRF and poor drainage were significantly higher among those with major hydronephrosis, severe calyceal dilatation or parenchymal thinning. Moreover, impaired cortical transit, which is a major risk factor for functional decline, was seen more frequently among those with very severe calyceal dilatation. However, none of the structural parameters obtained by ultrasound examination was able to predict whether the level of renal function or the quality of drainage was normal or abnormal. Alternatively, an APD <30 mm, a calyceal dilatation of <10 mm and a normal parenchymal thickness were associated with a low probability of decreased renal function or poor renal drainage. In the management strategy of patients with prenatally detected PPUJO, nuclear medicine examinations may be postponed in those with an APD <30 mm, a calyceal dilatation of <10 mm and a normal parenchymal thickness. On the contrary, precise estimation of DRF and renal

  6. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF PRESUMED NONCARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA AND CORRELATION WITH THE UNDERLYING CAUSE IN DOGS AND CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssou, Sarah; Specchi, Swan; Desquilbet, Loïc; Pey, Pascaline

    2017-05-01

    Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an important cause of respiratory disease in dogs and cats but few reports describe its radiographic appearance. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe radiographic findings in a large cohort of dogs and cats with presumed noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and to test associations among radiographic findings versus cause of edema. Medical records were retrieved for dogs and cats with presumed noncardiogenic edema based on history, radiographic findings, and outcome. Radiographs were reviewed to assess lung pattern and distribution of the edema. Correlation with the cause of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema was evaluated with a Fisher's exact test. A total of 49 dogs and 11 cats were included. Causes for the noncardiogenic edema were airway obstruction (n = 23), direct pulmonary injury (n = 13), severe neurologic stimulation (n = 12), systemic disease (n = 6), near-drowning (n = 3), anaphylaxis (n = 2) and blood transfusion (n = 1). Mixed, symmetric, peripheral, multifocal, bilateral, and dorsal lung patterns were observed in 44 (73.3%), 46 (76.7%), 55 (91.7%), 46 (76.7%), 46 (76.7%), and 34 (57.6%) of 60 animals, respectively. When the distribution was unilateral, pulmonary infiltration involved mainly the right lung lobes (12 of 14, 85.7%). Increased pulmonary opacity was more often asymmetric, unilateral, and dorsal for postobstructive pulmonary edema compared to other types of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, but no other significant correlations could be identified. In conclusion, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may present with a quite variable radiographic appearance in dogs and cats. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Conditional Moment Closure Modelling of a Lifted H2/N2 Turbulent Jet Flame Using the Presumed Mapping Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lifted hydrogen/nitrogen turbulent jet flame issuing into a vitiated coflow is investigated using the conditional moment closure (CMC supplemented by the presumed mapping function (PMF approach for the modelling of conditional mixing and velocity statistics. Using a prescribed reference field, the PMF approach yields a presumed probability density function (PDF for the mixture fraction, which is then used in closing the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR and conditional velocity in a fully consistent manner. These closures are applied to a lifted flame and the findings are compared to previous results obtained using β-PDF-based closures over a range of coflow temperatures (Tc. The PMF results are in line with those of the β-PDF and compare well to measurements. The transport budgets in mixture fraction and physical spaces and the radical history ahead of the stabilisation height indicate that the stabilisation mechanism is susceptible to Tc. As in the previous β-PDF calculations, autoignition around the “most reactive” mixture fraction remains the controlling mechanism for sufficiently high Tc. Departure from the β-PDF predictions is observed when Tc is decreased as PMF predicts stabilisation by means of premixed flame propagation. This conclusion is based on the observation that lean mixtures are heated by downstream burning mixtures in a preheat zone developing ahead of the stabilization height. The spurious sources, which stem from inconsistent CSDR modelling, are further investigated. The findings reveal that their effect is small but nonnegligible, most notably within the flame zone.

  8. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  9. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  10. Interstellar molecules and masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Q-Rieu; Guibert, J.

    1978-01-01

    The study of dense and dark clouds, in which hydrogen is mostly in molecular form, became possible since the discovery of interstellar molecules, emitting in the centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. The molecular lines are generally not in local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Their intensity can often be explained by invoking a population inversion mechanism. Maser emission lines due to OH, H 2 O and SiO molecules are among the most intense molecular lines. The H 2 CO molecule, detected in absorption in front of the cold cosmic background radiation of 2.7 K, illustrates the inverse phenomenon, the antimaser absorption. For a radio transition of frequency v, the inversion rate Δn (relative population difference between the upper and lower level) as well as the maser gain can be determined from the radio observations. In the case of the OH lines in the 2 PIsub(3/2), J=3/2 state, the inversion rates approximately 1 to 2% derived from the observations, are comparable with those obtained in the laboratory. The determination of the excitation mechanisms of the masers, through the statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer equations, implies the knowledge of collisional and radiative transition probabilities. A pumping model, which can satisfactorily explain the radio observations of some interstellar OH clouds, will be discussed [fr

  11. [Consideration of algorithms to presume the lesion location by using X-ray images of the stomach--geometric analysis of four direction radiography for the U region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    The author considered algorithms to presume the lesion location from a series of X-ray images obtained by four direction radiography without blind area for the U region of the stomach. The objects of analysis were six cases that protruding lesions were noticed in the U region. Firstly, from the length of short axis and measure of the lateral width of U region projected on the film, we presumed the length of longitudinal axis and angle between short axis and the film. Secondly, we calculated the rate of length to stomach walls from right side and left side of every image to the lateral width at the height passing through the center of the lesion. Using the lesion location calculated from these values, we presumed that the values that almost agreed between two images to be the lesion location. As the result of analysis, there were some cases that the lesion location could be presumed certainly or un-certainly, on the other hand, there were some cases that the lesion location could not be presumed. Since the form of the U region can be distorted by a change of position, or the angle between longitudinal axis and sagittal plane was changed, the error might have been made in calculation, and so it was considered that the lesion location could not be presumed.

  12. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  13. Peripheral aneurysm rupture in a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, Christoph; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John F. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Mohan, Aarthi R. [Department of Chest Medicine, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    We describe a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with sudden haemothorax, due to a ruptured internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm 7 years after the corticosteroid treatment was terminated. The unusual imaging findings and the treatment with embolization are discussed with a view to the role of a regular vascular screening in this patient group. (orig.)

  14. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  15. A conceptualisation of help-avoidance as motivated inaction: implications for theory, research, and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Zagefka, Hanna; van Leeuwen, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This chapter zooms in on the strategic motives of help-avoidance, an intriguing yet under-researched phenomenon. Conceptualising this phenomenon as a particular form of inaction, I propose that help-avoidance is a strategic response to disadvantage that is motivated by identity concerns. I provide

  16. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact...

  17. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  18. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  19. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  20. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost up to $1 trillion in health care and lost production costs. Physi- cal inactivity ... than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases'. ... and the dissemination of a clear, simple, yet effective message. 5. The Agita São ...

  1. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  2. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  3. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  4. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  5. Dyspeptic symptoms and delayed gastric emptying of solids in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóbrega Ana Carolina Mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Crohn’s disease (CD have been shown to present dyspeptic symptoms more frequently than the general population. Some of these symptoms could be related to motility disorders to some degree. Then, we propose to investigate whether gastric emptying of solids in patients with inactive CD is delayed and to determine the relationships between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in inactive CD. Methods Twenty-six patients with inactive Crohn’s disease, as defined by a Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI 13C octanoic acid coupled to a solid meal and answered a validated questionnaire (The Porto Alegre Dyspeptic Symptoms Questionnaire to assess dyspeptic symptoms. Patients with scores ≥ 6 were considered to have dyspepsia. The control group was composed by 19 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Results Patients with CD had a significantly longer t 1/2 and t lag (p Conclusion Delayed gastric emptying in inactive Crohn’s disease patients seems to be associated with dyspeptic symptoms, particularly vomiting, even without any evidence of gastrointestinal obstruction.

  6. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  7. When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

  8. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF AXIAL MOTOR IMPAIRMENT TO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Mon S; Hou, Jyhgong Gabriel; Collins, Robert L; Protas, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and activity limitations in persons with PD. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of persons with mild to moderate PD (N=90). Associations among axial motor features, limb motor signs, the Physical Activity Scale for Elders (PASE), the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and level of ADL dependency were studied. A composite score of axial motor features included the following UPDRS items: speech, rigidity of the neck, arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability. A composite score of limb motor signs included the following UPDRS items: tremor at rest of all extremities, action tremor, rigidity of all extremities, finger taps, hand movement, rapid alternating hand movements and foot tapping. Results Axial motor features of PD were significantly correlated with physical inactivity (pphysical inactivity. After controlling for age, gender, disease duration and comorbidity, axial motor features contributed significantly to physical inactivity, decreased ADL and increase in ADL dependency, whereas the limb motor signs did not. Conclusions Axial motor impairment contributed to physical inactivity and decreased ability to perform ADLs in persons with PD. PMID:26368837

  10. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  12. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  13. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  14. 3D Studies of Neutral and Ionised Gas and Stars in Seyfert and Inactive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundell, C. G.; Dumas, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Nagar, N.; Wilcots, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Peletier, R. F.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Haan, S.

    Abstract: We are conducting the first systematic 3D spectroscopic imaging survey to quantify the properties of the atomic gas (HI) in a distance-limited sample of 28 Seyfert galaxies and a sample of 28 inactive control galaxies with well-matched optical properties (the VHIKINGS survey). This study

  15. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  16. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  17. Spectroscopic and structural study of novel interaction product of pyrrolidine-2-thione with molecular iodine. Presumable mechanisms of oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov'yants, Margarita S.; Burykin, Igor V.; Starikova, Zoya A.; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu.; Kolesnikova, Tatiana S.

    2013-09-01

    Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel interaction product of pyrrolidine-2-thione with molecular iodine is reported. The ability of pyrrolidine-2-thione to form the outer-sphere charge-transfer complex C4H7NS·I2 with iodine molecule in dilute chloroform solution has been studied by UV/vis spectroscopy. Oxidative desulfurization promotes ring fusion of two pyrrolidine-2-thione molecules. The product of iodine induced oxidative desulfurization has been studied by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal structure of the reaction product is formed by 5-(2-thioxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolium (C8H13N2S+) cations and pentaiodide anions I5-, which are linked by the intermolecular I⋯Hsbnd C and I⋯C close contacts. The angular pentaiodide anions can be considered as structures formed by coordination of two iodine molecules to the iodide ion (type 1) or by the coordination of iodine molecule to the triiodide ion (type 2).

  18. Relation between body mass index, physical inactivity and use of prescription drugs: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, I E J; Klungel, O H; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Verschuren, W M M; Bemelmans, W J E

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal complaints, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer and depression. However, few data are available on the specific types of medication associated with obesity and physical inactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) and physical inactivity with use of specific classes of prescription drugs, and the interaction between BMI and physical inactivity. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a population-based longitudinal study. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1703 men and 1841 women, examined between 1998 and 2002, for whom drug-dispending data were available from the PHARMO database. Drugs were coded according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Body weight was measured during the physical examination. Physical activity was assessed using an extensive questionnaire. Persons were defined as a user of a certain drug class if they filed at least one prescription in the year around (+/-6 months) the examination. Compared with normal weight persons (BMI 18.5-25 kg m(-2)), obese persons (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) had a higher use of prescription drugs of several drug classes, especially cardiovascular drugs (OR (95% CI): 3.83 (2.61-5.64) in men and 2.80 (2.03-3.86) in women) and diabetes drugs (OR (95% CI): 5.72 (2.32-14.14) in men and 3.92 (1.80-8.54) in women). In women, physical inactivity was also associated with higher use of certain drug classes, such as drugs for blood and blood-forming organs (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.22-3.65)) and musculoskeletal drugs (OR (95% CI): 2.07 (1.45-2.97)), whereas in men this was not the case. We found no interaction between BMI and physical inactivity with respect to use of prescription drugs. In both men and women, obesity was associated with a higher use of several types of prescription drugs, whereas physical inactivity was only

  19. Quark chemistry: charmonium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rujula, A.; Jaffe, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidence for two quark-two antiquark hadrons is reviewed. Concentration is placed on predictions for S-wave ''charmonium molecules,'' built of a c anti c charmonium pair and a light quark-antiquark pair. Their spectrum and quantum numbers are predicted and an estimate of their decay couplings and their prediction in monochromatic pion decays from charmonium resonances produced in e + e - -annihilation is given. Some S-wave charmonium resonances should be detectable in these decays, but typical branching ratios are only at the 1% level. 19 references

  20. Addressing physical inactivity in Omani adults: perceptions of public health managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Ruth M; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q; Reeves, Marina M; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2014-03-01

    To explore barriers and solutions to addressing physical inactivity and prolonged sitting in the adult population of Oman. Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews that took place from October 2011 to January 2012. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process; later interviews explored emerging themes. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed and continued until data saturation; this occurred by the tenth interviewee. Thematic content analysis was carried out, guided by an ecological model of health behaviour. Muscat, Oman. Ten mid-level public health managers. Barriers for physical inactivity were grouped around four themes: (i) intrapersonal (lack of motivation, awareness and time); (ii) social (norms restricting women's participation in outdoor activity, low value of physical activity); (iii) environment (lack of places to be active, weather); and (iv) policy (ineffective health communication, limited resources). Solutions focused on culturally sensitive interventions at the environment (building sidewalks and exercise facilities) and policy levels (strengthening existing interventions and coordinating actions with relevant sectors). Participants' responses regarding sitting time were similar to, but much more limited than those related to physical inactivity, except for community participation and voluntarism, which were given greater emphasis as possible solutions to reduce sitting time. Given the increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman and the Arabian Gulf, urgent action is required to implement gender-relevant public health policies and programmes to address physical inactivity, a key modifiable risk factor. Additionally, research on the determinants of physical inactivity and prolonged sitting time is required to guide policy makers.

  1. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  2. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  3. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  4. Back and neck pain prevalence and their association with physical inactivity domains in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabottolo, Catarina Covolo; Pinto, R Z; Oliveira, C B; Zanuto, E F; Cardoso, J R; Christofaro, D G D

    2017-09-01

    Back pain affects people of all ages. This may be associated with physical inactivity, and in the case of physical activity in different domains, the relationship with back pain is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of low back and neck pain and investigate their association in different domains of physical inactivity. 1011 randomly selected students participated in this study. Neck and back pain were assessed using the Nordic questionnaire, whereas the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire was used to measure physical activity domains. Separate Binary Logistic Regression models were performed to investigate the association of physical activity domains with neck or back pain. 17.4% of the students reported cervical pain, while 18.0% reported low back pain. Older adolescents had a higher prevalence of cervical pain (24.4%) than younger adolescents (11.9%) (p value pain, being 25.1% in older adolescents and 12.4% in younger (p value pain in the cervical region [OR 0.67 (0.44-0.99)] or back pain [OR 0.60 (0.40-0.91)]. Being inactive in occupational activities was associated with cervical pain [OR 1.49 (1.06-2.10)]. Being inactive in the sports environment presented a marginal relationship with pain in the cervical region [OR 1.41 (0.99-2.02)]. The prevalence of neck and low back pain was higher in older adolescents and physical inactivity in the sporting context and occupational activities could be a risk factor to increase the chances of back pain.

  5. Ultra-cold molecule production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled

  6. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each owner...

  7. Physical Inactivity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…

  8. Clustering of Physical Inactivity in Leisure, Work, Commuting, and Household Domains: Data From 47,477 Industrial Workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Giovâni F; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Shana Ginar; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Oliveira, Elusa S; Barros, Mauro V; Nahas, Markus V

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity in each domain (leisure, work, commuting, and household) is not completely independent. This study aimed to describe the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains and its association with sociodemographic factors among Brazilian industrial workers. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District collected via questionnaires between 2006 and 2008. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as nonparticipation in specific physical activities. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified using the ratio of the observed (O) and expected (E) percentages of each combination. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors with the outcome. Among the 44,477 interviewees, most combinations exceeded expectations, particularly the clustering of physical inactivity in all domains among men (O/E = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30; 1.44) and women (O/E = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.36; 1.60). Physical inactivity in 2 or more domains was observed more frequently in women, older age groups, individuals living without a partner, and those with higher education and income levels. Physical inactivity tends to be observed in clusters regardless of gender. Women and workers with higher income levels were the main factors associated with to be physically inactive in 2 or more domains.

  9. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  10. Passing Current through Touching Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schull, G.; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2009-01-01

    The charge flow from a single C-60 molecule to another one has been probed. The conformation and electronic states of both molecules on the contacting electrodes have been characterized using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. While the contact conductance of a single molecule between two...

  11. Economic and Survival Implications of Use of Electric Power Morcellation for Hysterectomy for Presumed Benign Gynecologic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason D; Cui, Rosa R; Wang, Anqi; Chen, Ling; Tergas, Ana I; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Hou, June Y; Neugut, Alfred I; Temkin, Sarah M; Wang, Y Claire; Hershman, Dawn L

    2015-11-01

    Electric power morcellation during laparoscopic hysterectomy allows some women to undergo minimally invasive surgery but may disrupt underlying occult malignancies and increase the risk of tumor dissemination. We developed a state transition Markov cohort simulation model of the risks and benefits of hysterectomy (abdominal, laparoscopic, and laparoscopic with electric power morcellation) for women with presumed benign gynecologic disease. The model considered perioperative morbidity, mortality, risk of cancer and dissemination, and outcomes in women with an underlying malignancy. We explored the effectiveness from a societal perspective stratified by age (women. Per 10 000 women younger than age 40 years, laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation was associated with 1.57 more cases of disseminated cancer and 0.97 fewer deaths than abdominal hysterectomy. The excess cases of disseminated cancer per 10 000 women with morcellation compared with abdominal hysterectomy increased with age to 47.54 per 10 000 in women age 60 years and older. Compared with abdominal hysterectomy, this resulted in 0.30 (age 40-49 years), 5.07 (age 50-59 years), and 18.14 (age 60 years and older) excess deaths per 10 000 women in the respective age groups. Laparoscopic hysterectomy without morcellation is the most beneficial approach of the three methods of hysterectomy studied. In older women, the risks of electric power morcellation may outweigh the benefits of minimally invasive hysterectomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The efficacy of cyclosporine A in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomised prednisolone-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisselink, Marinus A; Willemse, Ton

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) and prednisolone in feline atopic dermatitis (AD) in a randomised, controlled double blind study. Twenty-nine cats with feline AD were randomly allocated to two groups. Eleven cats were treated orally with prednisolone (1mg/kg SID) and 18 were treated with CsA (5mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. At day 0 (D0) and D28, skin lesions were graded by means of the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies and intradermal allergy tests were performed at D0 and blood samples for haematology and serum biochemistry were collected at D0 and D28. During the trial the cat owners were asked to evaluate the intensity of the pruritus once weekly on a linear analog scale and to record side effects. Based on the CADESI there was no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of remission (P=0.0562) or in the number of cats that improved by >25% (P=0.0571). The effect of CsA and prednisolone on pruritus as evaluated by the owners was not significantly different (P=0.41) between the two groups. No serious side effects were observed. The conclusion was that CsA is an effective alternative to prednisolone therapy in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis.

  13. Evolution of Choroidal Neovascularization due to Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome on Multimodal Imaging including Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Alvin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute decrease in central vision in her right eye and was found to have subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS. Her visual acuity improved from 20/70 to 20/20 at her 6-month follow-up, after 3 consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections were initiated at her first visit. Although no CNV activity was seen on fluorescein angiography (FA or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT at her 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-up visits, persistent flow in the CNV lesion was detected on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. OCTA shows persistent vascular flow as well as changes in vascular flow in CNV lesions associated with POHS, indicating the continued presence of patent vessels and changes in these CNV lesions, even when traditional imaging of the lesion with OCT and FA indicates stability of the lesion with no disease activity. Additional cases with longitudinal follow-up are needed to assess how OCTA should be incorporated into clinical practice.

  14. White matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin: a population-based study in rural Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Lama, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is probably one of the most common pathogenetic mechanisms underlying stroke in Latin America. However, the importance of silent markers of small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, has not been assessed so far. The study aims to evaluate prevalence and correlates of white matter hyperintensities in community-dwelling elders living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and invited to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging for identification and grading white matter hyperintensities and other markers of small vessel disease. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we evaluated whether white matter hyperintensities is associated with demographics, cardiovascular health status, stroke, cerebral microbleeds, and cortical atrophy, after adjusting for the other variables. Out of 258 enrolled persons (mean age, 70 ± 8 years; 59% women), 172 (67%) had white matter hyperintensities, which were moderate to severe in 63. Analyses showed significant associations of white matter hyperintensities presence and severity with age and cardiovascular health status, as well as with overt and silent strokes, and a trend for association with cerebral microbleeds and cortical atrophy. Prevalence and correlates of white matter hyperintensities in elders living in rural Ecuador is almost comparable with that reported from industrialized nations, reinforcing the concept that the burden of small vessel disease is on the rise in underserved Latin American populations. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Small Molecule Inhibitors in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: From the Bench to the Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Muneera; DiPersio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will eventually develop refractory or relapsed disease. In the absence of standard therapy for this population, there is currently an urgent unmet need for novel therapeutic agents. Targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) represents a new therapeutic intervention that has been successful for the treatment of multiple tumors (e.g., gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chronic myelogenous leukemia). Hence, there has been great interest in generating selective small molecule inhibitors targeting critical pathways of proliferation and survival in AML. This review highlights a selective group of intriguing therapeutic agents and their presumed targets in both preclinical models and in early human clinical trials. PMID:25025370

  16. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  17. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  18. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  19. Molecules in the Spotlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cryan, James

    2010-01-26

    SLAC has just unveiled the world's first X-ray laser, the LCLS. This machine produces pulses of X-rays that are ten billion times brighter than those from conventional sources. One of the goals of this machine is to make movies of chemical reactions, including reactions necessary for life and reactions that might power new energy technologies. This public lecture will show the first results from the LCLS. As a first target, we have chosen nitrogen gas, the main component of the air we breathe. Using the unprecedented power of the LCLS X-rays as a blasting torch, we have created new forms of this molecule and with unique electronic arrangements. Please share with us the first insights from this new technology.

  20. Magnetic field modification of ultracold molecule-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T V; Suleimanov, Yu V; Aquilanti, V; Krems, R V

    2009-01-01

    We present an accurate quantum mechanical study of molecule-molecule collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. The work focuses on the analysis of elastic scattering and spin relaxation in collisions of O 2 ( 3 Σ g - ) molecules at cold (∼0.1 K) and ultracold (∼10 -6 K) temperatures. Our calculations show that magnetic spin relaxation in molecule-molecule collisions is extremely efficient except at magnetic fields below 1 mT. The rate constant for spin relaxation at T=0.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.1 T is found to be as large as 6.1x10 -11 cm -3 s -1 . The magnetic field dependence of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections at ultracold temperatures is dominated by a manifold of Feshbach resonances with the density of ∼100 resonances per Tesla for collisions of molecules in the absolute ground state. This suggests that the scattering length of ultracold molecules in the absolute ground state can be effectively tuned in a very wide range of magnetic fields. Our calculations demonstrate that the number and properties of the magnetic Feshbach resonances are dramatically different for molecules in the absolute ground and excited spin states. The density of Feshbach resonances for molecule-molecule scattering in the low-field-seeking Zeeman state is reduced by a factor of 10.

  1. Career transitions of inactive nurses: a registration database analysis (1993-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa

    2011-02-01

    One important strategy to address nursing shortages is to tap into the pool of licensed nurses who are not currently working in nursing and induce them to return to the nursing labour market. However, there is a paucity of research examining their likelihood of return to the active labour market. Analyze the career transitions of nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario but not working in the province's nursing labour market to determine the proportion of these nurses rejoining the active nursing workforce and examine the variation by inactive sub-category and age group. Quantitative analysis of a linked longitudinal database for all those registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario for the years 1993-2006. Registration records of all 215,687 nurses registered at any time in those years were merged by their unique registration number. Each nurse was placed for each year into an employment category. Two groups of nurses were defined: active (registered, working in nursing in Ontario) and inactive (registered, not working in nursing in Ontario). Inactive nurses were then sub-categorized into five mutually exclusive sub-categories: 'not working and seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and seeking nursing employment', 'not working and not seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and not seeking nursing employment' and 'working outside Ontario'. One-year career movements of nurses were tracked by generating 13 year-to-year transition matrixes. In the short-term, inactive nurses seeking a nursing job had the highest average rate of return to the active workforce (27.3-30.8%), though they might become high risk of leaving the profession if they do not find employment in a timely manner. Inactive nurses not seeking nursing employment are a heterogeneous group, and include nurses on leave who are likely to subsequently rejoin the active workforce should appropriate opportunities arise. The proportion of nurses rejoining the

  2. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid 131 I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 μg inactive potassium-iodide ( 127 I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after 131 I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective 131 I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, 131 I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective 131 I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 ± 0.93 days) was significantly (p 131 I half-life M2 (4.65 ± 0.79 days). Effective 131 I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive 127 I (r = -0.79): Administration of 127 I was beneficial in patients with an effective 131 I half-life M1 of 131 I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific 131 I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific 131 I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for 131 I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for 131 I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A. Conclusion: The administration of 600 μg inactive iodide for three days during radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and an unexpectedly short half-life of <3 or 4 days was a safe

  3. Development of novel small molecules for imaging and drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanting

    last part, a new photo-initiated fluorescent anticancer prodrug for DNA alkylating agent mechlorethamine releasing and monitoring has been developed. The theranostic prodrug consists a photolabile NPE group, an inactive form of mechlorethamine and a nonfluorescent coumarin in one small molecule. It is demonstrated that the prodrug shows negligible cytotoxicity towards normal skin cells (Hekn cells) with and without UV activation, while the original parent drug mechlorethamine can be photocontrol-released and induces effective DNA cross-linking activity. Importantly, the drug release progress can be conveniently monitored by the 'off-on' fluorescence enhancement in cells. Moreover, the selective prodrug is not only cell permeable but also nuclear permeable. Therefore, the prodrug serves as a promising drug delivery system for spatiotemporal control release and monitoring of an anticancer drug to obtain the optimal treatment efficacy.

  4. A population-based survey on physical inactivity and leisure time physical activity among adults in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanamee, Sanhapan; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Wattanapisit, Apichai; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Thaikla, Kanittha; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-01-01

    Reducing physical inactivity among the population is a challenge for many nations. Targeting leisure time physical activity (LTPA) may be useful in increasing overall physical activity as it is assumed it is associated with a higher degree of free choice and personal preference than physical activity at work and during travel. The study explored the prevalence of physical inactivity and focused on the overall level of energy expenditure and energy level spent during leisure time among those who were physically inactive and assessed the stages of change for LTPA among those who were physically inactive. A population-based survey was conducted in 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect the data on physical activity. Sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) were defined as ≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity PA or ≥75 min/week of vigorous-intensity PA or ≥600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes/week. Weighted analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity, the total energy expenditure and expenditure during LTPA as well as stages of change among the physically inactive population. A total of 1744 people (808 men and 936 women), aged 15 to 64 years, participated in the study. We estimated that a quarter (26%) of the population were physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more commonly found among women than men in most age groups. LTPA contributed a small proportion of overall PA. On average, physically inactive men spent 132.8 MET-minutes/week and inactive women spent 208.2 MET-minutes/week in overall PA which is well below the 600 MET-minutes/week recommend by the World Health Organization. Around 75% of physically inactive people had no intention of engaging in regular LTPA. About a quarter of the investigative population were physically inactive. Most physically inactive members of the population

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of attention processes in presumed obligate carriers of schizophrenia: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Robin G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumed obligate carriers (POCs are the first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia who, although do not exhibit the disorder, are in direct lineage of it. Thus, this subpopulation of first-degree relatives could provide very important information with regard to the investigation of endophenotypes for schizophrenia that could clarify the often contradictory findings in schizophrenia high-risk populations. To date, despite the extant literature on schizophrenia endophenotypes, we are only aware of one other study that examined the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive abnormalities in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a more homogeneous group of relatives, such as POCs, have neural abnormalities that may be related to schizophrenia. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to collect blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD response data in six POCs and eight unrelated healthy controls while performing under conditions of sustained, selective and divided attention. Results The POCs indicated alterations in a widely distributed network of regions involved in attention processes, such as the prefrontal and temporal (including the parahippocampal gyrus cortices, in addition to the anterior cingulate gyrus. More specifically, a general reduction in BOLD response was found in these areas compared to the healthy participants during attention processes. Conclusion These preliminary findings of decreased activity in POCs indicate that this more homogeneous population of unaffected relatives share similar neural abnormalities with people with schizophrenia, suggesting that reduced BOLD activity in the attention network may be an intermediate marker for schizophrenia.

  6. Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. The cat was treated with intravenous fluids and received two vials of equine whole IgG bivalent (tiger and brown snake) antivenom. Despite treatment the cat's condition did not improve and it died 36 h post-presentation. Serum concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components at initial presentation was 311 ng/mL and urine 832 ng/mL, this declined to non-detectable levels in serum 15-min after intravenous antivenom. Urine concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components declined to 22 ng/mL at post-mortem. Measurement of equine anti-tiger snake venom specific antibody demonstrated a concentration of 7.2 Units/mL in serum at post-mortem which had declined from an initial high of 13 Units/mL at 15-min post-antivenom. The ELISA data demonstrated the complete clearance of detectable venom components from serum with no recurrence in the post-mortem samples. Antivenom concentrations in serum at initial presentation were at least 100-fold higher than theoretically required to neutralise the circulating concentrations of venom. Despite the fatal outcome in this case it was concluded that this was unlikely that is was due to insufficient antivenom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline enantiomers and investigation of the presumed underlying mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullié Catherine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better anti-malarial efficiency and lower neurotoxicity have been reported for mefloquine (MQ (+- enantiomer. However, the importance of stereoselectivity remains poorly understood as the anti-malarial activity of pure enantiomer MQ analogues has never been described. Building on these observations, a series of enantiopure 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives has previously been synthesized to optimize the efficiency and reduce possible adverse effects. Their in vitro activity on Plasmodium falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains is reported here along with their inhibition of β-haematin formation and peroxidative degradation of haemin, two possible mechanisms of action of anti-malarial drugs. Results The (S-enantiomers of this series of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives were found to be at least as effective as both chloroquine (CQ and MQ. The derivative with a 5-carbon side-chain length was the more efficient on both P. falciparum strains. (R -enantiomers displayed an activity decreased by 2 to 15-fold as compared to their (S counterparts. The inhibition of β-haematin formation was significantly stronger with all tested compounds than with MQ, irrespective of the stereochemistry. Similarly, the inhibition of haemin peroxidation was significantly higher for both (S and (R-enantiomers of derivatives with a side-chain length of five or six carbons than for MQ and CQ. Conclusions The prominence of stereochemistry in the anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives is confirmed. The inhibition of β-haematin formation and haemin peroxidation can be put forward as presumed mechanisms of action but do not account for the stereoselectivity of action witnessed in vitro.

  8. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  9. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  10. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  11. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  12. An efficient algorithm for removal of inactive blocks in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H.; Ertekin, T. (Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    In the efficient simulation of reservoirs having irregular boundaries one is confronted with two problems: the removal of inactive blocks at the matrix level and the development and application of a variable band-width solver. A simple algorithm is presented that provides effective solutions to these two problems. The algorithm is demonstrated for both the natural ordering and D4 ordering schemes. It can be easily incorporated in existing simulators and results in significant savings in CPU and matrix storage requirements. The removal of the inactive blocks at the matrix level plays a major role in effecting these savings whereas the application of a variable band-width solver plays an enhancing role only. The value of this algorithm lies in the fact that it takes advantage of irregular reservoir boundaries that are invariably encountered in almost all practical applications of reservoir simulation. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Remedial action standards for inactive uranium processing sites (40 cfr 192). Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is proposing standards for disposing of uranium mill tailings from inactive processing sites and for cleaning up contaminated open land and buildings. These standards were developed pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-604). This Act requires EPA to promulgate standards to protect the environment and public health and safety from radioactive and nonradioactive hazards posed by uranium mill tailings at designated inactive processing sites. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement examines health, technical, cost, and other factors relevant to determining standards. The proposed standards for disposal of the tailings piles cover radon emissions from the tailings to the air, protection of surface and ground water from radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and the length of time the disposal system should provide a reasonable expectation of meeting these standards. The proposed cleanup standards limit indoor radon decay product concentrations and gamma radiation levels and the residual radium concentration of contaminated land after cleanup

  14. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  15. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P CPM response immediately after cold pressor test was maintained in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor stimulation and aerobic exercise caused...... comparable multisegmental increases in PPT in active and inactive men and women. The CPM and EIH responses were correlated, but they have different temporal manifestation of hypoalgesia....

  16. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10 6 to 10 7 times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs

  17. Inactive end cell assembly for fuel cells for improved electrolyte management and electrical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Johnsen, Richard [New Fairfield, CT

    2007-04-10

    An assembly for storing electrolyte in a carbonate fuel cell is provided. The combination of a soft, compliant and resilient cathode current collector and an inactive anode part including a foam anode in each assembly mitigates electrical contact loss during operation of the fuel cell stack. In addition, an electrode reservoir in the positive end assembly and an electrode sink in the negative end assembly are provided, by which ribbed and flat cathode members inhibit electrolyte migration in the fuel cell stack.

  18. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    OpenAIRE

    N.F. Johnsen; M. Toftager; O. Melkevik; B.E. Holstein; M. Rasmussen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 3...

  19. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from theDanish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representativesamples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent onvigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,97...

  20. Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data

    OpenAIRE

    Petreski, Marjan; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica; Petreski, Blagica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and...

  1. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  2. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  3. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  4. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  5. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  6. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to physical inactivity in the United States in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyank; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh; Kohl, Harold W

    Type 2 diabetes has grown to epidemic proportions in the U.S. and physical activity levels in the population continues to remain low, although it is one of the primary preventive strategies for diabetes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to physical inactivity in the U.S. in 2012. This was a cross sectional study that used physical activity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate the population attributable risk percentage for type 2 diabetes. These data were combined with the prevalence and cost data of type 2 diabetes to estimate the cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to inactivity in 2012. The cost of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. in 2012, attributable to not meeting physical activity guidelines was estimated to be $18.3 billion, and that attributable to physical inactivity was estimated to be $4.65 billion. Based on sensitivity analyses, these estimates ranged from $10.19 billion to $27.43 billion for not meeting physical activity guidelines and $2.59 billion-$6.98 billion for physical inactivity in the year 2012. This study shows that billions of dollars could be saved annually just in terms of type 2 diabetes cost in the U.S., if the entire adult population met physical activity guidelines. Physical activity promotion, particularly at the environmental and policy level should be a priority in the population. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The sensitivity of active and inactive chromatin to ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.-M.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of DNA in actively transcribing and inactive states has been compared with regard to γ-radiation-induced single-strand break (SSB) induction. The results indicate that chromatin organization is important in the determination of the sensitivity of cellular DNA toward γ-radiation: Not only the yield but also the rate of repair of SSB is greater in the actively transcribing genes than in the total nuclear DNA. (author)

  9. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M.; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as ...

  10. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 5, 1349. [11] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106, 5487. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67, 1589. [13] Chan et al. (2012) MAPS. 47, 1502

  11. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with head and neck cancer: a hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Alexis J; Cannioto, Rikki A; Etter, John Lewis; Kim, Jae; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; Callahan, Emily; Khachatryan, Edgar; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Brian Szender, J; Singh, Anurag K; Danziger, Iris; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-10-01

    Despite mounting epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association between recreational physical activity and cancer risk, evidence associated with head and neck cancer is scant. We conducted a case-control analysis to examine the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We utilized data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Participants included 246 patients with HNSCC and 504 cancer-free controls who received medical services at RPCI between 1990 and 1998. Participants were considered physically inactive if they did not participate in any regular, weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime, prior to diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the association between lifetime physical inactivity and HNSCC risk. We observed a significant positive association between recreational physical inactivity and HNSCC risk (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.87-3.99, p physical inactivity associates with HNSCC independent of BMI. In addition, physical inactivity may be a modifiable risk factor among never smokers. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an independent risk factor for cancer.

  12. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  13. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years....... In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low...

  14. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  16. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  17. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  18. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  19. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  20. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  1. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  2. Subjective neighborhood assessment and physical inactivity: An examination of neighborhood-level variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen

    2018-06-01

    Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are associated with erectile dysfunction independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Peter M; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men with an elevated body mass index (BMI). However, a high waist circumference (WC) and low levels of physical activity may predict ED independently of BMI. We investigated the independent relationships between BMI, WC, and physical activity with ED. Subjects consisted of 3,941 adult men (age > or = 20 years) with no history of prostate cancer from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative odds of ED association with categories of BMI, WC, and physical activity. Established thresholds were used to divide subjects into three WC and BMI categories. Physical activity level was divided into active (> or =150 min/week), moderately active (30-149 min/week), and inactive (inactive men had an approximately 40-60% greater odds of ED compared with active men. When all three predictors (WC, BMI, and physical activity level) were entered into the same logistic regression model, both a high WC and low physical activity level (moderately active and inactive) were independently associated with a greater odds of ED, whereas BMI level was not. Maintaining a WC level below 102 cm and achieving the recommended amount of moderate-intensity physical activity (>or =150 min/week) is associated with the maintenance of proper erectile function, regardless of BMI level. These findings suggest that the clinical screening for ED risk should include the assessment of WC and physical activity level in addition to BMI.

  4. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  5. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  6. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...... did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data...

  7. Tunnelling of a molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.D.; Bulte, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical description of tunnelling is presented for a one-dimensional system with internal oscillator degrees of freedom. The 'charged diatomic molecule' is frustrated on encountering a barrier potential by its centre of charge not being coincident with its centre of mass, resulting in transitions amongst internal states. In an adiabatic limit, the tunnelling of semiclassical coherent-like oscillator states is shown to exhibit the Hartman and Bueuttiker-Landauer times t H and t BL , with the time dependence of the coherent state parameter for the tunnelled state given by α(t) = α e -iω(t+Δt) , Δt = t H - it BL . A perturbation formalism is developed, whereby the exact transfer matrix can be expanded to any desired accuracy in a suitable limit. An 'intrinsic' time, based on the oscillator transition rate during tunnelling, transmission or reflection, is introduced. In simple situations the resulting intrinsic tunnelling time is shown to vanish to lowest order. In the general case a particular (nonzero) parametrisation is inferred, and its properties discussed in comparison with the literature on tunnelling times for both wavepackets and internal clocks. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  8. Single molecule tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, E. Brooks

    1988-01-01

    A detection system is provided for identifying individual particles or molecules having characteristic emission in a flow train of the particles in a flow cell. A position sensitive sensor is located adjacent the flow cell in a position effective to detect the emissions from the particles within the flow cell and to assign spatial and temporal coordinates for the detected emissions. A computer is then enabled to predict spatial and temporal coordinates for the particle in the flow train as a function of a first detected emission. Comparison hardware or software then compares subsequent detected spatial and temporal coordinates with the predicted spatial and temporal coordinates to determine whether subsequently detected emissions originate from a particle in the train of particles. In one embodiment, the particles include fluorescent dyes which are excited to fluoresce a spectrum characteristic of the particular particle. Photones are emitted adjacent at least one microchannel plate sensor to enable spatial and temporal coordinates to be assigned. The effect of comparing detected coordinates with predicted coordinates is to define a moving sample volume which effectively precludes the effects of background emissions.

  9. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...... interfere destructively or constructively. Destructive interference effects in electron transport could potentially improve thermo-electrics, organic logic circuits and energy harvesting. We have investigated destructive interference in off-resonant transport through organic molecules, and have found a set...

  10. Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng Zhang; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening of protein-small molecule binding interactions using label-free optical biosensors is challenging, as the detected signals are often similar in magnitude to experimental noise. Here, we describe a novel self-referencing external cavity laser (ECL) biosensor approach that achieves high resolution and high sensitivity, while eliminating thermal noise with sub-picometer wavelength accuracy. Using the self-referencing ECL biosensor, we demonstrate detection of binding between small molecules and a variety of immobilized protein targets with binding affinities or inhibition constants in the sub-nanomolar to low micromolar range. The demonstrated ability to perform detection in the presence of several interfering compounds opens the potential for increasing the throughput of the approach. As an example application, we performed a "needle-in-the-haystack" screen for inhibitors against carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II), in which known inhibitors are clearly differentiated from inactive molecules within a compound library.

  11. Light controllable catalytic activity of Au clusters decorated with photochromic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Meng Yam, Kah; Zhang, Chun

    2018-06-01

    By ab initio calculations, we show that when decorated with a photochromic molecule, the catalytic activity of an Au nanocluster can be reversibly controlled by light. The combination of a photochromic thiol-pentacarbonyl azobenzene (TPA) molecule and an Au8 cluster is chosen as a model catalyst. The TPA molecule has two configurations (trans and cis) that can be reversibly converted to each other upon photo-excitation. Our calculations show that when the TPA takes the trans configuration, the combined system (trans-Au8) is an excellent catalyst for CO oxidation. The reaction barrier of the catalyzed CO oxidation is less than 0.4 eV. While, the reaction barrier of CO oxidation catalyzed by cis-Au8 is very high (>2.7 eV), indicating that the catalyst is inactive. These results pave the way for a new class of light controllable nanoscale catalysts.

  12. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  13. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  14. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  15. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  16. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  17. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Nguyen, Binh; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pratt, Michael; Lawson, Kenny D

    2017-10-01

    To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts. Studies that examined the economic consequences of physical inactivity in a population/population-based sample, with clearly stated methodologies and at least an abstract/summary written in English. Of the 40 eligible studies, 27 focused on direct healthcare costs only, 13 also estimated indirect costs and one study additionally estimated household costs. For direct costs, 23 studies used a population attributable fraction (PAF) approach with estimated healthcare costs attributable to physical inactivity ranging from 0.3% to 4.6% of national healthcare expenditure; 17 studies used an econometric approach, which tended to yield higher estimates than those using a PAF approach. For indirect costs, 10 studies used a human capital approach, two used a friction cost approach and one used a value of a statistical life approach. Overall, estimates varied substantially, even within the same country, depending on analytical approaches, time frame and other methodological considerations. Estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity is an area of increasing importance that requires further development. There is a marked lack of consistency in methodological approaches and transparency of reporting. Future studies could benefit from cross-disciplinary collaborations involving economists and physical activity experts, taking a societal perspective and following best practices in conducting and reporting analysis, including accounting for potential confounding, reverse causality and

  18. Inactive Mineral Filler as a Stiffness Modulus Regulator in Foamed Bitumen-Modified Recycled Base Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyński, Przemyslaw; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of a cold recycled mix test with a foam bitumen including the addition of the inactive mineral filler as a dust of basalt. Basalt dust was derived from dedusting system by extraction of aggregates in the mine. Assessment of the impact of a basalt dust on the properties of a recycled base layer was carried out in terms of the amount of mineral filler (basalt) in the composition of the mineral mixture. This experiment involved a dosing of mineral filler in range from 5 to 20% with steps of 7.5% in the mineral mixture composition. The foamed bitumen was performed at optimum foaming process settings (ie. bitumen temperature, air pressure) and at 2.5% of the water content. The amount of a hydraulic binder as a Portland cement was 2.0%. The evaluation of rheological properties allowed to determine whether the addition of inactive mineral fillers can act as a stiffness modulus controller in the recycled base layer. The analysis of the rheological properties of a recycled base layer in terms of the amount of inactive fillers was performed in accordance with given standard EN 12697-26 Annex D. The study was carried out according to the direct tension-compression test methodology on cylindrical samples. The sample was subjected to the oscillatory sinusoidal strain ε0 < 25με. Studies carried out at a specific temperature set-points: - 7°C, 5°C, 13°C, 25°C and 40°C and at the frequency 0.1 Hz, 0.3 Hz, 1 Hz, 3 Hz, 10 Hz and 20 Hz. The obtained results allow to conclude that the use of an inactive filler can reduce the stiffness of an appropriate designed mixes of the cold recycled foundation. In addition, the analysis of the relation E‧-E″ showed a similar behaviour of a recycled base, regardless of the amount of inactive fillers in the mix composition, at high temperatures/high frequency of induced load.

  19. Growing interstellar molecules with ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of gas-phase ion-molecule reactions continue to provide important insights into the chemistry of molecular growth in interstellar environments. It is also true that the measurements are becoming more demanding as larger molecules capture our interest. While some of these measurements are motivated by current developments in chemical models of interstellar environments or by new molecular observations by astronomers, others explore novel chemistry which can lead to predictions of new interstellar molecules. Here the author views the results of some recent measurements, taken in the Ion Chemistry Laboratory at York University with the SIFT technique, which address some of the current needs of modellers and observers and which also provide some new fundamental insight into molecular growth, particularly when it occurs in the presence of large molecules such as PAH molecules which are now thought to have a major influence on the chemistry of interstellar environments in which they are present

  20. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  1. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules II...

  2. Peptide binding predictions for HLA DR, DP and DQ molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P.; Sidney, J.; Kim, Y.

    2010-01-01

    a significant gap in knowledge as HLA DP and DQ molecules are presumably equally important, and have only been studied less because they are more difficult to handle experimentally. RESULTS: In this study, we aimed to narrow this gap by providing a large scale dataset of over 17,000 HLA-peptide binding...... affinities for a set of 11 HLA DP and DQ alleles. We also expanded our dataset for HLA DR alleles resulting in a total of 40,000 MHC class II binding affinities covering 26 allelic variants. Utilizing this dataset, we generated prediction tools utilizing several machine learning algorithms and evaluated...... include all training data for maximum performance. 4) The recently developed NN-align prediction method significantly outperformed all other algorithms, including a naïve consensus based on all prediction methods. A new consensus method dropping the comparably weak ARB prediction method could outperform...

  3. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  4. How many steps are enough to avoid severe physical inactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    OpenAIRE

    DePew, Zachary S.; Novotny, Paul J.; Benzo, Roberto P.

    2012-01-01

    While prognostically valuable, physical activity monitoring is not routinely performed for patients with COPD. We aimed to determine the number of daily steps associated with severe physical inactivity (physical activity level

  5. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  6. Enzyme Molecules in Solitary Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela B. Liebherr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Large arrays of homogeneous microwells each defining a femtoliter volume are a versatile platform for monitoring the substrate turnover of many individual enzyme molecules in parallel. The high degree of parallelization enables the analysis of a statistically representative enzyme population. Enclosing individual enzyme molecules in microwells does not require any surface immobilization step and enables the kinetic investigation of enzymes free in solution. This review describes various microwell array formats and explores their applications for the detection and investigation of single enzyme molecules. The development of new fabrication techniques and sensitive detection methods drives the field of single molecule enzymology. Here, we introduce recent progress in single enzyme molecule analysis in microwell arrays and discuss the challenges and opportunities.

  7. Organizing and addressing magnetic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatteschi, Dante; Cornia, Andrea; Mannini, Matteo; Sessoli, Roberta

    2009-04-20

    Magnetic molecules ranging from simple organic radicals to single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are intensively investigated for their potential applications in molecule-based information storage and processing. The goal of this Article is to review recent achievements in the organization of magnetic molecules on surfaces and in their individual probing and manipulation. We stress that the inherent fragility and redox sensitivity of most SMM complexes, combined with the noninnocent role played by the substrate, ask for a careful evaluation of the structural and electronic properties of deposited molecules going beyond routine methods for surface analysis. Detailed magnetic information can be directly obtained using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or newly emerging scanning probe techniques with magnetic detection capabilities.

  8. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland

    2017-05-05

    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  9. RATING CHANGES INTRODUCED IN SOME CHARACTERISTIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND BASIC-SPECIFIC MOTOR SKILLS TO YOUNG ACTIVE AND INACTIVE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu

    2016-01-01

    The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...

  10. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. This document contains appendices to Attachment 3, Groundwater Hydrology Report included are calculations

  11. Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Cheng, Minna; Zhang, Hao; Ke, Ting; Chen, Yisheng

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P physical inactivity in either sex (OR = 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

  12. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  13. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students, south-western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, N J; Aboelyazed, A E; Hassanein, M A; Khalil, S N; Aftab, R; Gaballa, I I; Mahfouz, A A

    2014-10-20

    Physical inactivity is a public health problem in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students in King Khalid University. A total of 1257 students (426 males and 831 females) were recruited. The Arabic short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Overall, 58.0% of the students were physically inactive. Only 13.4% of the students performed vigorous physical activity, 14.8% moderate-intensity physical activity and 29.9% walking activities which met World Health Organization criteria of health-enhancing physical activities. The prevalence of inactive leisure time was 47.5%. The independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership of sports clubs and being a medical student. The top reported barrier to physical activity among inactive students was time limitations (51.3%). Overcoming perceived barriers may increase physical activity among students.

  15. Lifetime physical inactivity is associated with increased risk for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Cannioto, Rikki; Soh, Kah Teong; Alquassim, Emad; Almohanna, Hani; Dunbar, Zachary; Joseph, Janine M; Balderman, Sophia; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-03-27

    Although physical activity is a well-established risk factor for several cancer types, studies evaluating its association with lymphoma have yielded inconclusive results. In such cases where physical activity is not clearly associated with cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner, investigators have begun examining physical inactivity as an independent exposure of interest. Associations of self-reported, lifetime physical inactivity with risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a hospital-based case control study using data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participants included 87 patients with HL and 236 patients with NHL as well as 348 and 952 cancer-free controls, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimating the association between physical inactivity and lymphoma risk. We observed significant, positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and risk of both HL (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15-3.15) and NHL (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.82). The current analysis provides evidence for a positive association between physical inactivity and risk of both HL and NHL. These results add to a growing body of research suggesting that lifetime physical inactivity may be an important independent, modifiable behavioral risk factor for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2007-07-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid {sup 131}I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 {mu}g inactive potassium-iodide ({sup 127}I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after {sup 131}I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective {sup 131}I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, {sup 131}I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 {+-} 0.93 days) was significantly (p <0.01) shorter than the effective {sup 131}I half-life M2 (4.65 {+-} 0.79 days). Effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive {sup 127}I (r = -0.79): Administration of {sup 127}I was beneficial in patients with an effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 of <3 or 4 days. Patients from Group A with high initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific {sup 131}I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for {sup 131}I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for {sup 131}I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A

  17. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  18. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  19. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  20. Interactions of ligands with active and inactive conformations of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, A; Mohell, N; Backlund Höök, B; Johansson, A M; Hacksell, U; Nordvall, G

    1998-04-10

    The affinities of 19 pharmacologically diverse dopamine D2 receptor ligands were determined for the active and inactive conformations of cloned human dopamine D2 receptors expressed in Ltk cells. The agonist [3H]quinpirole was used to selectively label the guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled, active receptor conformation. The antagonist [3H]raclopride, in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP-analogue Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions and in the absence of magnesium ions, was used to label the free inactive receptor conformation. The intrinsic activities of the ligands were determined in a forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP assay using the same cells. An excellent correlation was shown between the affinity ratios (KR/KRG) of the ligands for the two receptor conformations and their intrinsic activity (r=0.96). The ligands included eight structurally related and enantiopure 2-aminotetralin derivatives; the enantiomers of 5-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-methoxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin, 5-fluoro-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin and 2-(dipropylamino)tetralin. The (S)-enantiomers behaved as full agonists in the cyclic AMP assay and displayed a large KR/KRG ratio. The (R)-enantiomers were classified as partial agonists and had lower ratios. The structure-affinity relationships of these compounds at the active and the inactive receptor conformations were analysed separately, and used in conjunction with a homology based receptor model of the dopamine D2 receptor. This led to proposed binding modes for agonists, antagonists and partial agonists in the 2-aminotetralin series. The concepts used in this study should be of value in the design of ligands with predetermined affinity and intrinsic activity.

  1. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  2. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  3. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  4. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Kumar, Anoj; Vikas; Patra, R.P.; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that radioactive material will not reach public domain. Around the world, cases involving radioactive contamination of metallic components have occurred due to radioactive sources/contaminated metal scrap reaching the public domain. Radiological monitoring of inactive scrap material is essential as it may get into various usages in public domain where controls cannot be implemented. The method of detection is measurement of gamma dose rates due to any loose/fixed radioactive contamination in the scrap or presence of any radioactive material/source. In addition prevention of any inadvertent/malicious act leading to radioactive material reaching the public domain through scrap being essential, this monitoring gains further importance. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of presence of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Even though radioactive sources of high strength with potential for serious environmental hazard have not been detected, few cases of contaminated material (MS plate/equipments etc with extremely low level of 137 Cs and Uranium contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. If proper monitoring is not carried out the dispersal of radioactivity to the environment can be a matter of concern due to metal scrap reaching recycling industry resulting in huge cost of decontamination and waste disposal. These events may also have negative impact on the export from the country resulting in economic losses. The impact of such events can be ruled out by effective scrap monitoring techniques which ensure that even small quantity of radioactivity escaping into public domain can be prevented. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of very low level of radioactivity

  5. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  6. Spinal atypical protein kinase C activity is necessary to stabilize inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Nichols, N.L.; Baertsch, N.A.; Broytman, O.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural network controlling breathing must establish rhythmic motor output at a level adequate to sustain life. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a novel form of plasticity in circuits driving the diaphragm known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a rebound increase in phrenic inspiratory output observed once respiratory neural drive is restored. The mechanisms underlying iPMF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate in anesthetized rats that spinal mechanisms give rise to iPMF, and that iPMF consists of at least two mechanistically distinct phases: 1) an early, labile phase that requires atypical PKC (PKCζ and/or PKCΙ/λ) activity to transition to a 2) late, stable phase. Early (but not late) iPMF is associated with increased interactions between PKCζ/Ι and the scaffolding protein ZIP/p62 in spinal regions associated with the phrenic motor pool. Although PKCζ/Ι activity is necessary for iPMF, spinal aPKC activity is not necessary for phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia, an activity-independent form of spinal respiratory plasticity. Thus, while iPMF and pLTF both manifest as prolonged increases in phrenic burst amplitude, they arise from distinct spinal cellular pathways. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that: 1) local mechanisms sense and respond to reduced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic motor pool, and 2) inactivity-induced increases in phrenic inspiratory output require local PKCζ/Ι activity to stabilize into a long-lasting iPMF. Although the physiological role of iPMF is unknown, we suspect that iPMF represents a compensatory mechanism, assuring adequate motor output in a physiological system where prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:23152633

  7. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  8. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in active and inactive immunoinflammatory gonarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lorenzen, I; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    examined 16 clinically active (CAG), 7 clinically inactive (CIG) and 4 healthy knees. The synovium of a preselected slice was outlined. Its area and relative signal intensity increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine on T1-SE and FLASH (at each time t) were calculated. The CAG knees showed a mean signal...... intensity increase on early dynamic FLASH images higher by far than the CIG knees, while no significant difference was found on spin-echo images obtained 5 to 15 min after contrast injection. The early signal enhancement probably reflects the perfusion and capillary permeability of the synovium. The area...

  9. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  10. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  11. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical...... exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks...

  12. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  13. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Jacobs, D.G.; Perdue, P.T.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-04-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado, made in May and June 1976, are presented along with descriptions of techniques and equipment used to obtain the data and an assessment of increased risk of health effects attributable to radiation and radionuclides from the tailings. An estimate of potential health effects of exposure to gamma rays around a former mill building and to radon daughters produced by radon dispersed from the tailings has been made for occupants of the site

  14. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  15. Prediction of new bioactive molecules using a Bayesian belief network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Ammar; Leclère, Valérie; Jacques, Philippe; Salim, Naomie; Pupin, Maude

    2014-01-27

    Natural products and synthetic compounds are a valuable source of new small molecules leading to novel drugs to cure diseases. However identifying new biologically active small molecules is still a challenge. In this paper, we introduce a new activity prediction approach using Bayesian belief network for classification (BBNC). The roots of the network are the fragments composing a compound. The leaves are, on one side, the activities to predict and, on another side, the unknown compound. The activities are represented by sets of known compounds, and sets of inactive compounds are also used. We calculated a similarity between an unknown compound and each activity class. The more similar activity is assigned to the unknown compound. We applied this new approach on eight well-known data sets extracted from the literature and compared its performance to three classical machine learning algorithms. Experiments showed that BBNC provides interesting prediction rates (from 79% accuracy for high diverse data sets to 99% for low diverse ones) with a short time calculation. Experiments also showed that BBNC is particularly effective for homogeneous data sets but has been found to perform less well with structurally heterogeneous sets. However, it is important to stress that we believe that using several approaches whenever possible for activity prediction can often give a broader understanding of the data than using only one approach alone. Thus, BBNC is a useful addition to the computational chemist's toolbox.

  16. Spin tunneling in magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, Ersin

    In this thesis, we will focus on spin tunneling in a family of systems called magnetic molecules such as Fe8 and Mn12. This is comparatively new, in relation to other tunneling problems. Many issues are not completely solved and/or understood yet. The magnetic molecule Fe 8 has been observed to have a rich pattern of degeneracies in its magnetic spectrum. We focus on these degeneracies from several points of view. We start with the simplest anisotropy Hamiltonian to describe the Fe 8 molecule and extend our discussion to include higher order anisotropy terms. We give analytical expressions as much as we can, for the degeneracies in the semi-classical limit in both cases. We reintroduce jump instantons to the instanton formalism. Finally, we discuss the effect of the environment on the molecule. Our results, for all different models and techniques, agree well with both experimental and numerical results.

  17. Experimental decoherence in molecule interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackermueller, L.; Hornberger, K.; Stibor, A.; Zeilinger, A.; Arndt, M.; Kiesewetter, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present three mechanisms of decoherence that occur quite naturally in matter wave interferometer with large molecules. One way molecules can lose coherence is through collision with background gas particles. We observe a loss of contrast with increasing background pressure for various types of gases. We can understand this phenomenon quantitatively with a new model for collisional decoherence which corrects older models by a factor of 2 π;. The second experiment studies the thermal emission of photons related to the high internal energy of the interfering molecules. When sufficiently many or sufficiently short photons are emitted inside the interferometer, the fringe contrast is lost. We can continuously vary the temperature of the molecules and compare the loss of contrast with a model based on decoherence theory. Again we find good quantitative agreement. A third mechanism that influences our interference pattern is dephasing due to vibrations of the interference gratings. By adding additional vibrations we study this effect in more detail. (author)

  18. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  20. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all pheart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all pheart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  2. [The economically active population in Verviers during the industrial revolution. Part 1. Inactivity and underemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desama, C

    1979-01-01

    The industrial revolution during the 1st 1/2 of the 19th century in Wallonia had important social and demographic repercussions which are still being felt today. The author examines and compares the demographic structures of the working population of the city of Verviers in 1806 and 1846. 1/4 of the adult population was not working at that time. Married women constitute a manpower reserve which is drawn upon in line with the general line of activity; the more than proportional overall offer of employment with respect to demand is a cause for inactivity which is as restraining as the education of children or social pressures may be which force these women to perform household work. Underemployment is linked to age, affecting the youngest among potential workers; it is high between ages 12-19, decreases until age 30 and then becomes negligible, and increases again by age 65 in 1806 or age 70 in 1846. Underemployment is also linked to sex since it affects women, although less than inactivity does. Finally, it affects bachelors; the evident relation in 1806 becomes almost exclusive in 1846 when 90% of underemployed individuals were bachelors. The increase in the rate of underemployment between 1806-1846 is the result of the volume of immigration and its structure which brought about disequilibrium between supply and demand. (author's)

  3. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  4. Photoionization of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review on the present state of knowledge in photoionization is presented. Various experimental techniques that have been developed to study photoionization, such as fluorescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, are examined. Various atoms and molecules were chosen to illustrate these techniques, specifically helium and xenon atoms and hydrogen molecules. Specialized photoionization such as in positive and negative ions, excited states, and free radicals is also treated. Absorption cross sections and ionization potentials are also discussed

  5. Low pressure tritiation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.F.; Powers, J.C.; Lively, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of tritiating sensitive biological molecules by depositing molecules of the substance to be tritiated on a supporting substrate in an evacuated vacuum chamber near, but not in the path of, an electron beam which traverses the chamber, admitting tritium gas into the chamber, and subjecting the tritium to the electron beam. Vibrationally excited tritium gas species are generated which collide and react with the substance thus incorporating tritium atoms into the substance. (U.K.)

  6. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with bladder and renal cancer risk: A hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; Guterman, Lauren Beryl; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; LaMonte, Michael J; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Szender, James Brian; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-08-01

    Recreational physical inactivity has been gaining recognition as an independent epidemiological exposure of interest in relation to cancer endpoints due to evidence suggesting that it may associate with cancer independent of obesity. In the current analyses, we examined the associations of lifetime recreational physical inactivity with renal and bladder cancer risk. In this hospital-based case-control study, we identified N=160 renal cancer patients, N=208 bladder cancer patients, and N=766 age frequency-matched controls without cancer. Participants self-reporting never participating in any regular/weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime were classified as physically inactive. Utilizing unconditional multivariable logistic regression analyses, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to represent the associations between lifetime physical inactivity and renal and bladder cancer risk. In multivariable logistic regression models, we observed significant positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and renal cancer and bladder cancer risk: odds ratio=1.77 (95% CI: 1.10-2.85) and odds ratio=1.73 (95% CI: 1.13-2.63), respectively. Similar associations also persisted among individuals who were not obese for both renal and bladder cancer: odds ratio=1.75 (95% CI: 1.03-2.98) and odds ratio=1.70 (95% CI: 1.08-2.69), respectively. In this case-control study, we observed evidence of a positive association between renal and bladder cancer with lifetime recreational physical inactivity. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an important independent risk factor for cancer. However, additional studies using a larger sample and prospectively collected data are needed to substantiate the current findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable and excellent choice for fluorescence sensing. One of the key factors influencing the FA value for any molecule is the molar mass of the molecule being measured. As a result, the FA method with functional nucleic acid aptamers has been limited to macromolecules such as proteins and is generally not applicable for the analysis of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. We report here a molecular mass amplifying strategy to construct anisotropy aptamer probes for small molecules. The probe is designed in such a way that only when a target molecule binds to the probe does it activate its binding ability to an anisotropy amplifier (a high molecular mass molecule such as protein), thus significantly increasing the molecular mass and FA value of the probe/target complex. Specifically, a mass amplifying probe (MAP) consists of a targeting aptamer domain against a target molecule and molecular mass amplifying aptamer domain for the amplifier protein. The probe is initially rendered inactive by a small blocking strand partially complementary to both target aptamer and amplifier protein aptamer so that the mass amplifying aptamer domain would not bind to the amplifier protein unless the probe has been activated by the target. In this way, we prepared two probes that constitute a target (ATP and cocaine respectively) aptamer, a thrombin (as the mass amplifier) aptamer, and a fluorophore. Both probes worked well against their corresponding small molecule targets, and the detection limits for ATP and cocaine were 0.5 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively. More importantly, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, ATP in cell media and cocaine in urine were directly detected without any tedious sample pretreatment. Our results established that our molecular mass amplifying strategy can be used to design aptamer probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective

  8. The nuclear waste disaster. A view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power; Das Atommuell-Desaster. Blicke hinter die Kulissen der angeblich sauberen Atomenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Armin; Stay, Jochen (comps.)

    2015-04-15

    The brochure on the nuclear waste disaster - a view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power discusses the following topics: Thuringia and Saxony - radiating landscapes, Gronau - 100.000 tons for eternity, Gundremmingen - nuclear waste records and castor shortage, Brunsbuettel - castor storage facility without licensing, Juelich the pebble bed drama, Karlsruhe - the hall is filled, Obrigheim - radioactive waste for cooking pots, Asse - the ticking bomb, final repositories - an illusion without solution, stop the waste production, Germany - endless nuclear waste.

  9. The burden of presumed tuberculosis in hospitalized children in a resource-limited setting in Papua New Guinea: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watch, Villa; Aipit, Jimmy; Kote-Yarong, Tina; Rero, Allanie; Bolnga, John W; Lufele, Elvin; Laman, Moses

    2017-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death. Of 8992 paediatric admissions, 734 patients (8.2%) were diagnosed with presumed TB and there were 825 deaths, with TB accounting for 102 (12.4%). Extrapulmonary TB was the final diagnosis in 384 admissions {prevalence 4.3% [384/8992 (95% CI 3.9-4.7)]} with a case fatality rate of 21.4% [82/384 (95% CI 17.4-25.9)]. TB meningitis, disseminated TB and pericardial TB had high case fatality rates of 29.0% (53/183), 28.9% (11/38) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Severe malnutrition was more common in patients with pulmonary compared with extrapulmonary TB (25.4% vs 15.6%; pPapua New Guinea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Thermal ion-molecule reactions in oxygen-containing molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru

    1981-02-01

    The energetics of ions and the thermal ion-molecule reactions in oxygen-containing molecules have been studied with a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the translational energy of ion can be easily obtained from analysis of the decay curve using the time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The condensation-elimination reactions proceeded via cross- and homo-elimination mechanism in which the nature of intermediate-complex could be correlated with the nature of reactant ion. It was elucidated that behavior of poly-atomic oxygen-containing ions on the condensation-elimination reactions is considerably influenced by their oxonium ion structures having functional groups. In addition, the rate constants of the condensation-elimination reactions have affected with the energy state of reactant ion and the dipole moment and/or the polarizability of neutral molecule. It was clarified that the rate constants of the ion-molecule clustering reactions in poly-atomic oxygen-containing molecules such as cyclic ether of six member rings are very large and the cluster ions are stable owing to the large number of vibrational degree of freedom in the cluster ions. (author)

  11. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  12. Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua Z; Moon, Yeseon P; Kulick, Erin R; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-01-01

    Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regression was performed to examine the associations between physical inactivity and future gait speed adjusted for confounders. Among 711 participants with MRI and gait speed measures (62% women, 71% Hispanic, mean age 74.1 ± 8.4), the mean gait speed was 1.02 ± 0.26 m/s. Physical inactivity was associated with a greater odds of gait speed in the lowest quartile (Physical inactivity is associated with slower gait speed independently of osteoarthritis, grip strength, and subclinical ischemic brain injury. Modifying sedentary behavior poses a target for interventions aimed at reducing decline in mobility. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Kassean, Hemant Kumar; Tsala Tsala, Jacques Philippe; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of physical inactivity among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data from 17,928 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 24 universities in 23 countries. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 41.4 %, ranging from 21.9 % in Kyrgyzstan to 80.6 % in Pakistan. In multivariate logistic regression, older age (22-30 years), studying in a low- or lower middle-income country, skipping breakfast and lack of social support were associated with physical inactivity. In men, being underweight, being overweight or obese, not avoiding fat and cholesterol, not having severe depression symptoms, low beliefs in the health benefits of physical activity, low personal control and knowledge of exercise-heart link, and in women, not trying to eat fibre, low personal mastery and medium personal control were additionally associated with physical inactivity. Four in each ten students are physically inactive, calling for strategic interventions by relevant professionals in higher educational institutions.

  14. The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. Summary A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach “Molecule Cloud”. The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Conclusions Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large

  15. Molecule-by-Molecule Writing Using a Focused Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dorp, Willem F.; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2012-01-01

    atoms also be written with an electron beam? We verify this with focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write technique that has the current record for the smallest feature written by (electron) optical lithography. We show that the deposition of an organometallic precursor...... on graphene can be followed molecule-by-molecule with FEBID. The results show that mechanisms that are inherent to the process inhibit a further increase in control over the process. Hence, our results present the resolution limit of (electron) optical lithography techniques. The writing of isolated...

  16. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was p = 0.05. High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003), education (p = 0.004), and income (p = 0.003). The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5%) and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%). Respondents with secondary school education (31.6%) are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%), the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%), people who earn less (34.1%) are inactive almost twice as often. Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers of employers to promote healthy lifestyle, management of

  17. Physics of Complex Polymeric Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joshua Walter

    The statistical physics of complex polymers with branches and circuits is the topic of this dissertation. An important motivation are large, single-stranded (ss) RNA molecules. Such molecules form complex ``secondary" and ``tertiary" structures that can be represented as branched polymers with circuits. Such structures are in part directly determined by the nucleotide sequence and in part subject to thermal fluctuations. The polymer physics literature on molecules in this class has mostly focused on randomly branched polymers without circuits while there has been minimal research on polymers with specific structures and on polymers that contain circuits. The dissertation is composed of three parts: Part I studies branched polymers with thermally fluctuating structure confined to a potential well as a simple model for the encapsidation of viral RNA. Excluded volume interactions were ignored. In Part II, I apply Flory theory to the study of the encapsidation of viral ss RNA molecules with specific branched structures, but without circuits, in the presence of excluded volume interaction. In Part III, I expand on Part II and consider complex polymers with specific structure including both branching and circuits. I introduce a method based on the mathematics of Laplacian matrices that allows me to calculate density profiles for such molecules, which was not possible within Flory theory.

  18. Quantum transport through organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport for the model of benzene-1, 4-dithiolate (BDT) molecule and some other geometric models of benzene molecule attached with two semi-infinite metallic electrodes by the use of Green's function technique. An analytic approach for the electronic transport through the molecular bridges is presented, based on the tight-binding model. Transport of electrons in such molecular bridges is strongly affected by the geometry of the molecules and their coupling strength with the electrodes. Conductance (g) shows resonance peaks associated with the molecular energy eigenstates. In the weak molecule-to-electrodes coupling limit current (I) passing through the molecules shows staircase-like behavior with sharp steps, while, it varies quite continuously in the limit of strong molecular coupling with the applied bias voltage (V). In presence of the transverse magnetic field conductance gives oscillatory behavior with flux φ, threaded by the molecular ring, showing φ 0 ( = ch/e) flux-quantum periodicity. Though conductance changes with the application of transverse magnetic field, but the current-voltage characteristics remain same in presence of this magnetic field for these molecular bridge systems

  19. Dissociation and decay of ultracold sodium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Abo-Shaeer, J.R.; Xu, K.; Chin, J.K.; Ketterle, W.

    2004-01-01

    The dissociation of ultracold molecules was studied by ramping an external magnetic field through a Feshbach resonance. The observed dissociation energies directly yielded the strength of the atom-molecule coupling. They showed nonlinear dependence on the ramp speed. This was explained by a Wigner threshold law which predicts that the decay rate of the molecules above threshold increases with the density of states. In addition, inelastic molecule-molecule and molecule-atom collisions were characterized

  20. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  1. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  3. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc

  4. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  5. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer.

  7. A study on development of Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Lee, E.; Choung, W.; You, G.; Kim, H.

    2010-10-01

    Since 2007, the Pride (Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility) has been developed to demonstrate the integrated engineering-scale pyro processing using natural uranium with surrogate materials. In this paper, safety evaluation on hypothetical accident case is carried out to ensure the release of radioactivity being negligible to the environment and the performance of indoor argon flow for the argon cell has been investigated by means of CFD analysis. The worst accident case, even in the firing of the all uranium metal in argon cell, cause dose rate are negligible comparing to 0.25 Sv of effective dose rate to whole body or 3 Sv of equivalent dose rate to the thyroid preliminary CFD analyses show the temperature and velocity distribution of argon cell, and give the information to change the argon exchange rate and displace the argon supply or exhaust duct. CFD will allow design change and improvements in ventilation systems at lower cost. (Author)

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of /sup 226/Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of /sup 226/Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups.

  9. Spectroelectrochemical insights into structural and redox properties of immobilized endonuclease III and its catalytically inactive mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Elin; Rollo, Filipe; Silveira, Célia M.; Sezer, Murat; Hildebrandt, Peter; Todorovic, Smilja

    2018-01-01

    Endonuclease III is a Fe-S containing bifunctional DNA glycosylase which is involved in the repair of oxidation damaged DNA. Here we employ surface enhanced IR spectroelectrochemistry and electrochemistry to study the enzyme from the highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrEndoIII2). The experiments are designed to shed more light onto specific parameters that are currently proposed to govern damage search and recognition by endonucleases III. We demonstrate that electrostatic interactions required for the redox activation of DrEndoIII2 may result in high electric fields that alter its structural and thermodynamic properties. Analysis of inactive DrEndoIII2 (K132A/D150A double mutant) interacting with undamaged DNA, and the active enzyme interacting with damaged DNA also indicate that the electron transfer is modulated by subtle differences in the protein-DNA complex.

  10. Emotional outlook on life predicts increases in physical activity among initially inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Marcus, Bess H; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical activity level and emotional outlook on life. Emotional outlook on life was significantly and positively related to physical activity participation at the follow-up visit in men but not women. Men who were usually very happy and optimistic at baseline had significantly greater increases in physical activity compared to men who were not happy. Men with a more positive outlook on life (e.g., happier) may be more likely to increase physical activity levels. Physical activity interventions targeting men may be more successful if they first increase happiness.

  11. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  12. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  13. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jones, T.D.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Tuba City, Arizona, conducted in March 1976, are presented. Spread of tailings was detected in all directions by means of direct gamma measurements at 1 m above the ground and by determinations of the 226 Ra concentration in surface soil and sediment samples. In the direction toward which prevailing winds blow, the northeast, evidence of transportation of tailings was found at least 3.2 km from the tailings pile. Toward the north, south, and west, the spread was 300 to 400 m. Evidence of movement of tailings by water to offsite locations was also found. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The calculated subsoil distribution of 226 Ra in 14 holes, based on gamma monitoring data obtained by Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., is presented graphically and compared with available analytical data

  14. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  15. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Results of radiological surveys of two inactive uranium-mill sites near Rifle, Colorado, in May 1976 are presented. These sites are referred to as Old Rifle and New Rifle. The calculated 226 Ra inventory of the latter site is much higher than at the older mill location. Data on above-ground measurements of gamma exposure rates, surface and near-surface concentration of 226 Ra in soil and sediment samples, concentration of 226 Ra in water, calculated subsurface distribution of 226 Ra, and particulate radionuclide concentrations in air samples are given. The data serve to define the extent of contamination in the vicinity of the mill sites and their immediate surrounding areas with tailings particles. Results of these measurements were utilized as technical input for an engineering assessment of these two sites

  16. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed

  17. High-Throughput Screening of a Luciferase Reporter of Gene Silencing on the Inactive X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Alissa; Plath, Kathrin; Damoiseaux, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Assays of luciferase gene activity are a sensitive and quantitative reporter system suited to high-throughput screening. We adapted a luciferase assay to a screening strategy for identifying factors that reactivate epigenetically silenced genes. This epigenetic luciferase reporter is subject to endogenous gene silencing mechanisms on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in primary mouse cells and thus captures the multilayered nature of chromatin silencing in development. Here, we describe the optimization of an Xi-linked luciferase reactivation assay in 384-well format and adaptation of the assay for high-throughput siRNA and chemical screening. Xi-luciferase reactivation screening has applications in stem cell biology and cancer therapy. We have used the approach described here to identify chromatin-modifying proteins and to identify drug combinations that enhance the gene reactivation activity of the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

  18. Release from control of inactive material from decommissioning the ASTRA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.; Kurz, H.; Meyer, F.; Karacson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf have been operating a 10 MW ASTRA research reactor from 1960 until 1999. After that date, a submission of the intention to decommission the reactor has been provided to the Competent Authorities. After completion of an Environmental Impact Study by the Competent Authorities and modification of the Permissions for Site Use, the reactor finally entered the decommissioning phase in 2003. Inactive materials from the decommissioning site are expected to be released from control. The procedure for such a release from control agreed upon between the Competent Authorities and ARC Seibersdorf involves a four-step measurement, verification, and certification process detailed in this paper. By September 2003, this four-step procedure has been completed for 16500 kg of steel re-enforced concrete and for 5500 kg of other materials; the release from control of 3000 kg of paraffin and 10000 kg of graphite from the thermal column are planned for the near future. (author)

  19. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  20. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  1. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  2. Fluidelastic instability analysis of steam generator U-tubes at antivibration bar-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Jo, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of thermal-hydraulic and fluidelastic U-tube instability analyses performed for the vertical type pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator model being employed at Kori units 2, 3 and 4, and Yonggwang units 1 and 2 in Korea. The thermal-hydraulic analysis for providing the detailed three-dimensional two-phase flow field in the secondary side of the steam generator was accomplished using the ATHOS3 steam generator thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The UTVA2 code designed for calculating both the free vibration responses and fluidelastic stability ratio of a specific U-tube under consideration was used to assess the potential for fluidelastic instability of the steam generator U-tubes at various conditions of antivibration bar (AVB)-inactive modes. The results of the fluidelastic instability analysis were discussed in comparison with those obtained for the steam generator U-tubes at AVB-active mode

  3. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Ellis, B.S.; Chou, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of 226 Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings

  4. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of 226 Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer

  5. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of 226 Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of 226 Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups

  6. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  7. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  8. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them

  9. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients’ transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients’ prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Design An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Setting Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist’s PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist’s counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Results Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients’ daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. Conclusion The patients’ attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients’ daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients’ treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address

  11. The hydrogeochemistry of four inactive tailings impoundments: Perspectives on tailings pore-water evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowes, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Reardon, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive hydrogeochemical investigations are currently underway at three inactive tailings impoundments in Canada. These programs include detailed measurements of pore-water and gas-phase geochemistry through the vadose zone and the groundwater zone. An extensive piezometer network has been installed at each location to monitor the groundwater flow regime. All of the impoundments studied have been inactive for 15 to 25 years, sufficient time for extensive tailings pore-water evolution. The study areas include a very high-sulfide impoundment, a low-sulfide, high-carbonate impoundment, a low-sulfide, very low-carbonate impoundment, and a moderately high-sulfide impoundment. The pore water at each of the sites has evolved in a distinctly different and characteristic manner, representing broad styles of tailings pore-water evolution. At the high sulfide impoundment the oxidation of sulfide minerals has resulted in low pH, high redox potential conditions, with Fe 2+ concentrations in excess of 60,000 mg/L. At a depth of about 40 cm a 10 cm thick layer of ferrous and calcium sulfate minerals has precipitated. This hardpan layer limits the downward movement of O 2 and infiltrating pore waters. As a result, the pore water chemistry, both above and below the hardpan layer, has remained relatively unchanged over the past 10 years. The low-sulfide, high-carbonate tailings are sufficiently well buffered that no low pH conditions are present. The high pH conditions limit the concentrations of the metals released by sulfide mineral oxidation to levels that are two or three orders of magnitude less than is observed at the high-sulfide site. Pore waters at the low-sulfide, low-carbonate site were sampled by other researchers from the University of Waterloo

  12. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30 min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:24681155

  13. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2014-06-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  15. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  16. Teaching lasers to control molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; Rabitz, H.

    1992-01-01

    We simulate a method to teach a laser pulse sequences to excite specified molecular states. We use a learning procedure to direct the production of pulses based on ''fitness'' information provided by a laboratory measurement device. Over a series of pulses the algorithm learns an optimal sequence. The experimental apparatus, which consists of a laser, a sample of molecules and a measurement device, acts as an analog computer that solves Schroedinger's equation n/Iexactly, in real time. We simulate an apparatus that learns to excite specified rotational states in a diatomic molecule

  17. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  18. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  19. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  20. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (EPA, 1987). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 Public Law (PL) 95-604 (PL 95-604), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site