Sample records for prescription-only analgesics purchased

  1. The availability of prescription-only analgesics purchased from the internet in the UK. (United States)

    Raine, Connie; Webb, David J; Maxwell, Simon R J


    Increasing numbers of people are accessing medicines from the internet. This online market is poorly regulated and represents a potential threat to the health of patients and members of the public. Prescription-only analgesics, including controlled opioids, are readily available to the UK public through internet pharmacies that are easily identified by popular search engines. The majority of websites do not require the customer to possess a valid prescription for the drug. Less than half provide an online health screen to assess suitability for supply. The majority have no registered geographical location. Analgesic medicines are usually purchased at prices significantly above British National Formulary prices and are often supplied in large quantities. These findings are of particular relevance to pain-management specialists who are trying to improve the rational use of analgesic drugs. To explore the availability to the UK population of prescription-only analgesics from the internet. Websites were identified by using several keywords in the most popular internet search engines. From 2000 websites, details of 96 were entered into a database. Forty-six (48%) websites sold prescription analgesics, including seven opioids, two non-opioids and 18 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Thirty-five (76%) of these did not require the customer to possess a valid prescription. Prescription-only analgesics, including controlled opioids, are readily available from internet websites, often without a valid prescription.

  2. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: who are the end users? (United States)

    Inciardi, James A; Surratt, Hilary L; Cicero, Theodore J; Rosenblum, Andrew; Ahwah, Candice; Bailey, J Elise; Dart, Richard C; Burke, John J


    Although prescription drugs are readily available on the Internet, little is known about the prevalence of Internet use for the purchase of medications without a legitimate prescription, and the characteristics of those that obtain non-prescribed drugs through online sources. The scientific literature on this topic is limited to anecdotal reports or studies plagued by small sample sizes. Within this context, the focus of this paper is an examination of five national data sets from the U.S. with the purpose of estimating: (1) how common obtaining prescription medications from the Internet actually is, (2) who are the typical populations of "end users" of these non-prescribed medications, and (3) which drugs are being purchased without a prescription. Three of the data sets are drawn from the RADARS (Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance) System, a comprehensive series of studies designed to collect timely and geographically specific data on the abuse and diversion of a number of prescription stimulants and opioid analgesics. The remaining data sets include the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey. Our analysis yielded uniformly low rates of prescription drug acquisition from online sources across all five data systems we examined. The consistency of this finding across very diverse populations suggests that the Internet is a relatively minor source for illicit purchases of prescription medications by the individual end-users of these drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesic Prescription Patterns and Pain Outcomes in Southeast Asia: Findings From the Analgesic Treatment of Cancer Pain in Southeast Asia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Huy Quoc Thinh


    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify patterns of analgesic prescription and to explore patient-reported pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among cancer patients with pain in Southeast Asia (SEA. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 465 adult outpatients prescribed analgesics for cancer pain for 1 month or longer at 22 sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Data on analgesic prescription and cancer characteristics were extracted from medical records. Pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life measures were recorded via questionnaires. Results: Most patients (84.4% had stage III or IV cancer. A total of 419 patients (90.7% were prescribed opioids; of these, 42.2% received only weak opioids, whereas 57.8% received at least one strong opioid. The mean worst pain intensity during the past 24 hours was 4.76 (standard deviation [SD], 2.47 on a scale of 0 (no pain to 10 (worst possible pain; the mean current pain intensity was 4.10 (SD, 2.61. More than half of patients (54.8% reported sleep disturbance caused by pain in the past 7 days. The majority of patients reported problems with pain/discomfort (82.3%, usual activities (65.8%, mobility (58.2%, and anxiety/depression (56.3%. The median daily dose prescribed in oral morphine equivalents was 30 mg for both morphine and tramadol. Conclusion: Despite unrelieved pain, sleep disturbance, and issues with quality of life, a notable proportion of patients were prescribed only weak opioids, and opioid doses prescribed were generally low. Efforts focused on encouragement of prescriptions with analgesic strength and/or doses proportional to the pain management needs of patients are vital to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region.

  4. Risk perception about medication sharing among patients: a focus group qualitative study on borrowing and lending of prescription analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotic F


    Full Text Available Filipa Markotic,1 Davorka Vrdoljak,2 Marijana Puljiz,3 Livia Puljak,4 1Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, 3Family Medicine Clinic, Health Centre Imotski, Kamenmost, 4Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: One form of self-medication is sharing of medications, defined as borrowing or lending medications in situations where the receiver of these drugs is not the individual to whom the medications were allocated. Objective: To explore experiences and opinions of patients about sharing prescription analgesics, reasons for sharing prescription analgesics, the way in which patients choose to share those medications, their awareness of risk regarding sharing prescription analgesics, and how they estimated the potential risk.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by focus group discussions with 40 participants led by a moderator trained in focus group methodology using a semi-structured moderator guide. Adults aged ≥18 years who had received a prescription for an analgesic at least once in a lifetime were included. Six separate focus groups were conducted to discuss participants’ perception of risks associated with sharing of prescription analgesics among patients. Additionally, participants filled out two questionnaires on demographic data, their own behavior regarding sharing analgesics, and their attitudes about risks associated with sharing prescription analgesics.Results: In a questionnaire, 55% of the participants indicated that they personally shared prescription analgesics, while subsequently in the focus group discussions, 76% confessed to such behavior. Participants recognized certain risks related to sharing of prescription analgesics, mentioned a number of reasons for engaging in such behavior, and indicated certain positive

  5. Prescription of opioid and nonopioid analgesics for dental care in emergency departments: Findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Xiang, Qun; Thorpe, Joshua M; Szabo, Aniko


    The aim of this study was to examine trends and associated factors in the prescription of opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations, and no analgesics by emergency physicians for nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related visits. Our secondary aim was to investigate whether race/ethnicity is a possible predictor of receiving a prescription for either type of medication for NTDC visits in emergency departments (EDs) after adjustment for potential covariates. We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1997-2000 and 2003-2007, and used multinomial multivariate logistic regression to estimate the probability of receiving a prescription for opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, or a combination of both, compared with receiving no analgesics for NTDC-related visits. During 1997-2000 and 2003-2007, prescription of opioid analgesics and combinations of opioid and nonopioid analgesics increased, and that of no analgesics decreased over time. The prescription rates for opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations, and no analgesics for NTDC-related visits in EDs were 43 percent, 20 percent, 12 percent, and 25 percent, respectively. Majority of patients categorized as having severe pain received prescriptions for opioids for NTDC-related visits in EDs. After adjusting for covariates, patients with self-reported dental reasons for visit and severe pain had a significantly higher probability of receiving prescriptions for opioid analgesics and opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations. Prescription of opioid analgesics increased over time. ED physicians were more likely to prescribe opioid analgesics and opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations for NTDC-related visits with reported severe pain. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Prescription pattern of antibiotic and analgesic in endodontic treatment in Kuwaiti population: A self-administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal J Al-Maslamani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment of involved teeth can necessitate prescription of analgesics and antimicrobials. The literature suggests confusion amongst practitioners regarding the need for adjunctive medication, mainly during non-surgical endodontic treatment, often leading to over-prescription. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the current clinical practice of dentists participated in this study with respect to antibiotic and analgesic prescription patterns in their endodontic treatment management in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Prescription patterns for antibiotics and analgesics were analyzed based on the responses to self-administered questionnaire (n = 169. Information was collected based on different clinical endodontic diagnostic scenarios. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 17.0 to determine relationships between prescription patterns, age, gender, and dental qualification (specialists and general dentists. Results: Ninety-two percent of dentists prescribed analgesics for the management of endodontic pain. While 16% prescribed antibiotics for severe dental pain; 62% prescribed antibiotics for acute apical abscesses. Significantly more male dentists prescribed antibiotics for dental pain than female dentists. No significant difference was found between general dental practitioners′ and specialists′ attitude toward drug prescriptions. Amoxicillin and ibuprofen were the most commonly prescribed medications. Conclusion: While the majority of dentists appeared to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics appropriately, some did not. This research confirmed previous studies and established a need for imparting information of evidence-based prescriptions protocols for the dentists surveyed in this study in Kuwait.

  7. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Nash, Denis; Southern, William N; Heo, Moonseong; Berger, Matthew; Schepis, Mark; Cunningham, Chinazo O


    As opioid analgesic consumption has grown, so have opioid use disorder and opioid-related overdoses. Reducing the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed for acute non-cancer pain can potentially reduce risks to the individual receiving the prescription and to others who might unintentionally or intentionally consume any leftover tablets. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions in the electronic health record (EHR) is a promising intervention to reduce prescribing. This study is a prospective cluster randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Primary care sites (n=32) and emergency departments (n=4) will be randomised in matched pairs to either a modification of the EHR so that new opioid analgesic prescriptions default to a dispense quantity of 10 tablets (intervention) or to no EHR change (control). The dispense quantity will remain fully modifiable by providers in both arms. From 6 months preintervention to 18 months postintervention, patient-level data will be analysed (ie, the patient is the unit of inference). Patient eligibility criteria are: (A) received a new opioid analgesic prescription, defined as no other opioid analgesic prescription in the prior 6 months; (B) age ≥18 years; and (C) no cancer diagnosis within 1 year prior to the new opioid analgesic prescription. The primary outcome will be the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed in the initial prescription. Secondary outcomes will include opioid analgesic reorders and health service utilisation within 30 days after the initial prescription. Outcomes will be compared between study arms using a difference-in-differences analysis. This study has been approved by the Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine Institutional Review Board with a waiver of informed consent (2016-6036) and is registered on (NCT03003832, 6 December 2016). Findings will be disseminated through publication, conferences and meetings

  8. The impact of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances: A prospective study. (United States)

    Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie


    In this paper, we investigate the influence of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances, and whether these health indicators measure similar aspects of health in this analysis. Data came from a 2006 Danish unemployment survey among a random sample of unemployed individuals enriched with register data (2006-2008, N =1806). The survey participants all received unemployment benefits from the welfare system and had been unemployed for more than 20 weeks at the time of the interview in 2006. We combined these data with longitudinal register data on individual prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses, information on re-employment and various socio-demographic variables. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses to investigate the impact of self-reported health and prescription medicine purchases measured in 2006 on re-employment chances in 2007 and 2008. Our analyses show that unemployed workers with poor self-reported health and workers who had prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses were less likely to be re-employed in 2007 and 2008. Furthermore, the impact of both prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and for mental illnesses increased when adding self-reported health to the model although prescription purchases for somatic illnesses became statistically insignificant. The impact of prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses was mediated by self-reported health, whilst prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses was only partly mediated. Finally, SRH seemed a much stronger prediction than prescription medicines. From these results, we propose, when possible, the inclusion of both an indicator of self-reported health and an indicator of mental health in studies on re-employment.

  9. The impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy on benign indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard


    OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly...... socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight...

  10. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  11. The impact of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-petersen, Annemette Coop; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie


    In this paper, we investigate the influence of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances, and whether these health indicators measure similar aspects of health in this analysis. Data came from a 2006 Danish unemployment survey among a random...... on individual prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses, information on re-employment and various socio-demographic variables. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses to investigate the impact of self-reported health and prescription...... medicine purchases measured in 2006 on re-employment chances in 2007 and 2008. Our analyses show that unemployed workers with poor self-reported health and workers who had prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses were less likely to be re-employed in 2007 and 2008. Furthermore, the impact...

  12. Risks associated with borrowing and sharing of prescription analgesics among patients observed by pain management physicians in Croatia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotic F


    Full Text Available Filipa Markotic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: Understanding and improving patient safety is a key issue in medicine. One of the potential threats to patient safety is the sharing of medication among patients, which is a form of self-medication. This study analyzed experiences and attitudes of pain management physicians (PMPs about sharing prescription analgesics among patients.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by semi-structured interviews among PMPs employed in Croatian pain clinics. The study involved two researchers and 15 PMPs.Results: Among PMPs, 80% have seen patients who share their prescription analgesics with other patients for whom prescription is not intended. Most PMPs consider prescription analgesics sharing a risky and negative behavior. Some of them, however, found certain positive aspects associated to it, such as being a benevolent behavior, helping patients to get medications when they need them, and helping them cope with pain.Conclusion: The majority of physicians specialized in pain management encountered patients sharing prescription analgesics. Most of them considered this as risky behavior with a number of potential consequences. It has been noted that this problem is neglected and that physicians should inquire about medication sharing. Direct-to-consumers advertising was perceived as a factor contributing to such behavior. Patient education and more involvement of physicians in identifying this behavior were cited as potential remedies for preventing sharing of prescription analgesics. Keywords: analgesics, sharing, lending, borrowing, risks

  13. The impact of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-petersen, Annemette Coop; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie


    on individual prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses, information on re-employment and various socio-demographic variables. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses to investigate the impact of self-reported health and prescription...

  14. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations. (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard


    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  15. Prescription pain medications and chronic headache in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte


    , tramadol, ibuprofen and codeine. CH was associated with osteoarthritis, back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. Among those with MOH, 32.4 % were dispensed an opioid at least once within 1 year. Only 5.1 % of people with CH were dispensed triptans. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of opioid use among people......PURPOSE: The aim of the present paper is to study which prescription pain medications are most commonly dispensed to people with chronic headache (CH), particularly those with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed prescription pain medications dispensed...... within 1 year to 68,518 respondents of a national health survey. Participants with headache ≥15 days per month for 3 months were classified as having CH. Those with CH and over-the-counter analgesic use ≥15 days per month or purchase of ≥20 or ≥30 defined daily doses (DDDs) of prescription pain...

  16. Prescription Pattern of Analgesic Drugs for Patients Receiving Palliative Care in a Teaching Hospital in India. (United States)

    Menezes, Vishma Hydie; Nair, Shoba N; Soumya, M S; Tarey, S D


    Drugs used in the palliative care unit for managing symptoms are major contributors toward the expenditure occurring in palliative care. This study was conducted to understand the prescription pattern of analgesic drugs in the patients who are receiving palliative care in a teaching hospital in India by a retrospective study of case records. Case record based, retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Pain and Palliative Care Department of St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru. Case record files of all patients referred to Pain and Palliative Care Department for the treatment of pain in the year of 2012 were studied. Patients' age, gender, diagnoses, numerical pain rating scale (0-10), drugs prescribed, dosage, frequency, route of administration were recorded. The difference in drug utilization between the genders was done using Chi-square test. Data were collected from 502 patients of which 280 (56%) were males and 222 (44%) were females. Twelve percent of patients had mild pain (1-3), 34% had moderate pain (4-6), and 54% had severe pain (7-10). The most commonly used analgesic drugs were opioids (47%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (36%). The opioids used were tramadol (56%), and morphine (38%). Ninety percent of patients with numerical pain scale more than 6 received morphine. There was no difference in analgesic drug utilization with regards to gender. Prescription pattern differed depending on the severity of pain. Opioids were the most commonly used drugs for pain management. The study shows that prescription pattern in palliative care unit of this hospital was in accordance with WHO pain management guidelines. The study showed the current trend in prescription of analgesic drugs in the teaching hospital where the study was conducted.

  17. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  18. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad


    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  19. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart


    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  20. Greater number of narcotic analgesic prescriptions for osteoarthritis is associated with falls and fractures in elderly adults. (United States)

    Rolita, Lydia; Spegman, Adele; Tang, Xiaoqin; Cronstein, Bruce N


    To evaluate the changes in types of medications prescribed for pain before and after withdrawal of certain selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors in 2004 and to determine whether there was an association with fall events in elderly adults with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). A nested case-control design using electronic medical records compiled between 2001 and 2009. Electronic medical records for care provided in an integrated health system in rural Pennsylvania over a 9-year period (2001-09), the midpoint of which rofecoxib and valdecoxib were pulled from the market. Thirteen thousand three hundred fifty-four individuals aged 65 to 89 with a diagnosis of OA. The incidence of falls and fractures was examined in relation to analgesics prescribed: narcotics, COX-2 inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The comparison sample of individuals who did not fall was matched 3:1 with those who fell according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Narcotic analgesic prescriptions were associated with a significantly greater risk of falls and fractures. The likelihood of experiencing a fall/fracture was higher in participants prescribed narcotic analgesics than those prescribed a COX-2 inhibitor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.5-4.3) or NSAID (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 3.7-4.5). Use of narcotic analgesics is associated with risk of falls and fractures in elderly adults with OA, an observation that suggests that the current guidelines for the treatment of pain, which include first-line prescription of narcotics, should be reevaluated. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Temporal Trends in Analgesic Use in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of International Prescribing. (United States)

    La Frenais, Francesca L; Bedder, Rachel; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Stone, Patrick; Sampson, Elizabeth L


    To explore global changes in the prescription of analgesic drugs over time in the international long-term care (LTC) population. Systematic review. We included original research articles in English, published and unpublished, that included number of participants, country and year(s) of data collection, and prescription of analgesics (analgesics not otherwise specified, opioids, acetaminophen; scheduled only, or scheduled plus as needed (PRN)). LTC residents. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, using keywords for LTC facilities and analgesic medication; hand-searched references of eligible papers; correspondence. Studies were quality rated using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between percentage of residents prescribed an analgesic and year of data collection. If available, we investigated changes in acetaminophen and opioid prescriptions. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. A moderate correlation (0.59) suggested that scheduled prescription rates for analgesics have increased over time. Similar findings were reflected in scheduled prescriptions for acetaminophen and opioids. No increase was seen when analyzing scheduled plus PRN analgesics. Use of opioids (scheduled plus PRN) appears to have increased over time. Worldwide, use of opioids and acetaminophen has increased in LTC residents. Research is needed to explore whether this reflects appropriate pain management for LTC residents and if PRN medication is used effectively. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Multifaceted determinants of online non-prescription drug information seeking and the impact on consumers' use of purchase channels. (United States)

    Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim


    The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies.

  3. [Intention of purchasing generic prescription drugs on the part of consumers in Asturias, Spain]. (United States)

    González Hernando, Santiago; González Mieres, Celina; Díaz Martín, Ana M


    Ascertaining how consumers perceive the risk related to the use of generic prescription drugs and those factors which have the greatest impact on the intention to request a generic drug from the prescribing physician and/or the pharmacist for the purpose of determining any possible barriers or hindrances to the acceptance of generics and to gather information to aid healthcare managers in their decision-making processes. Study on prescription drug use revolving around the degree to which patients are willing to request an EFG. In this quantitative transversal study, a total of 542 individuals were individually surveyed upon exiting a healthcare center or pharmacy in Asturias. A scale for measuring the perceived risk involved in the purchase of a prescription drug including 15 attributes grouped into five aspects was included in the questionnaire. Information was also gathered regarding the intention of using generic prescription drugs and on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of those surveyed. For the analysis of the results, a factorial confirmational analysis, multiple regression and univariate analysis were used. The data was processed using the EQS and SPSS statistics programs. Mean perception of the risk (scales 1-7): functional: 2.75; physical: 2.68: financial: 2.19; psychological: 1.99; social: 1.42. Factors having a bearing on the intention of requesting generic prescription drugs from their physician: psychological risk (p = 0.000). On requesting the same from their pharmacist: psychological risk (p = 0.000) and social risk (p = 0.020). The agents interested in the development on the EFG market should target their communication efforts on putting the functional and financial aspects of the manufacturer's specialties and generic specialties on the same level, but should not leave out psychological and social aspects of the consumers' purchasing behavior.

  4. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  5. Does Medical Cannabis Use Increase or Decrease the Use of Opioid Analgesics and Other Prescription Drugs? (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Sohler, Nancy


    : In observational and retrospective studies, people who use cannabis are more likely than people who do not use cannabis to also use other drugs. People who take medical cannabis are also more likely to report medical and non-medical use of opioid analgesics, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Given that people who take medical cannabis and those who do not are likely to have different underlying morbidity, it is possible that medical cannabis use reduces prescription drug use yet prescription drug use remains relatively high. Studies comparing people who take medical cannabis with people who do not take it cannot draw conclusions about the effect of medical cannabis on drug use. To fully understand the effect of medical cannabis on the use of other drugs, prospective longitudinal studies randomizing individuals to cannabis versus other treatments are urgently needed.

  6. Prescription of hazardous drugs during pregnancy. (United States)

    Malm, Heli; Martikainen, Jaana; Klaukka, Timo; Neuvonen, Pertti J


    Prescribing drugs to pregnant women requires the balancing of benefits and risks. Only a small proportion of drugs are known to be harmful to the fetus, but for the vast majority of drugs little evidence of fetal safety exists. To determine the prescription pattern of potentially and clearly harmful prescription drugs during pregnancy with reference to drug safety categorisation, and to define the drug groups primarily responsible for multiple drug use during pregnancy. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. Linkage of three nationwide registers in Finland. Data collection included prescription drugs purchased during the preconception period and each trimester in the pregnant cohort, and the corresponding time periods in the non-pregnant controls. The pregnancy safety categorisation was determined for each drug (Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] code) by using the Swedish classification of approved medicinal products (Farmaceutiska Specialiteter i Sverige [FASS]) and if not available, the corresponding Australian (Australian Drug Evaluation Committee [ADEC]) or US categorisation (FDA). GROUPS STUDIED: Women applying for maternity support (maternal grants) during the year 1999 (n = 43 470) plus non-pregnant control women matched by age and hospital district (n = 43 470). In the pregnant cohort, 20.4% of women purchased at least one drug classified as potentially harmful during pregnancy, and 3.4% purchased at least one drug classified as clearly harmful. A significant decline occurred in the number of pregnant women purchasing potentially and clearly harmful drugs during the first trimester when compared with the preconception period, and the decline continued from the first to the second trimester. In the pregnant cohort, 107 (0.2%) women purchased at least ten different drugs during pregnancy. The drugs most commonly purchased in this group were topical corticosteroids and nasal preparations. The use of hazardous prescription drugs declines during

  7. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino


    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  8. Antiretroviral purchasing and prescription practices in Mexico: constraints, challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Chaumont, Claire; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Bahena-González, Roberto Isaac; Sánchez-Juárez, Gerda Hitz; González de Araujo-Muriel, Arturo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio


    This study examines the antiretroviral (ARV) market characteristics for drugs procured and prescribed to Mexico's Social Protection System in Health beneficiaries between 2008 and 2013, and compares them with international data. Procurement information from the National Center for the Prevention and the Control of HIV/AIDS was analyzed to estimate volumes and prices of key ARV. Annual costs were compared with data from the World Health Organization's Global Price Reporting Mechanism for similar countries. Finally, regimens reported in the ARV Drug Management, Logistics and Surveillance System database were reviewed to identify prescription trends and model ARV expenditures until 2018. Results show that the first-line ARV market is concentrated among a small number of patented treatments, in which prescription is clinically adequate, but which prices are higher than those paid by similar countries. The current set of legal and structural options available to policy makers to bring prices down is extremely limited. Different negotiation policies were not successful to decrease ARV high prices in the public health market. The closed list approach had a good impact on prescription quality but was ineffective in reducing prices. The Coordinating Commission for Negotiating the Price of Medicines and other Health Supplies also failed to obtain adequate prices. To maximize purchase efficiency, policy makers should focus on finding long-term legal and political safeguards to counter the high prices imposed by pharmaceutical companies.

  9. Are Prescription Opioids Driving the Opioid Crisis? Assumptions vs Facts. (United States)

    Rose, Mark Edmund


    Sharp increases in opioid prescriptions, and associated increases in overdose deaths in the 2000s, evoked widespread calls to change perceptions of opioid analgesics. Medical literature discussions of opioid analgesics began emphasizing patient and public health hazards. Repetitive exposure to this information may influence physician assumptions. While highly consequential to patients with pain whose function and quality of life may benefit from opioid analgesics, current assumptions about prescription opioid analgesics, including their role in the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic, have not been scrutinized. Information was obtained by searching PubMed, governmental agency websites, and conference proceedings. Opioid analgesic prescribing and associated overdose deaths both peaked around 2011 and are in long-term decline; the sharp overdose increase recorded in 2014 was driven by illicit fentanyl and heroin. Nonmethadone prescription opioid analgesic deaths, in the absence of co-ingested benzodiazepines, alcohol, or other central nervous system/respiratory depressants, are infrequent. Within five years of initial prescription opioid misuse, 3.6% initiate heroin use. The United States consumes 80% of the world opioid supply, but opioid access is nonexistent for 80% and severely restricted for 4.1% of the global population. Many current assumptions about opioid analgesics are ill-founded. Illicit fentanyl and heroin, not opioid prescribing, now fuel the current opioid overdose epidemic. National discussion has often neglected the potentially devastating effects of uncontrolled chronic pain. Opioid analgesic prescribing and related overdoses are in decline, at great cost to patients with pain who have benefited or may benefit from, but cannot access, opioid analgesic therapy.

  10. Adolescents' future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. (United States)

    Steiger, Rena M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer


    How adolescents think about their future (i.e., future orientation) impacts their risk-taking behavior. The purpose of the present analysis was to explore whether future orientation (future planning, perceived risk to future goals, and positive future expectations) was associated with nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics in a sample of high school students. Information on future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) were collected using a paper-and-pencil survey from a sample of 9th-12th grade students in a Midwestern school. Higher perceived risk to future goals and positive future expectations were associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of stimulants (n=250; OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83; OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.47, respectively). Only higher perceived risk to future goals was associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of analgesics (n=250; OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.68). In a follow-up analysis limited to students who endorsed alcohol or marijuana use, perceived risk to future goals remained associated with a lower likelihood of nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Results suggest that risk perception might be a salient protective factor against both nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Overall, the differential impact of conceptualizations of future orientation might depend on the class of prescription drug used, demonstrating a need to consider prescription drugs individually in the development of future studies and interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Toxicity of analgesics in the family doctor practice]. (United States)

    Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Szponar, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech


    Analgesic usage without any consultation with a physician is very common in Poland. It increases the risk of occurrence of the harmful effect or harmful interaction with other medicaments taken by the patient. The abuse of painkillers applies not only to opioid but also to nonopioid analgesics. The largest group of commonly available medicaments are NSAIDs. The most frequent undesirable effect of NSAIDs' is dyspepsia. Among the most dangerous, and very often the ones without any symptoms, are gastric and duodenum ulceration for which the bleeding and perforation may be the first manifestation. Each non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken in large doses can be a cause of analgesic nephropathy. Its deceitful course can delay the diagnosis leading to chronic kidney failure. A complex supplements, that include central acting substances, increase the risk of kidney damage, as well as physical and psychological addiction. NSAIDs can cause: the heart failure to be more severe, treatment resistant arterial hypertension, increase an effectiveness of anticoagulants or antidiabetic drugs. The problem is also that some medicaments are available without a prescription (acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen), especially that they are ingredients of many complex supplements considered safe. Taking doses larger than therapeutic or simultaneously taking many supplements of the same active substance had many times led to poisoning and even death. Equally dangerous can be an abuse of tramadol, codeine and COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, prudential prescription of NSAIDs, knowledge of risks related to therapy and informing the patients about their side effects, may decrease the number of patients abusing the analgesics which can lead to lowering the number of deaths caused by serious complications.

  12. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?]. (United States)

    Sohn, W


    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  13. Reimbursement of analgesics for chronic pain. (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Hansen, Anneli Borge; Svendsen, Kristian; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Fredheim, Olav Magnus S


    The prevalence of chronic non-malignant pain in Norway is between 24% and 30%. The proportion of the population using opioids for non-malignant pain on a long-term basis is around 1%. The purpose of our study was to investigate how many were prescribed analgesics on reimbursable prescription under reimbursement code -71 (chronic non-malignant pain) in 2009 and 2010, which analgesics were prescribed and whether prescribing practices were in accordance with national guidelines. We retrieved pseudonymised data from the National Prescription Database on all those who received drugs with reimbursement code -71 in 2009 and 2010. The data contain information on drug, dosage, formulation, reimbursement code and date of issue. 90,731 patients received reimbursement for drugs indicated for chronic non-malignant pain in 2010. Of these, 6,875 were given opioids, 33,242 received paracetamol, 25,865 non-steroid inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 20,654 amitryptiline and 16,507 gabapentin. Oxycodone was the most frequently prescribed opioid, followed by buprenorphine, tramadol and codeine/paracetamol. Of those who were prescribed opioids, 4,047 (59%) received mainly slow-release opioids, 2,631 (38%) also received benzodiazepines and 2,418 (35%) received benzodiazepine-like sleep medications. The number of patients who received analgesics and opioids on reimbursable prescriptions was low compared to the proportion of the population with chronic pain and the proportion using opioids long-term. 38% of those reimbursed for opioids also used benzodiazepines, which is contrary to official Norwegian guidelines.

  14. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics. (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C


    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  15. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies. (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael


    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  16. Purchases of prescription drugs before an alcohol-related death: A ten-year follow-up study using linked routine data. (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Vuori, Erkki; Mäkelä, Pia


    Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Alc+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007. 5-10 years before death, 88% of the persons with an Alc+ death had received prescription medication, and over two-thirds (69%) had at least one reimbursed purchase of drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, the cardiovascular system, or the nervous system. Among persons with an Alc+ death, the incidence rate (IR) for purchases of hypnotics, and sedatives was 1.38 times higher (95% confidence interval (CI):1.32,1.44) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 4.07 times higher (95%CI:3.92,4.22) compared to survivors; and the IR for purchases of anxiolytics was 1.40 times higher (95%CI:1.34,1.47) compared to those with an Alc- death, and 3.61 times higher (95%CI:3.48,3.78) compared to survivors. Using physician's intention to prescribe drugs affecting the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system and nervous system could potentially be used to flag patients who might benefit from screening, targeted interventions or enhanced disease management. In particular, patients who are to be prescribed anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives, and antidepressants may benefit from enhanced interventions targeted to problem drinking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inequality in analgesic prescription in Spain: A gender development issue Desigualdad en prescripción de analgésicos en España: Una cuestión de desarrollo de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Chilet-Rosell


    Full Text Available Objectives: It is well known that sex differences in analgesic prescription are not merely the logical result of greater prevalence of pain in women, since this therapeutic variability is related to factors such as educational level or social class. This study aims to analyse the relationship between analgesic prescription and gender development in different regions of Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional study of sex-differences in analgesic prescription according to the gender development of the regions studied. Analgesic prescription, pain and demographic variables were obtained from the Spanish Health Interview Survey in 2006. Gender development was measured with the Gender Development Index (GDI. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a GDI above or below the Spanish average. Results: Once adjusted by pain, age and social class, women were more likely to be prescribed analgesics than men, odds ratio (OR = 1.74 (1.59-1.91, as residents in regions with a lower GDI compared with those in region with a higher GDI: OR Women = 1.26 (1.12-1.42, OR Men = 1.30 (1.13-1.50. Women experiencing pain in regions with a lower GDI were more likely than men to be treated by a general practitioner rather than by a specialist, OR = 1.32 (1.04-1.67, irrespective of age and social class. Conclusions: Gender bias may be one of the pathways by which inequalities in analgesic treatment adversely affect women's health. Moreover, research into the adequacy of analgesic treatment and the possible medicalisation of women should consider contextual factors, such as gender development.Objetivos: Las diferencias por sexo en la prescripción de analgésicos no son simplemente el resultado lógico de una mayor prevalencia del dolor en las mujeres (ya que se relaciona con factores como la educación o la clase social. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la prescripción de analgésicos y el

  18. Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain. (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Khalid, Laila; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Nahvi, Shadi; Jost, John; Cunningham, Chinazo O


    Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns. We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of screening interviews conducted as part of a parent randomized trial of financial incentives to improve HIV outcomes among drug users. In a convenience sample of people with HIV and chronic pain, we collected self-report data on demographic characteristics; pain; patterns of opioid analgesic use (both prescribed and illicit); cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use (including cannabis, heroin, and cocaine) within the past 30 days; and current treatment for drug use and HIV. Almost half of the sample of people with HIV and chronic pain reported current prescribed opioid analgesic use (N = 372, 47.1%). Illicit drug use was common (N = 505, 63.9%), and cannabis was the most commonly used illicit substance (N = 311, 39.4%). In multivariate analyses, only cannabis use was significantly associated with lower odds of prescribed opioid analgesic use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.87). Conclusions/Importance: Our data suggest that new medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management, which could help to address adverse events associated with opioid analgesic use.

  19. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001. (United States)

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952) or lithium (n=6693) from 1995-2001 who also purchased antipsychotics at least once (to select out nonpsychiatric anticonvulsant use). Poisson regression of suicides by medication purchased (anticonvulsants or lithium) was conducted, controlling for age, sex, and calendar year. Confounding by indication was addressed by restricting the comparison to individuals prescribed the same medication: individuals with minimal medication exposure (e.g., who purchased only a single prescription of anticonvulsants) were compared to those individuals with more consistent medication exposure (i.e., purchasing > or = 6 prescriptions of anticonvulsants). Demographics and frequency of anticonvulsant, lithium, or antipsychotic use were similar between lithium and anticonvulsant purchasers. Among patients who also purchased antipsychotic at least once during the study period, purchasing anticonvulsants more consistently (> or = 6 prescriptions) was associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of suicide (RR=0.22, 95% CI=0.11-0.42, panticonvulsant and consistent lithium purchasers were similar. Lack of information about diagnoses and potential confounders, as well as other covariates that may differ between minimal and consistent medication purchasers, are limitations to this study. In this longitudinal study of anticonvulsant purchasers likely to have psychiatric disorders, consistent anticonvulsant treatment was associated with decreased risk of completed suicide.

  20. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China. (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long


    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico. (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi


    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Customers were included if they were older than 18 years, bought at least one drug either with or without medical prescription, and agreed to take part in the survey. Data were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 1445 customers buying 1946 drugs were surveyed (age 42.9 +/- 15.7 years, 56.9% female); 627 (59%) of 1055 customers who purchased prescription-only medicines (POM) did so without a prescription. Of all customers interviewed, 172 (11.9%) affirmed that the bought medicine(s) could cause harm. Only half of those (87 or 6%) were able to identify correctly at least one side effect of the purchased medicines. The majority received the information about side effects from a physician. Customers in semirural areas knew less about side effects (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.61; P = 0.00); whereas customers buying medicines for chronic pain, hypertension or diabetes knew more (odds ratio 2.63; 95% CI: 1.44-4.80; P = 0.00). The overall majority of customers did not know that medicines they bought could be harmful. This is particularly alarming because they frequently used POM without consulting a physician.

  2. Changes in misuse and abuse of prescription opioids following implementation of Extended-Release and Long-Acting Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy. (United States)

    Bucher Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, M Claire; Green, Jody L; Cepeda, M Soledad; Coplan, Paul M; Maziere, Jean-Yves; Wedin, Gregory P; Dart, Richard C


    An unintended consequence of extended-release (ER) and long-acting (LA) prescription opioids is that these formulations can be more attractive to abusers than immediate-release (IR) formulations. The US Food and Drug Administration recognized these risks and approved the ER/LA Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (ER/LA REMS), which has a goal of reducing opioid misuse and abuse and their associated consequences. The primary objective of this analysis is to determine whether ER/LA REMS implementation was associated with decreased reports of misuse and abuse. Data from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(R)) System Poison Center Program were utilized. Poison center cases are assigned a reason for exposure, a medical outcome, and a level of health care received. Rates adjusted for population and drug utilization were analyzed over time. RADARS System Poison Center Program data indicate a notable decrease in ER/LA opioid rates of intentional abuse and misuse as well as major medical outcomes or hospitalizations following implementation of the ER/LA REMS. While similar decreases were observed for the IR prescription opioid group, the decreasing rate for the ER/LA opioids exceeded the decreasing rates for the IR prescription opioids and was distinctly different than that for the prescription stimulants, indicating that the ER/LA REMS program may have had an additional effect on decreases in opioid abuse and intentional misuse beyond secular trends. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Do analgesics improve functioning in patients with chronic low back pain? An explorative triple-blinded RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica; Geertzen, Jan. H. B.; van Wijhe, Marten; Boonstra, Anne M.; Molmans, Barbara H. W.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    Treatment of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) aims to reduce disability, improve functional capacity, and participation. Time contingent prescription of analgesics is a treatment modality in CLBP. The impact of analgesics on functional capacity is unknown. Aim of the study was to explore

  4. Analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis referred to an outpatient center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Jesper; van Tunen, Joyce; van der Esch, Martin


    Although analgesics are widely recommended in current guidelines, underuse and inadequate prescription of analgesics seem to result in suboptimal treatment effects in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed (i) to describe the use of analgesics; and (ii) to determine...... factors that are related to analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center. A cross-sectional study with data from 656 patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center (Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort) was conducted. Self-reported use...

  5. Prescription audit in a paediatric sickle cell clinic in South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    where approximately 75% of the global 300,000 births of affected children ... occlusive crisis is the most common symptom of SCD and ... High rate of antibiotic prescription, low use of opioid analgesics and non- prescription of prophylactic penicillin/ pneumococcal ... records of ten patients to identify potential problems. Two.

  6. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults. (United States)

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G


    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of and Comorbid Health Conditions Associated With Pediatric Prescription Opioid Use in the US. (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Roland, Carl L; Willke, Richard; Mardekian, Jack; Garrison, Louis P

    Prescription opioids are among the most effective analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain; however, little is known about the use of prescription opioids in children, particularly those receiving an extended-release formulation for the treatment of chronic pain. In this retrospective study, the authors determined the prevalence of prescription opioid use among 7-17-year-old children and associated comorbid health conditions from 2010 to 2013 using Truven Health MarketScan (MarketScan) and Optum Clinformatics DataMart (Optum). The primary end points were prevalence of using any prescription opioids, using only prescription short-acting opioids (SAOs), and at least one prescription of a long-acting opioid (LAO). The prevalence of prescription opioid use among children is non-negligible and has been trending downwards: 6.90% in 2010 and 5.93% in 2013 using MarketScan and a similar trend using Optum: 5.47% in 2010 and 4.51% in 2013. Very few children had claims for LAOs, with only 0.04% (4979 children) in MarketScan and 0.03% (1117 children) in Optum. Given the very small number of children, primarily in the 12-17 age group, who are prescribed LAOs, there is a need to focus on a better understanding of the patterns of SAO use in children.

  8. The economics of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs: prescribed to improve consumer welfare? (United States)

    Morgan, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris


    According to economic theory, one might expect that the informational content of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs would improve consumers' welfare. However, contrasting the models of consumer and market behaviour underlying this theory with the realities of the prescription-only drug market reveals that this market is distinct in ways that render it unlikely that advertising will serve an unbiased and strictly informative function. A review of qualitative evidence regarding the informational content of drug advertising supports this conclusion. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising concentrates on particular products, and features of those products, to the exclusion of others, and the information provided has frequently been found to be biased or misleading in regulatory and academic evaluations. Governments that have so far resisted direct-to-consumer advertising should invest in independent sources of evidence that could help consumers and professionals to better understand the risks and benefits of treating disease with alternative drug and non-drug therapies, rather than permitting direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

  9. Influence of errors in prescriptions on the security of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puke K.


    Full Text Available All types of medication errors including missed doses, incorrect dosage forms, time intervals, and routes are essential encumbrances for qualitative pharmaceutical care and security of medicine [1]. Problems related to prescription errors are common in the healthcare profession, and are responsible for significant increase in costs, cases of morbidity and mortality [2]. The aim of the study was to analyze the common errors in prescriptions which were received in pharmacies and their effect on the security of medicine. Retrospective study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 in the pharmacy of Riga, Latvia. Prescriptions were analyzed to identify errors in Inscriptio, Praescriptio and the Signatura part. Of 200 prescriptions, only 14 (7% were filled correctly according to the legislative requirements in Latvia. The most common drug therapeutic class in the prescriptions was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and other analgesics (21.1%. Unclear handwriting was observed in more than one third of all studied prescriptions (n=72; 36.0%. Mean age values of physicians were higher, but not significantly different, in the unclear compared to clear prescriptions, 59.5 ± 8.5 vs. 57.8 ± 10.6, respectively (p=0.253. Omission of the quantity of drug in the prescription part was the most frequent type of the error (n=112, 56.0%. High level of incorrect prescriptions was found during the period of study in the pharmacy. Overall, approximately 27% of prescriptions had significant failures, which could negatively affect therapeutic effect and safety of drug use.

  10. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erku DA


    Full Text Available Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario.Results: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%, and azithromycin (50%. Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs.Conclusion: This study revealed a very high

  11. Safety of non-prescription medicines: knowledge and attitudes of Italian pharmacy customers. (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Benoni, Giuseppina


    A survey was designed to investigate customers attitudes and knowledge toward non-prescription medicines taken on a self-medication basis but not devoid of risks. Community pharmacies in Italy. Forty-four pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were made to customers buying a non-prescription medicine over a 2-month period. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic characteristics of the interviewed subjects and 18 items designed to elicit information about the kind of medicine purchased and reason of use, general product knowledge in relation to quality and risks, attitudes toward this kind of drugs, concurrent prescription drug use and the quality of relationship with the pharmacist. During the study period, 613 interviews were collected. The most frequently non-prescription medicines purchased by customers were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol and medicines for gastrointestinal problems. The most of interviewees referred to read carefully the package inserts or to ask information to pharmacists. Moreover, they reported to consider non-prescription medicines easy to manage and to be used only for minor ailments and for short periods. 55.3% of customers reported to have been taking at least a prescription drug, mostly antihypertensives or other cardiovascular medicines, in association with non-prescription medicines. In this situation, interviewees often did not inform pharmacists about chronic therapies. Our interviews demonstrate that, in general, Italian customers have a cautious approach toward non-prescription medicines and are informed on their use. However, in case of a long-term use, interviewees underestimate risks related to possible physiological/pathological changes in their organism or to interactions with other drugs.

  12. Musculoskeletal pain: prescription of NSAID and weak opioid by primary health care physicians in Sweden 2004–2008 – a retrospective patient record review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Brattwall


    Full Text Available Metha Brattwall1, Ibrahim Turan2, Jan Jakobsson31Department of Anaesthesia, Institute for Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, Mölndal Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Foot and Ankle Surgical Centre, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Karolinska Institutet, Institution for Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Anaesthesia, Stockholm, SwedenPurpose: To study the prescription of oral analgesics for musculoskeletal pain by primary care physicians over a 5-year period in Sweden.Design: A retrospective automatic database review of patient records at four primary health care centers. All prescriptions of NSAIDs, weak opioids, and coprescriptions of gastroprotecting medications to patients with musculoskeletal were retrieved for the period January 1, 2004 to November 11, 2008.Results: A total of 27,067 prescriptions prescribed to 23,457 patients with musculoskeletal pain were analyzed. Of all prescriptions, NSAIDs were the most commonly prescribed analgesic comprising 79%, tramadol was the second most commonly prescribed analgesic comprising 9%, codeine the third most (7%, and dextropropoxyphene the fourth (5%. The proportion of NSAIDs and weak opioids and the proportion of the different weak opioids prescribed showed no change over time. The proportion of nonselective and selective NSAIDs prescribed changed; Coxib prescriptions decreased from 9% to 4% of all analgesics prescribed in 2004–2007 with no change in 2008.Conclusion: NSAIDs were found to be the dominant class of analgesic prescribed by primary care physicians to patients diagnosed as musculoskeletal pain. No change was observed in the proportion of NSAID and weak opioid prescription over the period studied. Prescription of selective Coxibs decreased and was less than 4% in 2008. The impact on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with the extensive prescription of NSAIDS for musculoskeletal pain warrants further analysis.Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  13. Over-the-counter and prescription medicine misuse in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. OTC and prescription medicine misuse places a burden on health and social services in South Africa. This is ... benzodiazepine misuse is psychological and physiological ... one of two categories: opioid analgesics (e.g. morphine and.

  14. Patterns and predictors of non-prescription medicine use among Malaysian pharmacy patrons: a national cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. RESULTS: A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%, followed by respiratory system (19.4% and musculoskeletal system (15.8% usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57, p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19, p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13, p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39, p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117, p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. CONCLUSION: The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural, gender, age, ethnicity, type of

  15. Use of analgesics in intentional drug overdose presentations to hospital before and after the withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market. (United States)

    Corcoran, Paul; Reulbach, Udo; Keeley, Helen S; Perry, Ivan J; Hawton, Keith; Arensman, Ella


    Distalgesic, the prescription-only analgesic compound of paracetamol (325 mg) and dextropropoxyphene (32.5 mg) known as co-proxamol in the UK, was withdrawn from the Irish market as of January 2006. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the withdrawal of distalgesic in terms of intentional drug overdose (IDO) presentations to hospital emergency departments (EDs) nationally. A total of 42,849 IDO presentations to 37 of the 40 hospitals EDs operating in Ireland in 2003-2008 were recorded according to standardised procedures. Data on sales of paracetamol-containing drugs to retail pharmacies for the period 1998-2008 were obtained from IMS Health. The withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market resulted in an immediate reduction in sales to retail pharmacies from 40 million tablets in 2005 to 500,000 tablets in 2006 while there was a 48% increase in sales of other prescription compound analgesics. The rate of IDO presentations to hospital involving distalgesic in 2006-2008 was 84% lower than in the three years before it was withdrawn (10.0 per 100,000). There was a 44% increase in the rate of IDO presentations involving other prescription compound analgesics but the magnitude of this rate increase was five times smaller than the magnitude of the decrease in distalgesic-related IDO presentations. There was a decreasing trend in the rate of presentations involving any paracetamol-containing drug that began in the years before the distalgesic withdrawal. The withdrawal of distalgesic has had positive benefits in terms of IDO presentations to hospital in Ireland and provides evidence supporting the restriction of availability of means as a prevention strategy for suicidal behaviour.

  16. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    Outcome measures: Number of patients by age and gender, prescribing frequency and cost of antiobesity prescriptions, ... Lifestyle modifications are the first-line of treatment for obesity, .... received, but it was a neutral code and not an identity or medical ..... disorders and migraines.1 The FDA had approved the combination.

  17. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Mathiasen, Rene


    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute...... both in childhood and adolescence. CONCLUSION: There was a strong dose-response association between gestational age and the purchase of prescription asthma medication in infancy and childhood. This association weakened during adolescence and was mostly non-significant in young adulthood. The increased...... respiratory disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). METHODS: A national cohort of all infants born in Denmark in the period 1980-2009 was included in this register study. Data on purchase of asthma medication (combination of inhaled β-2 agonists and other drugs for obstructive airway disease) in 2010...

  18. Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample (United States)

    Garnier, Laura M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.


    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. Method A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages 17 and 19 at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Results Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription ADHD medication, with a 61.7% diversion rate, and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than non-diverters. Conclusions If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. PMID:20331930

  19. Perception of the risk of adverse reactions to analgesics: differences between medical students and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Castillo-Guzman


    Full Text Available Background. Medications are not exempt from adverse drug reactions (ADR and how the physician perceives the risk of prescription drugs could influence their availability to report ADR and their prescription behavior. Methods. We assess the perception of risk and the perception of ADR associated with COX2-Inbitors, paracetamol, NSAIDs, and morphine in medical students and residents of northeast of Mexico. Results. The analgesic with the highest risk perception in both group of students was morphine, while the drug with the least risk perceived was paracetamol. Addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding were the ADR with the highest score for morphine and NSAIDs respectively. Discussion. Our findings show that medical students give higher risk scores than residents toward risk due to analgesics. Continuing training and informing physicians about ADRs is necessary since the lack of training is known to induce inadequate use of drugs.

  20. Analgesic Usage in Elderly at Public Health Center: A study in West Java, Indonesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Soeyono Putro


    Full Text Available Background: Various analgesics prescriptions for elderly are not appropriate according to the guideline and can cause the increase of side effects such as gastric problems. Puskesmas as a public health center in Indonesia has an important role in anticipating this problem. The objectives of this study was to identify the analgesic usage in elderly patients at the public health center. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted for 3 months at Tanjungsari public health center, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia, using total sampling. The data was taken from 417 medical records from 2013. The data taken from medical records were: sex, analgesic drug, diagnosis, and drug for gastric problem. Results: From the collected data, the most analgesics prescribed for the elderly patients was paracetamol, followed by Piroxicam, Mefenamic acid, and Ibuprofen. Not all of the elderly patients who received NSAIDs, were given gastric drug. Conclusions: The most prescribed analgesic drug given to elderly patients at the public health center is paracetamol. [AMJ.2017;4(1:16–9

  1. National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): balancing substance abuse and medical necessity. (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Brown, Keith R; Singh, Vijay


    The National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act, or NASPER, is a bill proposed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians to provide and improve patient access with quality care, and protect patients and physicians from deleterious effects of controlled substance misuse, abuse and trafficking. Controlled prescription drugs, including narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, anti-depressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics play a significant and legitimate role in interventional pain management practices in managing chronic pain and related disorders. Based on the 1997 household survey on drug abuse it is estimated that 76.9 million Americans had used an illicit drug at least once in their life. In 1997, 4.2 million people used analgesics, 2.1 million used tranquillizers, and an additional 2.3 million people used various other drugs, including sedatives, tranquillizers, etc. The non-medical use of prescription drugs exceeds that of all illicit substances except for marijuana and hashish. The report on epidemiology trends in drug abuse, based on community epidemiology work group analysis showed continued increase of abuse of prescription drugs in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The most commonly abused drugs include oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, codeine, clonazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, diazepam and carisoprodol. The diversion of prescription controlled substances to illicit channels is a public health and safety issue. This review describes the role of controlled substances in chronic pain management, prevalence and economic impact of controlled substance abuse, prescription accountability, effectiveness of prescription monitoring programs, and rationale for national controlled substance electronic reporting system.

  2. Income and the use of prescription drugs for near retirement individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skipper, Niels


    In this paper, we estimate how demand for prescription drugs varies with income for a sample of near retirement individuals. The analysis is based on a novel panel data set with information about the purchase of prescription drugs for a large number of Danish individuals over the period 1995...

  3. Psychological and drug abuse symptoms associated with nonmedical use of opioid analgesics among adolescents. (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E


    Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of

  4. Post-marketing withdrawal of analgesic medications because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K


    Many analgesics have been withdrawn from the market because of adverse drug reactions. Controversy still surrounds the use of some approved analgesics for pain management. However, the trends and reasons for withdrawal of analgesics when harms are attributed to their use have not been systematically assessed. Areas covered: We conducted searches in PubMed; Embase; Google Scholar;; WHO databases of withdrawn products; websites of the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs; Stephens' Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia; and the Merck Index. We included licensed analgesics that were withdrawn after marketing because of adverse reactions between 1950 and March 2017. We excluded herbal products, non-human medicines, and non-prescription medicines. We used the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria to document the levels of evidence, and chi-squared tests to compare withdrawal patterns across geographical regions. Expert opinion: Pharmacovigilance systems in low-resource settings should be strengthened. Greater co-ordination across regulatory authorities in assessing and interpreting the benefit-harm balance of new analgesics should be encouraged. Future reporting of harms in clinical trials of analgesics should follow standardized guidelines.

  5. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use. (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J


    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  6. Nonprescription analgesics and their use in solid-organ transplantation: a review. (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Luu, Linh


    To review the pharmacology, adverse events, drug interactions, and use of the nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplant recipients. Studies evaluating nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies were selected for inclusion. Nonprescription analgesics (aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen sodium, and acetaminophen) are the most commonly purchased over-the-counter agents in the United States. These agents, although generally considered safe, have been associated with a number of toxicities. The salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with gastrointestinal damage, hematologic changes, liver and kidney dysfunction, and breathing difficulties. Acetaminophen has been shown to induce hematologic changes and liver and renal dysfunction. A closer look at the nonprescription analgesics reveals their potential for harm when used by solid-organ transplant recipients. In this patient population, the salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should generally be avoided if possible, because of their potential toxicities, especially renal dysfunction. Low-dose aspirin, for the prevention of cardiovascular and cardiocerebral events, appears to be safe, but patients must still be followed closely. Acetaminophen is generally considered the nonprescription analgesic and antipyretic of choice in transplant recipients because of its favorable toxicity profile. However, it is imperative that patients and transplant practitioners are aware that this agent is not without toxicities and proper monitoring is advised.

  7. Pain treatment after tonsillectomy: advantages of analgesics regularly given compared with analgesics on demand. (United States)

    Thorneman, G; Akervall, J


    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate pain treatment during the first postoperative 24 h for 40 patients (age over 18) undergoing tonsillectomy. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (n = 20) received analgesics on demand and group B (n = 20) on a regular basis. Basic pain treatment consisted of paracetamol 750 mg x 6 and diclofenac 50 mg x 3. Pain measurement was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS): a 10 cm line with 0 cm equalling no pain and 10 cm equalling the worst pain ever felt. The following parameters were studied: VAS values, the need for rescue analgesics, intra- and postoperative bleeding, nausea and vomiting, postoperative food intake and hospital time. Only 4 of 20 (20%) patients in group B needed rescue analgesics in the postoperative ward compared with 15 of 20 (75%) in group A (p values were generally rather low in both groups. The mean value for all observed VAS values was less than 4 in both study groups. However, no significant difference in VAS values was observed between the two study groups. Our results suggest that regularly given postoperative pain treatment after tonsillectomy, starting intraoperatively with paracetamol and diclofenac, has significant advantages compared with a regimen in which patients receive analgesics only on demand.

  8. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Hyllested, Lea Maria Ronneberg; Meegaard, Line


    ) to a NOAC. Switching was most frequently caused by inconvenience (34%) and adverse effects (23%). Although half of all patients had recently bought over-the-counter analgesics, purchase of ibuprofen and aspirin was rare (6%). More VKA users than NOAC users felt limited in their everyday life because...

  9. Parenteral Opioid Analgesics Utilization Pattern in Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol-IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vatanpour


    Full Text Available Opioids are the most available medicines to get rid of any general severe pain and avoiding of any deleterious sequential that can worsen patient outcomes. Rational prescription of opioid analgesics with respect to the possibility of abuse is a big concern in the medical care costs. Zabol, where is located in eastern part of Iran and has common border with Afghanistanhas the most opioid traffic in the region. In this study the rational prescription of parenteral opioid in Amir-al-Momenin general hospital was investigated. A retrospective drug utilization review was performed on 509 in-patients who received parenteral opioids including Morphine, Pethidin, Pentazocin, Fentanyl, Alfentanil, Sufentanil and Methadone from March 21sttoSeptember 23rd, 2011. Multivariate conditional regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors for daily parenteral opioid consumption. Total daily parenteral opioid consumption was 38.63 DDDs/100bed-days for Morphine, Pethidine and Pentazocin and 84564.78 PFEQs/100bed-days for Fentanyl, Alfentanil and Sufentanil and 766 mg for Methadone. Pethidine was the most frequently prescribed parenteral opioid. Most patients who were prescribed by the intramuscular routes, ordered PRN. Daily parenteral opioid consumption was the highest in the emergency ward whereas it was considered as the lowest in the intensive care unit[ICU]. According to our findings, total daily parenteral opioid consumption was almost high in Amir-al-Momenin Hospital. Unlike to some relevant factors that can effect on the consumption of analgesic opioids like gender, age, drug-drug interaction and etc, we found no rational prescription and consumption in the mentioned hospital.

  10. Adherence to Analgesics for Cancer Pain: A Comparative Study of African Americans and Whites Using an Electronic Monitoring Device. (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H; Thompson, Aleda M L; Chittams, Jesse; Bruner, Deborah W; Riegel, Barbara


    Despite well-documented disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on adherence to analgesia for cancer pain in this group. We compared analgesic adherence for cancer-related pain over a 3-month period between African Americans and whites using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Patients (N = 207) were recruited from outpatient medical oncology clinics of an academic medical center in Philadelphia (≥18 years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors or multiple myeloma, with cancer-related pain, and at least 1 prescription of oral around-the-clock analgesic). African Americans reported significantly greater cancer pain (P < .001), were less likely than whites to have a prescription of long-acting opioids (P < .001), and were more likely to have a negative Pain Management Index (P < .001). There were considerable differences between African Americans and whites in the overall MEMS dose adherence, ie, percentage of the total number of prescribed doses that were taken (53% vs 74%, P < .001). On subanalysis, analgesic adherence rates for African Americans ranged from 34% (for weak opioids) to 63% (for long-acting opioids). Unique predictors of analgesic adherence varied by race; income levels, analgesic side effects, and fear of distracting providers predicted analgesic adherence for African Americans but not for whites. Perspective: Despite evidence of disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on African Americans' adherence to analgesia for cancer pain. This prospective study uses objective measures to compare adherence to prescribed pain medications between African American and white patients with cancer pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnic D


    Croatia corresponds to patient needs. Keywords: pain, analgesic agents, prescription opioids, drug utilization, adequacy

  12. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids (United States)

    Elikottil, Jaseena; Gupta, Pankaj; Gupta, Kalpna


    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents. However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain. PMID:20073408

  13. Pharmacy Customers’ Experiences With Electronic Prescriptions: Cross-Sectional Survey on Nationwide Implementation in Finland (United States)

    Timonen, Johanna; Ahonen, Riitta


    Background One of the forerunners in electronic health, Finland has introduced electronic prescriptions (ePrescriptions) nationwide by law. This has led to significant changes for pharmacy customers. Despite the worldwide ambition to develop ePrescription services, there are few reports of nationally adopted systems and particularly on the experiences of pharmacy customers. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate Finnish pharmacy customers’ (1) experiences with purchasing medicines with ePrescriptions; (2) experiences with renewing ePrescriptions and acting on behalf of someone else at the pharmacy; (3) ways in which customers keep up to date with their ePrescriptions; and (4) overall satisfaction with ePrescriptions. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to 2913 pharmacy customers aged ≥18 years purchasing prescription medicines for themselves with an ePrescription in 18 community pharmacies across Finland in autumn 2015. Customers’ experiences were explored with 10 structured questions. The data were stored in SPSS for Windows and subjected to descriptive analysis, chi-square, Fisher exact, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Completed questionnaires were returned by 1288 customers, a response rate of 44.19% (1288/2913). The majority of the respondents did not encounter any problems during pharmacy visits (1161/1278, 90.85%) and were informed about the current status of their ePrescriptions after their medication was dispensed (1013/1276, 79.44%). Over half of the respondents had usually received a patient instruction sheet from their physician (752/1255, 59.92%), and nearly all of them regarded its content as clear (711/724, 98.2%). Half of the respondents had renewed their ePrescriptions through the pharmacy (645/1281, 50.35%), and one-third of them had acted on behalf of someone else with ePrescriptions (432/1280, 33.75%). Problems were rarely encountered in the renewal process (49/628, 7.8%) or when

  14. Joint pain epidemiology and analgesic usage in Madagascar. (United States)

    Samison, Luc Hervé; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Ralandison, Stéphane


    To describe the epidemiology of joint pains and document analgesics usage in an African context. Patients suffering from joint pain were recruited from nine sites located in Antananarivo, Madagascar, including 6 hospital services and 3 clinics. Doctors collected information on the etiology and characteristics of the patients' pain. Analgesics prescribed by these doctors were also documented. In total, 400 patients were enrolled in the study (52.5% women, mean age of 42.34 years ± 17.7 [4-86]). Pain of mechanical type was found in 260 participants, 65%; 95% CI [60.1% to 69.6%] and inflammatory type pains in 128 cases 32%; 95% CI [27.5% to 36.9%]. Mixed pains were found in 12 patients (3%). The median duration of pain prior to the consultation was 6.5 days. The average pain intensity was 57.9 ± 19.9 mm of a total of 100 mm maximum on a visual analogue scale, VAS. The etiologies of mechanical type pains were dominated by fracture, common low back pain and tendonitis. Arthrosis was the dominant cause of inflammatory type pain, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and gout. NSAIDs (74.5%) were the most frequently prescribed analgesics followed by paracetamol (49.5%), weak opioids (23%) and corticosteroids (12.25%). Two-thirds of medical prescriptions (65.3%) were of combined analgesics. These findings demonstrated that mechanical type pains were the main reason for consultations for joint pain in these situations in Antananarivo, Madagascar. The most frequently prescribed pain-relieving medications were NSAIDs, paracetamol, weak opioids and corticosteroids. This descriptive study may be a useful starting point for further epidemiological studies of pain in the African context.

  15. Prescription History of Emergency Department Patients Prescribed Opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Hoppe


    Full Text Available Introduction: To use Colorado’s prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP to describe the recent opioid prescription history of patients discharged from our emergency department (ED with a prescription for opioid pain medications.Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 300 adult ED patients who received an opioid prescription. We abstracted prescription histories for the six months prior to the ED visit from the PDMP, and abstracted clinical and demographic variables from the chart.Results: There were 5,379 ED visits during the study month, 3,732 of which were discharged. Providers wrote 1,165 prescriptions for opioid analgesics to 1,124/3,732 (30% of the patients. Median age was 36 years. Thirty-nine percent were male. Patients were 46% Caucasian, 26% African American, 22% Hispanic, 2% Asian and 4% other. These were similar to our overall ED population. There was substantial variability in the number of prescriptions, prescribers and total number of pills. A majority (205/296 of patients had zero or one prescription. The 90th percentile for number of prescriptions was seven, while the 10th percentile was zero. Patients in the highest decile tended to be older, with a higher proportion of Caucasians and females. Patients in the lowest decile resembled the general ED population. The most common diagnoses associated with opioid prescriptions were abdominal pain (11.5%, cold/flu symptoms (9.5%, back pain (5.4%, flank pain (5.0% and motor vehicle crash (4.7%.Conclusion: Substantial variability exists in the opioid prescription histories of ED patients, but a majority received zero or one prescription in the preceding six months. The top decile of patients averaged more than two prescriptions per month over the six months prior to ED visit, written by more than 6 different prescribers. There was a trend toward these patients being older, Caucasian and female. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3:247–252.

  16. Opioid analgesics and heroin: Examining drug misuse trends among a sample of drug treatment clients in Kentucky. (United States)

    Victor, Grant A; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K


    In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky. This study describes temporal and geographic trends of self-reported illicit drug use among individuals in state-funded treatment in Kentucky between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2013. Significant reductions in the prevalence of illicit opioid use, declined from fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2013 (p<.01, CI=-.298 to -.215). However, heroin use rates significantly increased over the years studied, suggesting there may be a transition from prescription opioids to heroin (p<.01, CI=.143 to .178). The analysis suggests these trends may continue. Findings suggest Kentucky's legislative efforts were effective in reducing illicit prescription opioid use, but heroin use has increased. One possible explanation for this relationship is that as prescription opioids became more difficult to obtain, users turned to heroin as a substitute. The finding of rising heroin use suggests a need for further policy initiatives to reduce heroin use, but the potential effectiveness of this policy remains unclear. Understanding trends may help to guide future policy efforts and pain management treatment strategies to where they might have their greatest impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overdosed prescription of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a teaching hospital. (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Henry, A; Leboucher, G; Tod, M; Allenet, B


    Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. Reviews of hospital use of paracetamol are scarce. Little is known about the appropriateness of the dose of paracetamol prescribed for hospitalized adults. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and the frequency of the overdosed prescription of paracetamol observed in adult patients over a 4.5-year period in a teaching hospital. Prescription analysis by pharmacists was performed once a week in six medical and three surgical departments and daily in a post-emergency unit. In cases of prescription error, the pharmacist notified the physician through an electronic alert when a computerized prescription order entry system was available or otherwise by face-to-face discussion. For each drug-related problem detected, the pharmacists recorded relevant details in a database. From October 2006 to April 2011, 44,404 prescriptions were reviewed and 480 alerts related to the overdosed prescription of paracetamol were made (1% of analyzed prescriptions). The extent of errors of dosage was within the intervals [90-120 mg/kg/d] and greater than 120 mg/kg/d for 87 and 11 patients respectively, who were prescribed a single non-combination paracetamol containing product. Sixty alerts concerned co-prescription of at least two paracetamol containing products with similar frequency for computerized (1.4/1000) or handwritten (1.2/1000) prescriptions. Prescriptions of paracetamol for hospitalized adults frequently exceed the recommended dosage. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of unintentional paracetamol overdose and support the initiation of an educational program aimed at physicians and nurses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. [Pharmacist perception of the use of analgesics and their practice on mild-moderate pain. DOLOR-OFF survey]. (United States)

    Arrebola, Cristobal; García-Delgado, Pilar; Labrador Barba, Elena; Orera Peña, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando


    To examine the use of analgesics, from the perspective of the pharmacist community, and pharmaceutical practice in mild-moderate pain. A cross-sectional, observational study was performed between April and September 2013. 696 community pharmacies in 20 Spanish provinces. Community pharmacists with a minimum professional experience of one year. Characterisation of the demand for analgesics, analgesic users, and pharmaceutical intervention for mild-moderate pain from the perspective of the pharmaceutical community. The main reason why a patient with mild-moderate pain visits a pharmacy is to receive a drug with prescription (45.5%), and the most common condition is headache (35.2%). Ibuprofen and paracetamol are the most commonly used drugs for mild-moderate pain. More than one-third (38.9%) of pharmacists follow a protocol for counselling. A correlation was found between the pharmacist's professional experience and the application of counselling process (Fisher P<.05). Some 87.8% of pharmacists checked two indicators from the dispensing service, and only 1.3% did not check any. Referral to a physician was made by 14.8% of pharmacists, with the main reason being the detection of alarm indicators. Protocols need to be designed and adapted to the characteristics of the 3 profiles identified, in order to increase the efficiency of pharmaceutical services in mild-moderate pain relief. Practical and specific training in pain are required to implement services to ensure the correct and systemic use of analgesics and positive clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan


    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC.We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account.The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of

  20. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia. (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Cunningham, Colleen M; Hanley, Gillian E


    Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC), Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC. We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account. The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of prescription drugs. Some

  1. 76 FR 41434 - Removal of Certain Requirements Related to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act; Opportunity for... (United States)


    .... FDA-2011-N-0446] Removal of Certain Requirements Related to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to remove a section of the Prescription Drug Marketing... prior sale, purchase, or trade of such drug,'' starting with the manufacturer, and that the identifying...

  2. Pharmacy Customers' Experiences With Electronic Prescriptions: Cross-Sectional Survey on Nationwide Implementation in Finland. (United States)

    Lämsä, Elina; Timonen, Johanna; Ahonen, Riitta


    One of the forerunners in electronic health, Finland has introduced electronic prescriptions (ePrescriptions) nationwide by law. This has led to significant changes for pharmacy customers. Despite the worldwide ambition to develop ePrescription services, there are few reports of nationally adopted systems and particularly on the experiences of pharmacy customers. The aim of this study was to investigate Finnish pharmacy customers' (1) experiences with purchasing medicines with ePrescriptions; (2) experiences with renewing ePrescriptions and acting on behalf of someone else at the pharmacy; (3) ways in which customers keep up to date with their ePrescriptions; and (4) overall satisfaction with ePrescriptions. Questionnaires were distributed to 2913 pharmacy customers aged ≥18 years purchasing prescription medicines for themselves with an ePrescription in 18 community pharmacies across Finland in autumn 2015. Customers' experiences were explored with 10 structured questions. The data were stored in SPSS for Windows and subjected to descriptive analysis, chi-square, Fisher exact, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Completed questionnaires were returned by 1288 customers, a response rate of 44.19% (1288/2913). The majority of the respondents did not encounter any problems during pharmacy visits (1161/1278, 90.85%) and were informed about the current status of their ePrescriptions after their medication was dispensed (1013/1276, 79.44%). Over half of the respondents had usually received a patient instruction sheet from their physician (752/1255, 59.92%), and nearly all of them regarded its content as clear (711/724, 98.2%). Half of the respondents had renewed their ePrescriptions through the pharmacy (645/1281, 50.35%), and one-third of them had acted on behalf of someone else with ePrescriptions (432/1280, 33.75%). Problems were rarely encountered in the renewal process (49/628, 7.8%) or when acting on behalf of another person (25

  3. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy. (United States)

    Worley, Julie


    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  4. Prescription only on anthelmitic drugs - a questionnaire survey on strategies for daignosis and treatment of eguine strongyles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup


    In 1999´, legislation in Denmark made anthelmintic available by prescription only and proghibited use for prophylactic treatment. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 among Danish equine veterinary practises to determine current strategies for surveillance and control of equine strongyles....

  5. Pharmacological studies of lappaconitine. Analgesic activities. (United States)

    Ono, M; Satoh, T


    The analgesic activity of lappaconitine, which is contained in the root of Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai, was examined after oral and subcutaneous administration to mice or rats by using methods for screening of analgesics, i.e., hot plate, tail immersion, tail pinch, tail pressure, acetic acid-induced writhing, bradykinin-induced flexor reflex of hind limb and Randall-Selitto methods. The results were compared with those for morphine, indometacin and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Analgesic activities of lappaconitine were greater than those of indometacin and ASA, but generally about 2 to 5 times less than those of morphine. However, in the rat tail immersion test, orally administered lappaconitine exhibited more potent analgesic activity than morphine; in this test, lappaconitine was almost equipotent when given orally and subcutaneously, whereas the potency of orally administered morphine was only one-twentieth of that of subcutaneously administered morphine. Like morphine, lappaconitine increased the pain threshold of the normal paw as well as that of the inflamed paw when tested by the Randall-Selitto method. The results show that lappaconitine has strong analgesic activity, and further suggest that the central nervous system may be involved in the action on the pain threshold.

  6. Intimate partner violence and prescription of potentially addictive drugs: prospective cohort study of women in the Oslo Health Study (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Tverdal, Aage; Jacobsen, Geir Wenberg; Schei, Berit


    Objectives To investigate the prescription of potentially addictive drugs, including analgesics and central nervous system depressants, to women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Information about IPV from the Oslo Health Study 2000/2001 was linked with prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2009. Participants The study included 6081 women aged 30–60 years. Main outcome measures Prescription rate ratios (RRs) for potentially addictive drugs derived from negative binomial models, adjusted for age, education, paid employment, marital status, chronic musculoskeletal pain, mental distress and sleep problems. Results Altogether 819 (13.5%) of 6081 women reported ever experiencing IPV: 454 (7.5%) comprised physical and/or sexual IPV and 365 (6.0%) psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates for potentially addictive drugs were clearly higher among women who had experienced IPV: crude RRs were 3.57 (95% CI 2.89 to 4.40) for physical/sexual IPV and 2.13 (95% CI 1.69 to 2.69) for psychological IPV alone. After full adjustment RRs were 1.83 (1.50 to 2.22) for physical/sexual IPV, and 1.97 (1.59 to 2.45) for psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates were increased both for potentially addictive analgesics and central nervous system depressants. Furthermore, women who reported IPV were more likely to receive potentially addictive drugs from multiple physicians. Conclusions Women who had experienced IPV, including psychological violence alone, more often received prescriptions for potentially addictive drugs. Researchers and clinicians should address the possible adverse health and psychosocial impact of such prescription and focus on developing evidence-based healthcare for women who have experienced IPV. PMID:22492384

  7. Income and the use of prescription drugs for near retirement individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skipper, Niels

    Understanding how demand for prescription drugs responds to changes in income is important for assessing the welfare consequences of reforms affecting income. This becomes more imminent as age progresses, because the use of prescription drugs and the associated budgetary burden increases dramatic......Understanding how demand for prescription drugs responds to changes in income is important for assessing the welfare consequences of reforms affecting income. This becomes more imminent as age progresses, because the use of prescription drugs and the associated budgetary burden increases...... dramatically from about age 55. In this paper we estimate how demand for prescription drugs varies with income for a sample of near retirement individuals. Estimating the prescription drug demand response to income changes is complicated because an important explanatory variable, the health capital......, is unobserved, and because demand is potentially dynamic, for example because some drugs are habitual. The analysis is based on a novel panel data set with information about purchase of prescription drug demand for a very large number of Danish individuals over the period 1995-2003. Our preferred model...

  8. The downward spiral of chronic pain, prescription opioid misuse, and addiction: cognitive, affective, and neuropsychopharmacologic pathways. (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Zeidan, Fadel; Partin, Kaitlyn; Howard, Matthew O


    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are emerging public health concerns of considerable significance. Estimates suggest that more than 10% of chronic pain patients misuse opioid analgesics, and the number of fatalities related to nonmedical or inappropriate use of prescription opioids is climbing. Because the prevalence and adverse consequences of this threat are increasing, there is a pressing need for research that identifies the biobehavioral risk chain linking chronic pain, opioid analgesia, and addictive behaviors. To that end, the current manuscript draws upon current neuropsychopharmacologic research to provide a conceptual framework of the downward spiral leading to prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. Addictive use of opioids is described as the outcome of a cycle initiated by chronic pain and negative affect and reinforced by opioidergic-dopamingeric interactions, leading to attentional hypervigilance for pain and drug cues, dysfunctional connectivity between self-referential and cognitive control networks in the brain, and allostatic dysregulation of stress and reward circuitry. Implications for clinical practice are discussed; multimodal, mindfulness-oriented treatment is introduced as a potentially effective approach to disrupting the downward spiral and facilitating recovery from chronic pain and opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients. (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel


    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  10. The usage and efficacy of a combination analgesic preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination analgesics are frequently prescribed for the treatment of a multitude of conditions. Many of these preparations contain agents with no proven analgesic efficacy. We examined 3059 patients using a new combination agent containing only paracetamol, codeine, and ibuprofen. It appears that despite a wide ...

  11. Comparison of two combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics for acute periradicular abscess: a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Santini, Manuela Favarin; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Fischer, Maria Isabel; Souza, Erick Miranda; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis


    Acute periradicular abscess is a condition characterized by the formation and propagation of pus in the periapical tissues and generally associated with debilitating pain. The aim of this study was to compare the overall analgesic effectiveness of two combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics for acute periradicular abscess. This study included 26 patients who sought emergency care in a Brazilian dental school. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Co/Ac - oral prescription of codeine (30 mg) plus acetaminophen (500 mg), every 4 h, for 3 days or Tr/Ac - oral prescription of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg) plus acetaminophen (500 mg) on the same schedule. Two factors were evaluated: (1) pain scores recorded by the patients in a pain diary 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment, using the Visual Analogue Scale; and (2) the occurrence of adverse effects. In both groups, there was a reduction in pain scores over time. For the Co/Ac group, there was a significant reduction in the scores 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment (P0.05), i.e., both treatments were effective in controlling pain caused by APA; however, the combination of Tr/Ac caused more adverse reactions as two patients had to stop using the medication. This study suggests that, considering both analgesic efficacy and safety, the combination of codeine and acetaminophen is more effective to control moderate to severe pain from acute periradicular abscesses.

  12. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  13. Exercise Dosing and Prescription-Playing It Safe: Dangers and Prescription. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ai, Dongmei; Zhang, Ning


    Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary program, and exercise training is extremely crucial in the whole program. In the past decades, many researches have shown the beneficial effects of exercise for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is indisputable Nevertheless, only a well-designed exercise prescription may achieve the ideal benefits. In this chapter, we will have a discussion of what is exercise prescription and how to establish a scientific and appropriate exercise prescription for CVD patients depending on the current scientific evidence and recommendations.

  14. Sedative and Analgesic Drugs Online: A Content Analysis of the Supply and Demand Information Available in Thailand. (United States)

    Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Thaikla, Kanittha; Yoonut, Kulyapa; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri


    Evidence from other countries has suggested that many controlled drugs are also offered online, even though it is illegal to sell these drugs without a license. To evaluate the current contents related to the supply and demand of sedatives and analgesic drugs available online in Thailand, with a particular focus on Facebook. A team of reviewers manually searched for data by entering keywords related to analgesic drugs and sedatives. The contents of the website were screened for supply and demand-related information. A total of 5,352 websites were found publicly available. The number of websites and Facebook pages containing the information potentially related to the supply and demand of analgesic drugs and sedatives was limited. Nine websites sold sedatives, and six websites sold analgesics directly. Fourteen Facebook pages were found, including 7 sedative pages and 7 analgesic pages. Within one year, the three remaining active pages multiplied in the number of followers by three- to nine-fold. The most popular Facebook page had over 2,900 followers. Both the internet and social media contain sites and pages where sedatives and analgesics are illegally advertised. These websites are searchable through common search engines. Although the number of websites is limited, the number of followers on these Facebook pages does suggest a growing number of people who are interested in such pages. Our study emphasized the importance of monitoring and developing potential plans relative to the online marketing of prescription drugs in Thailand.

  15. [Analgesic abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients]. (United States)

    Radat, F; Irachabal, S; Swendsen, J; Henry, P


    Headache patients frequently overuse analgesic medications: 20% of the patients from headache centers is concerned by this problem, which has been estimated to occur in four percent of the community migrainers. Frequent use of various types of headache medication may paradoxically cause an increase in headache attack frequency as well as their chronicisation due to potentially complex mechanisms of sensitization. Patients will enter into a self- perpetuating cycle of daily headaches and use of symptomatic medications which can lead to addiction and to social and occupational impairement. Indeed, many patients will experience pharmacological tolerance and dependence but also by some kind of craving. International Headache Society qualify these patients as abusers referring mostly to the amount of substance ingested. Hence patients are labelled analgesic abusers . However, as many of these analgesic medications contained psychotropic substances (i.e. caffeine, codeine.), these patients may fulfill DSM IV criteria of dependance. Nevertheless, the dependance criteria should be adapted to chronic pain patients. Indeed, if pharmacological dependence and tolerance criteria are easy to apply in such patients, it is not the case for the criteria a great deal of time spent to obtain substances, to use substances or to recover from substances effects . As analgesic medications are legally obtained from medical practitioners, drug seeking behaviours are mostly: obtaining medications from multiple providers, repeating episodes of prescription loss and multiplying requests for early refills. Moreover the detrimental effects of analgesic abuse on psychosocial functioning is likely to be related to pain rather than to medication overuse. Finally the best indicator of addictive behaviors in such patients, is the loss of control over the use of analgesic medication despite the adverse consequences over pain. Comorbidity with addiction to other substances has never been specifically

  16. Radiopharmaceutical prescription in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L.; Lao, S.; Bolot, C.; Francois-Joubert, A.


    In France, radiopharmaceutical prescription is often discussed depending to which juridical structure the nuclear medicine department is belonging. According to current regulation, this prescription is an obligation in a department linked to hospital with a pharmacy department inside. But situation remains unclear for independent nuclear medicine departments where physicians are not constrained to prescribe radiopharmaceuticals. However, as radiographers and nurses are only authorized to realize theirs acts in front of a medical prescription, one prescription must be realized. Nowadays, computerized prescription tools have been developed but only for radiopharmaceutical drugs and not for medical acts. In the aim to achieve a safer patient care, the prescription regulation may be applied whatever differences between nuclear medicines departments. (authors)

  17. Impact of legislation and a prescription monitoring program on the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions for monitored drugs in Ontario: a time series analysis (United States)

    Juurlink, David; Yao, Zhan; Camacho, Ximena; Paterson, J. Michael; Singh, Samantha; Dhalla, Irfan; Sproule, Beth; Mamdani, Muhammad


    Background The increased use of opioid analgesics, sedative hypnotics and stimulants, coupled with the associated risks of overdose have raised concerns around the inappropriate prescribing of these monitored drugs. We assessed the impact of new legislation, the Narcotics Safety and Awareness Act, and a centralized Narcotics Monitoring System (implemented November 2011 and May 2012, respectively), on the dispensing of prescriptions suggestive of misuse. Methods We conducted a time series analysis of publicly funded prescriptions for opioids, benzodiazepines and stimulants dispensed monthly in Ontario from January 2007 to May 2013, based on information in the Ontario Public Drug Benefit Database. In the primary analysis, a prescription was deemed potentially inappropriate if it was dispensed within 7 days of an earlier prescription and was for at least 30 tablets of a drug in the same class as the earlier prescription, but originated from a different physician and a different pharmacy. Results After enactment of the new legislation, the prevalence of potentially inappropriate opioid prescriptions decreased by 12.5% in 6 months (from 1.6% in October 2011 to 1.4% in April 2012; p = 0.01). No further significant change was observed after the introduction of the narcotic monitoring system (p = 0.8). By May 2013, the prevalence had dropped to 1.0%. Inappropriate benzodiazepine prescribing was significantly influenced by both the legislation (p significantly influenced by the introduction of the monitoring system in May 2012, falling from 0.7% in April 2012 to 0.3% in May 2013 (p = 0.02). Interpretation For a select group of drugs prone to misuse and diversion, legislation and a prescription monitoring program reduced the prevalence of prescriptions suggestive of misuse. This suggests that regulatory interventions can promote appropriate prescribing which could potentially be applied to other jurisdictions and drugs of concern. PMID:25485251

  18. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.


    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  19. Fruit and vegetables on prescription: a brief intervention in primary care. (United States)

    Buyuktuncer, Z; Kearney, M; Ryan, C L; Thurston, M; Ellahi, B


    Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a goal for the U.K. Therefore, the effectiveness of a fruit and vegetable voucher scheme coupled with key 'five-a-day' consumption messages as a brief intervention in primary care consultations was assessed in the present study. One thousand one hundred and eighty-eight vouchers as a prescription for fruits and vegetables were routinely distributed to patients attending a primary healthcare centre in a deprived area, and 124 volunteer patients routinely attending the centre were included. Telephone-based questionnaires were used to examine changes in consumption over the short and medium term. Other key aspects assessed in the evaluation related to fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviour, knowledge relating to what constitutes a portion size, the relationship between food and health, and barriers to consumption. Although 76.2% of participants used the prescription vouchers when purchasing fruits and vegetables, a significant change in the consumption or purchasing behaviour was not observed (P > 0.05). Participants' level of knowledge relating to the number of portions recommended and the portion size of different fruits and vegetables showed a moderate increase from baseline over the short and medium term. The primary barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption were reported as 'the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables' and 'the money available to spend on food'. The use of 'the fruit and vegetable on prescription' scheme was an effective method of engaging participants in improving awareness of key diet-related health messages. However, further intervention is required to produce a significant impact on the actual behaviour change. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. 'You've got m@il: fluoxetine coming soon!': accessibility and quality of a prescription drug sold on the web. (United States)

    Gelatti, U; Pedrazzani, R; Marcantoni, C; Mascaretti, S; Repice, C; Filippucci, L; Zerbini, I; Dal Grande, M; Orizio, G; Feretti, D


    The increasing phenomenon of online pharmacies has potential for serious public health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of accessing a prescription drug in the absence of a prescription for an Italian purchaser. Fluoxetine pills were ordered from several online pharmacies. The study included website analysis, and the quality of the received product including packaging, chemical and microbiological analyses. Orders could be placed correctly on 61 of the 98 selected websites, and a sales transaction was concluded successfully on 17 websites. Thirteen drug samples were eventually received. In one case it was necessary to fill in a questionnaire before ordering the drugs. All websites displayed aggressive marketing strategies. There was wide variation in terms of domain registration, company base (when declared) and manufacturer's location (mostly India). All pills were delivered in sealed blister packs showing the lot number and manufacturer's details. A leaflet was enclosed in one case only. In three cases we received more pills than ordered, and in one case Viagra pills as a free gift. Pharmacopoeia microbiological requirements were satisfied. Chemical analysis revealed that the active principle was always present, although many samples did not meet the Pharmacopoeia "other impurities" or "total impurities" criteria. Heavy metals and solvents regulated by the Pharmacopoeia did not exceed the set limits; some of the non-regulated ones were also assessed, in some cases with a positive result (e.g. styrene). About 20% of purchase attempts resulted in delivery of the drugs, even in the absence of a medical prescription. Traceability was poor and drug quality was generally worse compared to conventional pharmacy-purchased products. Based on all these broad-spectrum results, user safety appears not to be globally guaranteed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of two combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics for acute periradicular abscess: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Favarin Santini

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute periradicular abscess is a condition characterized by the formation and propagation of pus in the periapical tissues and generally associated with debilitating pain. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the overall analgesic effectiveness of two combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics for acute periradicular abscess. Material and Methods: This study included 26 patients who sought emergency care in a Brazilian dental school. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Co/Ac - oral prescription of codeine (30 mg plus acetaminophen (500 mg, every 4 h, for 3 days or Tr/Ac - oral prescription of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg plus acetaminophen (500 mg on the same schedule. Two factors were evaluated: (1 pain scores recorded by the patients in a pain diary 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment, using the Visual Analogue Scale; and (2 the occurrence of adverse effects. Results: In both groups, there was a reduction in pain scores over time. For the Co/Ac group, there was a significant reduction in the scores 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment (P0.05, i.e., both treatments were effective in controlling pain caused by APA; however, the combination of Tr/Ac caused more adverse reactions as two patients had to stop using the medication. Conclusion: This study suggests that, considering both analgesic efficacy and safety, the combination of codeine and acetaminophen is more effective to control moderate to severe pain from acute periradicular abscesses.

  2. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels


    We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest some...... price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from −0.2 to −0.7. Individuals with chronic disease and especially individuals above the age of 65 respond less to the price of drugs....

  3. Investigating sources of pharmaceutical pollution: Survey of over-the-counter and prescription medication purchasing, use, and disposal practices among university students. (United States)

    Vatovec, Christine; Van Wagoner, Emily; Evans, Corey


    Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses a range of risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Consumers contribute to pharmaceutical pollution via use and disposal of medications, though data on such behaviors is limited. This paper investigates the purchasing, use, and disposal practices among a population that has been researched only minimally to date, yet will determine pharmaceutical pollution for decades to come: young adults represented by a university student population. We employed an online, 21-question survey to examine behaviors related to pharmaceuticals among students at the University of Vermont (n = 358). Results indicate that the majority of respondents had purchased medications in the previous 12 months (94%), and had leftover drugs (61%). Contrary to previous studies of older populations, only a small proportion of students had disposed of drugs (18%); municipal trash was the primary route of drug disposal (25%), and very few students disposed drugs via flushing (1%). Less than a quarter of students were aware of drug take-back programs (24%), and only 4% had ever used take-back services. These findings indicate that the university student population may be storing a large volume of unused drugs that will require future disposal. Increasing awareness of, access to, and participation in pro-environment pharmaceutical behaviors, such as purchasing over-the-counter medication in smaller quantities and utilizing drug take-back programs, could minimize future pharmaceutical pollution from this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Update on prescription extended-release opioids and appropriate patient selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan MJ


    Full Text Available Michael J Brennan The Pain Center of Fairfield, Fairfield, CT, USA Abstract: Chronic pain is largely underdiagnosed, often undertreated, and expected to increase as the American population ages. Many patients with chronic pain require long-term treatment with analgesic medications, and pain management may involve use of prescription opioids for patients whose pain is inadequately controlled through other therapies. Yet because of the potential for abuse and addiction, many clinicians hesitate to treat their patients with pain with potentially beneficial agents. Finding the right opioid for the right patient is the first – often complicated – step. Ensuring that patients continue to properly use the medication while achieving therapeutic analgesic effects is the long-term goal. Combined with careful patient selection and ongoing monitoring, new formulations using extended-release technologies incorporating tamper-resistant features may help combat the growing risk of abuse or misuse, which will hopefully reduce individual suffering and the societal burden of chronic pain. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an update on extended-release opioids and to provide clinicians with a greater understanding of which patients might benefit from these new opioid formulations and how to integrate the recommended monitoring for abuse potential into clinical practice. Keywords: chronic pain, opioid analgesics, extended release, abuse prevention

  5. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults. (United States)

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate


    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Review: Taking care of yourself in later life: a qualitative study into the use of non-prescription medicines by people aged 60+. (United States)

    Leontowitsch, Miranda; Higgs, Paul; Stevenson, Fiona; Rees Jones, Ian


    The last 40 years have witnessed substantial changes to the experience of later life. Health and life expectancy have improved and the emergence of a putative third age has allowed post-working life to move beyond being a residual social category to become an arena in which later life lifestyles can be constructed. Greater emphasis is now placed on expectations of self-agency and choice. Allied to this is the growing role of consumerism as a way of organizing key aspects of social life. Not only do these changes place increased emphasis on individual responsibility for health, but they also engage individuals in various forms of health consumerism.This study draws on these aspects of contemporary society to provide an explanatory framework for understanding older people's engagement with, and consumption of non-prescription medicines. We present a qualitative study in which we interviewed 22 men and women aged 60 plus who were purchasing or interested in purchasing non-prescription medicines, including complementary and alternative medicines. Our findings suggest that the use of non-prescription medicines is both pluralistic and makeshift. Moreover, while this pluralism led to tensions with conventional bio-medicine, conventional bio-medicine still maintained the legitimacy of its knowledge base. Self-care using non-prescription medicines appeared more governed by hope than by evidence or knowledge of the treatments concerned.We conclude that such pluralism of approach reflects the growing consumerism in health and self-care and that older people may in fact be similar to other age groups in terms of their approach to such commodification.

  7. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain. (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi


    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  8. 78 FR 37946 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and... (United States)


    ... purchasing credit union may have years of experience dealing with only one or a few originators. These credit...; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... reorganize the loan participation rule and focus on the purchase side of loan participation transactions. The...

  9. Piling Pills? Forward-Looking Behavior and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper provides evidence of forward-looking behavior in the demand for prescription drugs, while relying on registry-based, individual-level information about the universe of Danish prescription drug purchases from 1995–2014. We exploit a universal shift in policy in early 2000 from a flat......-rate to a non-linear insurance plan for prescription drugs that incentivizes stockpiling at the end of the coverage year. We extend the original framework of Keeler et al. (1977) and discuss how the institutional features of most health insurance contracts, at least theoretically, incentivize intertemporal...... immediately prior to the end-of-year reset in the non-linear plan using a difference-in-difference strategy. We provide evidence that consumers react to this reset by stockpiling toward the end of the coverage year: consumers buy what amounts to an additional 20%. We detect heterogeneity in the size...

  10. Radiopharmaceutical prescription in nuclear medicine departments; La prescription medicale des radiopharmaceutiques au sein d'un service de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L. [Radiopharmacie, service de pharmacie, Centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Lao, S. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU-Hopital de l' Archet, 06 - Nice (France); Bolot, C. [Service de pharmacie, hospices civiles de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Francois-Joubert, A. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France)


    In France, radiopharmaceutical prescription is often discussed depending to which juridical structure the nuclear medicine department is belonging. According to current regulation, this prescription is an obligation in a department linked to hospital with a pharmacy department inside. But situation remains unclear for independent nuclear medicine departments where physicians are not constrained to prescribe radiopharmaceuticals. However, as radiographers and nurses are only authorized to realize theirs acts in front of a medical prescription, one prescription must be realized. Nowadays, computerized prescription tools have been developed but only for radiopharmaceutical drugs and not for medical acts. In the aim to achieve a safer patient care, the prescription regulation may be applied whatever differences between nuclear medicines departments. (authors)

  11. Pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior. (United States)

    Miao-Sheng, Chen; Yu-Ti, Shih


    This research presents an analysis of Taiwan's health care market with the focus on the pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior. Since the advent of Taiwan's national health insurance, with the competent authority being Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI), hospitals are allowed to sell prescription drugs to patients at prices above the purchasing prices, so each prescription drug has two prices: one at which drugs are sold to hospitals; the other which BNHI reimbursement to hospitals. The margin between the different prices is the sales discount that pharmaceutical companies offer to the hospitals. We find that sales discount has a great impact on physicians' choice behavior: i.e., physicians are price-sensitive to prescription drugs. In addition, it is found that too high a sales discount of a prescription drug would result in a too low weighted average price of that drug sold; thus BNHI would be more likely to adjust downward the rate it reimbursement to the hospital. This presents a sales strategy problem to pharmaceutical companies. To solve this, we use the distribution of physicians' evaluations of prescription drugs to establish a profit maximization model in hopes of helping companies to price drugs and find the optimal promotion expending. Ten popular prescription drugs are used in this research as examples.

  12. Do caffeine-containing analgesics promote dependence? A review and evaluation. (United States)

    Feinstein, A R; Heinemann, L A; Dalessio, D; Fox, J M; Goldstein, J; Haag, G; Ladewig, D; O'Brien, C P


    Debates about the suspected association between kidney disease and use of analgesics have led to concern about whether caffeine could stimulate an undesirable overuse of phenacetin-free combined analgesics. A committee was asked to critically review the pertinent literature and to suggest guides for clinical practice and for consideration of international regulatory authorities. A group of international scientists, jointly selected by the regulatory authorities of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria and the pharmaceutical industry. All invited experts evaluated relevant literature and reports and added further information and comments. Caffeine has a synergistic effectiveness with analgesics. Although caffeine has a dependence potential, the potential is low. Experimental data regarding dependence potential for caffeine alone may not correspond to the conditions in patients with pain. Withdrawal is not likely to cause stimulation or sustainment of analgesic intake. For drug-induced headache, no single or combined analgesic was consistently identified as causative, and no evidence exists for a special role of caffeine. Strong dependence behavior was observed only in patients using phenacetin-containing preparations, coformulated with antipyretics/analgesics and caffeine. This finding may have led to the impression that caffeine stimulates overuse of analgesics. Although more experimental and long-term data would be desirable to show possible mechanisms of dependence and to offer unequivocal proof of safety, the committee concluded that the available evidence does not support the claim that analgesics coformulated with caffeine, in the absence of phenacetin, stimulate or sustain overuse.

  13. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology. (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis


    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  14. Criminal Activity or Treatable Health Condition? News Media Framing of Opioid Analgesic Abuse in the United States, 1998-2012. (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Baller, Julia; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah; Barry, Colleen L


    Opioid analgesic abuse is a complex and relatively new public health problem, and to date little is known about how the news media frame the issue. To better understand how this issue has been framed in public discourse, an analysis was conducted of the volume and content of news media coverage of opioid analgesic abuse over a 15-year period from 1998 to 2012 (N=673 news stories). A 70-item structured coding instrument was used to measure items in four domains that prior research suggests can influence public attitudes about health and social issues: causes, solutions, and consequences of the problem and individual depictions of persons who abuse opioid analgesics. Although experts have deemed opioid analgesic abuse a public health crisis, results of our study suggest that the news media more often frame the problem as a criminal justice issue. The most frequently mentioned cause of the problem was illegal drug dealing, and the most frequently mentioned solutions were law enforcement solutions designed to arrest and prosecute the individuals responsible for diverting opioid analgesics onto the illegal market. Prevention-oriented approaches, such as prescription drug-monitoring programs, were mentioned more frequently in the latter years of the study period, but less than 5% of news stories overall mentioned expanding substance abuse treatment, and even fewer mentioned expanding access to evidence-based medication-assisted treatments, such as buprenorphine. Findings underscore the need for a concerted effort to reframe opioid analgesic abuse as a treatable condition addressable via well-established public and behavioral health approaches.

  15. Pattern of Self Prescribed Analgesic Use in a Rural Area of Delhi: Exploring the Potential Role of Internet. (United States)

    Kochhar, Anjali; Gupta, Tanya


    Analgesics are the most common self prescribed drugs. Although considered to be relatively safe, side effects are often seen when these drugs are used for prolonged period, in high doses or used where contraindicated. Majority of the consumers are not aware of the side effects. These days ample amount of information is available on web, it is important to explore its role in educating the population regarding the safe use of self prescribed analgesics. To explore pattern of analgesic use, to identify population at risk of developing side effects related to analgesic use, awareness of side effects and potential role of internet to bring awareness about safe use of self prescribed analgesic drugs in a rural area of Delhi. A cross-sectional survey based study was done on 500 adults in the age group of 18-65 years of Madanpur Khadar area of South Delhi, India. Data collection was done by conducting visits to pharmacy shops from the people who were buying drugs without prescription and taking face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests with Microsoft office excel 2007. Results of our study showed that among all the self prescribed analgesics paracetamol (57%) was used most frequently followed by aspirin and other NSAIDs. It was found that 9.6% of the consumers were having associated co-morbid illness, 11.4% were simultaneously taking other drugs and 15.2% were alcoholics. Majority (65.4%) of the buyers were not aware about any kind of side effects of the analgesics. Internet friendly consumers were found to be 44%. Ability to use internet and education level were found to be directly related (r=0.802). The pattern of analgesic consumption in the rural population of Delhi shows that a large number of consumers may be at risk of developing side effects of self prescribed analgesics. The awareness about the side effects is limited. A significant number of consumers are internet friendly. Hence

  16. [Prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy]. (United States)

    Han, Yi


    Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances (United States)


    ... mature standard for the formatting of prescription data, most electronic prescriptions are routed from... prescriptions prior to granting access to sign such prescriptions, two-factor authentication including a hard... practitioner can retain control of a biometric or hard token. Authentication based only on knowledge factors is...

  18. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats (United States)

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.


    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  19. Can purchasing information be used to predict adherence to cardiovascular medications? An analysis of linked retail pharmacy and insurance claims data. (United States)

    Krumme, Alexis A; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Franklin, Jessica M; Isaman, Danielle L; Mahesri, Mufaddal; Matlin, Olga S; Shrank, William H; Brennan, Troyen A; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K


    The use of retail purchasing data may improve adherence prediction over approaches using healthcare insurance claims alone. Retrospective. A cohort of patients who received prescription medication benefits through CVS Caremark, used a CVS Pharmacy ExtraCare Health Care (ECHC) loyalty card, and initiated a statin medication in 2011. We evaluated associations between retail purchasing patterns and optimal adherence to statins in the 12 subsequent months. Among 11 010 statin initiators, 43% were optimally adherent at 12 months of follow-up. Greater numbers of store visits per month and dollar amount per visit were positively associated with optimal adherence, as was making a purchase on the same day as filling a prescription (ppurchase variables had low discriminative ability (C-statistic: 0.563), while models with both clinical and retail purchase variables achieved a C-statistic of 0.617. While the use of retail purchases may improve the discriminative ability of claims-based approaches, these data alone appear inadequate for adherence prediction, even with the addition of more complex analytical approaches. Nevertheless, associations between retail purchasing behaviours and adherence could inform the development of quality improvement interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J


    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  1. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J


    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  2. Estimating attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed "abuse-deterrent" prescription opioid formulation. (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Folensbee, Lesley; Chang, Alan; Katz, Nathaniel


    The present study builds on research to model abusers' perceptions of particular analgesics' attractiveness for abuse and extends these methods to derive an estimate of attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) of a prescription opioid (Remoxy), Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA, and King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN). In a previous study, the Opioid Attractiveness Technology Scaling (OATS) method identified, from a drug abuser's point of view, the particular features of a prescription opioid relevant to its attractiveness for recreational use. A second online sample rated the extent to which these features applied to particular products they had actually used/abused. These data were used to model the abusers' overall preference for prescription opioids they had used/abused. In the present study, this method was applied to a not-yet-marketed ADF using substance abuse counselors as proxies for prescription opioid abusers. Thirty-eight counselors were given materials describing the new ADF along with four known products. Thirty-two counselors demonstrated sufficient agreement with abusers' ratings of the overall attractiveness of these drugs. The overall model yielded a significant pseudo R(2) of 0.15 (P marketing estimates of attractiveness for abuse of not-yet-marketed ADFs.

  3. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Heerdink, Eibert R


    A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective database study of The Netherlands. Complete dispensing histories were obtained of all patients with at least one medicinal cannabis prescription gathered at pharmacies in The Netherlands in the period 2003-2010. Data revealed prevalence and incidence of use of prescription cannabis as well as characteristics of patients using different cannabis varieties. Five thousand five hundred forty patients were identified. After an initial incidence of about 6/100,000 inhabitants/year in 2003 and 2004, the incidence remained stable at 3/100,000/year in 2005-2010. The prevalence rate ranged from 5 to 8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Virtually all patients used some form of prescription medication in the 6 months preceding start of cannabis use, most particularly psycholeptics (45.5 %), analgesics (44.3 %), anti-ulcer agents (35.9 %) and NSAIDs (30.7 %). We found no significant association between use of medication of common indications for cannabis (pain, HIV/AIDS, cancer, nausea, glaucoma) and variety of cannabis used. This is the first nationwide study into the extent of prescription of medicinal cannabis. Although the cannabis varieties studied are believed to possess different therapeutic effects based on their different content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), no differences in choice of variety was found associated with indication.

  4. Prescription opioid abuse, pain and addiction: clinical issues and implications. (United States)

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Hillhouse, Maureen


    Prescription opioid misuse in the USA has increased over threefold since 1990 to epidemic proportions, with substantial increases in prescription opioid use also reported in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand. The broad availability of prescription pain medications, coupled with public misconceptions about their safety and addictive potential, have contributed to the recent surge in non-medical use of prescription opioids and corresponding increases in treatment admissions for problems related to opioid misuse. Given competing pressures faced by physicians to both diagnose and treat pain syndromes and identify individuals at risk for addictive disorders, the use of opioids in the treatment of pain poses a significant clinical challenge. This paper reviews the interaction between pain and opioid addiction with a focus on clinical management issues, including risk factors for opioid dependence in patients with chronic pain and the use of assessment tools to identify and monitor at-risk individuals. Treatment options for opioid dependence and pain are reviewed, including the use of the partial µ agonist buprenorphine in the management of concurrent pain and opioid addiction. Physicians should strive to find a reasonable balance between minimising potential adverse effects of opioid medications without diminishing legitimate access to opioids for analgesia. The article discusses the need to identify methods for minimising risks and negative consequences associated with opioid analgesics and poses research directions, including the development of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, genetic risk factors for opioid dependence and opioid-induced hyperalgesia as a potential target for medication therapy. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke. (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F


    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  6. Factors associated with primary care prescription of opioids for joint pain. (United States)

    Green, D J; Bedson, J; Blagojevic-Burwell, M; Jordan, K P; van der Windt, D


    Opioids are commonly prescribed in primary care and can offer pain relief but may also have adverse effects. Little is known about the characteristics of people likely to receive an opioid prescription in primary care. The aim is to identify what factors are associated with primary care prescribing of high-strength analgesics in a community sample of older people with joint pain. A prospective two-stage postal survey completed at baseline and 3-year follow-up in a population aged 50 and over registered with eight general practitioner (GP) practices in North Staffordshire (North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project cohorts) linked with data from medical records. Participants were selected who reported joint pain in one or more joints at baseline. Outcome measures were the number of prescriptions for high-strength pain medication (opioids) in the following 3 years. Socio-demographic and health status factors associated with prescription were assessed using a zero-inflated Poisson model. 873 (19%) people were prescribed opioids (out of 4652 providing complete data) ranging from 1 to 76 prescriptions over 3 years. Baseline factors significantly associated with increased rates of prescription were younger age group [65-74 group: incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.26 (1.18-1.35)], male gender [IRR = 1.17 (1.12-1.23)], severe joint pain [IRR = 1.19 (1.12-1.26)] poor physical function [IRR = 0.99 (0.99-0.99)] and lower frequency of alcohol consumption [once/twice a year: IRR = 1.13 (1.06-1.21), never: IRR = 1.14 (1.06-1.22)]. Restricting the analysis to those without prior prescriptions for strong opioids showed similar results. Poor physical function and participation restrictions were strongly associated with prescriptions of stronger opioids in addition to several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Given the uncertainties over the effectiveness and risks of opioid use, future research could investigate decision making of GPs, exploring reasons for prescribing them.

  7. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects. (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo


    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation into the prescribing of analgesics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system drugs that analgesics comprised; proportion of patients using combination analgesics; cost of analgesics. Results. On average, 83.3% of all .... nervous system drugs were the most frequently dispensed therapeutic type, accounting on.

  9. A population-based prescription study of asthma drugs during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.


    Background: Among the goals of gestational asthma, therapy is optimisation of pulmonary function. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, no asthma drugs can be considered ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Fear of adverse fetal effects may thus lead to restrictive use of asthma drugs during...... pregnancy, and no population-based studies concerning gestational asthma therapy exist. Objectives: To examine whether asthma drugs or changing intensity of asthma therapy during pregnancy was associated with deviations from expected values of gestational age, birth weight, length at birth, or malformations....... Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...

  10. Imaging drugs with and without clinical analgesic efficacy. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Anderson, Julie; Schwarz, Adam J; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard; Pendse, G; George, Edward; Nutile, Lauren; Wallin, Diana; Bishop, James; Neni, Saujanya; Maier, Gary; Iyengar, Smriti; Evelhoch, Jeffery L; Bleakman, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David


    The behavioral response to pain is driven by sensory and affective components, each of which is mediated by the CNS. Subjective pain ratings are used as readouts when appraising potential analgesics; however, pain ratings alone cannot enable a characterization of CNS pain circuitry during pain processing or how this circuitry is modulated pharmacologically. Having a more objective readout of potential analgesic effects may allow improved understanding and detection of pharmacological efficacy for pain. The pharmacological/functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI/fMRI) methodology can be used to objectively evaluate drug action on the CNS. In this context, we aimed to evaluate two drugs that had been developed as analgesics: one that is efficacious for pain (buprenorphine (BUP)) and one that failed as an analgesic in clinical trials aprepitant (APREP). Using phMRI, we observed that activation induced solely by BUP was present in regions with μ-opioid receptors, whereas APREP-induced activation was seen in regions expressing NK(1) receptors. However, significant pharmacological modulation of functional connectivity in pain-processing pathways was only observed following BUP administration. By implementing an evoked pain fMRI paradigm, these drugs could also be differentiated by comparing the respective fMRI signals in CNS circuits mediating sensory and affective components of pain. We report a correlation of functional connectivity and evoked pain fMRI measures with pain ratings as well as peak drug concentration. This investigation demonstrates how CNS-acting drugs can be compared, and how the phMRI/fMRI methodology may be used with conventional measures to better evaluate candidate analgesics in small subject cohorts.

  11. Correlation between synergistic action of Radix Angelica dahurica extracts on analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid and plasma concentration of dl-THP. (United States)

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Guang-Fa; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Chen, Xu-Long


    Yuanhu Zhitong prescription that consists of Corydalis yanhusuo and Radix Angelicae dahuricae has been used for the treatment of gastralgia, costalgia, headache and dysmenorrhea in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Our previous studies demonstrated that Corydalis alkaloid (CA, derived from the root of Corydalis yanhusu) had potent analgesic properties, and the total coumarins of Angelica dahurica (Cou) and volatile oil (VO) that derived from the root of Radix Angelicae dahuricae all could increase the analgesic effect of CA. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the mechanism that leading the analgesia of CA increased by Cou and (or) VO. The relationship between analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of Dl-tetrahydropalmatine (dl-THP, active component of CA) was assayed in mice writhing test. The CA (34, 68 and 134 mg/kg) reduced the nociception by acetic acid intraperitoneal injection in a dose-dependent manner, and there was a significant linear relationship between the analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of dl-THP. Then the plasma concentration of dl-THP at different time intervals in rats after oral administration of CA, CA-Cou, CA-VO and CA-Cou-VO were examined by using HPLC. The results indicated that Cou and (or) VO raised the plasma concentration of dl-THP prominently. In conclusion, the reason that Radix Angelica dahurica extracts reinforced the analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid was related to the improvement of the plasma concentration of dl-THP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball


    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  13. Unintentional prescription opioid-related overdose deaths: description of decedents by next of kin or best contact, Utah, 2008-2009. (United States)

    Johnson, Erin M; Lanier, William A; Merrill, Ray M; Crook, Jacob; Porucznik, Christina A; Rolfs, Robert T; Sauer, Brian


    Little is known about the characteristics that may predispose an individual to being at risk for fatal overdose from prescription opioids. To identify characteristics related to unintentional prescription opioid overdose deaths in Utah. Interviews were conducted (October 2008-October 2009) with a relative or friend most knowledgeable about the decedent's life. Analyses involved 254 decedents aged 18 or older, where cause of death included overdose on at least one prescription opioid. Decedents were more likely to be middle-aged, Caucasian, non-Hispanic/Latino, less educated, not married, or reside in rural areas than the general adult population in Utah. In the year prior to death, 87.4 % were prescribed prescription pain medication. Reported potential misuse prescription pain medication in the year prior to their death was high (e.g., taken more often than prescribed [52.9 %], obtained from more than one doctor during the previous year [31.6 %], and used for reasons other than treating pain [29.8 %, almost half of which "to get high"]). Compared with the general population, decedents were more likely to experience financial problems, unemployment, physical disability, mental illness (primarily depression), and to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and use illicit drugs. The primary source of prescription pain medication was from a healthcare provider (91.8 %), but other sources (not mutually exclusive) included: for free from a friend or relative (24 %); from someone without their knowledge (18.2 %); purchase from a friend, relative, or acquaintance (16.4 %); and purchase from a dealer (not a pharmacy) (11.6 %). The large majority of decedents were prescribed opioids for management of chronic pain and many exhibited behaviors indicative of prescribed medication misuse. Financial problems, unemployment, physical disability, depression, and substance use (including illegal drugs) were also common.

  14. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans. (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst


    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  15. Chronic Pain: How Challenging Are DDIs in the Analgesic Treatment of Inpatients with Multiple Chronic Conditions? (United States)

    Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Eschmann, Emmanuel; Kienast, Alexander; Schneider, Dominik; Minder, Christoph E.; Saller, Reinhard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Blaser, Jürg; Battegay, Edouard


    Background Chronic pain is common in multimorbid patients. However, little is known about the implications of chronic pain and analgesic treatment on multimorbid patients. This study aimed to assess chronic pain therapy with regard to the interaction potential in a sample of inpatients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective study with all multimorbid inpatients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of University Hospital Zurich in 2011 (n = 1,039 patients). Data were extracted from the electronic health records and reviewed. We identified 433 hospitalizations of patients with chronic pain and analyzed their combinations of chronic conditions (multimorbidity). We then classified all analgesic prescriptions according to the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. Furthermore, we used a Swiss drug-drug interactions knowledge base to identify potential interactions between opioids and other drug classes, in particular coanalgesics and other concomitant drugs. Chronic pain was present in 38% of patients with multimorbidity. On average, patients with chronic pain were aged 65.7 years and had a mean number of 6.6 diagnoses. Hypertension was the most common chronic condition. Chronic back pain was the most common painful condition. Almost 90% of patients were exposed to polypharmacotherapy. Of the chronic pain patients, 71.1% received opioids for moderate to severe pain, 43.4% received coanalgesics. We identified 3,186 potential drug-drug interactions, with 17% classified between analgesics (without coanalgesics). Conclusions Analgesic drugs-related DDIs, in particular opioids, in multimorbid patients are often complex and difficult to assess by using DDI knowledge bases alone. Drug-multimorbidity interactions are not sufficiently investigated and understood. Today, the scientific literature is scarce for chronic pain in combination with multiple coexisting medical conditions and medication

  16. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, G.J.


    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision

  17. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014. (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao


    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups. (United States)

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre


    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  19. Controlling prescription drug costs: regulation and the role of interest groups in Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration. (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Hendricks, Ann M


    Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) both finance large outpatient prescription drug programs, though in very different ways. In the ongoing debate on how to control Medicare spending, some suggest that Medicare should negotiate directly with drug manufacturers, as the VA does. In this article we relate the role of interest groups to policy differences between Medicare and the VA and, in doing so, explain why such a large change to the Medicare drug program is unlikely. We argue that key policy differences are attributable to stable differences in interest group involvement. While this stability makes major changes in Medicare unlikely, it suggests the possibility of leveraging VA drug purchasing to achieve savings in Medicare. This could be done through a VA-administered drug-only benefit for Medicare-enrolled veterans. Such a partnership could incorporate key elements of both programs: capacity to accept large numbers of enrollees (like Medicare) and leverage to negotiate prescription drug prices (like the VA). Moreover, it could be implemented at no cost to the VA while achieving savings for Medicare and beneficiaries.

  20. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn


    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali


    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  1. Analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture and quantum light therapy on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. (United States)

    Akdere, Hakan; Oztekin, Ilhan; Arda, Ersan; Aktoz, Tevfik; Turan, Fatma Nesrin; Burgazli, Kamil Mehmet


    Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (CNBP) is a condition that frequently causes long-term pain and a significant decrease in the quality of life. The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture, quantum light therapy and their combinations on estrogen-induced CNBP in rats. This experimental study was conducted in Edirne, Turkey, using a simple randomized allocation. A total of 90 adult male Wistar rats were randomized into 9 groups of 10 rats each: Group I, control; Group II, CNBP, Group III, oligonol only, Group IV, acupuncture only; Group V, quantum only; Group VI, oligonol + quantum; Group VII, acupuncture + oligonol; Group VIII, quantum + acupuncture; Group IX, acupuncture + quantum + oligonol. Oligonol treatment was given at a dose of 60 mg/day for 6 weeks. Conceptual vessels (CV) 3 and 4, and bilaterally urinary bladder (Bl) 32 and 34 points were targeted with 1-hour acupuncture stimulation. The quantum light therapy was applied in 5-minute sessions for 6 weeks (3-times/a week). For pain measurements, mechanical pressure was applied to a point 2 cm distal to the root of the tail to elicit pain and consequent parameters (peak force, latency time of response and total length of measurement) were assessed. Analgesic effects were observed with all treatment regimens; however, the most prominent median analgesic effect was shown in the quantum light therapy in combination with acupuncture for estrogen-induced CNBP (PF1 = 663.9, PF2 = 403.4) (P = 0.012). Furthermore, we observed that monotherapy with quantum light showed a better analgesic efficacy as compared to oligonol and acupuncture monotherapies (PF1 = 1044.6, PF2 = 661.2) (P = 0.018, P = 0.008, P = 0.018; respectively). All treatment modalities showed a significant analgesic effect on CNBP in rats, being most prominent with the quantum light therapy.

  2. A Comparison of Spectacles Purchased Online and in UK Optometry Practice. (United States)

    Alderson, Alison J; Green, Alison; Whitaker, David; Scally, Andrew J; Elliott, David B


    To compare spectacles bought online with spectacles from optometry practices. Thirty-three participants consisting of single vision spectacle wearers with either a low (N = 12, mean age 34 ± 14 years) or high prescription (N = 11, mean age 28 ± 9 years) and 10 presbyopic participants (mean age 59 ± 4 years) wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs) purchased 154 pairs of spectacles online and 154 from UK optometry practices. The spectacles were compared via participant-reported preference, acceptability, and safety; the assessment of lens, frame, and fit quality; and the accuracy of the lens prescriptions to international standard ISO 21987:2009. Participants preferred the practice spectacles (median ranking 4th, IQR 1-6) more than online (6th, IQR 4-8; Mann-Whitney U = 7345, p optometry practice rather than those bought online, despite lens quality and prescription accuracy being similar. A greater number of online spectacles were deemed unsafe or unacceptable because of poor spectacle frame fit, poor cosmetic appearance, and inaccurate optical centration. This seems particularly pertinent to PAL lenses, which are known to increase falls risk. Recommendations are made to improve both forms of spectacle provision.

  3. Multiple Sources of Prescription Payment and Risky Opioid Therapy Among Veterans. (United States)

    Becker, William C; Fenton, Brenda T; Brandt, Cynthia A; Doyle, Erin L; Francis, Joseph; Goulet, Joseph L; Moore, Brent A; Torrise, Virginia; Kerns, Robert D; Kreiner, Peter W


    Opioid overdose and other related harms are a major source of morbidity and mortality among US Veterans, in part due to high-risk opioid prescribing. We sought to determine whether having multiple sources of payment for opioids-as a marker for out-of-system access-is associated with risky opioid therapy among veterans. Cross-sectional study examining the association between multiple sources of payment and risky opioid therapy among all individuals with Veterans Health Administration (VHA) payment for opioid analgesic prescriptions in Kentucky during fiscal year 2014-2015. Source of payment categories: (1) VHA only source of payment (sole source); (2) sources of payment were VHA and at least 1 cash payment [VHA+cash payment(s)] whether or not there was a third source of payment; and (3) at least one other noncash source: Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance [VHA+noncash source(s)]. Our outcomes were 2 risky opioid therapies: combination opioid/benzodiazepine therapy and high-dose opioid therapy, defined as morphine equivalent daily dose ≥90 mg. Of the 14,795 individuals in the analytic sample, there were 81.9% in the sole source category, 6.6% in the VHA+cash payment(s) category, and 11.5% in the VHA+noncash source(s) category. In logistic regression, controlling for age and sex, persons with multiple payment sources had significantly higher odds of each risky opioid therapy, with those in the VHA+cash having significantly higher odds than those in the VHA+noncash source(s) group. Prescribers should examine the prescription monitoring program as multiple payment sources increase the odds of risky opioid therapy.

  4. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.


    Desai, Tanvi


    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  5. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions


    Heijboer, G.J.


    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  6. Examining social supply among nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas


    In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know. Coomber and colleagues' (2007; 2013) concept of "social supply" raises the question: When friends supply or facilitate supply of drugs to friends, is this really dealing? Further, if dealing and supplying are distinct kinds of social transactions, should different types of criminal justice approaches be applied? Social supply extends our understanding of drug dealing as a complex social activity. In this article, we examine the issue of social supply among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We conducted a 36-month National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project to conduct a qualitative, mixed methods study of 150 adult nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. We explore intersecting factors, including life stage and social location, that contribute to decisions to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, motivations to use, knowledge about risks and benefits of prescription stimulant use, any adverse health or social consequences experienced, availability, acquisition and diversion of prescription stimulants, and differences in attitudes and behaviours. For this analysis, we rely on participants' narratives concerning prescription stimulant acquisition practices and how they understood these interactions, purchases, and exchanges with the suppliers of prescription stimulants in their social networks. The authors argue that acknowledging the

  7. Quality of Online Pharmacies and Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto


    Background Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. Objective The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. Methods We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. Results We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs

  8. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review. (United States)

    Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto


    Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found

  9. Prescription of the High Risk Narcotics and Trading or Illicit Purchasing of High Risk Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu


    Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.

  10. Not a good buy: value for money of prescription drugs sold on the internet. (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella; Marcantoni, Claudio; Filippucci, Laura; Gelatti, Umberto


    In this note we study the value for money of purchases of fluoxetine made through on-line pharmacies without prescription. We show that this channel is not good value from an economic point of view and that it can be dangerous in medical terms because of the poor quality of the drugs received and the lack of prescribing instructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin syndrome following overdose of a non-prescription slimming product containing sibutramine: a case report. (United States)

    Lam, Pui Kin; Leung, K S; Wong, T W; Lee, H H C; Tang, M H Y; Mak, T W L


    Non-prescription slimming products are popular and can be easily purchased from the Internet. However, adulteration of these products with undeclared substances including prescription drugs is not uncommon. We report a case of serotonin syndrome after an overdose of a non-prescription product containing sibutramine. A 21-year-old woman presented with somnolence, sinus tachycardia, generalised increase in tone, hyper-reflexia and clonus more prominent in the lower limbs after an intentional overdose of a non-prescription slimming product obtained from the Internet. The product was later found to contain sibutramine and other substances such as animal thyroid tissues, caffeine and phenolphthalein. Quantitative analysis of patient's serum on presentation revealed a sibutramine concentration of 112 ng/mL, which far exceeded the reported peak serum concentration after a single oral dose of 15 mg (the maximum daily recommended dose). No other culpable agent was identified. The overall clinical presentation was compatible with serotonin syndrome associated with sibutramine overdose. The patient made a full recovery after supportive management. This case highlighted the health threat posed by non-prescription slimming products sold over the Internet. Sibutramine overdose can result in serotonin syndrome, as in overdose of other serotonergic agents. Early recognition and timely supportive treatment are essential to ensure a good clinical outcome.

  12. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines: a counter argument. (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Mangin, Dee


    Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only medicines is currently only permitted in the USA and New Zealand. Barbara Mintzes and Dee Mangin provide their case against direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines, arguing that its wider introduction would lead to a 'Pharma-knows-best' culture.

  13. Profiling online recreational/prescription drugs' customers and overview of drug vending virtual marketplaces. (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Francesconi, Giulia; Papanti, Duccio; Giorgetti, Arianna; Schifano, Fabrizio


    Internet and social networking sites play a significant role in the marketing and distribution of recreational/prescription drugs without restrictions. We aimed here at reviewing data relating to the profile of the online drug customer and at describing drug vending websites. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched here in order to elicit data on the socio-demographic characteristics of the recreational marketplaces/online pharmacies' customers and the determinants relating to online drug purchasing activities. Typical online recreational drugs' customers seem to be Caucasian, men, in their 20s, highly educated, and using the web to impact as minimally as possible on their existing work/professional status. Conversely, people without any health insurance seemed to look at the web as a source of more affordable prescription medicines. Drug vending websites are typically presented here with a "no prescription required" approach, together with aggressive marketing strategies. The online availability of recreational/prescriptions drugs remains a public health concern. A more precise understanding of online vending sites' customers may well facilitate the drafting and implementation of proper prevention campaigns aimed at counteracting the increasing levels of online drug acquisition and hence intake activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory


    Fisher, Eric O'N.


    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  15. Analgesic Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Children with CP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Michelsen, Josephine; Normann, Gitte; Wong, Christian


    Experiencing pain is the greatest contributor to a reduced quality of life in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The presence of pain is quite common (~60%) and increases with age. This leads to missed school days, less participation, and reduced ambulation. Despite these alarming consequences...... of disorders and could potentially have an analgesic effect in children with CP as well. Even though most of the studies presented here show promising results, many also have limitations in their methodology as it is unlikely to capture all dimensions of pain in this heterogeneous group using only one...... assessment tool. In this review, we present a new way of examining the analgesic effect of botulinum toxin in children with CP using a variety of pain scores....

  16. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  17. [The over the counter drugs reform in Israel--two years later]. (United States)

    Vaknin, Sharona; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Marom, Eli; Shemer, Joshua; Luxenburg, Osnat


    In the last two decades there has been a world wide increase in the number of drugs that are being switched from the prescription-only category to non-prescription categories. In Israel, until recently, non-prescription medicines were only permitted to be sold by a pharmacist in pharmacies. In May 2005, following amendments to the law, several non-prescription medicines which were previously sold under a pharmacist's supervision, were reclassified as general-sales-list (GSL) medicines and permitted to be displayed and sold directly off the shelves in pharmacies and in other places such as grocery stores and petrol stations. To study the change in the patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel two years after the reform began. A representative sample of the population of Israel was chosen and interviews were conducted at two time points: before the reform commenced and two years after the beginning of the reform. Statistical processing was performed in order to examine the changes in patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel between these two time points. In both surveys it was found that: approximately 70% of the Israeli public buys non-prescription medicines; 70% of the people interviewed said that they had been aware of the reform, but of these, about 75% continued buying nonprescription drugs from the pharmacist while 21% bought medicines off the shelves at the pharmacy and 4% purchased medications at grocery stores. The most common reasons for buying medicines off the shelves without a pharmacist were earlier knowLedge about the medication, convenience and availabiLity when the pharmacies were closed. An insignificant difference was observed for the purchase of non-prescription drugs from the different types of pharmacies: the health maintenance organizations (HMO) pharmacies continue to be the leading pharmacies from which the public purchased their non-prescription medicines, white there was a slight increase in the

  18. Self-Assessment of Hearing and Purchase of Hearing Aids by Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio, Andressa Colares da Costa


    Full Text Available Introduction Presbycusis is a consequence of aging. Prescription of hearing aids is part of the treatment, although the prevalence of use by elderly people is still small. Objective To verify whether or not self-assessment of hearing is a predictor for purchase of hearing aids. Methods Quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study. Participants were subjects who sought a private hearing center for selection of hearing aids. During the diagnostic interview, subjects answered the following question: “On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the worst and 10 the best, how would you rate your overall hearing ability?” After that, subjects underwent audiometry, selected a hearing aid, performed a home trial, and decided whether or not to purchase the hearing aid. The variables were associated and analyzed statistically. Results The sample was comprised of 32 subjects, both men and women, with a higher number of women. Mean age was 71.41 ± 12.14 years. Self-assessment of hearing ranged from 2 to 9 points. Overall, 71.9% of the subjects purchased hearing aids. There was no association between scores in the self-assessment and the purchase of hearing aids (p = 0.263. Among those who scored between 2 and 5 points, 64.7% purchased the device; between 6 and 7 points, 76.09% purchased the device; and between 8 and 9 points, 50% purchased the device, respectively. Conclusion There is evidence that low self-assessment scores lead to the purchase of hearing aids, although no significant association was observed in the sample.

  19. Utilização de um sistema de gerenciamento de benefícios farmacêuticos (PBM para a caracterização do perfil de prescrição e aquisição de antibióticos Use of Pharmacy Banafits Management (PBM system to describe the profile of antibiotic prescription and purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cunha S. Lima


    Full Text Available No Brasil o PBM (Pharmacy Benefits Management é de utilização relativamente nova, podendo-se classificá-lo como um sistema de gerenciamento de saúde que administra benefícios na compra e venda de medicamentos. Considerando que o surgimento de bactérias resistentes está relacionado à prescrição inapropriada de antibióticos ou ao uso de antibióticos de baixa atividade, este estudo avaliou se o sistema PBM pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os perfis de prescrição e aquisição de antibióticos de efeitos sistêmicos, a partir da base de dados de uma empresa de PBM brasileira, referente a um grupo formado por 6 525 metalúrgicos de uma empresa da região de Campinas, SP, e seus dependentes, cobrindo o período de janeiro a abril de 2005. Observou-se que 7,7% de todos os medicamentos adquiridos eram antibióticos sistêmicos, numa média 2,4 antibióticos e ao custo de R$ 51,80 por receita. A amoxicilina foi o fármaco mais prescrito e em 92,7% dos casos o usuário adquiriu o medicamento até um dia após a consulta médica. A partir das listas das especialidades farmacêuticas adquiridas (por unidade de venda, dos laboratórios fabricantes, dos antibióticos que compunham cada produto, das datas de emissão das receitas e da dispensação, foi possível concluir que o sistema permite extrair informações relevantes sobre o tema enfocado.Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM, a system that manages benefits in the purchase and sale of drugs, is of relatively recent implementation in Brazil. Taking into account that the development of bacterial resistance is related to the inadequate prescription of antibiotics or to the use of low activity antibiotics, this study sought to assess the capability of PBM to provide useful information on the profiles of prescription and purchase of systemic antibiotics. The data used for this purpose were collected from the database of a Brazilian PBM company and related to a group of 6 525 metalworkers

  20. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations. (United States)


    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f...

  1. [Attitude of patients and customers toward on-line purchase of drugs--a Hungarian survey by community pharmacies]. (United States)

    Fittler, András; Bosze, Gergely; Botz, Lajos


    As internet is now available to nearly everyone in Hungary, the accessibility of websites offering pharmaceutical products is also increasing. The national and international regulation of these sites is currently an unsolved problem worldwide, thus potentially harmful, counterfeit and prescription only medicines are easily accessible on the market. We aimed to measure and estimate the current situation of the ordering of online medicines. In 5 Hungarian cities 434 self-administered questionnaires were collected in community pharmacies. Our results show that 6.2% of the respondents have already ordered drugs or dietary supplements online and approximately same amount of people are considering this option in the near future. Based on our survey mostly the educated, the 30-49 year old people and women are likely to buy drugs online. Every fifth respondent reported willingness to buy drugs online from abroad if lower prices were offered. Most people do not know that the quality of medicines purchased online could be different from the ones purchased from community pharmacies. We would like to draw attention of healthcare professionals to the rising popularity and potential risks of drugs available online.

  2. Pharmacy customers' experiences with the national online service for viewing electronic prescriptions in Finland. (United States)

    Lämsä, Elina; Timonen, Johanna; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Ahonen, Riitta


    To investigate (1) Finnish pharmacy customers' familiarity with My Kanta, the national online service for viewing electronic prescriptions (ePrescriptions), (2) how commonly My Kanta is used, (3) who the typical users are, and (4) users' experiences of the usability of My Kanta. A survey was conducted among pharmacy customers (aged ≥18) purchasing medicines for themselves. Questionnaires (N=2915) were distributed from 18 community pharmacies across Finland in autumn 2015. The data obtained was stored in SPSS for Windows and subjected to descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. In total, 1288 respondents were included (response rate 44%). Most (62%) of the customers were familiar with My Kanta. The majority of them (78%) were using it to view their ePrescriptions. My Kanta was perceived as clear, easy to use and to provide a good overall picture of the prescribed medications. Familiarity with My Kanta was associated with a higher education than basic school, regular use of prescription medicines, and sufficient information received about ePrescriptions. Men used My Kanta more often than women. Respondents aged 75 or older were less likely to be familiar with and to use the service compared to 18-34year olds. Most of the Finnish pharmacy customers were familiar with the national online service, My Kanta, for viewing ePrescriptions. Service users perceived it as easy to use and beneficial in managing their overall medication. Customers under 75, those educated beyond basic school, those using prescription medicines regularly, and those who had obtained sufficient information about ePrescriptions were most likely to be familiar with My Kanta. Men and customers under 75 were the typical users of the service. Some customers, however, were unaware of the service, or unable or reluctant to use it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled Substance Prescribing Patterns--Prescription Behavior Surveillance System, Eight States, 2013. (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Strickler, Gail K; Kreiner, Peter W; Koris, Caitlin M


    Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in the United States. The death rate from drug overdose in the United States more than doubled during 1999-2013, from 6.0 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 13.8 in 2013. The increase in drug overdoses is attributable primarily to the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs, especially opioid analgesics, sedatives/tranquilizers, and stimulants. Such drugs are prescribed widely in the United States, with substantial variation by state. Certain patients obtain drugs for nonmedical use or resale by obtaining overlapping prescriptions from multiple prescribers. The risk for overdose is directly associated with the use of multiple prescribers and daily dosages of >100 morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) per day. 2013. The Prescription Behavior Surveillance System (PBSS) is a public health surveillance system that allows public health authorities to characterize and quantify the use and misuse of prescribed controlled substances. PBSS began collecting data in 2012 and is funded by CDC and the Food and Drug Administration. PBSS uses standard metrics to measure prescribing rates per 1,000 state residents by demographic variables, drug type, daily dose, and source of payment. Data from the system can be used to calculate rates of misuse by certain behavioral measures such as use of multiple prescribers and pharmacies within specified time periods. This report is based on 2013 de-identified data (most recent available) that represent approximately one fourth of the U.S. Data were submitted quarterly by prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) in eight states (California, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Ohio, and West Virginia) that routinely collect data on every prescription for a controlled substance to help law enforcement and health care providers identify misuse or abuse of such drugs. In all eight states, opioid analgesics were prescribed approximately twice as often as stimulants or benzodiazepines

  4. Effects of Analgesic Advertisements on Community in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati binti Shaharuddin


    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there are numerous analgesic advertisements which have been published in various media and have also attracted attention of the society. The aim of this study is to find out effects of analgesic advertisements on awareness and attention towards these advertisements on the community in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor. Methods: The study used the descriptive method with participants consisting of community members in Hegarmanah Village who have seen, watched or heard about the analgesic advertisements and who were aged 18 years and above. The sample for this study consisted of 100 respondents. This study was conducted in September 2012–December 2012. Results: The results showed that 82% of the respondents have seen the ads in at least the last 3 months and mostly watched them on television. About 52% of respondents agreed that many of the ads did not provide sufficient information. In addition, 50% only read a little bit of the ads rather than the whole advertisement. Fifty three percents of the respondents had the intention to try the medication after seeing the ads. More than 80% were aware about how to use the medication, medication’s side effects, warnings and contraindications and 65% agreed that, they could make a better decision on their health condition after seeing the ads. Conclusions: The analgesic advertisements indeed affected the community by making them aware about the ads and attracted them to buy as well as try the product itself. Further studies on factors which influence intake of over-the-counter analgesic drugs and also about the self-medication are required. [AMJ.2014;1(2:1–6

  5. Prescription Patterns and the Cost of Migraine Treatments in German General and Neurological Practices. (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel


    The aim of this study was to analyze prescription patterns and the cost of migraine treatments in general practices (GPs) and neurological practices (NPs) in Germany. This study included 43,149 patients treated in GPs and 13,674 patients treated in NPs who were diagnosed with migraine in 2015. Ten different families of migraine therapy were included in the analysis: triptans, analgesics, anti-emetics, beta-blockers, antivertigo products, gastroprokinetics, anti-epileptics, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and other medications (all other classes used in the treatment of migraine including homeopathic medications). The share of migraine therapies and their costs were estimated for GPs and NPs. The mean age was 44.4 years in GPs and 44.1 years in NPs. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed families of drugs in all patients and in the 9 specific subgroups. Interestingly, triptans were more commonly prescribed in NPs than in GPs (30.9% to 55.0% vs. 30.0% to 44.7%), whereas analgesics were less frequently given in NPs than in GPs (11.5% to 17.2% vs. 35.3% to 42.4%). Finally, the share of patients who received no therapy was higher in NPs than in GPs (33.9% to 58.4% vs. 27.5% to 37.9%). The annual cost per patient was €66.04 in GPs and €94.71 in NPs. Finally, the annual cost per patient increased with age and was higher in women and in individuals with private health insurance coverage than in men and individuals with public health insurance coverage. Triptans and analgesics were the 2 most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of migraine. Furthermore, approximately 30% to 40% of patients did not receive any therapy. Finally, the annual cost per patient was higher in NPs than in GPs. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  6. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations. (United States)


    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f...

  7. [Analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with low back pain syndromes]. (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Ilona; Czernicki, Jan


    Low back pain syndromes most often occur due to overloading of the musculoskeletal system. The cause is a frequent, improper lifting of heavy objects, most commonly by those working physically, with repetitive movements of bending and straightening of the trunk (turning and bending with load). This problem affects not only adults but also children and adolescents. There is a growing interest in new forms of analgesic therapy nowadays, especially in those that exhibit synergistic therapeutic effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with lumbar--sacrum spinal pain syndromes caused by joints degenerative changes. The examination was carried out in 66 patients of both sexes aged 30 to 76 (average 54.7 +/- 13.8) with low back pain syndrome caused by spinal degenerative changes. The patients were divided into three groups according to the applied analgesic therapy (magnetoledotherapy, magnetostimulation, TENS currents). Level of pain has been evaluated four times in all patients--before the start of therapy and after 5, 10 and 15 applications with the use of the modified Laitinen Questionnaire and Visual-Analoque Scale (VAS). Post therapy levels of pain in the studied patients decreased significantly. According to Laitinen questionnaire, the greatest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetoledotherapy and TENS currents and the smallest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetostimulation. 1. Magnetoledotherapy shows significant analgesic efficacy in patients with low back pain syndrome and shows no side effects. 2. Concurrent application of both the infrared radiation generated by LED's and magnetostimulation synergistically reinforces analgesic effect in patients with low back pain syndrome, especially in level of pain and frequency of its occurrence, which results in the increase of movement activity and decrease in administration of analgesics.

  8. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang


    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Variations in non-prescription drug consumption and expenditure: Determinants and policy implications. (United States)

    Otto, Monica; Armeni, Patrizio; Jommi, Claudio


    This paper analyses the determinants of cross-regional variations in expenditure and consumption for non-prescription drugs using the Italian Health Care Service as a case study. This research question has never been posed in other literature contributions. Per capita income, the incidence of elderly people, the presence of distribution points alternative to community pharmacies (para-pharmacies and drug corners in supermarkets), and the disease prevalence were included as possible explanatory variables. A trade-off between consumption of non-prescription and prescription-only drugs was also investigated. Correlation was tested through linear regression models with regional fixed-effects. Demand-driven variables, including the prevalence of the target diseases and income, were found to be more influential than supply-side variables, such as the presence of alternative distribution points. Hence, the consumption of non-prescription drugs appears to respond to needs and is not induced by the supply. The expected trade-off between consumption for prescription-only and non-prescription drugs was not empirically found: increasing the use of non-prescription drugs did not automatically imply savings on prescription-only drugs covered by third payers. Despite some caveats (the short period of time covered by the longitudinal data and some missing monthly data), the regression model revealed a high explanatory power of the variability and a strong predictive ability of future values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parents' preferences strongly influence their decisions to withhold prescribed opioids when faced with analgesic trade-off dilemmas for children: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Smith, Ellen Lavoie; Zyzanski, Sarah; Tait, Alan R


    Despite parents' stated desire to treat pain in their children, recent studies have critiqued their underuse of prescribed analgesics to treat pain in their children after painful procedures. Parents' analgesic preferences, including their perceived importance of providing pain relief or avoiding adverse drug effects may have important implications for their analgesic decisions, yet no studies have evaluated the influence of preferences on decisions to withhold prescribed opioids for children. We prospectively explored how parents' preferences influenced decisions to withhold prescribed opioids when faced with hypothetical dilemmas and after hospital discharge. Prospective Observational Study Design: Phase 1 included hypothetical analgesic decisions and Phase 2, real analgesic decisions after hospital discharge. Large tertiary care pediatric hospital in the Midwest of the United States. Five-hundred seven parents whose children underwent a painful surgical procedure requiring an opioid prescription were included. At baseline, parents completed surveys assessing their pain relief preference (i.e., their rated importance of pain relief relative to adverse drug event avoidance), preferred treatment thresholds (i.e., pain level at which they would give an opioid), adverse drug event understanding, and hypothetical trade-off decisions (i.e., scenarios presenting variable pain and adverse drug event symptoms in a child). After discharge, parents recorded all analgesics they gave their child as well as pain scores at the time of administration. Higher preference to provide pain relief (over avoid analgesic risk) lessened the likelihood that parents would withhold the prescribed opioid when adverse drug event symptoms were present together with high pain scores in the hypothetical scenarios. Additionally, higher preferred treatment thresholds increased the likelihood of parents withholding opioids during their hypothetical decision-making as well as at home. The strong

  11. [Does consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis in adolescents and young adults with cancer affect the use of analgesics during hospitalizations?]. (United States)

    Bertrand, A; Boyle, H; Moreaux, J; Guillot, L; Chvetzoff, G; Charbonnel, J-F; Marec-Berard, P


    The specificities of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-25 years with cancer are now well recognized. Dedicated care was initiated in 2012 in France under the leadership of the INCa (National Cancer Institute). Research on supportive care and particularly pain management are still rare. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of toxic substances (tobacco, cannabis, alcohol) in AYAs with cancer as well as its progression during the month following the diagnosis and to analyze its influence on opioid analgesic prescriptions during treatment. This is a prospective study including all new patients aged 15-25 years in two centers between January and June 2013. Data on consumption of psychoactive substances were obtained during an individual interview with a questionnaire. National surveys were used to compare this cohort with the general population. Data on opioid treatments were collected from the computerized prescription software and computerized patient record. Thirty-seven AYAs were eligible and 30 were included; 67% of them were male and the median age was 18.7 years. The questionnaire on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption at diagnosis was well accepted. Consumption profiles were comparable to the general population. Changes in behavior were observed during the 1st month after diagnosis, with a decrease or cessation of consumption, particularly among young people. This study showed differences in the use and requirements for opioid analgesics during hospitalization according to these consumption data. Prevention and support for AYAs who are regular consumers of toxic substances must be organized during initial care in oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of extended-release tramadol for treatment of prescription opioid withdrawal: A two-phase randomized controlled trial* (United States)

    Lofwall, Michelle R.; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Siegel, Anthony; Campbell, Charles; Walsh, Sharon L.


    Background Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with monoamine and modest mu opioid agonist activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: 1) the efficacy of extended-release (ER) tramadol in treating prescription opioid withdrawal and 2) whether cessation of ER tramadol produces opioid withdrawal. Methods Prescription opioid users with current opioid dependence and observed withdrawal participated in this inpatient, two-phase double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. In Phase 1 (days 1-7), participants were randomly assigned to matched oral placebo or ER tramadol (200 or 600 mg daily). In Phase 2 (days 8-13), all participants underwent double blind crossover to placebo. Breakthrough withdrawal medications were available for all subjects. Enrollment continued until 12 completers/group was achieved. Results Use of breakthrough withdrawal medication differed significantly (popioid withdrawal. Mild opioid withdrawal occurred after cessation of treatment with 600 mg tramadol. These data support the continued investigation of tramadol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. PMID:23755929

  13. Efficacy of extended-release tramadol for treatment of prescription opioid withdrawal: a two-phase randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Siegel, Anthony; Campbell, Charles; Walsh, Sharon L


    Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with monoamine and modest mu opioid agonist activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (1) the efficacy of extended-release (ER) tramadol in treating prescription opioid withdrawal and (2) whether cessation of ER tramadol produces opioid withdrawal. Prescription opioid users with current opioid dependence and observed withdrawal participated in this inpatient, two-phase double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. In Phase 1 (days 1-7), participants were randomly assigned to matched oral placebo or ER tramadol (200 or 600 mg daily). In Phase 2 (days 8-13), all participants underwent double blind crossover to placebo. Breakthrough withdrawal medications were available for all subjects. Enrollment continued until 12 completers/group was achieved. Use of breakthrough withdrawal medication differed significantly (popioid withdrawal. Mild opioid withdrawal occurred after cessation of treatment with 600 mg tramadol. These data support the continued investigation of tramadol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaf of Chenopodium ambrosides, a Nigeria traditional medicinal plant, has been evaluated for its analgesic potential in mice. The analgesic potential of the plant extract was studied using the thermal (hot plate) test. The plant extract was found effective at the dose of 0.4g/kg and 0.8g/kg in elevating ...

  15. An investigation into the prescribing of analgesics | Truter | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were obtained from a medical aid which used a formulary system. Main outcome measures: Percentage of central nervous system drugs that analgesics comprised; proportion of patients using combination analgesics; cost of analgesics. Results: On average, 83.3% of all central nervous system drugs dispensed were ...

  16. The appropriateness of a proton pump inhibitor prescription.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, N


    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drug in Ireland, at great expense to the Irish healthcare executive. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of PPI prescriptions on admission and discharge in a tertiary referral hospital. All non-elective admissions in the Emergency Department in one week were included in the study. 102 patients in total were included, with 36 (35.4%) treated with a PPI on admission. Of these, only 3 (8.3%) had a clear indication noted as per current NICE guidelines. 18 new in-hospital PPI prescriptions were documented. 11 (61%) of which were present on discharge prescriptions. Continuing PPI prescription on discharge into the community may be inappropriate, costly and potentially harmful. Brief interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate PPI prescriptions have been shown to be effective at reducing the cost and potential harm of unnecessary treatment.

  17. Purchasing control, compliance and the box: purchasing management based on hard data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan


    Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to

  18. Professionalising purchasing organisations : towards a purchasing development model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Rietveld, G.; Lamming, R.C.


    How does purchasing develops as a discipline over time in large international organisations? What are the drivers and enablers behind the development of purchasing? Is there an ideal growthpath for purchasing in organisations? These subjects are discussed in this paper by, firstly, providing an

  19. The economic burden of opioid prescription by dentists: A 12-month survey of consumer expenditure in Brazil. (United States)

    Nogueira, Tulio Eduardo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães


    To describe consumer expenditure on opioids prescribed by dentists in Brazil during a 12-month period. We surveyed individual dispensed prescriptions of opioids in private pharmacies from October 2012 to September 2013. A descriptive analysis of costs included a calculation of the overall and mean maximum price to consumers. Monetary costs were converted from local currency units (Brazilian Real - BRL) to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) exchanging rates. 129,708 prescriptions were retrieved from the database. The overall expenditure on opioids was R$4,316,383.46 BRL or $2,721,315.82 (PPP). The mean cost of an individual prescription was R$33.27 BRL ($20.98 PPP), ranging from 14.19 to 3,255.60 BRL. Codeine was frequently prescribed (87.2 percent). The expenditure on opioids is a significant cost to Brazilian patients, especially given that the Brazilian Public Health System should dispense these drugs free of charge. Codeine was the most prescribed opioid. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Analgesics Use by Kidney Transplant Recipients. (United States)

    Mulka-Gierek, Maria; Foroncewicz, Bartosz; Pączek, Leszek; Wawiórko, Elżbieta; Kamińska, Joanna; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Małkowski, Piotr; Małczuk, Bianka; Nazarewski, Sławomir; Mucha, Krzysztof


    BACKGROUND Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are the most commonly used drugs and are increasingly available over-the-counter (OTC). In certain groups of patients, including kidney transplant recipients, their use may be complicated by adverse effects or drug interactions. The aim of our study was to assess the causes and frequency of OTC NSAIDs or analgesics use, as well as the awareness of related side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 94 randomly selected kidney transplant recipients, who represented 5% of all kidney transplant recipients at our center. An anonymous survey consisting of 23 multiple-choice questions was administered voluntarily and anonymously. RESULTS In all, 63% of study patients confirmed taking the OTC painkillers; 22% of these patients took these drugs at least several times a week, and 4% took these drugs daily. For 38% of the study kidney transplant recipients, NSAIDs or analgesics were reported to be the only way to manage their pain. In addition, 30% of study patients were unaware of the risks associated with these drugs, despite the fact that 89% of the study patients consider physicians the best source of information. CONCLUSIONS Our study found that 63% of kidney transplant recipients regularly took OTC painkillers and 30% were unaware of the potential adverse effects. This necessitates continuous, ongoing education of kidney transplant recipients about the risks of OTC NSAIDs or analgesics use.

  1. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  2. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients]. (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara


    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Deregulation of allopathic prescription and medical practice in India: Benefits and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar


    Full Text Available In the background of debates on Universal Health Coverage, skill transfer from the medical practice license holders to other health-care providers such as nurse practitioner has become a global norm. In India, where the world's largest numbers of medical graduates are produced, this discussion is expanding to extremes and serious suggestions are coming forward for the development of legal framework for allowing dentists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and half duration trained doctors; permission to issue allopathic prescription. Allopathic medical prescription. It is noteworthy that this discussion only pertains to the pharmaceutical products retailed through “allopathic medical prescriptions.” A prescription is not only advice for patient's recovery but it also is a legitimate order for the sale of controlled drugs and pharmaceutical product; thereby functions as a regulatory tool for consumption of pharmaceutical products at retail level. Who is ultimately going to benefit from this prescription deregulation? This editorial explores benefits and pitfalls of prescription and medical practice deregulation.

  4. Assessment of Postoperative Analgesic Drug Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Kloster; Gögenur, Ismail; Torup, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: Pain intensity ratings and opioid consumption (OC) are ubiquitous indicators of pain in postoperative trials of the efficacy of interventional procedures. Unfortunately, consensus on the appropriate statistical handling of these outcomes has not been reached. The aim of this article was......, therefore, to reexamine original data obtained from a postoperative analgesic drug trial, applying a collection of standard statistical methods in analgesic outcome assessments. Furthermore, a modified integrated assessment method of these outcomes was evaluated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double...... also included an integrated assessment of longitudinally measured pain intensity and opioid consumption (PIOC0-6/0-24 h). Also, estimation of effect size, generalized odds ratio of the individual analgesic outcome variables was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included in the final data...

  5. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives. (United States)

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B


    To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October-November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February-April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April-May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October-November 2013). 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were 'loaned' in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with

  6. Substance use - prescription drugs (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  7. Tamper-resistant prescription forms for narcotics in France:should we generalise them? (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Sauvaget, Lucie; Bastien, Angela; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Collin, Cédric; Richard, Nathalie; Haramburu, Françoise


    In France, prescription of narcotics must be written on a tamper-resistant prescription form with specific technical particularities. Dosage and daily dose of medicines shall be written out entirely in letters. These prescription forms are also mandatory for buprenorphine, clorazepate, clonazepam, tianeptine, buccal midazolam and zolpidem owing to traffic, abuse or diversion. In 2012, to assess the use of standard and tamper-resistant prescription forms and the acceptability of the generalization of the latter to all medicines, a national opinion survey was performed, with a postal questionnaire, within 3 randomized samples of 1,500 prescribers (physicians, dentists and midwives). Of the 403 participating prescribers (participation rate of 26.8%), 373 were physicians, 14 dentists and 16 midwives. Tamper-resistant prescription forms were used by 76.2% of prescribers, but only by 5.1% in a computerised version, whereas, for standard prescription forms, 61% used computer assisted prescription software. The main reason was the inability of the prescription software to print these forms or to respect the mandatory prescription rules for narcotics. Theft and falsification of prescriptions had ever occurred (working life). Most prescribers (62.5%) were against the generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms. Those in favour were for a generalization to all medicines (65%) and not only to psychotropic agents. Generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms is not a consensual solution to prevent medicines' diversion. Some prescribers alluded to the possibility of dematerialisation and electronic transmission of prescription forms, which could avoid theft, forgery or falsification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  10. Acute Metabolic Changes Associated With Analgesic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to measure brain metabolites. Limited data exist on the analgesic-induced spectroscopy response. This was an explorative study with the aims to investigate the central effects of two analgesic drugs, an opioid and a selective...

  11. Using analgesics as tools: young women's treatment for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn E


    In this study, the authors explore the context surrounding young women's use of analgesics to deal with headache. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on the young women's experiences with medications within...... performance- and participation-related functions. Accordingly, analgesics were employed as tools to reach these aims. The threshold for turning to analgesics varied across situations and among participants. Some relied heavily on analgesics, whereas others had success with non-medical strategies. This study...... the context of their everyday lives. The central elements in the participants' accounts emerged via a phenomenological approach. Analysis revealed that participants attributed headache to stressful conditions in their everyday lives. Analgesic use in treating headache was found to serve highly valued...

  12. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.


    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  13. Pharmaceutical interventions on prescription problems in a Danish pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Søndergaard, Jens


    International studies regarding pharmacists' interventions towards prescription problems produce highly variable results. The only peer-reviewed study in a Danish setting estimated an intervention rate of 2.3 per 1,000 prescriptions. With the introduction of a new tool for registration, we...

  14. Determinants of intention to purchase leisure travel over the Internet


    Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita


    More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...

  15. A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Carvalho


    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD. Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, Fear of Pain (FPQ, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10, anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10, and perceived analgesic needs (0–10. Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (r=0.349, anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (r=-0.349, and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (r=0.313. Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (R2=0.443, p<0.0001; expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (R2=0.421, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.

  16. The Phytochemical Constituents, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas were investigated in mice and rats respectively. The phytochemical screening of the extract was also carried out. The analgesic effect was determined by acetic acid – induced writhing test in mice. While the anti- ...

  17. Pharmacological studies of Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parimala Krishnan

    of analgesic drugs produce serious adverse effects, such as GI disturbances, renal damages (with NSAIDs drugs), respiratory depression and possibly dependence (with opioids). It is understandable that proposition of analgesic agents with fewer adverse effects is desirable. One of the ways to achieve this aim is the use of ...

  18. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study. (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A


    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Nutritionally promoted fast foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  19. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.


    This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Glogovac


    Full Text Available Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyntetic derivatives with different pharmacological activity and analgesic action are obtained. Determinations and quantifications of narcotic analgesics in drug addicts are important in forensic medicine and clinical toxicology. With development of highly sensitive chromatography technique (HPLC-GC, GH-MS, more and more substances are determined, including opioid drugs: morphine, codeine, dyhydrocodeine, and heroin and 6-monoacetyl morphine. Hair analysys by HPLC/MS spectroscopy is an effective forensic tool for determining the use of abused drugs. The “fingerprint” for heroin in the mixture with the other substances(1-10 components is determined by 1D-TOCSY NMR.

  1. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive. (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K


    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    time of the animals treated with either standard or extract. Pentazocin ... standard. Results: The extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the two test dose ..... effectiveness of analgesic agents in the tail- flick pain ...

  3. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter


    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  5. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment? (United States)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, I W D; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M


    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  6. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik


    and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...

  7. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses. (United States)

    Skipper, Niels


    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparison of prescription drug use between community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly in Sweden. (United States)

    Johnell, Kristina; Fastbom, Johan


    Most previous studies about drug use in the elderly population have either investigated drug use in institutions or in the community-dwelling setting. Hence, very few studies have compared drug use in institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly, maybe because of a lack of sufficiently large databases. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in drug use patterns between community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs (used as a proxy for overall co-morbidity). We analysed data from individuals aged ≥65 years who filled at least one drug prescription between July and September 2008 and were consequently registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (n = 1,347,564; 1,260,843 community-dwelling and 86,721 institutionalized elderly). A list of current prescriptions was constructed for every individual on the arbitrarily chosen date 30 September 2008. Outcome measures were the 20 most common drug classes and the 20 most common individual drugs. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether institutionalization was associated with use of these drugs, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. Institutionalized elderly were more likely than community-dwelling elderly to use antidepressants, laxatives, minor analgesics, opioids and hypnotics/sedatives, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. On the contrary, institutionalization was negatively associated with use of lipid modifying agents, angiotensin II antagonists, selective calcium channel blockers, β-blocking agents and ACE inhibitors, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. Our results indicate that institutionalized elderly are more likely than community-dwelling elderly to use psychotropics, analgesics and laxatives, but less likely to receive recommended cardiovascular drug therapy, which may indicate a need for implementation of evidence-based guidelines for

  9. Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corroon Jr JM


    , particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical cannabis may not be influencing individual decision-making in this area. Keywords: cannabis, marijuana, prescription drugs, pain, analgesics, opioid

  10. Accounting for Taste Heterogeneity in Purchase Channel Intention Modeling: An Example from Northern California for Book Purchases


    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L


    This study uses latent class modeling (LCM) to explore the effects of channel-specific perceptions, along with other variables, on purchase channel intention. Using data on book purchases collected from an Internet-based survey of two university towns in Northern California, we develop a latent class model with two segments (final N=373). Age turns out to be the only observed determinant of class membership, and in the intention model, the mostly-younger segment is more cost-sensitive and the...

  11. The effectiveness of analgesic electrotherapy in the control of pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The change in pain perceived was assessed after a course of analgesic electrotherapy using a visual analogue scale as well as changes in use of analgesics and walking ability. Results: The level of pain reported and use of analgesics dropped significantly after the electrotherapy course, compared to the control group.

  12. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality. (United States)

    Copeland, C


    only the most efficacious drugs are covered. Anecdotal evidence suggests that copayments for prescriptions are going to increase. Some health plans are including prescription drug costs in their capitated payments to physicians. Furthermore, prescription drug plans are expected to use formularies more aggressively. In 1996, an average 5.47 outpatient prescriptions were written for those ages 55-64, compared with more than eight for those age 65 and older. Inevitably, this translated to significantly more spending for prescription drugs by the elderly. In 1994-1995, the average elderly individual (age 65 or older) spent $558 on prescription drugs, while the average 55-64-year-old spent $355. While prescription drugs are showing sharp price increases, they are also becoming more important in the treatment of many diseases. Consequently, both employers and policymakers must carefully balance the design and cost of a drug benefit so that continual innovation is preserved and the benefit can remain affordable and effective.

  13. A thematic analysis for how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process. (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Worley, Marcia M; Kjos, Andrea L; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W


    Typically, patients are unaware of the cost consequences regarding prescribing decisions during their clinical encounter and rarely talk with their physicians about costs of prescription drugs. Prescription medications that are deemed by patients to be too costly when the costs become known after purchase are discontinued or used at suboptimal doses compared to prescription medications that are deemed to be worth the cost. To learn more about the prescription choice process from several viewpoints, the purpose of this study was to uncover and describe how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process. Data were collected via 9 focus group interviews held between April 24 and July 31, 2007 (3 with patients, 3 with prescribers, 2 with experts, and 1 with patient advocates). The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The resulting text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner. Theme extraction was based on convergence and external divergence; that is, identified themes were internally consistent but distinct from one and another. To ensure quality and credibility of analysis, multiple analysts and multiple methods were used to provide a quality check on selective perception and blind interpretive bias that could occur through a single person doing all of the analysis or through employment of a single method. The findings revealed 5 overall themes related to the prescription choice process: (1) information, (2) relationship, (3) patient variation, (4) practitioner variation, and (5) role expectations. The results showed that patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates viewed the themes within differing contexts. It appears that the prescription choice process entails an interplay among information, relationship, patient variation, practitioner variation, and role expectations, with each viewed within different contexts by individuals engaged in such decision making.

  14. E-prescription as a tool for improving services and the financial viability of healthcare systems: the case of the Greek national e-prescription system. (United States)

    Pangalos, G; Sfyroeras, V; Pagkalos, I


    E-prescription systems can help improve patient service, safety and quality of care. They can also help achieve better compliance for the patients and better alignment with the guidelines for the practitioners. The recently implemented national e-prescription system in Greece already covers approximately 85% of all prescriptions prescribed in Greece today (approximately 5.5 million per month). The system has not only contributed already in significant changes towards improving services and better monitoring and planning of public health, but also substantially helped to contain unnecessary expenditure related to medication use and improve transparency and administrative control. Such issues have gained increasing importance not only for Greece but also for many other national healthcare systems that have to cope with the continuous rise of medication expenditure. Our implementation has, therefore, shown that besides their importance for improving services, national e-prescription systems can also provide a valuable tool for better utilisation of resources and for containing unnecessary healthcare costs, thus contributing to the improvement of the financial stability and viability of the overall healthcare system.

  15. Repeated Time-to-event Analysis of Consecutive Analgesic Events in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads


    BACKGROUND: Reduction in consumption of opioid rescue medication is often used as an endpoint when investigating analgesic efficacy of drugs by adjunct treatment, but appropriate methods are needed to analyze analgesic consumption in time. Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) modeling is proposed as a way...... to describe analgesic consumption by analyzing the timing of consecutive analgesic events. METHODS: Retrospective data were obtained from 63 patients receiving standard analgesic treatment including morphine on request after surgery following hip fracture. Times of analgesic events up to 96 h after surgery...... were extracted from hospital medical records. Parametric RTTE analysis was performed with exponential, Weibull, or Gompertz distribution of analgesic events using NONMEM®, version 7.2 (ICON Development Solutions, USA). The potential influences of night versus day, sex, and age were investigated...

  16. [Management of opioid maintenance treatments when analgesic treatments are required]. (United States)

    Laprevote, Vincent; Geoffroy, Pierre A; Rolland, Benjamin; Leheup, Benoît F; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Cottencin, Olivier; Schwan, Raymund


    Opioid maintenance treatments (OMT) reduce illicit opiate use and its associated risks. They are often prescribed on a long-term basis. Physiological changes induced by long-term OMT may cause hyperalgesia and cross-tolerance to opioid agonists, which suggests that the dosage of analgesic treatment should be modified in cases of acute pain, especially when an opioid-based analgesia is required. When treatment with analgesics is necessary, OMT must be maintained, except in exceptional cases. If a split-dosing schedule is temporarily employed during OMT, the daily dosage should not be increased for analgesic purposes. Analgesic treatment must be managed differently in case of treatment with buprenorphine or methadone. With buprenorphine, non-opioid analgesics should be introduced first, if possible. If this strategy is inefficient or contraindicated, a temporary or definitive switch to methadone should be considered. In the case of methadone-based OMT, opioid analgesics should be added directly and the dosage should be adapted according to the level of pain reported by the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Analgesic properties of Capraria biflora leaves aqueous extract. (United States)

    Acosta, S L; Muro, L V; Sacerio, A L; Peña, A R; Okwei, S N


    The analgesic properties of dried leaves of Capraria biflora were investigated. The aqueous extract (50-200 mg kg(-1)) produced moderate inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. At the same doses, a better analgesic effect was observed on the hot plate test.

  18. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain. (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick


    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  19. Impulsivity but not sensation seeking is associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in patients with chronic pain. (United States)

    Marino, Elise N; Rosen, Kristen D; Gutierrez, Antonio; Eckmann, Maxim; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe


    Impulsivity and sensation seeking have been associated with substance use disorders, including opioid use disorders. This pilot study sought to examine whether impulsivity and sensation seeking, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), were associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in chronic, low-back pain patients prescribed opioid analgesics. Participants were 42 chronic, low-back pain patients enrolled in a larger study examining problematic opioid analgesic use. Impulsivity was assessed using the BIS, sensation seeking was measured using the SSS, and opioid analgesic misuse risk was assessed using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Significant bivariate associations were found between the COMM and the following predictor variables: age and the three BIS subscales: Attentional Impulsiveness, Non-planning Impulsiveness, and Motor Impulsiveness. Using a multivariate linear regression, after controlling for age, the BIS subscales accounted for 29.0% of the variance in the COMM. Attentional Impulsiveness was the only significant BIS subscale. These results suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity, but not sensation seeking, and risk for opioid analgesic misuse. Impulsivity is not a prominent trait observed in chronic pain patients; however, it may be an important risk factor for opioid analgesic misuse for a subset of individuals with chronic pain. As such, these findings suggest that additional exploration of this potential risk factor is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice. Methods: Different groups of six ...

  1. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade


    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY


    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia,, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chun Lu


    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (PC is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine.



    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA


    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia,, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  5. Quality improvement activity for improving pain management in acute extremity injuries in the emergency department. (United States)

    Chang, Hyung Lan; Jung, Jin Hee; Kwak, Young Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Lee, Jin Hee; Jung, Jae Yun; Kwon, Hyuksool; Paek, So Hyun; Park, Joong Wan; Shin, Jonghwan


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a quality improvement activity for pain management in patients with extremity injury in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective interventional study. The patient group consisted of those at least 19 years of age who visited the ED and were diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases codes S40-S99 (extremity injuries). The quality improvement activity consisted of three measures: a survey regarding activities, education, and the triage nurse's pain assessment, including change of pain documentation on electronic medical records. The intervention was conducted from January to April in 2014 and outcome was compared between May and August in 2013 and 2014. The primary outcome was the rate of analgesic prescription, and the secondary outcome was the time to analgesic prescription. A total of 1,739 patients were included, and 20.3% of 867 patients in the pre-intervention period, and 28.8% of 872 patients in the post-intervention period received analgesics (P< 0.001). The prescription rate of analgesics for moderate-to-severe injuries was 36.4% in 2013 and 44.5% in 2014 (P=0.026). The time to analgesics prescription was 116.6 minutes (standard deviation 225.6) in 2013 and 64 minutes (standard deviation 75.5) in 2014 for all extremity injuries. The pain scoring increased from 1.4% to 51.6%. ED-based quality improvement activities including education and change of pain score documentation can improve the rate of analgesic prescription and time to prescription for patients with extremity injury in the ED.

  6. Partnership for Prescription Assistance (United States)

    ... may use our name without our permission. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance will help you find the ... Events Blog Facebook Twitter Start living better. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance helps qualifying patients without prescription ...

  7. A Method for Customer-driven Purchasing : Aligning Supplier interaction and Customer-driven manufacturing


    Bäckstrand, Jenny


    The role of a purchaser has traditionally focused on acquiring standard items at the lowest possible cost. The ability to reduce unit cost has been the key performance indicator for purchasers. Most traditional purchasing strategies thus focus on optimizing this situation, focusing on the supplier interface only and not on customer value. However, for many manufacturing companies, the demand from their customers has changed lately. Not only low‐cost standard products but also customized produ...

  8. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Rosen, Perth C; Gallardo, Manuel; Robles, Brenda; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Macalino, Grace E; Lozada, Remedios


    Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  9. Retrospective Evaluation of Analgesics Prescribing Pattern in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the analgesics prescribing pattern in the Accident and Emergency (A and E) Unit of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The data was retrieved from the pharmacy archives type of analgesics and its routes of administration whether oral or parenteral in all ...

  10. The Use of Analgesic and Other Pain-Relief Drugs to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain: Results from a National Survey. (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Ramiro, Sofia; Eusébio, Mónica; Machado, Pedro M; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C


    To analyze and characterize the intake profile of pain-relief drugs in a population-based study of adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). EpiReumaPt was a cross-sectional Portuguese population-based study (10,661 subjects). Self-reported active CLBP was considered to be low back pain on the day of enrollment and for ≥ 90 days. Prevalence and profile of analgesic intake was characterized among those self-reporting active CLBP, taking into account the intensity of pain and the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. We further investigated whether the presence of active CLBP was a factor independently associated with the intake of analgesics (adjusted for potential confounders). Among 1,487 subjects with active CLBP, only 18.7% were using analgesic/pain-relief drugs. Estimated prevalence was anxiolytics, 14.1%; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 12.3%; antidepressants, 10.1%; analgesic, antipyretics, 6.6%; anticonvulsants, 3.4%; central muscle relaxants, 2.6%; and analgesic opioids, 1.6%. Most subjects with severe pain were in the first step of the WHO analgesic ladder: NSAIDs plus anxiolytics (4.6%), NSAIDs plus antidepressants (3.2%), or NSAIDs plus muscle relaxants (2.5%). The presence of active CLBP was significantly associated with the intake of all therapeutic groups: antidepressants (odds ratio [OR] = 12.56; P pain-relief drug intake in patients with active CLBP was very low, even for those with severe pain. The WHO analgesic ladder was carefully followed, with an extremely conservative use of analgesic opioids even for those with severe pain. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  11. [Inappropriate prescription in older patients: the STOPP/START criteria].

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delgado Silveira, Eva


    Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers\\' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person\\'s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers\\' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP\\/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people.

  12. Outlook Analgesic Infusion Pumps Market Size - Trends and Opportunity Forecast to 2023




    Analgesic infusion pumps are instruments used to carry analgesic drugs directly into patient’s body directly for pain management. Analgesic drugs provide relief from chronic disorders, including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), failed back syndrome pain, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, myocardial ischemia, post-operative pain, and hypertension. Lidocaine, phenol and morphine are some of the common medicines used in analgesic infusion pumps. Explore Report At: https://www.psmarket...

  13. Prescription Writing Errors of Midwifery Students in Common Gynecological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serveh Parang


    Full Text Available Background and aim: Giving improper prescriptions is common among medical practitioners, mostly graduates, in most communities even developed countries. So far, to our knowledge, no study has been conducted on prescription writing of graduate midwifery students. Therefore, this study aimed to detect prescription writing errors of midwifery students in common gynecological problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 56 bachelor midwifery students, who had passed the theoretical and clinical courses of gynecology, were evaluated by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. A demographic questionnaire and a standard checklist for writing the prescriptions and medications were used for data collection. SPSS Version 16 was used to carry out descriptive statistics. Findings: Most of the students were single, with the mean age of 23.0±1.7 years. Most errors were related to not recording the patients’ age and sex, diagnosis, chief complaint, and the prescriber’s name (observed in less than 10% of the prescriptions. The complete dosage schedule and drug name were stated only in 1.8±4.8 and 14±18.6 of prescriptions, respectively. In more than 93% of the cases, route of use and treatment duration were not recorded. Conclusion: According to the results, the number of prescription errors of midwifery students was high. Therefore, it is recommended to run educational courses on prescription writing skills (e.g. writing prescriptions based on World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for the midwifery students.

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik


    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  15. Prescription opioid misuse in the United States and the United Kingdom: cautionary lessons. (United States)

    Weisberg, Daniel F; Becker, William C; Fiellin, David A; Stannard, Cathy


    In the United States, opioid analgesics have increasingly been prescribed in the treatment of chronic pain, and this trend has accompanied increasing rates of misuse and overdose. Lawmakers have responded with myriad policies to curb the growing epidemic of opioid misuse, and a global alarm has been sounded among countries wishing to avoid this path. In the United Kingdom, a similar trend of increasing opioid consumption, albeit at lower levels, has been observed without an increase in reported misuse or drug-related deaths. The comparison between these two countries in opioid prescribing and opioid overdose mortality underscores important features of prescribing, culture, and health systems that may be permissive or protective in the development of a public health crisis. As access to opioid medications increases around the world, it becomes vitally important to understand the forces impacting opioid use and misuse. Trends in benzodiazepine and methadone use in the UK as well as structural elements of the National Health Service may serve to buffer opioid-related harms in the face of increasing prescriptions. In addition, the availability and price of heroin, as well as the ease of access to opioid agonist treatment in the UK may limit the growth of the illicit market for prescription opioids. The comparison between the US and the UK in opioid consumption and overdose rates should serve as a call to action for UK physicians and policymakers. Basic, proactive steps in the form of surveillance - of overdoses, marketing practices, prescribers, and patients - and education programs may help avert a public health crisis as opioid prescriptions increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan


    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  17. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick


    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  18. Conotoxins Targeting Neuronal Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Subtypes: Potential Analgesics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. McArthur


    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC are the primary mediators of electrical signal amplification and propagation in excitable cells. VGSC subtypes are diverse, with different biophysical and pharmacological properties, and varied tissue distribution. Altered VGSC expression and/or increased VGSC activity in sensory neurons is characteristic of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. Therefore, VGSC modulators could be used in prospective analgesic compounds. VGSCs have specific binding sites for four conotoxin families: μ-, μO-, δ- and ί-conotoxins. Various studies have identified that the binding site of these peptide toxins is restricted to well-defined areas or domains. To date, only the μ- and μO-family exhibit analgesic properties in animal pain models. This review will focus on conotoxins from the μ- and μO-families that act on neuronal VGSCs. Examples of how these conotoxins target various pharmacologically important neuronal ion channels, as well as potential problems with the development of drugs from conotoxins, will be discussed.

  19. Dental therapeutic practice patterns in the U.S. II. Analgesics, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Nahouraii, Helen S; Zovko, Jayme G; Wisniewski, Stephen R


    This article examines the prescribing practices for peripherally acting and centrally acting analgesics, corticosteroids, and antibiotics following third molar extraction. A nationwide survey involving the prescribing patterns of a random national sample of 850 practicing oral surgeons was performed in 2004. Ibuprofen was the peripherally acting analgesic respondents used most frequently in the previous month, selected by 73.5% of the respondents. The ibuprofen dose prescribed most frequently was 800 mg, followed by doses of 600 mg and 400 mg. The centrally acting analgesic prescribed most frequently was the combination formulation of hydrocodone with acetaminophen, selected by 64.0% of the respondents. Recommendations for oral analgesics to manage postoperative pain relied on the peripherally acting analgesic ibuprofen or the centrally acting analgesic combination formulation hydrocodone with acetaminophen. Routine instructions to use centrally acting analgesics "as needed for pain" suggest that centrally acting analgesics are offered to manage pain that postoperative peripherally acting analgesics and intraoperative long-acting local anesthetics do not control adequately. The frequency with which oral and maxillofacial surgeons administered antibiotics and corticosteroids varied widely based on perceived patient need and dentist expectations.

  20. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work? (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B


    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  1. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (United States)

    Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M


    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities.

  2. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital. (United States)

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio


    The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26-30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD +/- 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the Medical and Surgical Sections

  3. The Supply of Prescription Opioids: Contributions of Episodic-Care Prescribers and High-Quantity Prescribers. (United States)

    Schneberk, Todd; Raffetto, Brian; Kim, David; Schriger, David L


    We determine episodic and high-quantity prescribers' contribution to opioid prescriptions and total morphine milligram equivalents in California, especially among individuals prescribed large amounts of opioids. This was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis of opioid prescribing patterns during an 8-year period using the de-identified Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System (CURES) database, the California subsection of the prescription drug monitoring program. We took a 10% random sample of all patients and stratified them by the amount of prescription opioids obtained during their maximal 90-day period. We identified "episodic prescribers" as those whose prescribing pattern included short-acting opioids on greater than 95% of all prescriptions, fewer than or equal to 31 pills on 95% of all prescriptions, only 1 prescription in the database for greater than 90% of all patients to whom they gave opioids, fewer than 6 prescriptions in the database to greater than 99% of patients given opioids, and fewer than 540 prescriptions per year. We identified top 5% prescribers by their morphine milligram equivalents per day in the database. We examined the relationship between patient opioid prescriptions and provider type, with the primary analysis performed on the patient cohort who received only short-acting opioids in an attempt to avoid guideline-concordant palliative, oncologic, and addiction care, and a secondary analysis performed on all patients. Among patients with short-acting opioid only, episodic prescribers (14.6% of 173,000 prescribers) wrote at least one prescription to 25% of 2.7 million individuals but were responsible for less than 9% of the 10.5 million opioid prescriptions and less than 3% of the 3.9 billion morphine milligram equivalents in our sample. Among individuals with high morphine milligram equivalents use, episodic prescribers were responsible for 2.8% of prescriptions and 0.6% of total morphine milligram equivalents

  4. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman


    Full Text Available Context The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking. Objective To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions. Design and Setting A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003. Results From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p < 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785. Conclusions PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  5. Case Report - Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end‑stage renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic nephropathy is a subtle but significant cause of chronic renal failure. There is paucity of data on analgesic nephropathy in Nigeria. This case presentation is to highlight the need to have high index of suspicion in patients at risk of developing analgesic nephropathy. In March 2009 a 55‑year‑old businessman was ...

  6. A model of the prescription-pharmaceutical sales process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stros


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors in marketing most relevant to achieving pharmaceutical sales success and their interrelations, as well as providing a prescription-pharmaceuticals sales process model. This will enable scholars to obtain a better understanding of the marketing process for prescription pharmaceuticals, as well as enabling marketers to apply more efficient marketing approaches. The study uses a unique data set, combining primary data and secondary data from the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market. The data is analysed using a multiple-regression based model. A multi-level data structure is found, suggesting that factors concerning the specific brand and also the pharmaceutical substance itself are relevant to sales success. It is revealed that the factors most relevant to sales success are: order of market entry, perceived product-quality, average price, and marketing expenditures, leading to practical recommendations for scholars and marketing professionals. The study focuses only on the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market, investigating five medical drug classes. The assumption is made that these results can be generalised to similar markets and drug classes. The study develops a conceptual prescription-pharmaceuticals sales-process model; offers practical guidelines and a good basis for further scholarly research are provided; and identifies several research gaps by giving proposals for future research.

  7. Impact of medicine-related information on medicine purchase and use by literate consumers. (United States)

    Thawani, Vijay R; Gharpure, Kunda J; Sontakke, Smita D


    To measure impact of information, education, and communication intervention (IEC) on rational medicine use, purchase, and stocking behavior. This was a pre- and post-design, interventional study. Base data were collected in first visit, using pre tested questionnaire from 500 respondents, who were of either gender, English speaking, at least graduates, permanent residents, and willing to participate. IEC was framed based on problems identified from this data. First intervention was handouts distributed in the second visit, containing information on cost saving in medicine purchase. Second intervention was a lecture session on medicine prices, rational use of medicines, and tips on saving on medicine purchase. Five articles about medicine use and price differences were published in the local newspaper, over 10 days, formed third intervention. After 1 month, post-intervention data was collected using same instrument with some additional questions. Results were analyzed by Chi-square test using Graph Pad prism Version 3.0. Awareness about price variation, self-medication, expiry period, generic and brand quality increased post-intervention. Attitudes toward new, costly, brands, injections, sharing and reusing old prescriptions changed post-intervention. Behavioral changes in stocking habits, adherence to doctors' advice, getting cash memo, comparing prices, reading labels, were seen post-intervention. People carry false notions about medicines which influence their use and habits. This intervention successfully changed behavior and could bring awareness on many aspects of medicine use.

  8. The application characteristics of Zhongjing external prescription medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application characteristics of Zhongjing prescription topical Chinese medicine. Methods: in this paper, according to the dosage form, Zhongjing topical agent will be divided into suppository, smoked lotion, apply is scattered, plug nasal powder four categories. Through an analysis on its books, records, and clinical applications, we are able to sum up the application characteristics of the zhongjing agent for external use. Results: in the clinical medicine, topical Zhongjing prescription cure of the disease has a long history of the role, through the analysis of Zhongjing topical prescription whole thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking and characteristics of treatment technology that has the characteristics of topical drugs, dosage form differentiation flexible, external treatment for internal diseases, both inside and outside. Conclusion: topical medicine not only in the clinical treatment effect is good, and to inherit and develop Zhang Zhongjing thought of medicine, medical practice, law, strengthen Zhong Jing prescription and medicine, to enrich TCM clinical diagnosis and treatment methods to improve the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine clinics provide high standards of service for patients.

  9. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  10. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Gauld, Natalie J; Kelly, Fiona S; Emmerton, Lynne M; Buetow, Stephen A


    Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience. The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch'), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  11. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon. Corresponding ... Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol ... advertisements for analgesics in the media. Funding: .... based on awareness of its use, required dosage,.

  12. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner. (United States)

    Kingon, Angus


    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  14. Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temtem, Carolina; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum


    Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed...... for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption......, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens. Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with >50 sows and >200 weaners...

  15. Using Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit Illegal Drug Purchasers to Evaluate a Drug Market Intervention. (United States)

    Ober, Allison J; Sussell, Jesse; Kilmer, Beau; Saunders, Jessica; Heckathorn, Douglas D


    Violent drug markets are not as prominent as they once were in the United States, but they still exist and are associated with significant crime and lower quality of life. The drug market intervention (DMI) is an innovative strategy that uses focused deterrence, community engagement, and incapacitation to reduce crime and disorder associated with these markets. Although studies show that DMI can reduce crime and overt drug activity, one perspective is prominently missing from these evaluations: those who purchase drugs. This study explores the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a statistical sampling method-to approximate a representative sample of drug users who purchased drugs in a targeted DMI market to gain insight into the effect of a DMI on market dynamics. Using RDS, we recruited individuals who reported hard drug use (crack or powder cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, or illicit use of prescriptions opioids) in the last month to participate in a survey. The main survey asked about drug use, drug purchasing, and drug market activity before and after DMI; a secondary survey asked about network characteristics and recruitment. Our sample of 212 respondents met key RDS assumptions, suggesting that the characteristics of our weighted sample approximate the characteristics of the drug user network. The weighted estimates for market purchasers are generally valid for inferences about the aggregate population of customers, but a larger sample size is needed to make stronger inferences about the effects of a DMI on drug market activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum. (United States)

    Das, B K; Al-Amin, M M; Russel, S M; Kabir, S; Bhattacherjee, R; Hannan, J M A


    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (Panalgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent.

  17. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase. (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.


    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  18. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector


    Pazirandeh, Ala


    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  19. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs: Exploiting a Regression Kink Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....... kink design. Thus, within a unifying framework we uncover price sensitivity for different subpopulations and types of drugs. The results suggest low average price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from -0.08 to -0.25, implying that demand is inelastic. Individuals with lower...

  20. Prescription Opioids (United States)

    ... therapy in a primary care setting struggles with opioid addiction. 4,5,6 Once addicted, it can be ... of drug overdose deaths involving methadone and other opioid analgesics in West Virginia. Addiction 2009;104(9):1541-8. Dunn KM, Saunders ...

  1. Analgesic effects of tramadol, carprofen or multimodal analgesia in rats undergoing ventral laparotomy. (United States)

    Zegre Cannon, Coralie; Kissling, Grace E; Goulding, David R; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry


    In this study, the authors evaluated the analgesic efficacy of tramadol (an opioid-like analgesic), carprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and a combination of both drugs (multimodal therapy) in a rat laparotomy model. The authors randomly assigned rats to undergo either surgery (abdominal laparotomy with visceral manipulation and anesthesia) or anesthesia only. Rats in each group were treated with tramadol (12.5 mg per kg body weight), carprofen (5 mg per kg body weight), a combination of tramadol and carprofen (12.5 mg per kg body weight and 5 mg per kg body weight, respectively) or saline (anesthesia control group only; 5 mg per kg body weight). The authors administered analgesia 10 min before anesthesia, 4 h after surgery or (for the rats that received anesthesia only) anesthesia and 24 h after surgery or anesthesia. They measured locomotor activity, running wheel activity, feed and water consumption, body weight and fecal corticosterone concentration of each animal before and after surgery. Clinical observations were made after surgery or anesthesia to evaluate signs of pain and distress. The authors found that carprofen, tramadol and a combination of carprofen and tramadol were all acceptable analgesia regimens for a rat laparotomy model.

  2. Race-Ethnicity and Prescription Drug Misuse: Does Self-esteem Matter? (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L; Miller, Paula K; Jackson, Emmanuel


    The research here investigates race-ethnicity and self-esteem in the misuse of prescription drugs. While there has been much research into the demographic factors that predict prescription drug misuse (PDM), we lack a full accounting of psychosocial factors of possible importance in influencing patterns of race-ethnicity and PDM. One possible influence is self-esteem. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey on Adolescent Health to investigate race-ethnicity, PDM and self-esteem. Findings indicate first that race-ethnicity is significant is PDM. Secondly, results indicate that self-esteem is important in understanding patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults, but only among whites.

  3. Looking at prescription quality in Ayurveda: Developing, validating and pilot testing a prescription quality index for Ayurveda. (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjeev


    Prescription quality can be a direct predictor of the net outcome of a health care delivery effort. Quality of prescription may be considered as a cumulative matrix of multiple components of a prescription on the basis of their relative importance. Prescription quality index is a recognized tool in clinical medicine for multiple purposes including the prediction of health care intervention outcome. Considering the importance of prescription quality among every system of medicine, an attempt was made to design a prescription quality index for Ayurveda. The Prescription Quality Index for Ayurveda was designed through item selection following a thorough literature search and was validated through multiple peer group discussions. Final draft of index containing 38 individual items carrying different scores as per their importance in the prescription was subjected to a pilot test upon 1576 indoor prescriptions generated in 2015 at State Ayurvedic College Hospital, Lucknow. The study revealed large information gaps in the components of the prescription where it was supposed to be noted by the prescribers. These gaps in the Ayurvedic prescriptions were most significant in the areas pertaining to Ayurvedic fundamentals of clinical examination, disease diagnosis and Ayurvedic drug intake methods. Prescription Quality Index for Ayurveda was found useful in underlining the gaps between the ideal and generated prescriptions. This can be utilized as a useful tool to evaluate the quality of Ayurvedic prescriptions by seeing their adherence to the standard prescription template. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect? (United States)

    Chan, Vincent; Tran, Hung


    Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health.

  5. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan


    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  6. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987. (United States)

    Greenberg, R B


    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations.

  7. Quality Improvement Initiative to Decrease Variability of Emergency Physician Opioid Analgesic Prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Burton


    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing pain is a crucial aspect of emergency medicine. Prescription opioids are commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain in the emergency department (ED; unfortunately, prescribing practices are variable. High variability of opioid prescribing decisions suggests a lack of consensus and an opportunity to improve care. This quality improvement (QI initiative aimed to reduce variability in ED opioid analgesic prescribing. Methods: We evaluated the impact of a three-part QI initiative on ED opioid prescribing by physicians at seven sites. Stage 1: Retrospective baseline period (nine months. Stage 2: Physicians were informed that opioid prescribing information would be prospectively collected and feedback on their prescribing and that of the group would be shared at the end of the stage (three months. Stage 3: After physicians received their individual opioid prescribing data with blinded comparison to the group means (from Stage 2 they were informed that individual prescribing data would be unblinded and shared with the group after three months. The primary outcome was variability of the standard error of the mean and standard deviation of the opioid prescribing rate (defined as number of patients discharged with an opioid divided by total number of discharges for each provider. Secondary observations included mean quantity of pills per opioid prescription, and overall frequency of opioid prescribing. Results: The study group included 47 physicians with 149,884 ED patient encounters. The variability in prescribing decreased through each stage of the initiative as represented by the distributions for the opioid prescribing rate: Stage 1 mean 20%; Stage 2 mean 13% (46% reduction, p<0.01, and Stage 3 mean 8% (60% reduction, p<0.01. The mean quantity of pills prescribed per prescription was 16 pills in Stage 1, 14 pills in Stage 2 (18% reduction, p<0.01, and 13 pills in Stage 3 (18% reduction, p<0.01. The group mean

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  9. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.


    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  10. Safety of lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain: a post-marketing study of analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam compared with standard analgesic treatment in 3752 day-case surgery patients. (United States)

    Rawal, Narinder; Krøner, Karsten; Simin-Geertsen, Marija; Hejl, Charlotte; Likar, Rudolf


    Post-marketing surveillance studies can provide supplemental data on the safety of medications in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of analgesic regimens including the NSAID lornoxicam in the short-term treatment of postoperative pain in a clinically relevant population. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study of 4 days' duration. In-hospital postoperative setting, with discharge to home treatment within 24 hours of surgery. Adults aged > or =18 years expected to be in need of analgesic treatment after day-case surgery. Analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam were compared with a standard analgesic treatment, which was defined as the treatment that the patient would normally receive at the centre. Following day-case surgery, patients were provided with appropriate analgesic medication, and adverse events (AEs; defined as all recorded events with symptoms) were recorded by the investigator during the in-hospital stay and by the patient for the next 3 days using entries recorded morning and evening in a patient diary. Statistical analyses tested for between-treatment differences in AEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as events probably, possibly or unlikely to be related to treatment) and gastrointestinal AEs (GI-AEs). A total of 4152 patients were randomized to treatment. Since 400 patients did not take any analgesic, the safety population consisted of 1838 patients for lornoxicam and 1914 patients for standard analgesic treatment. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the two treatment groups, as were the type of surgery and the anaesthesia used in surgery. In the safety population, 16.9% of patients received no analgesic in hospital, and when analgesics were provided they were often administered in combination. Similarly, approximately 17% of patients did not take any analgesics at home. AEs were reported in 27.1% and 29.4% of patients in the lornoxicam and standard

  11. One in 3 prescriptions are never redeemed: primary nonadherence in an outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, A.; Andersen, S.E.; Benfeldt, E.


    or hospitalizations within 4 weeks. RESULTS: In all, 30.7% of the 322 eligible patients did not collect their medication. Patients with psoriasis were least adherent with nearly 50% of the prescriptions being unredeemed. LIMITATIONS: Only initial prescriptions for previously untried medications issued to hospital...

  12. Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients. (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe; Walsh, Zach


    In 2014 Health Canada replaced the Marihuana for Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) with the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR). One of the primary changes in the new program has been to move from a single Licensed Producer (LP) of cannabis to multiple Licensed Producers. This is the first comprehensive survey of patients enrolled in the MMPR. Patients registered to purchase cannabis from Tilray, a federally authorized Licenced Producer (LP) within the MMPR, were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 107 questions on demographics, patterns of use, and cannabis substitution effect. The survey was completed by 271 respondents. Cannabis is perceived to be an effective treatment for diverse conditions, with pain and mental health the most prominent. Findings include high self-reported use of cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs (63%), particularly pharmaceutical opioids (30%), benzodiazepines (16%), and antidepressants (12%). Patients also reported substituting cannabis for alcohol (25%), cigarettes/tobacco (12%), and illicit drugs (3%). A significant percentage of patients (42%) reported accessing cannabis from illegal/unregulated sources in addition to access via LPs, and over half (55%) were charged to receive a medical recommendation to use cannabis, with nearly 25% paying $300 or more. The finding that patients report its use as a substitute for prescription drugs supports prior research on medical cannabis users; however, this study is the first to specify the classes of prescription drugs for which cannabis it is used as a substitute, and to match this substitution to specific diagnostic categories. The findings that some authorized patients purchase cannabis from unregulated sources and that a significant percentage of patients were charged for medical cannabis recommendations highlight ongoing policy challenges for this federal program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 48 CFR 811.104-70 - Brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal... Requirements Documents 811.104-70 Brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) The specification writer may use purchase descriptions that contain references to one or more brand name products only in...

  14. [Changes in prescription patterns for peripheral and cerebral vasoactive drugs before and after establishing prescription standards in France]. (United States)

    Vuittenez, F; Guignard, E; Comte, S


    Assess changes in the number of prescriptions for peripheral and cerebral vasoactive drugs for the treatment of lower limb arteritis and cerebrovascular disease since the promulgation in 1995 of prescription standards for the treatment of lower limb arteritis. Assess compliance to prescription standards with a detailed analysis of patient features, prescriptions written for lower limb arteritis, cerebrovascular disease and concomitant diseases and evaluate changes in treatment costs for lower limb arteritis and cerebrovascular disease as well as cost of the full prescription, including treatments for associated diseases. This study was based on data recorded during the Permanent Study of Medical Prescriptions conducted from March 1994 to February 1995 and from March 1995 to February 1996 by the IMS. Prescription costs were established from the National Description Files of the IMS. Treatment costs were expressed as public price (FF) tax included. Prescriptions meeting the following criteria were selected for each period: prescriptions written by general practitioners for drugs with peripheral and cerebral vasoactivity (excepting calcium antagonists with a cerebral target) belonging to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classes C4A1 of the European Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Association, Bromly 1996; prescriptions for diagnoses 447.6 (arteritis) and 437.9 (cerebrovascular disease) according to the 9th WHO classification. A random sample of 500 prescriptions was selected to calculate costs. Since the advent of the prescription standards in 1995, prescriptions have dropped off by 6.3% for lower limb arteritis and by 14.8% for cerebrovascular disease. There was a 3.7 point decline in the percentage of multiple prescriptions of vasoactive drugs for lower limb arteritis (21.7% prior to March 1995 versus 18% after promulgation of the prescription standards, p > 0.1) and a 1.8 increase in the percentage of multiple prescriptions for cerebrovascular disease (14% prior to March

  15. Analgesics use in competitive triathletes: its relationship to doping and on predicting its usage. (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Dalaker, Robert; Letzel, Stephan; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles


    The two major objectives of this study were (i) to assess variables that predict the use of analgesics in competitive athletes and (ii) to test whether the use of analgesics is associated with the use of doping. A questionnaire primarily addressing the use of analgesics and doping was distributed among 2,997 triathletes. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the use of analgesics. Moreover, the randomised response technique (RRT) was used to estimate the prevalence of doping in order to assess whether users of analgesics have a higher potential risk for doping than non-users. Statistical power analyses were performed to determine sample size. The bootstrap method was used to assess the statistical significance of the prevalence difference for doping between users and non-users of analgesics. Four variables from a pool of 16 variables were identified that predict the use of analgesics. These were: "version of questionnaire (English)", "gender (female)", "behaviour in case of pain (continue training)", and "hours of training per week (>12 h/week)". The 12-month prevalence estimate for the use of doping substances (overall estimate 13.0%) was significantly higher in athletes that used analgesics (20.4%) than in those athletes who did not use analgesics (12.4%). The results of this study revealed that athletes who use analgesics prior to competition may be especially prone to using doping substances. The predictors of analgesic use found in the study may be of importance to prepare education material and prevention models against the misuse of drugs in athletes.

  16. Pattern of medication selling and self-medication practices: A study from Punjab, Pakistan. (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Majid; Masood, Imran; Yousaf, Mahreen; Saleem, Hammad; Ye, Dan; Fang, Yu


    Access to medicines without prescription is a major contributing factor for self-medication practices. This study was designed to examine the ratio of non-prescribed medicines sales and self-medication practices in Punjab, Pakistan. This study also evaluates the reasons for self-medication within its communities. An observational study was conducted in 272 systemically selected pharmacies to analyze medicines-related sales, with or without prescription. A cross-sectional survey was performed between June 2015 and November 2016. Consumers were interviewed about their self-medication practices. Of the pharmacies surveyed, 65.3% participated in the study. A total of 4348 medicines were purchased for self-medication by 3037 consumers (15.2% of all study participants), of which 873 (28.7%) participated in an interview. Majority (81.2%) medicine purchaser, (90.9%) interview participants, and (59.4%) drug users were male. On average, each community pharmacy sold 7.9 medicines without prescription each day, to an average of 5.5 customers. Many participants (28.9%) had matriculation in their formal education. The medicines most often sold for self-medication were analgesics and antipyretics(39.4%). More than 25% of participants reported fever symptoms and 47.8% assumed their illness was too trivial to consult a doctor. Media advertisements were the most common source of information for participants (46.7%). Many types of medicines were often sold without prescription from community pharmacies. Self-medication was common practice for a wide range of illnesses. Pakistan also needs effective implementation of policies to monitor medication sales. Public education about rational medication and limits to advertising medicine are very necessary.

  17. Validity of the Prescriber Information in the Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Valentin, Julie; Gesser, Katarina Margareta


    The aim of this study was to measure the validity of the prescriber information recorded in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR). The prescriber information recorded in the pharmacies' electronic dispensing system was considered to represent the prescriber information recorded...... in the DNPR. Further, the problem of validity of the prescriber information pertains only to non-electronic prescriptions, as these are manually entered into the dispensing system. The recorded prescriber information was thus validated against information from a total of 2,000 non-electronic prescriptions...... at five Danish community pharmacies. The validity of the recorded prescriber information was measured at the level of the individual prescriber and the prescriber type, respectively. The proportion of non-electronic prescriptions with incorrect registrations was 22.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 20...

  18. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob


    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  19. Prescriptions for schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines increase after the introduction of computer-generated prescriptions. (United States)

    McGerald, Genevieve; Dvorkin, Ronald; Levy, David; Lovell-Rose, Stephanie; Sharma, Adhi


    Prescriptions for controlled substances decrease when regulatory barriers are put in place. The converse has not been studied. The objective was to determine whether a less complicated prescription writing process is associated with a change in the prescribing patterns of controlled substances in the emergency department (ED). The authors conducted a retrospective nonconcurrent cohort study of all patients seen in an adult ED between April 19, 2005, and April 18, 2007, who were discharged with a prescription. Prior to April 19, 2006, a specialized prescription form stored in a locked cabinet was obtained from the nursing staff to write a prescription for benzodiazepines or Schedule II opioids. After April 19, 2006, New York State mandated that all prescriptions, regardless of schedule classification, be generated on a specialized bar-coded prescription form. The main outcome of the study was to compare the proportion of Schedule III-V opioids to Schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines prescribed in the ED before and after the introduction of a less cumbersome prescription writing process. Of the 26,638 charts reviewed, 2.1% of the total number of prescriptions generated were for a Schedule II controlled opioid before the new system was implemented compared to 13.6% after (odds ratio [OR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.4 to 8.4). The corresponding percentages for Schedule III-V opioids were 29.9% to 18.1% (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.55) and for benzodiazepines 1.4% to 3.9% (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.4). Patients were more likely to receive a prescription for a Schedule II opioid or a benzodiazepine after a more streamlined computer-generated prescription writing process was introduced in this ED. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. Factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use - a population-based study of more than 45,000 Danish women and men 18-45 years of age. (United States)

    Hargreave, Marie; Andersen, Tina Veje; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li; Kjaer, Susanne K


    Widespread use of and serious adverse effects associated with use of analgesics accentuates the need to consider factors related to analgesic use. The objective of this study was to describe continuous regular analgesics use and examine factors associated with a continuous regular analgesic use. The study was based on data from two surveys and included a random sample of women and men aged 18-45 years from the general Danish population. Information on analgesics use, self-rated health, demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 28,000 women and 33 000 men were invited to participate and 22,199 women (response-rate 81.4%) and 23,080 men (response-rate 71.0%), respectively, were included in the study. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that 27% of the women and 18% of the men reported a regular monthly use of at least seven analgesic tablets during the last year (continuous regular analgesics use). Besides poor self-rated health we found in both sexes that increasing age, poor self-rated fitness, and smoking were related to a continuous regular analgesics use. Nulliparity, low level of education, overweight/obesity, binge drinking, and abstinence were associated with a continuous regular analgesics use for women, while underweight and marital/cohabiting status were associated with a continuous regular analgesics use only for men. Regular monthly analgesic use during the last year was generally prevalent. Besides self-rated health, several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with a continuous regular analgesic use, although with some gender differences.

  1. Does the use of a brief cryotherapy intervention with analgesic administration improve pain management after total knee arthroplasty? (United States)

    Wittig-Wells, Deborah; Johnson, Ifeya; Samms-McPherson, Jacqueline; Thankachan, Soosan; Titus, Bobina; Jacob, Ani; Higgins, Melinda


    Prior studies have evaluated only the prolonged use of cryotherapy as a nonpharmacologic pain intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute application of cryotherapy at the time pain medication was given after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provided better pain relief than analgesic drugs alone. A pretest, posttest, randomized controlled trial study design with crossover was used to evaluate the effects of cryotherapy on postoperative pain and satisfaction with pain management. A convenience sample of postoperative knee replacement patients constituted participants in the study. Two sequential episodes of pain requiring analgesic administration were studied in each patient, one with a 30-minute cryotherapy application and the other without cryotherapy. Dependent variables were changes in pain (posttest minus pretest) and level of satisfaction with pain management. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance, with p cryotherapy administration for the other pain episode. No significant difference between the two treatments was found for changes in pain scores after the treatments or patient satisfaction with pain management (p > .05). The order in which the treatments were provided was found to be significant (p = .02) for scores on patient satisfaction with pain management, with cryotherapy as the treatment for the second pain episode having higher scores than when delivered for the first pain episode. Sixty minutes after analgesic administration with or without cryotherapy, average pain scores remained greater than 7. In TKA patients, the short-term application of cryotherapy with analgesic medication administration did not significantly decrease pain or improve patient satisfaction with pain management compared with analgesic medication administration only. Further study is necessary to determine whether short-term cryotherapy shortly after TKA is of benefit to pain relief and patient satisfaction.

  2. A prescription fraud detection model. (United States)

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan


    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourmotabbed


    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  4. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupka Zoran


    Full Text Available Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car, medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (TV, and low risk and low level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (confectionery products. Also, this paper investigates importance of country of manufacturing for purchase decision-making process in relation to country of origin’s importance. Research was conducted on 215 respondents from Belgium and Republic of Croatia. Results have shown that country of origin is important only for car purchase, but not for TV and confectionery products. For all product categories, country of origin has been shown to be more important in the decision-making process than country of manufacturing.

  5. Post natal use of analgesics: comparisons between conventional postnatal wards and a maternity hotel. (United States)

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Eskild, Anne; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd


    To investigate factors related to analgesic use after delivery, and especially whether rates of analgesic use were different in a midwife-managed maternity hotel as compared to conventional postnatal wards. One maternity hotel and two conventional postnatal wards at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. Data were obtained from hospital records for 804 women with vaginal deliveries. Postnatal analgesic use. Overall, approximately half the women used analgesics after vaginal delivery in both conventional postnatal wards and maternity hotel. The factors that were significantly associated with use of analgesics postnatally in multivariate analysis were multiparity, having a non-Western ethnicity, smoking in pregnancy, younger age, instrumental delivery, analgesic use during labour, maternal complications post partum, and duration of postnatal stay 4 days or more. The use of analgesics is determined by socio-demographic and obstetric factors rather than the organisation of the ward.

  6. Prescription drug coupons: evolution and need for regulation in direct-to-consumer advertising. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Yagi, Nozomi; Liang, Bryan A


    Pharmaceutical marketing in the United States had undergone a shift from largely exclusively targeting physicians to considerable efforts in targeting patients through various forms of direct-to-consumer advertising ("DTCA"). This includes the use of DTCA in prescription drug coupons ("PDCs"), a new form of DTCA that offers discounts and rebates directly to consumers to lower costs of drug purchasing. Our examination of PDCs reveals that the use and types of PDC programs is expanding and includes promotion of the vast majority of top grossing pharmaceuticals. However, controversy regarding this emerging form of DTCA has given rise to health policy concerns about their overall impact on prescription drug expenditures for consumers, payers, and the health care system, and whether they lead to optimal long-term utilization of pharmaceuticals. In response to these concerns and the growing popularity of PDCs, what we propose here are clearer regulation and regulatory guidance for PDC DTCA use. This would include review for appropriate disclosure of marketing claims, increased transparency in PDC use for pharmaceutical pricing, and leveraging potential positive benefits of PDC use for vulnerable or underserved patient populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualization of medicine prescription behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corput, van der P.N.A.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Wijk, van J.J.


    Medicine prescriptions play an important role in medical treatments. More insight in medicine prescription behavior can lead to more efficient and effective treatments, as well as reflection on prescription behavior for specific physicians, types of medicines, or classes of patients. Most current

  8. Dose prescription complexity versus tumor control probability in biologically conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, C. P.; Evans, P. M.; Partridge, M.


    The technical feasibility and potential benefits of voxel-based nonuniform dose prescriptions for biologically heterogeneous tumors have been widely demonstrated. In some cases, an ''ideal'' dose prescription has been generated by individualizing the dose to every voxel within the target, but often this voxel-based prescription has been discretized into a small number of compartments. The number of dose levels utilized and the methods used for prescribing doses and assigning tumor voxels to different dose compartments have varied significantly. The authors present an investigation into the relationship between the complexity of the dose prescription and the tumor control probability (TCP) for a number of these methods. The linear quadratic model of cell killing was used in conjunction with a number of modeled tumors heterogeneous in clonogen density, oxygenation, or proliferation. Models based on simple mathematical functions, published biological data, and biological image data were investigated. Target voxels were assigned to dose compartments using (i) simple rules based on the initial biological distribution, (ii) iterative methods designed to maximize the achievable TCP, or (iii) methods based on an ideal dose prescription. The relative performance of the simple rules was found to depend on the form of heterogeneity of the tumor, while the iterative and ideal dose methods performed comparably for all models investigated. In all cases the maximum achievable TCP was approached within the first few (typically two to five) compartments. Results suggest that irrespective of the pattern of heterogeneity, the optimal dose prescription can be well approximated using only a few dose levels but only if both the compartment boundaries and prescribed dose levels are well chosen.

  9. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust


    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  10. Nature, frequency and determinants of prescription modifications in Dutch community pharmacies (United States)

    Buurma, Henk; de Smet, Peter A G M; van den Hoff, Olga P; Egberts, Antoine C G


    Aims To examine the nature, frequency and determinants of prescription modifications in Dutch community pharmacies. Methods A prospective case-control study comparing modified prescriptions with nonmodified prescriptions was carried out in 141 Dutch community pharmacies. 2014 modified prescriptions (cases), collected in the selected pharmacies on a predetermined day in a specific period (25th February until 12th March 1999) and 2581 nonmodified prescriptions (controls) randomly selected on the same day were studied. The nature and frequency of prescription modifications and patient, drug and prescriber related determinants for a modified prescription were assessed. Results The overall incidence of prescription modifications was 4.3%, with a mean of 14.3 modifications per pharmacy per day. For prescription only medicines (POM) the incidence was 4.9%. The majority of POM modifications concerned a clarification (71.8%). In 22.2% a prescription could potentially have had clinical consequences when not altered; in more than half of the latter it concerned a dose error (13.7% of all cases). POM prescriptions of patients of 40–65 years had a significantly lower chance of modification compared with those of younger people (OR = 0.74 [0.64–0.86]). With respect to medication-class, we found a higher chance of POM modifications in the respiratory domain (OR = 1.48 [1.23-1.79]) and a decreased chance for nervous system POMs (OR = 0.71 [0.61–0.83]). With regard to prescriber-related determinants modifications were found three times more often in non printed prescriptions than in printed ones (OR = 3.30 [2.90-3.75]). Compared with prescriptions by the patient's own GP, prescriptions of specialists (OR = 1.82 [1.57-2.11]), other GP's (OR = 1.49 [1.02-2.17]) and other prescribers such as dentists and midwives (OR = 1.95 [1.06-3.57]) gave a higher probability of prescription modifications. When a GP had no on-line access to the computer of the pharmacy the chance of a

  11. Analysis of costs to dispense prescriptions in independently owned, closed-door long-term care pharmacies. (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V; Rupp, Michael T; Holdford, David A


    The need for accurate calculation of long-term care (LTC) pharmacies' costs to dispense (CTD) has become more important as payers have moved toward reimbursement models based on pharmacies' actual acquisition cost for drug products and the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented requirements that LTC pharmacies must dispense prescriptions for certain branded drugs in 14-day-or-less quantities. To (a) calculate the average cost that the typical independently owned, closed-door LTC pharmacy currently incurs to dispense and deliver a prescription to the resident of a client LTC facility and (b) estimate how CMS-mandated changes to a 14-day-or-less dispensing cycle would affect the typical LTC pharmacy's average CTD. The data requirements and measurement model were developed by academic researchers in consultation with an industry advisory committee of independent LTC pharmacy owners. A survey instrument was constructed to collect financial and operating data required to calculate the CTD. Surveys were distributed via 3 dissemination channels to approximately 1,000 independently owned, closed-door LTC pharmacies. The National Community Pharmacists Association mailed surveys to their LTC members; 3 major national wholesalers distributed surveys to their LTC customers through their newsletters; and 3 LTC group purchasing organizations distributed the surveys to their members through emails, newsletters, mailings, and/or regional meetings. Each pharmacy's CTD was calculated by dividing total LTC dispensing-related 
costs by the total number of prescriptions dispensed. Dispensing-related costs included costs incurred to physically dispense and deliver prescriptions (e.g., dispensing pharmacists' and technicians' salaries and costs of medication containers) and costs incurred to support the dispensing function (e.g., salaries of delivery and medical records personnel). A model based on dispensing-related fixed, variable, and semivariable costs was

  12. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013 (United States)

    Krnic, Darko; Anic-Matic, Andrea; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Draganic, Pero; Zezelic, Sasa; Puljak, Livia


    Background The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids), ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group) and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B). The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in Croatia corresponds to patient needs. PMID:26357478

  13. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of n-hexane extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia Sm, family: Violaceace. Methods: The n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (VBHF) was tested for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced ...

  14. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats


    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.


    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decr...

  15. The evidence of neuraxial administration of analgesics for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Benthien, K S; Nordly, M


    related to cancer, pain, neuraxial route, analgesic and side effects. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. Studies were analysed according to methods, results, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 2147, and 84 articles were selected for full reading. The final selection comprised nine articles regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) divided in four groups: neuraxial combinations of opioid and adjuvant analgesic compared with neuraxial administration of opioid alone (n = 4); single...... neuraxial drug in bolus compared with continuous administration (n = 2); single neuraxial drug compared with neuraxial placebo (n = 1); and neuraxial opioid combined with or without adjuvant analgesic compared with other comprehensive medical management than neuraxial analgesics (n = 2). The RCTs presented...

  16. Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana, Mill (Lauraceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain relief. Based on its ethnomedicinal use in pain management, the seed of the plant was extracted with distilled water and screened for analgesic activity. The analgesic screening was done in mice using four models: acetic ...

  17. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  18. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches. (United States)

    Branthwaite, A; Cooper, P


    The effect of branding--that is, the labelling and marketing--of a well-known proprietary analgesic used to treat headaches was studied in a sample of women given a branded or unbranded form with either an inert or an active formulation. The sample was also divided according to whether the subjects were regular users of the brand or users of other brands. The findings showed that branded tablets were overall significantly more effective than unbranded tablets in relieving headaches. Differential effects were observed: the effects of branding were more noticeable one hour after the tablets were taken compared with 30 minutes; in the women given the placebo; and in the users of the brand compared with the users of other brands. It is hypothesised that these effects are due to increased confidence in obtaining relief with a well-known brand, and that branding has an analgesic effect that interacts with the analgesic effects of placebos and active ingredients. PMID:6786566

  19. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  20. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  1. Women who abuse prescription opioids: findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version Connect prescription opioid database. (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H; Butler, Stephen F


    Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, phistory of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted.

  2. Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Miloš


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

  3. Prescription Pattern Analysis of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Northeastern Iranian Population. (United States)

    Zeinali, Majid; Tabeshpour, Jamshid; Maziar, Seyed Vahid; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sent, Danielle; Azarkhiavi, Kamal Razavi; Eslami, Saeid


    Inappropriate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy is a common cause of actual and potential adverse effects, such as bleeding and gastrointestinal ulceration, which exacerbates the patient's medical condition and might even be life threatening. We aimed to evaluate and analyze the prescription pattern of NSAIDs in Northeastern Iranian population and also provide suggestions for a more rational prescription behavior for such drugs. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, pattern of 1-year prescriptions was inspected based on 9.3 million prescriptions from two insurance companies. Type of NSAIDs, all dispensed doses and the number of NSAIDs ordered per prescription, and the route of administration for each patient were extracted from the databases. The prescription pattern of NSAIDs was analyzed seasonally. Out of 9,303,585 prescriptions, 19.3% contained at least one NSAID. Diclofenac was the most commonly prescribed NSAID (49.21%). At least two NSAIDs were simultaneously prescribed in 7% of prescriptions. General practitioners prescribed NSAIDs more frequently (67%) than specialists. Orthopedic surgeons and internists more frequently prescribed NSAIDs in comparison with other physicians (6% and 4%, respectively). Gastroprotective agents (GPAs) were coprescribed to only 7.62% of prescriptions. The frequency of NSAIDs prescription was relatively high in Northeast of Iran. A significant number of prescriptions were associated with irrational prescribing in both coadministration of NSAIDs and GPAs and NSAIDs combination. A strategy must be developed and implemented for prescribing and rational use of medications, e.g., continuing medical education regarding the potential risks of NSAIDs, importance of their appropriate and rational use, and necessity of appropriate prescription writing regarding both content and indication.

  4. Emerging analgesic drugs for Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Rey, María Verónica; Dellapina, Estelle; Pellaprat, Jean; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Rascol, Olivier


    Pain affects between 40 and 85% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is a frequently disabling and overlooked feature, which can significantly reduce health-related quality of life. Unfortunately, there are no universally recommended treatments for this condition. Evidence about the efficacy and safety of available analgesic treatments is summarized in this review. Potential targets for upcoming therapies are then discussed in light of what is currently known about the physiopathology of pain in PD. Protocols for efficacy and safety assessment of novel analgesic therapies are discussed. Finally, critical aspects of study protocol design such as patient selection or outcomes to be evaluated are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that duloxetine, cranial electrotherapy stimulation, rotigotine, subthalamic or pallidum nuclei stimulation or lesion or levodopa could be effective for treating pain in PD. Similarly, some case reports indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or apomorphine could be effective for relieving painful off-period dystonia. Clinical trials with rTMS or oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets for neuropathic pain or botulinum toxin for off-period dystonia are underway. Success of clinical trials about analgesic strategies in PD will depend on the selection of the right PD population to be treated, according to the type of pain, and the proper selection of study outcomes and follow-up of international recommendations.

  5. Comparisons of Website Visit Behavior between Purchase Outcomes and Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatpong Tangmanee


    Full Text Available The online retail business has grown substantially. Given distinctive product categories (e.g. search or experience goods, owners must put an effort in the design of websites so every visit may end with a purchase. Clickstream panel data allowing examination into website visiting behavior (i.e. the number of pages viewed (or pageview or the visit duration are increasingly accessible. However, it is unclear whether the differences of the two visiting behavior between purchase outcome or product categories are significant. The present study hopes to fill the void. An analysis of 27,528 visit sessions extracted from ComScore verifies that (1 the difference of page views between purchase outcomes and that between product categories were significant and (2 only the difference of visit duration between the product categories was significant but that between purchase outcomes was insignificant. In addition to theoretical insight into online behavior across purchasing horizons and product categories using clickstream data, online retail practitioners could apply the findings to enhance the possibility of the purchases at their online stores.

  6. The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII. Hospital, Durban. D. A. ROCKE, C. C. ROUT, H. D. RUSSELL, S. SINGH. Abstract The provision of analgesic services to the labour ward at King Edward VIII Hospital was studied during a I-week period. Of249 patients, 113 (45%) received no analgesia whatsoever.

  7. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S


    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  8. E-prescription across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick


    . There are varying interpretations and implementations of data protection and confidentiality laws in the 27 member states. Infrastructures are not in place to support the system and stakeholders in some jurisdictions are reluctant to embrace e-health due to the high cost and the lack of security of the systems....... The study concludes that member states have varying degrees of health care policy, privacy enforcement and laws concerning data protection, telecommunication services and digital signature with regards to e-Prescription. Interoperability of different systems is only a partial solution. Security...

  9. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.


    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  10. Practitioner Perceptions of Patients Wearing Decorative Contact Lenses Purchased Through Unauthorized Sellers. (United States)

    Gaiser, Hilary; Ho, Connie; Janier, Nicole; Wee, Amy; Johnson, Catherine; Watanabe, Ronald


    To describe practitioner experiences regarding ocular complications in patients wearing decorative contact lenses, and to investigate the compliance of unauthorized distributors of decorative contact lenses to current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations. Also, to provide data to support a more targeted public health approach to reducing the incidence of illegal contact lens sales and associated ocular complications. An institutional review board-approved online survey was distributed through mass email to a list of 98 optometrists in the Boston, MA area. Concurrently, an empirical evaluation of independent, online decorative contact lens sellers who were not associated with FDA-approved contact lens manufacturers was performed to determine their adherence to FDA and FTC guidelines. The first 18 noncoincidental websites that resulted from a Google search for "costume contact lens sellers" and "cosmetic contact lens sellers" were examined as to the brands and parameters of lenses being sold, whether or not a valid prescription was required or verified, and if consumer education was provided. Twenty-two optometrists completed the online survey. Seventy-seven percent of respondents reported having patients with complications from decorative contact lenses that were purchased both legally and illegally. The most common age group for complications was 18 to 25 years (61%). One third of complications were seen in first-time lens wearers, half of whom never received proper care instructions or were unaware that care instructions existed. One quarter of the lenses were purchased illegally with unlicensed stores being the most common place of purchase. Of the 18 online sites examined, 72% of sellers failed to adhere to FTC and FDA regulations. A significant number of individuals who obtain contact lenses illegally from unauthorized sources are young adults. Most unauthorized sellers reviewed did not adhere to the proper protocol

  11. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Buddleja globosa, Buddlejaceae. (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Rosales, L; Apablaza, C; Goïty, L; Erazo, S; Negrete, R; Theodoluz, C; Rodríguez, J; Delporte, C


    Buddleja globosa, known as "matico", is employed in Chile for wound healing. To validate the traditional use of the crude drug through in vivo and in vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of its extracts. Sequential hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and total methanol extracts were studied using bioguided fractionation. The following activities were investigated: analgesic (writhing test), oral and topic anti-inflammatory (paw- and ear-induced edema), free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH, superoxide anion, lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase inhibition). Sodium naproxen, nimesulide, indomethacin were used as reference drugs for in vivo, quercetin and allopurinol for in vitro assays. A mixture of alpha- and beta-amyrins was isolated from the hexane extract that showed 41.2% of analgesic effect at 600 mg/kg, inhibited by 47.7 and 79.0% the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-decanoate (TPA)-induced inflammation at 3mg/20 microL/ear, respectively. A mixture of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, stigmastanol and campesterol was isolated from the fraction CD4-N and beta-sitosterol-glycoside from the fraction CD5-N, reducing TPA-induced inflammation by 78.2 and 83.7% at 1mg/20 microL/ear, respectively. The fraction CD4-N at 300 mg/kg also showed analgesic activity (38.7%). The methanol extract at 600mg/kg per os showed anti-inflammatory effect (61.4%), topic anti-inflammatory (56.7% on TPA) and analgesic activity (38.5%). Verbascoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were the major components of the methanol extract; apigenin 7-O-glucoside was also detected. Inhibition of superoxide anion, lipoperoxidation, and DPPH bleaching effect was found in the methanol serial and global extracts. The present report demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Buddleja globosa and validate its use in Chilean traditional medicine.

  12. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl


    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  13. Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, ...

  14. [Analysis on composition principles of prescriptions for stranguria in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription]. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Chang; Wang, Miao-Miao


    By using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system to analyze the dominant experience and recessive principles of the prescriptions for stranguria in the dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription (DCMP), we aim to define the medication pattern and rule and to acquire new prescriptions. In dominant experience analysis, we were able to find 22 drugs used over 50 times, including drugs of clearing heat, diuresis and relieving stranguria which are the most used and drugs of clearing heat, cooling blood, benefiting Qi and nourishing Yin. In addition, drugs of activating Qi and Xue, eliminating phlegm and removing toxic are often used, including 34 herb pairs and 5 combinations of three-taste drugs are used more than 35 times. These results fully reflect the composition principles and compatibility characteristic of prescriptions for treating stranguria in DCMP. Thirteen new prescriptions by way of recessive principle excavating were acquired. These new prescriptions might be suitable to clinical treatments of variable syndromes. This article provides an useful clue to research and produce new drugs.

  15. Synthesis and biological screening of 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine derivatives as effective analgesics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, Z.S.; Malick, T.Z.; Mallick, T.Z.


    A variety of 4(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine analogs 2-6 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic inhibitory potential by tail flick method revealed significant analgesic activity. The synthetic compounds exhibit analgesic inhibitory potential was ranging from significant to highly significant activity. Compounds were evaluated by thermal stimuli (tail immersion method) at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The compounds 2-5 showed significant and highly significant analgesic activity. Pethidine was used as reference drug. Same compounds tested at the dose of 75mg/kg of body weight showed toxicity. The size of the substituent, electron donating or withdrawing affect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl ring affected the activity. These compounds could be considered to develop a new class of analgesics. (author)

  16. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan V


    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%. Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%, trust in the products (73%, and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95% were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or

  17. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (United States)

    Shreedhara, C.S.; Vaidya, V.P.; Vagdevi, H.M.; Latha, K.P.; Muralikrishna, K.S.; Krupanidhi, A.M.


    Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract. PMID:20336222



    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry


    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  19. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh


    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  20. Effect of corporate social responsibility motives on purchase intention model: An extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunee Wongpitch


    Full Text Available The number of empirical studies on the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR motives on the consumer purchase intention is still very small. Furthermore, the models tested in these studies were also relatively simple (including only CSR motives, attitude toward the firm, and/or purchase intention. The present research extends the knowledge in this area of study by proposing and empirically testing an extended model of the effect of CSR motives on purchase intention, with 192 samples participated in the survey. It was found that an altruistic motive positively affects the attitude toward the firm, which in turn affects the purchase intention via the perceived quality and attitude toward the brand.

  1. Prescription writing practices in a rural tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D Phalke


    Full Text Available BackgroundPrescription is a written order from physician to pharmacistwhich contains name of drug, its dose and its method ofdispensing and advice over consuming it. The frequency ofdrug prescription errors is high. Prescribing errorcontributes significantly towards adverse drug events. Thepresent study was undertaken to understand the currentprescription writing practices and to detect the commonerrors in them at a tertiary health care centre situated in arural area of Western Maharashtra, India.MethodA cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary levelhospital located at a rural area of Maharashtra state, Indiaduring October 2009-March 2010. 499 prescriptions comingto medical store during period of one month wereconsidered for data analysis. Important informationregarding the patient, doctor, drug and the generaldescription of the prescription were obtained.ResultsAll the prescriptions were on the hospital pad. A significantnumber of the prescriptions (n=88, 17.6% were written inillegible handwriting and not easily readable. The name, ageand sex of the patient were mentioned is majority of theprescriptions. All the prescriptions (100% failed todemonstrate the presence of address, height and weight ofthe patient. Only the brand name of the drugs wasmentioned in all the prescriptions with none of them havingthe generic name. The strength, quantity and route ofadministration of the drug were found on 73.1%, 65.3% and75.2% prescriptions.ConclusionThere are widespread errors in prescription writing by thedoctors. Educational intervention programs and use ofcomputer can substantially contribute in the lowering ofsuch errors. A short course on prescription writing beforethe medical student enters the clinical field and strictmonitoring by the administrative authorities may also helpalleviate the problem.Word count: 2980Tables: 2

  2. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment. (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M


    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  3. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  4. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  5. The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...

  6. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A


    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo


    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  8. Further effort is needed to improve management of chronic pain in primary care. Results from the Arkys project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Piccinocchi


    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic pain is challenging. The Arkys project was initiated in Italy to assist general practitioners (GPs in the management of chronic pain. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Arkys for selecting new therapeutic strategies. An online interactive questionnaire for assessing pain and guiding therapeutic decisions was made available to GPs participating to Arkys. The GPs were invited to complete the questionnaire for each patient who presented moderate-severe chronic pain, and to decide on a new analgesic treatment based on the information provided by the questionnaire. Two hundred and forty four GPs participated with a total of 3035 patients. Patients (mean age 68.9 years had mostly chronic non-cancer pain (87.7%. In 42.3%, pain had neuropathic components. Only 53.6% of patients were in treatment with analgesics (strong opioids, 38.9%; NSAIDs, 32.6%; weak opioids, 25.6%; anti-epileptics, 17.3%; paracetamol, 14.9%. Use of the questionnaire resulted in the prescription of analgesics to all patients and in increased prescription of strong opioids (69.7%. NSAID prescription decreased (12.8%, while anti-epileptics use remained stable. These findings show that current management of chronic pain in primary care is far from optimal and that efforts are needed to educate GPs and improve guideline implementation.

  9. The analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi


    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized to neurons in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus but its receptors are distributed to many different regions of the central nervous system. Orexins are implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep regulation, energy homeostats, and stress reactions. Furthermore, orexins administered exogenously have been shown to have analgesic effects in animal models. A type of intractable pain in patients is pain due to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Several chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of malignant diseases induce dose-limiting neuropathic pain that compromises patients' quality of life. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of CIPN, and compared it with the effect of duloxetine, the only drug recommended for the treatment of CIPN pain in patients. CIPN was induced in male BALB/c mice by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin, a platinum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Neuropathic mechanical allodynia was assessed by the von Frey test, and the effect on acute thermal pain was assessed by the tail flick test. Intracerebroventricularly administered orexin-A dose-dependently attenuated oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and increased tail flick latencies. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely reversed by orexin-A at a low dose that did not increase tail flick latency. Duloxetine only partially reversed mechanical allodynia and had no effect on tail flick latency. The analgesic effect of orexin-A on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely antagonized by prior intraperitoneal injection of SB-408124 (orexin type-1 receptor antagonist), but not by prior intraperitoneal injection of TCS-OX2-29 (orexin type-2 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggest that orexin-A is more potent than duloxetine in relieving pain CIPN pain and its analgesic effect is

  10. The influence of prescription monitoring programs on chronic pain management. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Christo, Paul J


    Abuse of prescribed controlled substance has become a serious social as well as health care issue over the past decade. A particularly alarming trend exists among patients aged 12 to 17. Common abuse behaviors include doctor shopping, drug theft, feigned pain symptoms to gain health care access, drug sharing, prescription forgery, and improper prescription practices. In response to this epidemic of abuse, many states have adopted prescription monitoring programs (PMPs). Such programs first originated in the early twentieth century. As of 2006, 38 states had such programs, many of which are supported by federal grants. As PMPs become more widespread, they have also increased in sophistication. By keeping a record of the prescription and dispensing of narcotics, these programs are able to build a comprehensive data network for tracking prescription medications. These databases aid law enforcement agencies in investigations of narcotic trafficking; they also help state regulatory boards to monitor improper prescription practices. This manuscript examines the basic structure of a PMP, including the way the data are collected and the way these data are stored and used. It also looks at the organizational differences amongst state programs. NASPER and Harold Rogers are two federal programs that provide funding to the state PMPs, and the current study examines the differences as well as similarities between these 2 programs. This study also compares the results of 2 reports: the U.S. General Accounting Office Study and the Twillman study.& Both studies have evaluated the efficiency of the PMPs. The U.S. General Accounting Office Study showed that while considerable differences exist among the state PMPs, these programs not only reduce the time and effort for law enforcement agencies to conduct investigations, but also cut the supply of prescription medications. However, the Twillman report suggests that prescription programs caused a shift in prescription practice, while

  11. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Paknia


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  12. Evaluation of analgesic activity of various extracts of Sida tiagii Bhandari. (United States)

    Kumawat, Ram Kumar; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sunil


    Sida tiagii Bhandari mostly found in India and Pakistan which belongs to family Malvaceae, is traditionally used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, anxiolytic, anti-seizure and anti-platelet. The present study was done to explore the analgesic activity of various extracts of fruits of the plant Sida tiagii Bhandari. The grinded fruits were extracted with 90% ethanol and partitioned with n-hexane (n-hexane extract; HS) and ethyl acetate (ethyl acetate extract; EAS), successively. The residual ethanol fraction (residual ethanol extract; RES) was also prepared by drying on water bath separately. All three extracts were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight. The analgesic activity of above extracts was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing, tail immersion and tail flick tests in Swiss albino mice. The EAS extract was found to reduce pain and RES extract of Sida tiagii B. was found to have good analgesic activity in comparison to other extracts.

  13. Compliance with the guidelines of prescription writing in a central hospital in the West Bank. (United States)

    Tayem, Y I; Ibrahim, M A; Qubaja, M M; Shraim, R K; Taha, O B; Abu Shkhedem, E


    This retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the quality of 2208 outpatient prescriptions in a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. The physicians' handwriting was poorly readable or illegible in one-third of the prescriptions. The prescriber's name and signature and patient's name were mentioned in almost all orders whereas the patient's age was stated in 54.9%. The vast majority of physicians (95.5%) prescribed drugs using their trade (brand) names. Drug strength, quantity and dose/frequency were stated in 61.1%, 76% and 73.8% of prescriptions respectively. Only 33 prescriptions (1.5%) contained full directions for use for all drugs. Correlation analysis revealed that the presence of certain prescription elements was statistically significantly associated with the clinic of origin and the number of drugs prescribed. The overall poor legibility and incompleteness of the prescriptions is of concern.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A


    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  15. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M


    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  16. Activity-based costing analysis of the analgesic treatments used in postoperative pain management in Italy. (United States)

    Fanelli, Andrea; Ruggeri, Matteo; Basile, Michele; Cicchetti, Americo; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Di Marco, Pierangelo; Esposito, Clelia; Fanelli, Guido; Grossi, Paolo; Leykin, Yigal; Lorini, Ferdinando Luca; Paolicchi, Adriana; Scardino, Marco; Corcione, Antonio


    The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the costs of 72-hour postoperative pain treatment in patients undergoing major abdominal, orthopedic and thoracic procedures in nine different Italian hospitals, defined as the cumulative cost of drugs, consumable materials and time required for anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses to administer each analgesic technique. Nine Italian hospitals have been involved in this study through the administration of a questionnaire aimed to acquire information about the Italian clinical practice in terms of analgesia. This study uses activity-based costing (ABC) analysis to identify, measure and give value to the resources required to provide the therapeutic treatment used in Italy to manage the postoperative pain patients face after surgery. A deterministic sensitivity analysis (DSA) has been performed to identify the cost determinants mainly affecting the final cost of each treatment analyzed. Costs have been reclassified according to three surgical macro-areas (abdominal, orthopedic and thoracic) with the aim to recognize the cost associated not only to the analgesic technique adopted but also to the type of surgery the patient faced before undergoing the analgesic pathway. Fifteen different analgesic techniques have been identified for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in patients who underwent a major abdominal, orthopedic or thoracic surgery. The cheapest treatment actually employed is the oral administration "around the clock" (€ 8.23), whilst the most expensive is continuous peripheral nerve block (€ 223.46). The intravenous patient-controlled analgesia costs € 277.63. In terms of resources absorbed, the non-continuous administration via bolus is the gold standard in terms of cost-related to the drugs used (€ 1.28), and when administered pro re nata it also absorbs the lowest amount of consumables (€0.58€) compared to all other therapies requiring a delivery device. The oral analgesic administration pro re

  17. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre


    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  18. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - V. Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of pain has very ancient origins, when plant-derived products were used, including mandrake extracts and opium, a dried latex obtained from Papaver somniferum. In the XVI and XVII centuries opium came into the preparation of two compounds widely used for pain relief: laudanum and Dover’s powder. The analgesic properties of extracts of willow bark were then recognized and later, in the second half of the XIX century, experimental studies on chemically synthesized analgesics were planned, thus promoting the marketing of some derivatives of para-amino-phenol and pyrazole, the predecessors of paracetamol and metamizol. In the XX century, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were synthesized, such as phenylbutazone, which was initially considered primarily a pain medication. The introduction on the market of centrally acting analgesics, such as tramadol, sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatic pain. is quite recent.

  19. Motives for nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States: self-treatment and beyond. (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J; Cranford, James A; Teter, Christian J


    To assess motives for nonmedical use of prescription opioids among US high school seniors and examine associations between motives for nonmedical use and other substance use behaviors. Nationally representative samples of US high school seniors (modal age 18 years) were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires. Data were collected in public and private high schools. The sample consisted of 5 cohorts (2002-2006) of 12 441 high school seniors. Self-reports of motives for nonmedical use of prescription opioids and substance use behaviors. More than 1 in every 10 high school seniors reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids and 45% of past-year nonmedical users reported "to relieve physical pain" as an important motivation. The odds of heavy drinking and other drug use were lower among nonmedical users of prescription opioids motivated only by pain relief compared with nonmedical users who reported pain relief and other motives and those who reported non-pain relief motives only. The odds of medical use of prescription opioids were lower among nonmedical users who reported only non-pain relief motives compared with other types of nonmedical users. The findings indicate motives should be considered when working with adolescents who report nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Future efforts are needed to identify adolescents who may need appropriate pain management and those at increased risk for prescription opioid abuse.

  20. Analgesic efficacy of lysine clonixinate plus tramadol versus tramadol in multiple doses following impacted third molar surgery. (United States)

    Perez-Urizar, J; Martínez-Rider, R; Torres-Roque, I; Garrocho-Rangel, A; Pozos-Guillen, A


    This study compared the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy, trismus control, and tolerability of the combination of lysine clonixinate and tramadol (LCT) versus tramadol (T) alone after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, including two study groups of 20 patients each, who exhibited acute pain subsequent to surgical extraction of two mandibular third molars. Pain intensity was quantified over a 96-h period using a visual analogue scale and a 5-point verbal rating scale. Secondary indicators of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy, trismus control, and tolerability were determined. Patients administered LCT exhibited better therapeutic effects that those administered T. Fifty percent of patients in the LCT group rated this therapy as 'excellent analgesia' compared with only 10% in the T group. The onset of the analgesic effect of LCT was significantly faster, without any therapeutic failures. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to anti-inflammatory effect or trismus. The results of this study suggest that the postsurgical analgesic efficacy of LCT in combination (LC 125 mg + T 25 mg) is superior to that obtained with T alone, administered at the standard dose of 50 mg, for up to 96 h after the extraction of both impacted mandibular third molars. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rejeki Ekasasi


    Full Text Available AbstractThe research aimed to investigate the influence of extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues and risk aversion towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. This research study collected data from two populations which are students and employee. Approximately 128 respondents involved to give respond for the survey. The analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM show that product cues and risk aversion give different significant impact towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. The research concluded that risk aversion and extrinsic cues has a significant influence to purchase intention of counterfeited computer software while it does not appear similar result to music CD. Moreover, the study revealed that for both counterfeited computer software and music CD, the purchase intention is proven to have negative significant influence towards post-purchase feelings.Keywords: risk aversion, extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues, purchase intention, post-purchase feelingsAbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh atribut ekstrinsik dan intrinsic produk serta aspek menolak resiko terhadap niat beli dan perasaan paska beli software computer dan CD music bajakan. Penelitian ini diharapkan akan memperoleh sebuah model dengan pendekatan cultural dan strategi bisnis untuk memblokir atau mengurangi produk bajakan yang dapat diakses konsumen di pasar. Data primer akan dikumpulkan dari dua populasi, kelompok mahasiswa dan kelompok pekerja, dari empat kota besar di Indonesia yaitu Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, dan Yogyakarta. Lebih kurang 128 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek atribut produk yang bersifat ekstrinsik dan aspek menolak resiko terbukti memiliki hubungan signifikan mempengaruhi niat beli software computer, akan tetapi lain tidak demikian pada niat beli CD music bajakan

  2. Canadian veterinarians’ use of analgesics in cattle, pigs, and horses in 2004 and 2005 (United States)

    Hewson, Caroline J.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Lemke, Kip A.; Barkema, Herman W.


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many veterinarians may not use analgesics in livestock for routine surgical procedures or painful disease states. To investigate this, we conducted a national mail survey of a random sample of 1431 Canadian veterinarians (response rate, 50.1%). Questions primarily concerned veterinarians’ analgesic usage for common surgeries and medical conditions in beef and dairy cattle, pigs, and horses, and attitudes toward pain management. More than 90% of veterinarians used analgesic drugs for equine surgeries, for cesarean section in sows and cows, and for bovine claw amputation and omentopexy. However, in these and other categories, the analgesics used were often inadequate, and many veterinarians did not give analgesics to young animals. When castrated, 6 mo of age, and 95.8% of horses. Respondents largely agreed that there are no long-acting, cost-effective analgesics available for use in livestock (median rating 8/10; interquartile range 4–9), and that the long or unknown withdrawal periods of some drugs outweighed the benefits of using them (median rating 7/10; interquartile range 4–9). The results indicate an urgent need for veterinarians to manage pain in livestock better. Continuing education would help, as would an increase in the number of approved, cost-effective analgesic drugs with known withdrawal periods. PMID:17334029

  3. The In Vivo Analgesic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard drug, Piroxicam also produced a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in writhings, producing pain inhibition of 70.3 %. Conclusions: The analgesic effects produced by crude extracts of both experimental plants confirm that they are endowed with analgesic properties. Further work is suggested to isolate active ...

  4. Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. (United States)

    de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran


    Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious.

  5. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi


    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  6. The attentional drift-diffusion model extends to simple purchasing decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eKrajbich


    Full Text Available How do we make simple purchasing decisions (e.g., whether or not to buy a product ata given price? Previous work has shown that the Attentional-Drift-Diffusion-Model (aDDMcan provide accurate descriptions of the psychometric data for binary and trinary value-based choices, and of how the choice process is guided by visual attention. However, the computational processes used to make purchasing decisions are unknown. Here we extend the aDDM to the case of purchasing decisions, and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. We find that the model provides a quantitatively accurate description of the relationship between choice, reaction time, and visual fixations using parameters that are very similar to those that best fit the previous data. The only critical difference is that the choice biases induced by the fixations are about half as big in purchasing decisions as in binary choices.This suggests that the brain uses similar computational processes in these varied decision situations.

  7. The attentional drift-diffusion model extends to simple purchasing decisions. (United States)

    Krajbich, Ian; Lu, Dingchao; Camerer, Colin; Rangel, Antonio


    How do we make simple purchasing decisions (e.g., whether or not to buy a product at a given price)? Previous work has shown that the attentional drift-diffusion model (aDDM) can provide accurate quantitative descriptions of the psychometric data for binary and trinary value-based choices, and of how the choice process is guided by visual attention. Here we extend the aDDM to the case of purchasing decisions, and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. We find that the model also provides a reasonably accurate quantitative description of the relationship between choice, reaction time, and visual fixations using parameters that are very similar to those that best fit the previous data. The only critical difference is that the choice biases induced by the fixations are about half as big in purchasing decisions as in binary choices. This suggests that a similar computational process is used to make binary choices, trinary choices, and simple purchasing decisions.

  8. The Analgesic Effect of Pineapple Fruit Juice on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Atiqah binti Hilmi


    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a feeling stimulated by the nervous system which can be suppressed by giving an analgesic agent. Some studies revealed that pineapples have an analgesic effect. This study aim was to determine analgesic effect of pineapple on mice. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect was examined by using a writhing method on the 28 male mice. Subjects were divided into 4 groups with 7 mice each. The control group received aquades and other groups received pineapple fruit juice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration with the dosage of 10 mL/kg/body weight. After 30 minutes, 3% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally to induce pain. Writhing responseswere observed every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: The result for mean of total writhing reaction was 2.39±0.40, 1.92±0.40, 1.50±2.13, 1.66±0.11 respectively for group 1 to 4. These data indicated a significant decrease of total writhing response in mice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration compared to control group (p=0.023;p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Most optimal concentration was40% with the protective percentage equal to 71.8%. Conclusion: Pineapple fruit juice concentrations (20%, 40%, and 80%has an analgesic effect with the most optimal concentration of 40%.

  9. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  10. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  11. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-Eastmunicipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana. (United States)

    Badzi, Caroline D; Ackumey, Mercy M


    Analgesics also known as painkillers are widely used for pain relief. There are severe health implications associated with excessive use of analgesics. This paper examines factors influencing the use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-East Municipality (GEM) of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This is a cross-sectional study involving 206 construction workers randomly sampled from 7 construction sites in the GEM. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses on knowledge of analgesics, types of analgesics used and factors influencing the use of analgesics. Chi-square test analysis was used to examine factors influencing analgesic use. The majority of workers were aged between 15 to 44 years (89.8%) and 51.9 percent of respondents had completed Junior high school. Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol, aspirin and caffeine as the active ingredients and 31.6 percent of respondents had no knowledge of possible side effects of continuous use of analgesics. Chi square analysis showed that age was significantly associated with use of analgesics (peffects did not influence use (p>0.05). Television and radio advertisements influenced use of analgesics (peffects was inadequate. Pharmacists and chemists involvement in education of clients of the side effects of analgesics is highly recommended to minimise misuse. The Food and Drugs Authority should regulate the proliferation of advertisements for analgesics in the media. None declared.

  12. Diagnosis-Prescription in the Context of Instructional Management. (United States)

    Besel, Ronald

    The usage of the terms "diagnosis" and "prescription" in the fields of medicine and electronic troubleshooting is reviewed, and a common structure for diagnosis-prescription is proposed. The diagnosis-prescription decision sequence is outlined. Prescription-without-diagnosis and diagnosis-without-prescription in education is discussed. The…

  13. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM


    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky,2 Stephen M Stahl3 1Institute Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Institute Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1 The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic pain. 2 Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s to be delivered. 3 Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4 Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes, enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects. Keywords: topical, analgesics

  14. Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end-stage renal disease in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 9, 2011 ... He was not a diabetic and did not use mercury-containing soap or cream or herbal ... Grade 2 hypertensive retinopathy. A diagnosis of analgesic .... Early detection of AN and discontinuation of analgesic use stabilizes or ...

  15. Usefulness of traditionally defined herbal properties for distinguishing prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine from non-prescription recipes. (United States)

    Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z


    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions.

  16. Impact of analgesics on executive function and memory in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Database. (United States)

    Doan, Lisa; Choi, Daniel; Kline, Richard


    Pain is common in older adults but may be undertreated in part due to concerns about medication toxicity. Analgesics may affect cognition. In this retrospective cohort study, we used the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the interaction of cognitive status and medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesized NSAID use would be associated with cognition and that this could be mediated through changes in brain structure. In this post hoc analysis of the ADNI database, subjects were selected by searching the "concurrent medications log" for analgesic medications. Subjects were included if the analgesic was listed on the medication log prior to enrollment in ADNI and throughout the study. Subjects taking analgesics, particularly NSAIDs, at each study visit were compared to control subjects taking no analgesics. Using descriptive statistics as well as univariate, multivariate and repeated measure ANOVA, we explored the relationship between NSAID use and scores for executive function and memory related cognitive activities. We further took advantage of the extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data available in ADNI to test whether cognitive change was associated with brain structure. The multitude of imaging variables was compressed into a small number of features (five eigenvectors (EV)) using principal component analysis. There were 87 NSAID users, 373 controls, and 71 taking other analgesics. NSAID use was associated with higher executive function scores for cognitively normal (NL) subjects as well as subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NSAID use was also associated with higher memory scores, but for NL females only. We analysed MRI data using principal component analysis to generate a set of five EVs. Examining NL and MCI subjects, one EV had significantly larger values in subjects taking NSAIDs versus control. This EV was one of two EVs which significantly correlated with

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  18. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  19. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...

  20. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens


    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  1. [The price-based certainty of purchase influences consumer behavior for discount]. (United States)

    Arihara, Katsuhiko; Ariga, Atsunori; Furuya, Takeshi


    Tversky & Kahneman (1981) reported that most participants decided to drive when they could save money on a low-price good as compared to when they could save on a high-price good, even though the discount prices were same. Although this irrational decision making has been interpreted as a rate-dependent estimation of value (prospect theory), this study newly proposes that it can be explained by the certainty of purchase based on the price of goods. Experiment 1 replicated the previously reported difference in decision making, and additionally demonstrated that participants' certainty of purchase was lower for a high- than a low-price good. When it was emphasized that participants' intention to purchase high- and low-price goods were equally sure, decision making did not significantly differ (Experiment 2). Furthermore, decision making differed based only on the certainty of purchase even,when prices of goods were-same (Experiment 3). Consumers' decision making may be rather rational, depending straightforwardly on the certainty of purchase that is susceptible to price.

  2. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  3. Pill-poppers and dopers: a comparison of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use among college students. (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Arrastia, Meagan C


    Data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, a national sample of U.S. college students, were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analysis examining correlates of substance use. Students were divided into three groups based on their lifetime substance use: non-users, non-medical prescription drug use only, and illicit/street drug use only. The purpose of this analytic strategy was to examine the similarities/differences in the correlates of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that race, age, G.P.A., sexual activity, health, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures are correlates of non-medical prescription drug use. Correlates of illicit/street drug use include gender, Hispanic ethnicity, sexual activity, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures. Finally, the focus of the paper is a comparison of students who report only non-medical prescription drug use to students who report only illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that gender, race, marital status, sexual activity, marijuana use, and social bonding measures significantly distinguish illicit/street drug use from non-medical prescription drug use. Important implications, limitations, and future research needs were discussed.

  4. [Consumer's psychological processes of hoarding and avoidant purchasing after the Tohoku earthquake]. (United States)

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Hirose, Yukio


    This study examined psychological processes of consumers that had determined hoarding and avoidant purchasing behaviors after the Tohoku earthquake within a dual-process model. The model hypothesized that both intentional motivation based on reflective decision and reactive motivation based on non-reflective decision predicted the behaviors. This study assumed that attitude, subjective norm and descriptive norm in relation to hoarding and avoidant purchasing were determinants of motivations. Residents in the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 667) completed internet longitudinal surveys at three times (April, June, and November, 2011). The results indicated that intentional and reactive motivation determined avoidant purchasing behaviors in June; only intentional motivation determined the behaviors in November. Attitude was a main determinant of the motivations each time. Moreover, previous behaviors predicted future behaviors. In conclusion, purchasing behaviors were intentional rather than reactive behaviors. Furthermore, attitude and previous behaviors were important determinants in the dual-process model. Attitude and behaviors formed in April continued to strengthen the subsequent decisions of purchasing behavior.

  5. Surveying Data on Consumer Green Purchasing Intention: A Case in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Paya Hsu


    Full Text Available Many people have expressed their environmental concerns, and agreed that immediate actions should be taken for the environment. However, only few of them would always make their purchasing decision based on their environmental concerns. Grounded in the theory of Planned Behavior, the aim of this research was to examine the discrepancy between New Zealand consumers’ environmental concerns and intentions to purchase energy-saving light bulbs. The study employed a cross-sectional consumer survey (between late 2011 to early 2012 for data collection (N=313, and the structural equation modelling for model testing. Further, the study also took precautions during the questionnaire design stage to minimize potential common method bias, and examined the common method variance in the data before testing the model. All indicators in this research were reflective to their representing constructs. Results of the analysis confirmed that consumers’ attitudinal affections and beliefs towards the purchasing behavior, self-identity, and past purchasing behavior had positive influence on their purchasing intentions.

  6. A new prescription for soft gluon resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni


    We present a new prescription for the resummation of the divergent series of perturbative corrections, due to soft gluon emission, to hard processes near threshold in perturbative QCD (threshold resummation). This prescription is based on Borel resummation, and contrary to the commonly used minimal prescription, it does not introduce a dependence of resummed physical observables on the kinematically unaccessible x→0 region of parton distributions. We compare results for resummed deep-inelastic scattering obtained using the Borel prescription and the minimal prescription and exploit the comparison to discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  7. Medical and nonmedical users of prescription drugs among college students. (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G


    To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response rate of 94%. Nonmedical users obtained prescription drugs from friends and took them with friends. More nonmedical users than medical users took combinations of drugs. Nonmedical users did not show strong preferences for particular drugs. Nonmedical users compared to medical users who took only 1 drug were more likely to take stimulants and less likely to take opioids. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by college students is a social activity that involves sharing drugs and taking combinations of drugs with friends. Discouraging nonmedical use must focus on the dangers of combining drugs, sharing drugs, and using social gatherings to consume drugs.

  8. Estimating pharmacy level prescription drug acquisition costs for third-party reimbursement. (United States)

    Kreling, D H; Kirk, K W


    Accurate payment for the acquisition costs of drug products dispensed is an important consideration in a third-party prescription drug program. Two alternative methods of estimating these costs among pharmacies were derived and compared. First, pharmacists were surveyed to determine the purchase discounts offered to them by wholesalers. A 10.00% modal and 11.35% mean discount resulted for 73 responding pharmacists. Second, cost-plus percents derived from gross profit margins of wholesalers were calculated and applied to wholesaler product costs to estimate pharmacy level acquisition costs. Cost-plus percents derived from National Median and Southwestern Region wholesaler figures were 9.27% and 10.10%, respectively. A comparison showed the two methods of estimating acquisition costs would result in similar acquisition cost estimates. Adopting a cost-plus estimating approach is recommended because it avoids potential pricing manipulations by wholesalers and manufacturers that would negate improvements in drug product reimbursement accuracy.

  9. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Hallas, Jesper


    Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR......), contains information on dispensed prescriptions, including variables at the level of the drug user, the prescriber, and the pharmacy. Validity and coverage: Reimbursement-driven record keeping, with automated bar-code-based data entry provides data of high quality, including detailed information...

  10. Prevalence and predictors of antibiotic prescription errors in an emergency department, Central Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeraisy, Majed I; Salam, Mahmoud


    Inappropriate antibiotic (ATB) prescriptions are a threat to patients, leading to adverse drug reactions, bacterial resistance, and subsequently, elevated hospital costs. Our aim was to evaluate ATB prescriptions in an emergency department of a tertiary care facility. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing charts of patients complaining of infections. Patient characteristics (age, sex, weight, allergy, infection type) and prescription characteristics (class, dose, frequency, duration) were evaluated for appropriateness based on the AHFS Drug Information and the Drug Information Handbook. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied. Sample with equal sex distribution constituted of 5,752 cases: adults (≥15 years) =61% and pediatrics (tract infections, 25% urinary tract infections (UTIs), and 20% others. Broad-spectrum coverage ATBs were prescribed for 76% of the cases. Before the prescription, 82% of pediatrics had their weight taken, while 18% had their weight estimated. Allergy checking was done in 8% only. Prevalence of inappropriate ATB prescriptions with at least one type of error was 46.2% (pediatrics =58% and adults =39%). Errors were in ATB selection (2%), dosage (22%), frequency (4%), and duration (29%). Dosage and duration errors were significantly predominant among pediatrics (Ppredictors of inappropriate prescriptions were associated with: 1) cephalosporin prescriptions (adults: Ppediatrics: Ppediatrics: P=0.039, adj OR =0.73) compared to respiratory tract infections; 3) obtaining weight for pediatrics before the prescription of ATB (Pinfections.

  11. Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products and Dietary Supplements Are Not Interchangeable. (United States)

    Hilleman, Daniel; Smer, Aiman


    To provide an overview of prescription and dietary supplement omega-3 fatty acid (OM3-FA) products and considerations for clinical use. Narrative review. The PubMed database was searched for cardiovascular-related investigations focused on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (limit: English-only articles). Additional regulatory information on prescription and dietary supplements was obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration online sources. Prescription QM3-FA products are supported by robust clinical development and safety monitoring programs, whereas dietary supplements are not required to demonstrate safety or efficacy prior to marketing. There are no over-the-counter OM3-FA products available in the United States. Investigations of OM3-FA dietary supplements show that quantities of EPA and DHA are highly variable within and between brands. Dietary supplements also may contain potentially harmful components, including oxidized OM3-FA, other lipids, cholesterol, and toxins. Prescription OM3-FA products may contain DHA and EPA or EPA alone. All prescription OM3-FA products have demonstrated statistically significant triglyceride reduction as monotherapy or in combination with statins in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Differential effects between products containing EPA and DHA compared with a high-purity EPA product (icosapent ethyl) have clinical implications: Increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with DHA have the potential to confound strategies for managing patients with dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular outcomes studies of prescription CM3-FA products are ongoing. OM3-FA dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products, and prescription OM3-FA products that contain DHA are not equivalent to or interchangeable with high-purity EPA (icosapent ethyl) and should not be substituted for it.

  12. Mucosal dose prescription in endobronchial brachytherapy: a study based on CT-dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Murrer, Lars H.P.; Pan, Connie de; Roos, Martin; Senan, Suresh


    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of using different dose prescription methods for endobronchial brachytherapy (EB), both with and without the use of a centered applicator. Materials and Methods: A CT scan was performed during EB procedures in 13 patients after insertion of the lung applicator. A dosimetric analysis was subsequently performed in five of these patients using a 3D-brachytherapy treatment planning system (PLATO v13.3, Nucletron). Results: Dose prescription to the mucosa yields uniform dose distributions to the bronchial mucosa when a centrally positioned applicator is used. When non-centrally positioned applicators are used, mucosal dosing results in a significant underdosage to parts of the target volume. Due to the rapid dose fall-off in EB, dose prescription to the mucosa resulted in inadequate coverage of the outer portion of the bronchial wall and adjacent peribronchial space. When compared to mucosal dose prescription, prescription to the outer aspect of the bronchial wall appears to improve target coverage while limiting the hyperdose (i.e., 200%) volume. The diameters of the different bronchial segments, as determined by CT measurements in 13 patients, correlated well with calculated values based upon the tracheal diameter. Conclusions: Mucosal dose prescription should only be used in combination with centered EB applicators. Given the rapid dose fall-off in EB mucosal dose prescription should be used with caution in curative treatments where EB, without additional external radiotherapy, is used as the sole treatment modality. In curative EB, both improved target coverage and a limited hyperdose volume can be achieved by dose prescription to the outer aspect of the bronchial wall

  13. Analgesic efficacy of preoperative dexketoprofen trometamol: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Esparza-Villalpando, Vicente; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Masuoka-Ito, David; Gaitán-Fonseca, César; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel


    Post-Market Research Clinical evidence supports the use of dexketoprofen trometamol (DEX) to manage acute postoperative pain. However, controversies surround the impact of the use of this drug in preoperative analgesic protocols. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the preoperative administration of DEX under postoperative pain conditions. Electronic and manual searches were conducted through diverse electronic databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX was performed including Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) published between 2002 and 2017. Suitable individual studies were evaluated through a quality system, and the data were extracted and analyzed. Fourteen RTCs were included (12 parallel trials and 2 cross-over trials), published in the English and Turkish languages. Follow-up periods ranged from 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hr. All trials measured the outcome result as Acute Pain Level (APL) (VAS, NRS, VRS), time to requiring a second dose of DEX or analgesic emergency and consumption of opioids via patient-controlled analgesia. When the comparators were other drugs - paracetamol, Lornoxicam or placebo during the preoperative time, preoperative administration of DEX was superior. When the comparison comprised preoperative and postoperative DEX, both alternatives exhibited comparable analgesic effects. The analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX when compared to placebo, lornoxicam, and paracetamol on postoperative pain was evident. Preoperative administration of DEX compared to its immediate postoperative administration showed a similar analgesic effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal


    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  15. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  16. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications. (United States)

    Phillips, Janice


    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball


    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  18. Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among High School Seniors in the United States (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.


    Objective To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors based on medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires. Setting Data were collected in public and private high schools. Participants The sample consisted of 7,374 students from three independent cohorts (2007-09). Main Outcome Measures Self-reports of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids and other substance use. Results An estimated 17.6% of high school seniors reported lifetime medical use of prescription opioids, while 12.9% reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Gender differences in the medical and nonmedical use were minimal, while racial/ethnic differences were extensive. Over 37% of nonmedical users reported intranasal administration of prescription opioids. An estimated 80% of nonmedical users with an earlier history of medical use had obtained prescription opioids from a prescription they had previously. The odds of substance use behaviors were greater among individuals who reported any history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids relative to those who reported medical use only. Conclusions Nearly one in every four high school seniors in the United States has ever had some exposure to prescription opioids either medically or nonmedically. The quantity of prescription opioids and number of refills prescribed to adolescents should be carefully considered and closely monitored to reduce subsequent nonmedical use of leftover medication. PMID:22566521

  19. A Bacterial Toxin with Analgesic Properties: Hyperpolarization of DRG Neurons by Mycolactone. (United States)

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Kim, Han-Byul; Jouny, Samuel; Ricard, Isabelle; Vandeputte, Alexandre; Deboosere, Nathalie; Marion, Estelle; Queval, Christophe J; Lesport, Pierre; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Henrion, Daniel; Oh, Seog Bae; Lebon, Guillaume; Sandoz, Guillaume; Yeramian, Edouard; Marsollier, Laurent; Brodin, Priscille


    Mycolactone, a polyketide molecule produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans , is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. This lipid toxin is endowed with pleiotropic effects, presents cytotoxic effects at high doses, and notably plays a pivotal role in host response upon colonization by the bacillus. Most remarkably, mycolactone displays intriguing analgesic capabilities: the toxin suppresses or alleviates the pain of the skin lesions it inflicts. We demonstrated that the analgesic capability of mycolactone was not attributable to nerve damage, but instead resulted from the triggering of a cellular pathway targeting AT₂ receptors (angiotensin II type 2 receptors; AT₂R), and leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization. This demonstration paves the way to new nature-inspired analgesic protocols. In this direction, we assess here the hyperpolarizing properties of mycolactone on nociceptive neurons. We developed a dedicated medium-throughput assay based on membrane potential changes, and visualized by confocal microscopy of bis-oxonol-loaded Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that mycolactone at non-cytotoxic doses triggers the hyperpolarization of DRG neurons through AT₂R, with this action being not affected by known ligands of AT₂R. This result points towards novel AT₂R-dependent signaling pathways in DRG neurons underlying the analgesic effect of mycolactone, with the perspective for the development of new types of nature-inspired analgesics.

  20. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Bhanudas Pandhare


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole ring were subjected to study their in vivo analgesic activity. Chloro, nitro and methoxy, hydroxy and bromo substituted derivatives showed excellent analgesic activity and dimethylamino, furan and phenyl substituted derivatives showed moderate analgesic activity in both of the methods. Compounds IIIa, IIId, IIIf, IIIi, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVj IV3a and IIj were found to be superior analgesic agents after screening by Acetic acid induced writhing method. Compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIf, IIIh, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVi, IV3c, IV3e and IIj were showed analgesic potential after screening of Hot plate method. Conclusion: All tested compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole were found to be promising analgesic agents, for this activity pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine leads might be supported.

  1. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili


    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum


    Das, B. K.; Al-Amin, M. M.; Russel, S. M.; Kabir, S.; Bhattacherjee, R.; Hannan, J. M. A.


    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-...

  3. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen


    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  4. Incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse in patients with pain who were exposed to opioid analgesic therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Higgins, C; Smith, B H; Matthews, K


    The prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as pain and opioid dependence, have implications for policy development, resource allocation, and healthcare delivery. The primary objective of the current review was to estimate the incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse after treatment with opioid analgesics. Systematic electronic searches utilised six research databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cinahl Plus, Web of Science, OpenGrey). A 'grey' literature search and a reference search of included articles were also undertaken. The PICOS framework was used to develop search strategies and the findings are reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. After eligibility reviews of 6164 articles, 12 studies (involving 310 408 participants) were retained for inclusion in the meta-analyses. A random effects model (DerSimonian-Laird method) generated a pooled incidence of opioid dependence or abuse of 4.7%. There was little within-study risk of bias and no significant publication bias; however, substantial heterogeneity was found among study effects (99.78%). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the diagnostic criteria selected for identifying opioid dependence or abuse (Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) vs International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)) accounted for 20% and duration of exposure to opioid analgesics accounted for 18% of variance in study effects. Longer-term opioid analgesic exposure, and prescription of strong rather than weak opioids, were associated with a significantly lower incidence of opioid dependence or abuse. The incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse was 4.7% of those prescribed opioids for pain. Further research is required to confirm the potential for our findings to inform prevention of this serious adverse event. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel and cost-effective way to follow-up adequacy of pain relief, adverse effects, and compliance with analgesics in a palliative care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kannan


    Full Text Available Introduction: A way to assess compliance with analgesics in an outpatient palliative care clinic is essential since often the patient is too ill or weak to come to hospital for weekly follow-ups. A pilot study was conducted using Short Messaging Service via mobile phone as a follow-up tool. Context: A predominantly outpatient palliative care clinic of a 300 bedded multidisciplinary hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients attending the palliative care clinic were enrolled in the study. Analgesic drugs, co-analgesics, and adjuvants were prescribed on an outpatient basis. If possible, patients were admitted for 1 or 2 days. A simple scoring system was devised and taught to the patients and their attenders. A short message service had to be sent to the author′s mobile number. The period was fixed at 2 weeks by which the patients and attenders were familiar with the drugs and pain relief as well. Drowsiness was a worrisome complaint. The mobile number of the patient was called and attender instructed to skip one or two doses of morphine and reassurance given. If required, attender was asked to bring patient to the hospital or come to the hospital for a different prescription as the situation warranted. Results: Out of 60 patients, 22 were admitted initially for dose titration and all others were outpatients. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one patient died after 7 days. 93% of patients responded promptly. Random survey was done in 10 patients to confirm their SMS response and the results were analyzed. Conclusion: Mobile phones are available with all strata of people. It is easy to train patients to send an SMS.This technology can be used to follow- up palliative care patients and help them comply with their treatment regimen.

  6. 76 FR 34229 - Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Amendment (United States)


    ... costs incurred at the Site, the settlement would require the Purchasers to, among other things, conduct... available only in hard copy form. Additionally, the PPA Amendment and additional background information are...

  7. Group purchasing: an overview. (United States)

    Wetrich, J G


    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  8. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F


    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  9. Assessment of parental understanding of paediatric medical prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M


    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regarding the same. Material and methods: 550 parents were enrolled and their literacy level was noted. They were subjected to modify MUSE questionnaire. Physician’s prescription was analyzed in terms of ease of understanding by parents. These parents were followed up till the pharmacies and the pharmacist understanding of prescription was analyzed and their communication with parents regarding drug usage was noted. Finally, ease of usage of drugs by parents was noted. Results: MUSE scale was modified to suit pediatric prescription understanding by parents and also additional questions were asked to include complete parental understanding of doctor’s prescription. Majority of parents failed to completely understand the written prescription. Though around 80% of pharmacist could understand the prescription, their communication with parents was poor resulting in difficulty for parents to even enquire about medicines from them. Parental overall understanding of prescription increased with their literacy levels. Conclusion: Not all prescriptions are completely understood by parents as well as a pharmacist. This can lead to misuse of drugs. Efforts to explain the drug usage are not adequate enough from the doctor or the pharmacist. While communicating literacy levels of parents is not being considered which may further worsen the understanding ability

  10. [Drug interactions in chronic prescription]. (United States)

    Comet, D; Casajuana, J; Bordas, J M; Fuentes, M A; Arnáiz, J A; Núñez, B; Pou, R


    Application of computerized program for detection of potential drug interactions (PDI) in chronic prescriptions in four primary care centers. To evaluate the clinical significance of PDI identified according to clinical criterions. An observational crossover study. Clutat Vella health district (City of Barcelona). Using information of Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmaceuticos databases and the chronic prescriptions database of the primary care centers, computerized drug-interaction system have been developed for detection of PDI in patients. A panel of primary care physicians and clinical pharmacists developed criteria that were used to evaluate the clinical significance of PDI. 9840 Cards of Authorized Prescription (CAP) were analyzed, 36108 medicaments and 42877 drugs. A total of 2140 patients were involved for a total of 3406 PDI, 21.75% of patients with CAP. Clinical signification for the panel was found in 40.07% of these 3406 PIF; 3.78% were suggest to avoid the association drugs. The incidence of PDI with clinical signification are lower than other studies of the literature; it suggest a appropriate knowledge of drug prescription. The application of computerized program make much more easy the detection of adverse drug interactions in chronic prescription.

  11. Increasing Direct Care Staff Compliance to Individualized Physical Therapy Body Positioning Prescriptions: Prescriptive Checklists. (United States)

    Lattimore, Jennifer; And Others


    The study confirmed previous research indicating that workshop training by itself is an ineffective method of increasing direct care staff compliance to treatment prescriptions, and that providing direct staff supervisors with a training and management tool (prescriptive checklists) may be an effective alternative for serving multihandicapped…

  12. Overview of four prescription monitoring/review programs in Canada. (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; MacDougall, Peter; Pellerin, Denise; Shaw, Karen; Spitzig, Doug; Wilson, Galt; Wright, Janet


    Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs. To describe the characteristics of four provincial programs that have been in place for >6 years. The managers of the prescription monitoring⁄review programs of four provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia) were invited to present at a symposium at the Canadian Pain Society in May 2012. In preparation for the symposium, one author collected and summarized the information. Three provinces have a mix of review and monitoring programs; the program in British Columbia is purely for review and education. All programs include controlled substances (narcotics, barbiturates and psychostimulants); however, other substances are differentially included among the programs: anabolic steroids are included in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia; and cannabinoids are included in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Access to the database is available to pharmacists in all provinces. Physicians need consent from patients in British Columbia, and only professionals registered with the program can access the database in Alberta. The definition of inappropriate prescribing and dispensing is not uniform. Double doctoring, double pharmacy and high-volume dispensing are considered to be red flags in all programs. There is variability among Canadian provinces in managing prescription monitoring⁄review programs.

  13. [Hospital fluoroquinolone prescription habits in northern France]. (United States)

    Levent, T; Cabaret, P


    The aim of the study was to assess the good use organization and fluoroquinolone prescription habits in cases of bone and joint, urinary, pulmonary, and digestive infections. A declarative survey was made (questionnaire for the hospital and for the prescriber). Thirty percent (44/145) of hospitals participated with 274 prescribers. Eighty percent had prescription protocols, 71 % of clinicians had access to epidemiologic data. A percentage of 30.7 (853/2,771) of prescriptions included a fluoroquinolone, 44.5 % (380/853) among these had not been recommended. The excessive prescription reached 24.4 % (116/474) in case of bone and joint infection, 14.6 % (107/731), and 20 % (157/779) in cases of digestive and respiratory infection respectively. Prescriptions for urinary infection were adequate in 47.6 % (375/787) of cases. Inadequate prescriptions were made because of bad knowledge of bacteria resistance epidemiology and pharmacology (insufficient dose, monotherapy at risk of selection), and non-application of good practice recommendations. This study justifies the rationalization of antibiotic prescription. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Brand name and generic proton pump inhibitor prescriptions in the United States: insights from the national ambulatory medical care survey (2006-2010). (United States)

    Gawron, Andrew J; Feinglass, Joseph; Pandolfino, John E; Tan, Bruce K; Bove, Michiel J; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie


    Introduction. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most commonly prescribed medication classes with similar efficacy between brand name and generic PPI formulations. Aims. We determined demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics associated with brand name PPI prescriptions at ambulatory care visits in the United States. Methods. Observational cross sectional analysis using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) of all adult (≥18 yrs of age) ambulatory care visits from 2006 to 2010. PPI prescriptions were identified by using the drug entry code as brand name only or generic available formulations. Descriptive statistics were reported in terms of unweighted patient visits and proportions of encounters with brand name PPI prescriptions. Global chi-square tests were used to compare visits with brand name PPI prescriptions versus generic PPI prescriptions for each measure. Poisson regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for generic versus brand PPI prescribing. Results. A PPI was prescribed at 269.7 million adult ambulatory visits, based on 9,677 unweighted visits, of which 53% were brand name only prescriptions. In 2006, 76.0% of all PPI prescriptions had a brand name only formulation compared to 31.6% of PPI prescriptions in 2010. Visits by patients aged 25-44 years had the greatest proportion of brand name PPI formulations (57.9%). Academic medical centers and physician-owned practices had the greatest proportion of visits with brand name PPI prescriptions (58.9% and 55.6% of visits with a PPI prescription, resp.). There were no significant differences in terms of median income, patient insurance type, or metropolitan status when comparing the proportion of visits with brand name versus generic PPI prescriptions. Poisson regression results showed that practice ownership type was most strongly associated with the likelihood of receiving a brand name PPI over the entire study period. Compared to HMO visits

  15. The price may not be right: the value of comparison shopping for prescription drugs. (United States)

    Arora, Sanjay; Sood, Neeraj; Terp, Sophie; Joyce, Geoffrey


    To measure variations in drug prices across and within zip codes that may reveal simple strategies to improve patients' access to prescribed medications. We compared drug prices at different types of pharmacies across and within local markets. In-store prices were compared with a Web-based service providing discount coupons for prescription medications. Prices were collected for 2 generic antibiotics because most patients have limited experience with them and are less likely to know the price ranges for them. Drug prices were obtained via telephone from 528 pharmacies in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, from July to August 2014. Online prices were collected from GoodRx, a popular Web-based service that aggregates available discounts and directly negotiates with retail outlets. Drug prices found at independent pharmacies and by using discount coupons available online were lower on average than at grocery, big-box, or chain drug stores for 2 widely prescribed antibiotics. The lowest-price prescription was offered at a grocery, big-box, or chain drug store in 6% of zip codes within the LA County area. Drug prices varied dramatically within a zip code, however, and were less expensive in lower-income areas. The average price difference within a zip code was $52 for levofloxacin and $17 for azithromycin. Price shopping for medications within a small geographic area can yield considerable cost savings for the uninsured and consumers in high-deductible health plans with high negotiated prices. Clinicians and patient advocates have an incentive to convey this information to patients to improve adherence to prescribed medicines and lower the financial burden of purchasing prescription drugs.

  16. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions]. (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping


    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.

  17. Factors Associated With the Prophylactic Prescription of a Bowel Regimen to Prevent Opioid-Induced Constipation. (United States)

    Chen, Nancy Y; Nguyen, Eugene; Schrager, Sheree M; Russell, Christopher J


    Identify factors associated with the prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen with an inpatient opioid prescription. This was a retrospective cohort study from June 1, 2013, to October 31, 2014 of pediatric inpatients prescribed an oral or intravenous opioid on the general medical/surgical floors. We identified patients with or without a prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen. We obtained patient demographics, prescriber training level and service and used multivariate logistic regression to analyze the factors associated with prophylactic bowel regimen and opioid prescription. Of the 6682 encounters that met study criteria, only 966 (14.5%) encounters had prophylactic prescriptions. Patient factors associated with prophylactic prescription include increasing age (per year; odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.07) and sickle cell diagnosis (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 2.08-4.91). Medication factors associated with prophylactic prescription include a scheduled opioid prescription (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.46-2.1) and a prescription for oxycodone (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.57-5.00) or morphine (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.39-2.44), compared with acetaminophen-hydrocodone. Compared with medical providers, surgeons were less likely (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.35-0.53) and pain service providers were more likely to prescribe a prophylactic bowel regimen (OR = 4.12, 95% CI 3.13-5.43). More than 85% of inpatient opioid prescriptions did not receive a prophylactic bowel regimen. Future research should examine factors (eg, clinical decision support tools) to increase prophylactic prescription of bowel regimens with opioids for populations found to have lower rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Alternative strategies for Medicare payment of outpatient prescription drugs--Part B and beyond. (United States)

    Danzon, Patricia M; Wilensky, Gail R; Means, Kathleen E


    Reimbursement options for pharmaceuticals reimbursed under Medicare Part B (physician-dispensed drugs) are changing and the new comprehensive Part D Medicare outpatient drug benefit brings further changes. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) replaces traditional policy, of reimbursing Part B drugs at 95% of average wholesale price (AWP, a list price), with a percentage markup over the manufacturer's average selling price; in 2005 an indirect competitive procurement option will be introduced. In our view, although AWP-based reimbursement has been fraught with problems in the past, these could be fixed by constraining growth in AWP and periodically adjusting the discount off AWP. With these revisions, an AWP-based rule would preserve incentives for competitive discounting and deliver savings to Medicare. By contrast, basing Medicare reimbursement on a manufacturer's average selling price undermines incentives for discounting and, like any cost-based reimbursement rule, may result in higher prices to both public and private purchasers. Indirect competitive procurement for drugs alone, using specialty pharmacies, pharmacy benefit managers, or prescription drug plans, is unlikely to constrain costs to acceptable levels unless contractors retain flexibility to use standard benefit management tools. Folding Part B and Part D into comprehensive contracting with health plans for full health services is likely to offer the most efficient approach to managing the drug benefit.

  19. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla


    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  20. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant. (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Saeed, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon


    Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p). In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300 mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150 mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300 mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300 mg/kg. It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  1. The Effect of Vendor Trustworthiness toward Online Purchase Intention through Costumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adiwijaya


    Full Text Available The using of internet technology in business field facilitates the online product sales. There are many challenges and obstacles faced by customers when they would like to buy product via online, for instance the process of technology adoption, online crime activities, etc. This situation creates customer doubtfullness and worries for engaging in purchasing product via online. Trust plays significant role in affecting customer intention to purchase products via online. The previous research findings showed the antecedents of customer trust but those findings only explained the phenomenon based on one single perspective for example from the customer perspective, the technology perspective, and the vendor perspective. The focus of this research is analyzing the influence of vendor trustworthiness (ability, benevolence, and integrity towards individual features (customer trust and customer purchase intention. The research has been done in Surabaya through questionairre survey design by using the customers who had purchase product via online as the respondent. Structural equation modelling is used to analyze the research data. The findings revealed the antecendent of customer trust and its influence on customer online purchase intention comprehensively.

  2. [Standardization of names in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines]. (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling


    Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  4. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  5. Analgesic effects of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nijs; Dr. L.P. Voogt; F. Struyf; M. Meeys; D. Meuffels; J. de Vries


    BACKGROUND: Current evidence shows that manual therapy elicits analgesic effect in different populations (healthy, pain inflicted and patients with musculoskeletal pain) when carried out at the spinal column, although the clinical significance of these effects remains unclear. Also the analgesic

  6. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada. (United States)

    Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Rahman, Kazi Md Mahabubur; Sarker, Aurin; Alam, Md Mahamudul; Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar


    The rhizome of Curcuma amada has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the northern part of Bangladesh and has also used for the treatment of inflammation and fever in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic principle of the MeOH extract of the rhizome of Curcuma amada by an in vivo bioassay guided chromatographic separation and purification, and the structure elucidation of the purified compound by spectroscopic methods. Dried powder of Curcuma amada rhizomes was extracted with MeOH. The analgesic activity of the crude extract and its chromatographic fractions as well as the purified compound itself was evaluated by the acetic acid induced writhing method and the formalin induced licking test in Swiss albino mice. The MeOH extract was separated by chromatographic methods and the pure active compound was purified by crystallization in hexanes. The structure of the pure compound was then elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract of Curcuma amada exhibited 41.63% and 45.53% inhibitions in the acetic acid induced writhing method at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively. It also exerted 20.43% and 28.50% inhibitions in early phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively, and 30.41% and 42.95% inhibitions in late phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively in the formalin induced licking test. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) of crude extract yielded five fractions and Fr. 1 was found to have the most potent analgesic activity with inhibitions of 36.96% in the acetic acid induced writhing method and 47.51% (early phase), 39.50% (late phase) in the formalin induced licking test at a dose of 200mg/kg. Column chromatography of Fr. 1 on silica gel generated seven fractions (SF. 1-SF. 7). SF. 2 showed the most potent activity with inhibition of 49.81% in the acetic acid induced writhing method at a dose of 100mg/kg. Crystallization of SF. 2 yielded

  7. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity Evaluation of Some Agmatine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li


    Full Text Available A series of N,N’-disubstituted-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine and N,N’-disubstituted- N’’-cyanoguanidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for in vivo analgesic activity. The blood brain barrier (BBB VolSurf model was used to predict the BBB permeation profiles of our synthesized compounds. Some compounds show both remarkable analgesic activity and good BBB permeation profiles, and these compounds might be developed for treatment of opioid tolerance and dependence.

  8. Combined cannabis/methaqualone withdrawal treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide. (United States)

    Gillman, Mark A; Harker, Nadine; Lichtigfeld, Frederick J


    This article reports the first single-blind study using psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for treating acute withdrawal states following the abuse of methaqualone combined and smoked with cannabis. Smoked methaqualone combined with cannabis is called "white pipe" (WP). South Africa is the only country in the world where WP is a major form of substance abuse. This article demonstrates in 101 consecutively treated patients given placebo (100% oxygen) followed by PAN that this therapy produced a measurable therapeutic effect (more than 50% improvement) in 87 patients. This study confirms that WP is a form of substance abuse confined mainly to young adult male subjects.

  9. Experimental substantiation of effectively administration of vinboron for analgesic activity increase of ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Hladkykh


    Full Text Available Background. The increase of NSAIDs safety is current direction of modern pharmacology, because of so-called "class-specific" adverse reactions, which are common to this class, and the leading place among them is occupied by gastro-intestinal toxicity. In previous studies we have proved the ability of vinboron to neutralize ulcerogenic effect of ibuprofen (Hladkykh F.V. and al., 2014. The presence of the proven analgesic activity in the domestic antispasmodics (Stepaniuk H.I. and al., 2007 serves as the basis for research of vinboron action on analgesic aspect of ibuprofen pharmacotherapeutic effec. Aim is to conduct research in silico of the relation «molecular structure – anelgetic activity» of vinboron and to prove experimentally in vivo the practicability of vinboron using with the aim to increase the analgesic activity of ibuprofen on the model of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Materials and methods. The study of the relation «molecular structure – activity anelgetic» of vinboron was conducted in silico by PASS- analysis of biological activity spectrum. The analysis was set online with direct insertion of structural formula of vinboron in browser using Marvin JS web-resource «PASS Online» ( Analgesic activity in vivo was studied on the model of acute thermal pain, which was simulated in the conventional behavioral test of nociception «Hot plate». The lag of pain reaction was determined at the beginning («0» day, on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experiment. Results and discussion. According to the PASS-forecast the mechanisms of vinboron analgesic activity is caused by agonism towards the vanilloid (TRPV1 receptors (Pa=0,490; Pi=0,008, agonism to the μ (mu – receptor (Pa=0,323; Pi=0,036, inhibition of GABA (Pa=0,329; Pi=0,089 and others. Experimental studies have shown that the combined administration of ibuprofen and vinboron analgesic activity was higher than the results by ibuprofen monotherapy

  10. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing special equipment. 1753.68 Section 1753.68... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Special Equipment § 1753.68 Purchasing special equipment. (a) General. (1) Equipment purchases are...

  11. Evaluation of the NCPDP Structured and Codified Sig Format for e-prescriptions. (United States)

    Liu, Hangsheng; Burkhart, Q; Bell, Douglas S


    To evaluate the ability of the structure and code sets specified in the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs Structured and Codified Sig Format to represent ambulatory electronic prescriptions. We parsed the Sig strings from a sample of 20,161 de-identified ambulatory e-prescriptions into variables representing the fields of the Structured and Codified Sig Format. A stratified random sample of these representations was then reviewed by a group of experts. For codified Sig fields, we attempted to map the actual words used by prescribers to the equivalent terms in the designated terminology. Proportion of prescriptions that the Format could fully represent; proportion of terms used that could be mapped to the designated terminology. The fields defined in the Format could fully represent 95% of Sigs (95% CI 93% to 97%), but ambiguities were identified, particularly in representing multiple-step instructions. The terms used by prescribers could be codified for only 60% of dose delivery methods, 84% of dose forms, 82% of vehicles, 95% of routes, 70% of sites, 33% of administration timings, and 93% of indications. The findings are based on a retrospective sample of ambulatory prescriptions derived mostly from primary care physicians. The fields defined in the Format could represent most of the patient instructions in a large prescription sample, but prior to its mandatory adoption, further work is needed to ensure that potential ambiguities are addressed and that a complete set of terms is available for the codified fields.

  12. antipyretic and analgesic activities of sphenoceutrum jollyanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Sphenoceutrum jollyanum leaves possess significant in vitro analgesstic and antipyretic activities. Key Words: Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Menispermaceae, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 52-53 ...

  13. Abuse of prescription medicines in southwestern France. (United States)

    Baumevieille, M; Haramburu, F; Bégaud, B


    Few quantitative data are available concerning abuse of medicine in the general population, although dependence on prescription medicines involves a significant proportion of the population. Falsified prescription forms can be used as an indicator of abuse. Community pharmacists in a representative network were asked to report any falsified prescription form presented over a 1-year period. Sales data were used to express results as abuse rate and abuse rate ratio. Two-thirds of the 130 pharmacies in the network reported at least 1 falsified prescription. The reported incidence of falsified prescriptions was 2.3 per 10 000 inhabitants. A total of 392 falsified prescription forms was collected. The abuse rate ratios were 171 (95% CI 140 to 210) for dextroamphetamine-phenobarbital in combination, 168 (95% CI 131 to 216) for fenozolone, 67 (95% CI 53 to 84) for buprenorphine, and 40.5 (95% CI 33 to 50) for clobenzorex. These results show the efficiency of a method for detecting falsified prescriptions forms using community pharmacists. The abuse of medicines already known for their addictive potential can be estimated and alerts can also be detected.

  14. Out-of-Hospital Administration of Medication without Prescription and Associated Factors among Preschool Children


    Andritsou, Fotini; Benetou, Vassiliki; Michail, Koralia A.; Pantazis, Nikolaos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D.


    The increasing trend of administering nonprescribed medicines in children is a significant public health issue. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of medication without a prescription (MWP), including both nonprescribed medication (NPM) and prescription-only medication (POM), and identify associated factors, among preschoolers in Athens, Greece. A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to parents from May through June 2011. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis ...

  15. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol. (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley


    , the lowest income households are the most likely to purchase cheap alcohol. However, when combined with the fact that the lowest income households are the least likely to purchase any off-trade alcohol, they have the lowest probability of purchasing cheap off-trade alcohol at the population level. Moderate purchasing households in all income quintiles are the group predicted as least likely to purchase cheap alcohol. The predicted average quantity of low-cost off-trade alcohol reveals similar patterns. The results suggest that heavier household purchasers of alcohol are most likely to be affected by the introduction of a 'minimum price per unit of alcohol' policy. When we focus only on those households that purchase off-trade alcohol, lower income households are the most likely to be affected. However, minimum pricing in the UK is unlikely to be significantly regressive when the effects are considered for the whole population, including those households that do not purchase any off-trade alcohol. Minimum pricing will affect the minority of low-income households that purchase off-trade alcohol and, within this group, those most likely to be affected are households purchasing at a harmful level.

  16. Analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block using different volumes and concentrations of local analgesics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (United States)

    Şahin, Ayça Sultan; Ay, Necmiye; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper; Akay, Mehlika Kocabaş; Demiraran, Yavuz; Derbent, Abdurrahim


    Objective To evaluate the effects of an ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (US-TAP) block used for postoperative pain relief by comparing the efficacy of two different volumes/concentrations of the local anaesthetic bupivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods This randomized study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They were randomized to two groups: group A received a 20 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine +10 ml saline solution) and group B received a 30 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine + 20 ml saline solution). The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, the requirement for postoperative rescue analgesics, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain as measured by a visual analogue scale at 20 min, 12 h, and 24 h were recorded. Results A total of 60 patients enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and patient satisfaction scores. The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, postoperative VAS scores (20 min, 12 h and 24 h) and the requirement for postoperative analgesics were all significantly lower in group B who received a larger volume but a lower concentration of local anaesthetic solution compared with group A. Conclusion A US-TAP block can form part of a balanced postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  17. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia. (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya


    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  18. The international pharmaceutical market as a source of low-cost prescription drugs for U.S. patients. (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K


    In response to increasing prescription drug costs, more U.S. patients and policymakers are importing less-expensive pharmaceutical products from other countries. Large-scale prescription drug importation is currently illegal, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration permits individuals to bring in 90-day supplies of drugs for personal use. As patient use of foreign-bought drugs has increased, federal legislators have continued to debate the full legalization of importation. Three factors help guide whether U.S. patients and policymakers can rely on other countries as sources of imported prescription drugs: whether the safety of the product can be ensured, how the import price compares with domestic prices, and how importation might affect the exporting country's pharmaceutical market. In wealthier countries with active regulatory systems, drug safety can be adequately ensured, and brand-name products are usually less expensive than in the United States (although generic drugs may be more expensive). However, implementing large-scale importation can negatively impact the originating country's market and can diminish the long-term cost savings for U.S. consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, prices may be reduced for both brand-name and generic drugs, but the prevalence of unauthorized products on the market makes ensuring drug safety more difficult. It may be reasonable for individual U.S. consumers to purchase essential medicines from certain international markets, but the most effective way to decrease drug costs overall is the appropriate use of domestic generic drugs, which are available for almost every major therapeutic class.

  19. Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs. (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Jain, N K; Kulkarni, S K


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs. Similarly when morphine (1 mg/kg, po) or pentazocine (1 mg/kg, po) was co-administered with aspartame it reduced the number of writhes as compared to their effects per se. Aspartame (4,8,16 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased carrageenan-induced increase in paw volume and also reversed the hyperalgesic effects in rats in combination with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po). The study indicated that aspartame exerted analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on its own and have a synergistic analgesic response with conventional analgesics of opioid and non-opioid type, respectively.

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief. (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  1. Assessment of legibility and completeness of handwritten and electronic prescriptions. (United States)

    Albarrak, Ahmed I; Al Rashidi, Eman Abdulrahman; Fatani, Rwaa Kamil; Al Ageel, Shoog Ibrahim; Mohammed, Rafiuddin


    To assess the legibility and completeness of handwritten prescriptions and compare with electronic prescription system for medication errors. Prospective study. King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Handwritten prescriptions were received from clinical units of Medicine Outpatient Department (MOPD), Primary Care Clinic (PCC) and Surgery Outpatient Department (SOPD) whereas electronic prescriptions were collected from the pediatric ward. The handwritten prescription was assessed for completeness by the checklist designed according to the hospital prescription and evaluated for legibility by two pharmacists. The comparison between handwritten and electronic prescription errors was evaluated based on the validated checklist adopted from previous studies. Legibility and completeness of prescriptions. 398 prescriptions (199 handwritten and 199 e-prescriptions) were assessed. About 71 (35.7%) of handwritten and 5 (2.5%) of electronic prescription errors were identified. A significant statistical difference (P prescriptions in omitted dose and omitted route of administration category of error distribution. The rate of completeness in patient identification in handwritten prescriptions was 80.97% in MOPD, 76.36% in PCC and 85.93% in SOPD clinic units. Assessment of medication prescription completeness was 91.48% in MOPD, 88.48% in PCC, and 89.28% in SOPD. This study revealed a high incidence of prescribing errors in handwritten prescriptions. The use of e-prescription system showed a significant decline in the incidence of errors. The legibility of handwritten prescriptions was relatively good whereas the level of completeness was very low.

  2. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among all...

  3. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheema Siddiqui


    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.

  4. Differential Effectiveness of Clinically-Relevant Analgesics in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L Whittaker

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis is characterized by pain and a pro-inflammatory tissue response. Rat models are frequently used in mucositis disease investigations yet little is known about the presence of pain in these animals, the ability of analgesics to ameliorate the condition, or the effect that analgesic administration may have on study outcomes. This study investigated different classes of analgesics with the aim of determining their analgesic effects and impact on research outcomes of interest in a rat model of mucositis. Female DA rats were allocated to 8 groups to include saline and chemotherapy controls (n = 8. Analgesics included opioid derivatives (buprenorphine; 0.05mg/kg and tramadol 12.5mg/kg and NSAID (carprofen; 15mg/kg in combination with either saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; 150mg/kg. Research outcome measures included daily clinical parameters, pain score and gut histology. Myeloperoxidase assay was performed to determine gut inflammation. At the dosages employed, all agents had an analgesic effect based on behavioural pain scores. Jejunal myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by buprenorphine and tramadol in comparison to 5-FU control animals (53%, p = 0.0004 and 58%, p = 0.0001. Carprofen had no ameliorating effect on myeloperoxidase levels. None of the agents reduced the histological damage caused by 5-FU administration although tramadol tended to increase villus length even when administered to healthy animals. These data provide evidence that carprofen offers potential as an analgesic in this animal model due to its pain-relieving efficacy and minimal effect on measured parameters. This study also supports further investigation into the mechanism and utility of opioid agents in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  5. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K.; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung


    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin, and 5 with other NSAIDs) that were performed in 6 countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.28), except for non-US studies (5 studies, pooled RR=1.17, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:23400756


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  7. Using prescription registries to define continuous drug use: how to fill gaps between prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Pharmacoepidemiological studies often use prescription registries to assess patients' drug episodes. The databases usually provide information on the date of the redemption of the prescription as well as on the dispensed amount, and this allows us to define episodes of drug use. However, when...... that the retrospective exposure definition introduces an artificially protective effect of HT....

  8. Opioid Prescriptions by Specialty in Ohio, 2010-2014. (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Baker, Olesya; Rodgers, Ann F; Garner, Chad; Nelson, Lewis S; Kreiner, Peter W; Schuur, Jeremiah D


    The current US opioid epidemic is attributed to the large volume of prescribed opioids. This study analyzed the contribution of different medical specialties to overall opioids by evaluating the pill counts and morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) of opioid prescriptions, stratified by provider specialty, and determined temporal trends. This was an analysis of the Ohio prescription drug monitoring program database, which captures scheduled medication prescriptions filled in the state as well as prescriber specialty. We extracted prescriptions for pill versions of opioids written in the calendar years 2010 to 2014. The main outcomes were the number of filled prescriptions, pill counts, MMEs, and extended-released opioids written by physicians in each specialty, and annual prescribing trends. There were 56,873,719 prescriptions for the studied opioids dispensed, for which 41,959,581 (73.8%) had prescriber specialty type available. Mean number of pills per prescription and MMEs were highest for physical medicine/rehabilitation (PM&R; 91.2 pills, 1,532 mg, N = 1,680,579), anesthesiology/pain (89.3 pills, 1,484 mg, N = 3,261,449), hematology/oncology (88.2 pills, 1,534 mg, N = 516,596), and neurology (84.4 pills, 1,230 mg, N = 573,389). Family medicine (21.8%) and internal medicine (17.6%) wrote the most opioid prescriptions overall. Time trends in the average number of pills and MMEs per prescription also varied depending on specialty. The numbers of pills and MMEs per opioid prescription vary markedly by prescriber specialty, as do trends in prescribing characteristics. Pill count and MME values define each specialty's contribution to overall opioid prescribing more accurately than the number of prescriptions alone.

  9. Abuse of prescription drugs. (United States)

    Wilford, B B


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  10. Population prevalence of high dose paracetamol in dispensed paracetamol/opioid prescription combinations: an observational study (United States)


    Background Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0 g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations. Methods The Nova Scotia Prescription Monitoring Program (NSPMP) in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia is a legislated organization that collects dispensing information on all out-of-hospital prescription controlled drugs dispensed for all Nova Scotia residents. The NSPMP provided data to track all paracetamol/opioids redeemed by adults in Nova Scotia, from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2010. Trends in the number of adults dispensed these prescriptions and the numbers of prescriptions and tablets dispensed over this period were determined. The numbers and proportions of adults who filled prescriptions exceeding 4.0 g/day and 3.25 g/day were determined for the one-year period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Data were stratified by sex and age (paracetamol/opioid prescription was lower in each successive one-year period. From July 2009 to June 2010, one in 12 adults (n = 59,197) filled prescriptions for over 13 million paracetamol/opioid tablets. Six percent (n = 3,786) filled prescriptions that exceeded 4.0 g/day and 18.6% (n = 11,008) exceeded 3.25 g/day of paracetamol at least once. These findings exclude non-prescription paracetamol and paracetamol–only prescribed medications. Conclusions A substantial number of individuals who redeem prescriptions for paracetamol/opioid combinations may be at risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity. Healthcare professionals must be vigilant when prescribing and dispensing these medications in order to reduce the associated risks. PMID:22709372

  11. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovicj, M.; Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.


    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy ( 60 Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  13. Synthesis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Microbial infections often produce pain and inflammation. Chemotherapeutic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed simultaneously in normal practice. The compound possessing all three activities is not common.The purpose of the present study was to examine whether molecular modification ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Benedik


    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical prcedures in childhood. Acute pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy can be treated with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Our hypothesis stated that tramadol iv after induction of anaesthesia has superior analgesic effect compared to acetaminophen.Methods:  In a prospective, randomised study we compared analgesic efficacy of tramadol (group T: 2 mg/kgBW iv and acetaminophen (group A: elixir 15 mg/kgBW before op. procedure in a group of 108 children (age 3-7 years. Exclusion critheria: allergy, liver or kidney failure, epilepsy, febrile convulsions. A standard anaesthetic technique was used: propofol, alfentanil, vecuronium, positive pressure ventilation with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the procedure each child received acetaminophen suppositories (10 mg/kgBW/4-6h and combined suppositories. Monitoring: vital signs during and after op. procedure, pain intensity on the ward (facial pain score.    Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age distribution (mean age 5,2 years, ASA physical status, body weight, operative procedure, pain scores (VAS 6h after operative procedure; group T: 4,21±1,45; group A: 4,06±1,33, oxygen saturation, pulse frequency and the consumption of acetaminophen suppositories. Significant difference was in the consumption of combined suppositories (group T: 1,85±0,79; group A: 1,43±0,69, p=0,003.   Conclusion: Our study has shown, that tramadol is not a superior analgesic for the relief of posttonsillectomy pain in children compared to acetaminophen. 

  15. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn by...

  16. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6) * * * (ii) Represents or suggests that a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Besta


    Full Text Available Due to the effects of the global economic crisis, manufacturing companies have been forced to look for savings in all areas. Many manufacturing entities in recent years have not sufficiently optimized their purchasing processes. Effective and cost-optimised purchasing, however, is a crucial factor in a company’s success. Assessing the quality of suppliers and their services therefore appears to be a key aspect. Deciding on which supplier to use is not easy, because there are multiple criteria that concern the complete marketing purchasing mix and other inner and outer factors that need to be taken into account. The final decision may have a significant impact not only on the entire manufacturing process, but also on the competitiveness of the respective product or the company as a whole.

  18. Assessment of prescription sales in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Teterich


    Full Text Available Currently, the state of the national health system (health is characterized by a low level of funding for medical and pharmaceutical care and the lack of effective methods of free and preferential dispensing of medicines (drugs and compensation of their value. Thus the most urgent problem arises is unregulated drugs prescription, which is one of the main negative factors behind the rapid spread of self-medication and polypragmasy. Thus, improving drugs prescription dispensing is one of the current challenges of medicine and pharmacy management which should be solved to provide a safe, rational and effective drug therapy. The results of the questionnaire survey of doctors and pharmaceutical workers identified and explored key factors that contribute to a violation of drugs prescription. The authors analyzed the literature on the current state of drugs prescription in Ukraine, which resulted in selected priority issues that need resolution as soon as possible. Established that the main disadvantages of the national health care system is unreasonable approach to state regulation of the relevant system and the low level of funding. This situation prevents rational regulation of free and preferential delivery of drugs, the introduction of obligatory medical insurance and the reimbursement cost of drugs and other modern approaches that are effective in developed countries. Тhe main motive of view of legislative acts to implement strict drugs prescription in Ukraine is a link to international experience, guided by the standards of European and international practices that do not comply with the Law of Ukraine issued on 18.03.2004 № 1629-IV «On the National Program for Adaptation of Ukraine to the European Union, "and points to the disparity modern domestic rule-making European practice. The fundamental problem here is the comparison of the legal, social, financial and economic status of the counter in Ukraine with the countries in which the system

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Pandey


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd. (V. anthelmintica. Method: Hot plate method in mice, acetic acid induced writhing response in mice, tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats method were used for screening analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruit of V. anthelmintica (family: Asteraceae. Results: The result of the study showed that the ethanolic extract of V. anthelmintica (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. fruits possed peripheral and central analgesic activity in animal model. The V. anthelmintica fruits extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity models in rats. Conclusions: On the basis of result it can be concluded that saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids are the major constituents that are present in the fruits of V. anthelmintica which may be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



  1. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release Analgesics in Mice (United States)

    Kendall, Lon V; Hansen, Ryan J; Dorsey, Kathryn; Kang, Sooah; Lunghofer, Paul J; Gustafson, Daniel L


    Buprenorphine and carprofen, 2 of the most commonly used analgesics in mice, must be administered every 8 to 12 h to provide sustained analgesia. Sustained-release (SR) formulations of analgesics maintain plasma levels that should be sufficient to provide sustained analgesia yet require less frequent dosing and thus less handling of and stress to the animals. The pharmacokinetics of SR formulations of buprenorphine (Bup-SR), butorphanol (Butp-SR), fentanyl (Fent-SR), carprofen (Carp-SR), and meloxicam (Melox-SR) were evaluated in mice over 72 h and compared with those of traditional, nonSR formulations. Bup-SR provided plasma drug levels greater than the therapeutic level for the first 24 to 48 h after administration, but plasma levels of Bup-HCl fell below the therapeutic level by 4 h. Fent-SR maintained plasma levels greater than reported therapeutic levels for 12 h. Therapeutic levels of the remaining drugs are unknown, but Carp-SR provided plasma drug levels similar to those of Carp for the first 24 h after administration, whereas Melox-SR had greater plasma levels than did Melox for the first 8 h. Butp-SR provided detectable plasma drug levels for the first 24 h, with a dramatic decrease over the first 4 h. These results indicate that Bup-SR provides a stable plasma drug level adequate for analgesia for 24 to 48 h after administration, whereas Carp-SR, Melox-SR, Fent-SR, and Butp-SR would require additional doses to provide analgesic plasma levels beyond 24 h in mice. PMID:25255070

  2. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae). (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A


    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter


    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  4. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete


    of prescriptions per 100 contacts. RESULTS: Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications...... for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3......) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for more than 80% of all drug prescriptions in Denmark. Of all contacts 24.0% involved medication prescriptions...

  5. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...

  6. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz


    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  7. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meircurius Dwi C.S


    selulosa, petosan, lignin, solvent, uronat unhidrat, nitrogen dan air. Salah satu bahan aktif dalam tempurung kelapa adalah phenyl propanoid (terdapat dalam struktur lignin dan guaiakol. Phenyl propanoid dan guaiakol adalah suatu senyawa fenol yang mempunyai sifat sebagai antioksidan, antiseptic, anti-inflamasi, anastesi dan analgesik. Liquid smoke tempurung kelapa (Cocos nucifera Lmengandung senyawa fenol yang dapat mengikat komponen dalam konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Tujuan: Studi ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek analgesik dari liquid smoke tempurung kelapa (Cocos nucifera L. Metode: Penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan jenis post test only control group design pada mencit (Mus musculus jantan usia 2-3 bulan dengan berat badan 20-30gram. Kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan terdiri dari 7 hewan coba. Kelompok kontrol diberi aquades 0.01ml/bb (ml/gr (po dan setelah 30 menit diberi asam asetat 0.6% 0.01ml/bb (ml/gr (ip. Kelompok perlakuan diberi liquid smoke tempurung kelapa (Cocos nucifera L dengan konsentrasi 25%, 50% and 100%. Efek analgesik ditentukan dengan melihat penurunan writhing reflex (liukan atau geliat tubuh hewan coba yang dihitung setiap 5 menit selama 30 menit. Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna jumlah writhing reflex pada pemberian liquid smoke tempurung kelapa konsentrasi 25%, 50% dan 100%. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi liquid smoke, semakin tinggi pula efek analgesic yang ditimbulkan. Kesimpulan: Liquid smoke tempurung kelapa mempunyai efek analgesik.

  8. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use (United States)

    Cutler, Kristin A.


    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…



    Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.


    A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marke...

  10. Anti-Inflamatory and Analgesic Activities of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used in many parts of Africa for the treatment of rheumatic conditions, fever, headache and various other inflammatory based diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Securidaca longepedunculata ...

  11. An in vitro analysis of the cariogenic and erosive potential of pediatric liquid analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaam Saeed


    Full Text Available Background: Analgesics such as Ibuprofen and Paracetamol, which are clinically used for the treatment of fever and/or pain, are among the most frequently used pediatric medicines. However, the properties of these preparations determine their cariogenic and erosive potential. Aims: The main objective of this study was to analyze the pH, viscosity and total sugar content in a variety of Syrian pediatric liquid analgesics (PLA. Setting and Design: A total of 16 available liquid analgesics that belong to the Paracetamol and Ibuprofen group were analysed. Materials and Methods: The endogenous pH was measured using a digital pH meter, the viscosity was measured using a digital rotational viscometer and the total sugar content was performed according to Fehling method. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented by means of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values. Results: The mean endogenous pH of PLA was 4.63 ± 0.57 ranging between 3.93 and 5.68, and almost all of analgesics (93.8% had pH values ≤5.5. The mean viscosity of PLA was 243.56 ± 186.6 cP and varied between 20.5 cP and 640.5 cP. Sugars were detected in 11 (68.75% analgesics, and varied considerably among sugar-containing analgesics from 5.38 to 69.4 (g/100 mL with a mean concentration of 24.97 ± 23.24 g/100 mL. Conclusion: PLA are potentially cariogenic and erosive because of low pH, high viscosity and high total sugar content. This may increase our concerns about the dental health of children who take liquid analgesics frequently or when long-term treatment is indicated.

  12. The analgesic efficacy of continuous transversus abdominis plane block in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for operations where parietal pain is a major cause of pain. Renal transplant recipients are ideally suited to gain maximum benefit from TAP block as the incision classically involves the lower abdomen. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of continuous TAP block in transplant recipients. Material and Methods: In a prospective double-blind study, 40 chronic renal failure patients undergoing open renal transplant were randomly divided into two groups. At the end of surgery during closure, a multiorifice epidural catheter was placed in TAP plane. Study group (Group S received Inj bupivacaine bolus 1 mg/kg (0.25% followed by infusion 0.25 mg/kg (0.125% through the catheter, whereas control group (Group C received normal saline through the catheter. Inj pentazocine (0.3 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analogue score (VAS > 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS, time of first rescue analgesic, and total analgesic consumption in 24 h. Results: Patients in Group S had significant lower VAS scores, longer time to first rescue analgesic (270 ± 347.96 vs. 42.85 ± 32.27 min and lower pentazocine consumption (9.75 ± 13.95 vs. 56.42 ± 12.46 mg in 24 h. There was significant sedation in Group C. Conclusion: The TAP catheter technique for postoperative pain control after renal transplant has proved to be effective in relieving the postoperative pain after renal transplant with less pentazocine requirement and less sedation.

  13. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities of Buddleja crispa. (United States)

    Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Gilani, Anwar H; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Saeed, Anjum


    Buddleja crispa Benth (Buddlejaceae) is a dense shrub; several species of genus Buddleja have been used in the management of various health conditions including pain and inflammation. The present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties of B. crispa. Male rats (220-270 gm,) and mice (25-30 gm) were randomly divided into different groups (n = 6). Various doses of plant extract of B. crispa, its fractions and pure compounds isolated from the plant were administered intraperitoneally (i.p). The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities were assessed using acetic acid and formalin-induced nociception in mice, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and arachidonic acid-induced platelets aggregation tests. The intraperitoneal administration of the methanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg), hexane fraction (10 and 25 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant inhibition (P < 0.01) of the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and attenuated formalin-induced reaction time of animals in second phase of the test. Pure compounds BdI-2, BdI-H3 and BH-3 isolated from B. crispa produced significant (P < 0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced and formalin tests. The crude extract of B. crispa (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) and its hexane fraction inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema with maximum inhibition of 65 and 71% respectively (P < 0.01). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract and isolated pure compounds were comparable to diclofenac sodium. B. crispa plant extract (0.5-2.5 mg/mL) produced significant anti-platelet effect (P < 0.01) with maximum inhibition of 78% at 2.5 mg/ml. The findings from our present study suggest that B. crispa possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties. B. crispa could serve a potential novel source of compounds effective in pain and inflammatory conditions.

  14. A user-friendly tool for incremental haemodialysis prescription. (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo


    There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017; 32: 182-190). The first step was to put in sequence a series of equations in order to calculate, firstly, KRUn and, then, the key parameters to be prescribed for an adequate IHD; the second step was to compare KRUn values obtained with our spreadsheet with KRUn values obtainable with the gold standard Solute-solver (Daugirdas JT et al., Solute-solver: a web-based tool for modeling urea kinetics for a broad range of hemodialysis schedules in multiple patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 798-809) in a sample of 40 incident haemodialysis patients. Our spreadsheet provided excellent results. The differences with Solute-solver were clinically negligible. This was confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot built to analyse the agreement between KRUn values obtained with the two methods: the difference was 0.07 ± 0.05 mL/min/35 L. Our spreadsheet is a user-friendly tool able to provide clinically acceptable results in IHD prescription. Two immediate consequences could derive: (i) a larger dissemination of IHD might occur; and (ii) our spreadsheet could represent a useful tool for an ineludibly

  15. A Prescription Survey from Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adherence to standard guidelines on the layout and content of prescriptions. Method: A ... Conclusion: Prescription errors are common in outpatient settings of Aluthgama and Kandy areas in .... qualification of the prescriber was present, it was.

  16. Format of medical order sheet improves security of antibiotics prescription: The experience of an intensive care unit. (United States)

    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Bütschi, Anne-Joëlle; Muff, Patrik; Biollaz, Jérôme; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Pannatier, André; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Chiolero, René


    To assess whether formatting the medical order sheet has an effect on the accuracy and security of antibiotics prescription. Prospective assessment of antibiotics prescription over time, before and after the intervention, in comparison with a control ward. The medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. All patients hospitalized in the medical or surgical ICU between February 1 and April 30, 1997, and July 1 and August 31, 2000, for whom antibiotics were prescribed. Formatting of the medical order sheet in the surgical ICU in 1998. Compliance with the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists' criteria for prescription safety was measured. The proportion of safe orders increased in both units, but the increase was 4.6 times greater in the surgical ICU (66% vs. 74% in the medical ICU and 48% vs. 74% in the surgical ICU). For unsafe orders, the proportion of ambiguous orders decreased by half in the medical ICU (9% vs. 17%) and nearly disappeared in the surgical ICU (1% vs. 30%). The only missing criterion remaining in the surgical ICU was the drug dose unit, which could not be preformatted. The aim of antibiotics prescription (either prophylactic or therapeutic) was indicated only in 51% of the order sheets. Formatting of the order sheet markedly increased security of antibiotics prescription. These findings must be confirmed in other settings and with different drug classes. Formatting the medical order sheet decreases the potential for prescribing errors before full computerized prescription is available.

  17. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.


    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  18. A retrospective audit of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Biritwum, Richard


    with the national average estimated in 2008. Interventions that reduce diagnostic uncertainty in illness management should be considered. The National Health Insurance Scheme, as the main purchaser of health services in Ghana, offers an opportunity that should be exploited to introduce policies in support......Resistance to antibiotics is increasing globally and is a threat to public health. Research has demonstrated a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance development. Developing countries are the most affected by resistance because of high infectious disease burden, limited access to quality...... assured antibiotics and more optimal drugs and poor antibiotic use practices. The appropriate use of antibiotics to slow the pace of resistance development is crucial. The study retrospectively assessed antibiotic prescription practices in four public and private primary health-care facilities in Eastern...

  19. Increasing access to emergency contraception through online prescription requests. (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah; Wendt, Jacqueline Moro; Levine, Deborah K; Philip, Susan S; Klausner, Jeffrey D


    To describe a pilot program, Plan B Online Prescription Access, to provide easy access to prescriptions for emergency contraception via the Internet. We measured electronic prescriptions for Plan B (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, Ohio) by month over time. Pharmacists faxed patient-generated prescriptions back to the Department of Public Health for confirmation. Despite no marketing, within the first 18 months of the program, 152 electronic prescriptions for Plan B were requested by 128 female San Francisco residents. Seventy-eight prescriptions were filled (51%) by pharmacists. If correctly marketed, online prescriptions for Plan B have the potential to be an effective means of increasing emergency contraception access in both urban and rural settings across the United States. Further user-acceptability studies are warranted.

  20. General sale of non-prescription medicinal products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanna Lena Maria; Schafheutle, Ellen; Hägg, Annika Nordén


    BACKGROUND: The number of non-prescription medicines (NPMs) available for self-medication is increasing within the European Union (EU). This can enhance the autonomy of individuals but is also connected with risks. Under an existing EU Directive, Sweden has only recently deregulated and made NPMs...... market. There is a difference in the balance between confidence and control, as well as availability and safety when it comes to NPMs in non-pharmacy settings that needs to be further discussed....

  1. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain. (United States)

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T


    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 μm) and in vitro release was prolonged at ≥28 days. Microparticles were stable for ≥6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ≥7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  3. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh


    Full Text Available Najla Dar-Odeh1, Soukaina Ryalat1, Mohammad Shayyab1, Osama Abu-Hammad21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Medicine and Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Jordan; 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, JordanObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients.Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period.Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection.Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure.Keywords: dental records, documentation, prescriptions, local anesthesia

  4. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...

  5. Controlled trial of balneotherapy in treatment of low back pain. (United States)

    Konrad, K; Tatrai, T; Hunka, A; Vereckei, E; Korondi, I


    Three treatments for non-specific lumbar pain--balneotherapy, underwater traction bath, and underwater massage--were assessed in a randomised prospective controlled trial in 158 outpatients. Each group was treated for four weeks and patients were reviewed at the end of this period and at 12 months after entry to the trial. The prescription of analgesics and the pain score were significantly reduced in all three treated groups, but there was no difference between the three groups. No significant change occurred in spinal motion and the straight leg raising test. After one year only the analgesic consumption was significantly lower than in the control group. PMID:1535495

  6. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Novel Derivatives of 1,2-Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Srivastava


    Full Text Available A series of novel 2-phenylhydrazinomethyl and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl-benzimidazole derivatives substituted at the N1-position of benzimidazole nucleus were synthesized as well as screened for analgesic activity. Some of these compounds showed promising analgesic activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. The incorporation of a phenylhydrazinomethyl nucleus at 2-position of benzimidazole compound gave a biologically active pharmacophore.

  7. Who Buys Oddly Shaped Food and Why? Impacts of Food Shape Abnormality and Organic Labeling on Purchase Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Schuitema, Geertje; Grunert, Klaus G


    influence consumers’ purchase intentions, but only if the food deviates extremely from the norm; no differences in purchase intentions emerge for moderately abnormal food. Awareness of food waste issues and proenvironmental self-identities also drive purchase intentions, such that participants with high...... experimentally. A representative sample of 964 Danish consumers indicated their purchase intentions for two fruits and two vegetables with varying levels of food shape abnormality (normal, moderately abnormal, and extremely abnormal) and organic labels (organic label, no label). Food shape abnormalities...... levels of these traits express significantly higher purchase intentions for abnormally shaped food. Thus, increasing awareness of food waste issues, particularly among those with strong proenvironmental self-identities, might encourage more consumers to purchase abnormally shaped fruits and vegetables....

  8. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system. (United States)

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H


    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  9. Green Marketing Potential as Assessed from Consumer's Purchasing Behaviors : The Case of Ghana


    Adinyra, Noamesi; Gligui, Elliot


    Green Marketing has become an important strategy in businesses since the international rise of environmental awareness among countries. With greater awareness rising among the public, especially with reference to the global warming and climate change phenomenon, people have become cautious with regards to their purchases, specifically towards the nature of purchased products. As green marketing continues therefore to evolve not only into a strategy but into a platform across the world, Ghana ...

  10. Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the Arm (PPP-Arm) : The implementation of a national prosthesis prescription protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdenes, Paula; Brouwers, Michael; van der Sluis, Corry K

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: In order to create more uniformity in the prescription of upper limb prostheses by Dutch rehabilitation teams, the development and implementation of a Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the upper limb (PPP-Arm) was initiated. The aim was to create a national digital protocol to

  11. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions


    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S


    Background In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriat...

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors. (United States)

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed


    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  13. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise


    administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study......AIM: Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally...... estimates were identified and effect sizes were calculated from group differences. We combined study-level effects on pain with a random effects meta-analysis and compared effect sizes between exercise trials and trials with analgesic interventions. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane reviews (four...

  14. Decision support for contemporary purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenborg, van R.H.A.; Boer, de L.; Cox, A.; Lamming, R.


    The new business environment has confronted purchasing with an increasingly dynamic and un-predictable environment. While purchasing fonnerly could afford to be reactive to changes in demand specifications, supply markets and supply performance results, the new business environment requires

  15. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Morphine-Mediated Analgesic Patterns in a Plantar Incision-Induced Pain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jing Zeng


    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA is a complementary therapy to improve morphine analgesia for postoperative pain, but underlying mechanism is not well-known. Herein, we investigated EA-induced analgesic effect in a plantar incision (PI model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PI was performed at the left hind paw. EA of 4 Hz and high intensity or sham needling was conducted at right ST36 prior to PI and repeated for another 2 days. Behavioral responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli, spinal phospho-ERK, and Fos expression were all analyzed. In additional groups, naloxone and morphine were administered to elucidate involvement of opioid receptors and for comparison with EA. EA pretreatment significantly reduced post-PI tactile allodynia for over 1 day; repeated treatments maintained analgesic effect. Intraperitoneal naloxone could reverse EA analgesia. Low-dose subcutaneous morphine (1 mg/kg had stronger inhibitory effect on PI-induced allodynia than EA for 1 h. However, analgesic tolerance appeared after repeated morphine injections. Both EA and morphine could equally inhibit PI-induced p-ERK and Fos inductions. We conclude that though EA and morphine attenuate postincision pain through opioid receptor activations, daily EA treatments result in analgesic accumulation whereas daily morphine injections develop analgesic tolerance. Discrepant pathways and mechanisms underlying two analgesic means may account for the results.

  16. Sales effects of product health information at points of purchase: a systematic review. (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan


    Information about healthy and unhealthy nutrients is increasingly conveyed at the point of purchase. Many studies have investigated the effects of product health information on attitudes and intentions, but the empirical evidence becomes sketchier when the focus of research is actual purchase behaviour. The present paper provides an overview of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of product health information for food products at the point of purchase. A systematic literature review was conducted. Only studies were included that assessed the effect of product health information at the point of purchase on actual purchase behaviour, using data provided by stores' sales records or obtained by investigating customer receipts as the primary outcome measure. The included studies' target group comprised supermarket clientele. Several studies found no significant effects of product health information on actual purchase behaviour. Interventions were more likely to be effective when they lasted for a longer time, when they included additional intervention components, and when they targeted the absence of unhealthy nutrients instead of or in addition to the presence of healthy nutrients. No strong evidence for the effectiveness of product health information was found. The effect of intervention duration, additional promotional activities and targeting of healthy v. unhealthy nutrients should be closely examined in future studies.

  17. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip and knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B


    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non-opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and possible assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities vary between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligible for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received "opioid" alone, "NSAID + opioid", "acetaminophen + opioid", or "NSAID + acetaminophen + opioid", respectively. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Additionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  18. Guide to Purchasing Green Power (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  19. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.


    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  20. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Correia


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration, previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution. Control (only seawater and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  1. Overdosed paracetamol (acetaminophen) prescriptions and subsequent pharmacist interventions in French hospitals. (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Rose, F X; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Conort, O; Allenet, B


    Little is known about the manner in which hospital pharmacists intervene for overdosed paracetamol prescriptions. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the number and nature of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) for overdosed paracetamol adult prescriptions in hospitals. We studied PIs that had been documented by pharmacists on the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy website tool between 2007 and 2010. We identified PIs that were related to paracetamol-containing prescriptions of one brand name only (type 1) particularly for patients with body weight ≤ 50 kg who were prescribed 4 g/day, and PIs that concerned the co-prescription of two paracetamol-containing products (type 2). Among 60 hospitals, seven did not report any paracetamol overdose-related PIs. Of the 53 hospitals that had at least one PI, 16 did not report any type 1 PIs. Bodyweight, liver disease, cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism were absent recorded criterion by most of the hospitals included in this study. Previously published studies have highlighted that the most frequent PIs are type 1, especially for patients whose body weight is ≤ 50 kg. We observed a broad variability in the number or type of PI that were related to overdosed paracetamol prescriptions compared with the total of all recorded types of PI. These data suggest that a significant number of hospital pharmacists are unaware of the risks that adult patients with low body weight are exposed to when receiving four grams paracetamol/day over several days. Pharmacist educational programs are needed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries. (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout


    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring


    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can ...... studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.......Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  4. Analgesic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sawarkar

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus rosa  sinensis Linn. belongs to family “Malvacecae” and Considering various medicinal properties of this plant, the leaves were collected and studied for Extractability percentage, analgesic. The herb Hibiscus rosa  sinensis  belonging to the family “Malvacecae” and is commonly known as jasvand. It is cultivated in garden throughout India native country probably china. The buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste, cooling, astringent, remove burning sensations of the body and relieve pain. In the present study aqueous, alcoholic Extracts of dried leaves of Hibiscus rosasinensis was prepared. The extractability percentage of leaves was 20%. The extract showed marked analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts produced significant results at both doses (P<0.01, the findings indicated the analgesic activity of the leaves of the plant. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 353-354

  5. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prescribing behaviour of physicians. ... Keywords: Physician prescription behaviour, Pharmacist factor, Collaboration, Trustworthiness ... provide information relating to drug prescription, ... processing [22], which takes into consideration.

  6. A computer-based purchase management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.


    The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)

  7. Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain (United States)


    Project Manager Boston Biomedical Innovation Center 215 First Street, Suite 500; Cambridge, MA 02142 857-307-2441 | | b...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0480 TITLE: Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain PRINCIPAL...31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tissue Injury

  8. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk


    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  9. Survey the Antibiotics Prescription by General Practitioners for Outpatients in Ardabil City in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Hosseinzadeh


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One of the most proven trajectories for analyzing the drug consumption patterns in the community is to assess the prescriptions. Using the antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases not only leads to the loss of pathogens but also causes various complications, the most important of which is the drug resistance. The aim of current study was investigating the different antibiotics prescript by general practitioners (GPs for outpatients in Ardabil city. Methods: This study is designed based on the cross-sectional method. The number of 2,000 copies (according to Morgan from total of 526000 copies sent to Ardabil health insurance during the 4 seasons of 2013 were randomly evaluated. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and T-Test using spss software. The P ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study the average drug per prescription was 3.6 and 54.9% of the prescriptions included antibiotics so that the cefixime, azithromycin, Co-amoxiclave and penicillin 6.3.3 were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, respectively. The highest prescriptions belonged to penicillins (39.4% cephalosporins (27.7% and macrolides (18.3%. The most expensive antibiotic was cefixime tablet (32% of the total cost. The most of the antibiotics were prescribed to be taken orally (tablets or capsules. The mean price of each prescription was 74539±71050 Rials. The highest rate of antibiotic prescription was related to the autumn and then winter and there was a significant relationship between the the number of antibiotics in different seasons of the year (p = 0.005. Conclusion: The average drugs of each prescription are in accordance with local statistics, but much higher than the global figures. The frequency of antibiotics prescription was higher than the global, several Middle Eastern and even African countries’ indices but was lower than the average level of some

  10. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes. (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos


    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  11. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos


    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  12. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh


    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  13. Purchasing management experience of Haiyang nuclear power project construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuqin


    Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)

  14. Past-year Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Opioid Prescriptions and Self-reported Opioid Use in an Emergency Department Population With Opioid Use Disorder. (United States)

    Hawk, Kathryn; D'Onofrio, Gail; Fiellin, David A; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Owens, Patricia H; Pantalon, Michael V; Bernstein, Steven L


    Despite increasing reliance on prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) as a response to the opioid epidemic, the relationship between aberrant drug-related behaviors captured by the PDMP and opioid use disorder is incompletely understood. How PDMP data should guide emergency department (ED) assessment has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate a relationship between PDMP opioid