WorldWideScience

Sample records for prescription-only analgesics purchased

  1. The availability of prescription-only analgesics purchased from the internet in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Connie; Webb, David J; Maxwell, Simon R J

    2009-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are accessing medicines from the internet. This online market is poorly regulated and represents a potential threat to the health of patients and members of the public. Prescription-only analgesics, including controlled opioids, are readily available to the UK public through internet pharmacies that are easily identified by popular search engines. The majority of websites do not require the customer to possess a valid prescription for the drug. Less than half provide an online health screen to assess suitability for supply. The majority have no registered geographical location. Analgesic medicines are usually purchased at prices significantly above British National Formulary prices and are often supplied in large quantities. These findings are of particular relevance to pain-management specialists who are trying to improve the rational use of analgesic drugs. To explore the availability to the UK population of prescription-only analgesics from the internet. Websites were identified by using several keywords in the most popular internet search engines. From 2000 websites, details of 96 were entered into a database. Forty-six (48%) websites sold prescription analgesics, including seven opioids, two non-opioids and 18 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Thirty-five (76%) of these did not require the customer to possess a valid prescription. Prescription-only analgesics, including controlled opioids, are readily available from internet websites, often without a valid prescription.

  2. The impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy on benign indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly...... socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight...

  3. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  4. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  5. Prescription only on anthelmitic drugs - a questionnaire survey on strategies for daignosis and treatment of eguine strongyles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2005-01-01

    In 1999´, legislation in Denmark made anthelmintic available by prescription only and proghibited use for prophylactic treatment. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 among Danish equine veterinary practises to determine current strategies for surveillance and control of equine strongyles....

  6. The economics of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs: prescribed to improve consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris

    2003-10-01

    According to economic theory, one might expect that the informational content of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs would improve consumers' welfare. However, contrasting the models of consumer and market behaviour underlying this theory with the realities of the prescription-only drug market reveals that this market is distinct in ways that render it unlikely that advertising will serve an unbiased and strictly informative function. A review of qualitative evidence regarding the informational content of drug advertising supports this conclusion. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising concentrates on particular products, and features of those products, to the exclusion of others, and the information provided has frequently been found to be biased or misleading in regulatory and academic evaluations. Governments that have so far resisted direct-to-consumer advertising should invest in independent sources of evidence that could help consumers and professionals to better understand the risks and benefits of treating disease with alternative drug and non-drug therapies, rather than permitting direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

  7. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  8. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erku DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario.Results: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%, and azithromycin (50%. Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs.Conclusion: This study revealed a very high

  9. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-07-10

    To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October-November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February-April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April-May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October-November 2013). 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were 'loaned' in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with

  10. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid µ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  11. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  12. An investigation into the prescribing of analgesics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system drugs that analgesics comprised; proportion of patients using combination analgesics; cost of analgesics. Results. On average, 83.3% of all .... nervous system drugs were the most frequently dispensed therapeutic type, accounting on.

  13. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Hyllested, Lea Maria Ronneberg; Meegaard, Line

    2017-01-01

    ) to a NOAC. Switching was most frequently caused by inconvenience (34%) and adverse effects (23%). Although half of all patients had recently bought over-the-counter analgesics, purchase of ibuprofen and aspirin was rare (6%). More VKA users than NOAC users felt limited in their everyday life because...

  14. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  15. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  16. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  17. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  18. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.

    1998-01-01

    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  19. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikottil, Jaseena; Gupta, Pankaj; Gupta, Kalpna

    2013-01-01

    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents. However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain. PMID:20073408

  20. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  1. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    Outcome measures: Number of patients by age and gender, prescribing frequency and cost of antiobesity prescriptions, ... Lifestyle modifications are the first-line of treatment for obesity, .... received, but it was a neutral code and not an identity or medical ..... disorders and migraines.1 The FDA had approved the combination.

  3. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  4. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  5. NATURAL AND PARTIALLY SYNTETIC ANALGESICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Glogovac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a long hystory of stimulating and mind-altering substances use. Depressive drugs, including morphine and other narcotics, barbiturates and ethanol, are strongly addictive for susceptible individuals. The phenomenon is most striking in the case of opiates. Morphine is an alkaloid of opium. Named after the Roman god of dreams, Morpheus, the compound has potent analgesic properties toward all types of pain. By supstitution of two hydroxylic groups of morphine many natural and semysyntetic derivatives with different pharmacological activity and analgesic action are obtained. Determinations and quantifications of narcotic analgesics in drug addicts are important in forensic medicine and clinical toxicology. With development of highly sensitive chromatography technique (HPLC-GC, GH-MS, more and more substances are determined, including opioid drugs: morphine, codeine, dyhydrocodeine, and heroin and 6-monoacetyl morphine. Hair analysys by HPLC/MS spectroscopy is an effective forensic tool for determining the use of abused drugs. The “fingerprint” for heroin in the mixture with the other substances(1-10 components is determined by 1D-TOCSY NMR.

  6. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2007-01-01

    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  7. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  8. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  9. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    OpenAIRE

    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  10. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  11. Nonprescription analgesics and their use in solid-organ transplantation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Luu, Linh

    2004-09-01

    To review the pharmacology, adverse events, drug interactions, and use of the nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplant recipients. Studies evaluating nonprescription analgesics in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies were selected for inclusion. Nonprescription analgesics (aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen sodium, and acetaminophen) are the most commonly purchased over-the-counter agents in the United States. These agents, although generally considered safe, have been associated with a number of toxicities. The salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with gastrointestinal damage, hematologic changes, liver and kidney dysfunction, and breathing difficulties. Acetaminophen has been shown to induce hematologic changes and liver and renal dysfunction. A closer look at the nonprescription analgesics reveals their potential for harm when used by solid-organ transplant recipients. In this patient population, the salicylates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should generally be avoided if possible, because of their potential toxicities, especially renal dysfunction. Low-dose aspirin, for the prevention of cardiovascular and cardiocerebral events, appears to be safe, but patients must still be followed closely. Acetaminophen is generally considered the nonprescription analgesic and antipyretic of choice in transplant recipients because of its favorable toxicity profile. However, it is imperative that patients and transplant practitioners are aware that this agent is not without toxicities and proper monitoring is advised.

  12. Product Purchases by DLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...

  13. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  14. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  15. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  16. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  17. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  18. THE ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaf of Chenopodium ambrosides, a Nigeria traditional medicinal plant, has been evaluated for its analgesic potential in mice. The analgesic potential of the plant extract was studied using the thermal (hot plate) test. The plant extract was found effective at the dose of 0.4g/kg and 0.8g/kg in elevating ...

  19. Acute Metabolic Changes Associated With Analgesic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to measure brain metabolites. Limited data exist on the analgesic-induced spectroscopy response. This was an explorative study with the aims to investigate the central effects of two analgesic drugs, an opioid and a selective...

  20. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Rahman, Kazi Md Mahabubur; Sarker, Aurin; Alam, Md Mahamudul; Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar

    2015-04-02

    The rhizome of Curcuma amada has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the northern part of Bangladesh and has also used for the treatment of inflammation and fever in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic principle of the MeOH extract of the rhizome of Curcuma amada by an in vivo bioassay guided chromatographic separation and purification, and the structure elucidation of the purified compound by spectroscopic methods. Dried powder of Curcuma amada rhizomes was extracted with MeOH. The analgesic activity of the crude extract and its chromatographic fractions as well as the purified compound itself was evaluated by the acetic acid induced writhing method and the formalin induced licking test in Swiss albino mice. The MeOH extract was separated by chromatographic methods and the pure active compound was purified by crystallization in hexanes. The structure of the pure compound was then elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract of Curcuma amada exhibited 41.63% and 45.53% inhibitions in the acetic acid induced writhing method at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively. It also exerted 20.43% and 28.50% inhibitions in early phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively, and 30.41% and 42.95% inhibitions in late phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively in the formalin induced licking test. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) of crude extract yielded five fractions and Fr. 1 was found to have the most potent analgesic activity with inhibitions of 36.96% in the acetic acid induced writhing method and 47.51% (early phase), 39.50% (late phase) in the formalin induced licking test at a dose of 200mg/kg. Column chromatography of Fr. 1 on silica gel generated seven fractions (SF. 1-SF. 7). SF. 2 showed the most potent activity with inhibition of 49.81% in the acetic acid induced writhing method at a dose of 100mg/kg. Crystallization of SF. 2 yielded

  1. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  2. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  3. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  4. antipyretic and analgesic activities of sphenoceutrum jollyanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Sphenoceutrum jollyanum leaves possess significant in vitro analgesstic and antipyretic activities. Key Words: Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Menispermaceae, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 52-53 ...

  5. Professionalising purchasing organisations : towards a purchasing development model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Rietveld, G.; Lamming, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    How does purchasing develops as a discipline over time in large international organisations? What are the drivers and enablers behind the development of purchasing? Is there an ideal growthpath for purchasing in organisations? These subjects are discussed in this paper by, firstly, providing an

  6. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  7. Decision support for contemporary purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenborg, van R.H.A.; Boer, de L.; Cox, A.; Lamming, R.

    1996-01-01

    The new business environment has confronted purchasing with an increasingly dynamic and un-predictable environment. While purchasing fonnerly could afford to be reactive to changes in demand specifications, supply markets and supply performance results, the new business environment requires

  8. REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujorel FLOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented herein represents a field with good present and future perspectives, especially because real estate property is not under the incidence of a single normative act regarding the sale-purchase agreement of such goods, and given the fact that there are specific legal provisions with respect to various real estate categories and the localization of such property. The article deals with the sale-purchase agreement of various real estate categories, such as fields, buildings, the correspondent lots, urban area, farm, and forests fields, focusing on some particularities. A special care is attributed to examining the applicable laws with regard to the purchase agreements of field lands, the special conditions to be taken into account, the persons that may act as buyers, including foreigners, those without citizenship, and legal persons of a nationality other than Romanian. Finally, a special concern is given to the formalities required for legally exerting the pre-emptive right and the applicable sanctions in that respect.

  9. Pharmacological studies of lappaconitine. Analgesic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M; Satoh, T

    1988-07-01

    The analgesic activity of lappaconitine, which is contained in the root of Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai, was examined after oral and subcutaneous administration to mice or rats by using methods for screening of analgesics, i.e., hot plate, tail immersion, tail pinch, tail pressure, acetic acid-induced writhing, bradykinin-induced flexor reflex of hind limb and Randall-Selitto methods. The results were compared with those for morphine, indometacin and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Analgesic activities of lappaconitine were greater than those of indometacin and ASA, but generally about 2 to 5 times less than those of morphine. However, in the rat tail immersion test, orally administered lappaconitine exhibited more potent analgesic activity than morphine; in this test, lappaconitine was almost equipotent when given orally and subcutaneously, whereas the potency of orally administered morphine was only one-twentieth of that of subcutaneously administered morphine. Like morphine, lappaconitine increased the pain threshold of the normal paw as well as that of the inflamed paw when tested by the Randall-Selitto method. The results show that lappaconitine has strong analgesic activity, and further suggest that the central nervous system may be involved in the action on the pain threshold.

  10. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  11. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...

  12. Assessment of Postoperative Analgesic Drug Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Kloster; Gögenur, Ismail; Torup, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain intensity ratings and opioid consumption (OC) are ubiquitous indicators of pain in postoperative trials of the efficacy of interventional procedures. Unfortunately, consensus on the appropriate statistical handling of these outcomes has not been reached. The aim of this article was......, therefore, to reexamine original data obtained from a postoperative analgesic drug trial, applying a collection of standard statistical methods in analgesic outcome assessments. Furthermore, a modified integrated assessment method of these outcomes was evaluated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double...... also included an integrated assessment of longitudinally measured pain intensity and opioid consumption (PIOC0-6/0-24 h). Also, estimation of effect size, generalized odds ratio of the individual analgesic outcome variables was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included in the final data...

  13. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  14. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  15. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  16. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  17. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Customers were included if they were older than 18 years, bought at least one drug either with or without medical prescription, and agreed to take part in the survey. Data were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 1445 customers buying 1946 drugs were surveyed (age 42.9 +/- 15.7 years, 56.9% female); 627 (59%) of 1055 customers who purchased prescription-only medicines (POM) did so without a prescription. Of all customers interviewed, 172 (11.9%) affirmed that the bought medicine(s) could cause harm. Only half of those (87 or 6%) were able to identify correctly at least one side effect of the purchased medicines. The majority received the information about side effects from a physician. Customers in semirural areas knew less about side effects (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.61; P = 0.00); whereas customers buying medicines for chronic pain, hypertension or diabetes knew more (odds ratio 2.63; 95% CI: 1.44-4.80; P = 0.00). The overall majority of customers did not know that medicines they bought could be harmful. This is particularly alarming because they frequently used POM without consulting a physician.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    time of the animals treated with either standard or extract. Pentazocin ... standard. Results: The extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the two test dose ..... effectiveness of analgesic agents in the tail- flick pain ...

  19. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  20. Analgesic Effect and Immunomodulation Response on Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine qualitatively the chemical components of the extract, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used. The analgesic activity of the extract at various doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p) was assessed using formalin test while pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...

  1. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  2. Solar results purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  3. Solar results purchasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-07-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  4. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  5. The effectiveness of analgesic electrotherapy in the control of pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The change in pain perceived was assessed after a course of analgesic electrotherapy using a visual analogue scale as well as changes in use of analgesics and walking ability. Results: The level of pain reported and use of analgesics dropped significantly after the electrotherapy course, compared to the control group.

  6. An investigation into the prescribing of analgesics | Truter | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were obtained from a medical aid which used a formulary system. Main outcome measures: Percentage of central nervous system drugs that analgesics comprised; proportion of patients using combination analgesics; cost of analgesics. Results: On average, 83.3% of all central nervous system drugs dispensed were ...

  7. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  8. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  9. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  10. Purchasing practice in dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core

  11. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, M.A. de; Opta, J.M.; Pulido, J.M.; Encarnacion, C.E.; Arino, I., Fernandez, J.A.; Alfonso, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  12. Emerging analgesic drugs for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Rey, María Verónica; Dellapina, Estelle; Pellaprat, Jean; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Rascol, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Pain affects between 40 and 85% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is a frequently disabling and overlooked feature, which can significantly reduce health-related quality of life. Unfortunately, there are no universally recommended treatments for this condition. Evidence about the efficacy and safety of available analgesic treatments is summarized in this review. Potential targets for upcoming therapies are then discussed in light of what is currently known about the physiopathology of pain in PD. Protocols for efficacy and safety assessment of novel analgesic therapies are discussed. Finally, critical aspects of study protocol design such as patient selection or outcomes to be evaluated are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that duloxetine, cranial electrotherapy stimulation, rotigotine, subthalamic or pallidum nuclei stimulation or lesion or levodopa could be effective for treating pain in PD. Similarly, some case reports indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or apomorphine could be effective for relieving painful off-period dystonia. Clinical trials with rTMS or oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets for neuropathic pain or botulinum toxin for off-period dystonia are underway. Success of clinical trials about analgesic strategies in PD will depend on the selection of the right PD population to be treated, according to the type of pain, and the proper selection of study outcomes and follow-up of international recommendations.

  13. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  14. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  15. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  16. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  17. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  18. Value creation and purchasing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, as European manufacturers face fierce competition from new Asian sources, suppliers are looked to as sources of competitive advantage. This article discusses the strategic role that differentiated purchasing and supply management represents in support of companies overall

  19. Use of analgesics in intentional drug overdose presentations to hospital before and after the withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Paul; Reulbach, Udo; Keeley, Helen S; Perry, Ivan J; Hawton, Keith; Arensman, Ella

    2010-03-18

    Distalgesic, the prescription-only analgesic compound of paracetamol (325 mg) and dextropropoxyphene (32.5 mg) known as co-proxamol in the UK, was withdrawn from the Irish market as of January 2006. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the withdrawal of distalgesic in terms of intentional drug overdose (IDO) presentations to hospital emergency departments (EDs) nationally. A total of 42,849 IDO presentations to 37 of the 40 hospitals EDs operating in Ireland in 2003-2008 were recorded according to standardised procedures. Data on sales of paracetamol-containing drugs to retail pharmacies for the period 1998-2008 were obtained from IMS Health. The withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market resulted in an immediate reduction in sales to retail pharmacies from 40 million tablets in 2005 to 500,000 tablets in 2006 while there was a 48% increase in sales of other prescription compound analgesics. The rate of IDO presentations to hospital involving distalgesic in 2006-2008 was 84% lower than in the three years before it was withdrawn (10.0 per 100,000). There was a 44% increase in the rate of IDO presentations involving other prescription compound analgesics but the magnitude of this rate increase was five times smaller than the magnitude of the decrease in distalgesic-related IDO presentations. There was a decreasing trend in the rate of presentations involving any paracetamol-containing drug that began in the years before the distalgesic withdrawal. The withdrawal of distalgesic has had positive benefits in terms of IDO presentations to hospital in Ireland and provides evidence supporting the restriction of availability of means as a prevention strategy for suicidal behaviour.

  20. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Reimbursement of analgesics for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Hansen, Anneli Borge; Svendsen, Kristian; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Fredheim, Olav Magnus S

    2012-11-27

    The prevalence of chronic non-malignant pain in Norway is between 24% and 30%. The proportion of the population using opioids for non-malignant pain on a long-term basis is around 1%. The purpose of our study was to investigate how many were prescribed analgesics on reimbursable prescription under reimbursement code -71 (chronic non-malignant pain) in 2009 and 2010, which analgesics were prescribed and whether prescribing practices were in accordance with national guidelines. We retrieved pseudonymised data from the National Prescription Database on all those who received drugs with reimbursement code -71 in 2009 and 2010. The data contain information on drug, dosage, formulation, reimbursement code and date of issue. 90,731 patients received reimbursement for drugs indicated for chronic non-malignant pain in 2010. Of these, 6,875 were given opioids, 33,242 received paracetamol, 25,865 non-steroid inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 20,654 amitryptiline and 16,507 gabapentin. Oxycodone was the most frequently prescribed opioid, followed by buprenorphine, tramadol and codeine/paracetamol. Of those who were prescribed opioids, 4,047 (59%) received mainly slow-release opioids, 2,631 (38%) also received benzodiazepines and 2,418 (35%) received benzodiazepine-like sleep medications. The number of patients who received analgesics and opioids on reimbursable prescriptions was low compared to the proportion of the population with chronic pain and the proportion using opioids long-term. 38% of those reimbursed for opioids also used benzodiazepines, which is contrary to official Norwegian guidelines.

  2. Breaking barriers to novel analgesic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Roberson, David P; Bean, Bruce P; Woolf, Clifford J

    2017-08-01

    Acute and chronic pain complaints, although common, are generally poorly served by existing therapies. This unmet clinical need reflects a failure to develop novel classes of analgesics with superior efficacy, diminished adverse effects and a lower abuse liability than those currently available. Reasons for this include the heterogeneity of clinical pain conditions, the complexity and diversity of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and the unreliability of some preclinical pain models. However, recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of pain are beginning to offer opportunities for developing novel therapeutic strategies and revisiting existing targets, including modulating ion channels, enzymes and G-protein-coupled receptors.

  3. Pain treatment after tonsillectomy: advantages of analgesics regularly given compared with analgesics on demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneman, G; Akervall, J

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate pain treatment during the first postoperative 24 h for 40 patients (age over 18) undergoing tonsillectomy. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (n = 20) received analgesics on demand and group B (n = 20) on a regular basis. Basic pain treatment consisted of paracetamol 750 mg x 6 and diclofenac 50 mg x 3. Pain measurement was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS): a 10 cm line with 0 cm equalling no pain and 10 cm equalling the worst pain ever felt. The following parameters were studied: VAS values, the need for rescue analgesics, intra- and postoperative bleeding, nausea and vomiting, postoperative food intake and hospital time. Only 4 of 20 (20%) patients in group B needed rescue analgesics in the postoperative ward compared with 15 of 20 (75%) in group A (p values were generally rather low in both groups. The mean value for all observed VAS values was less than 4 in both study groups. However, no significant difference in VAS values was observed between the two study groups. Our results suggest that regularly given postoperative pain treatment after tonsillectomy, starting intraoperatively with paracetamol and diclofenac, has significant advantages compared with a regimen in which patients receive analgesics only on demand.

  4. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...

  5. Analgesic Microneedle Patch for Neuropathic Pain Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Pascual, Conrado; Lieu, Christopher; Oh, Seajin; Wang, Ji; Zou, Bende; Xie, Julian; Li, Zhaohui; Xie, James; Yeomans, David C; Wu, Mei X; Xie, Xinmin Simon

    2017-01-24

    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain. Local analgesic effects were evaluated in rats by testing behavioral pain sensitivity in response to thermal and mechanical stimuli using neuropathic pain models such as spared-nerve injury and diabetic neuropathy pain, as well as neurogenic inflammatory pain model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Unlike several conventional therapies, the AMN patches produced effective analgesia on neuropathic pain without disturbing the normal nociception and motor function of the rat, resulting from the high specificity of the delivered peptide against CGRP receptors. The AMN patches did not cause skin irritation or systemic side effects. These results demonstrate that dissolvable microneedle patches delivering CGRP antagonist peptide provide an effective, safe, and simple approach to mitigate neuropathic pain with significant advantages over current treatments.

  6. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  7. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....

  8. The Phytochemical Constituents, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas were investigated in mice and rats respectively. The phytochemical screening of the extract was also carried out. The analgesic effect was determined by acetic acid – induced writhing test in mice. While the anti- ...

  9. The usage and efficacy of a combination analgesic preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination analgesics are frequently prescribed for the treatment of a multitude of conditions. Many of these preparations contain agents with no proven analgesic efficacy. We examined 3059 patients using a new combination agent containing only paracetamol, codeine, and ibuprofen. It appears that despite a wide ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Analgesics Prescribing Pattern in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the analgesics prescribing pattern in the Accident and Emergency (A and E) Unit of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The data was retrieved from the pharmacy archives type of analgesics and its routes of administration whether oral or parenteral in all ...

  12. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice. Methods: Different groups of six ...

  13. Pharmacological studies of Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parimala Krishnan

    of analgesic drugs produce serious adverse effects, such as GI disturbances, renal damages (with NSAIDs drugs), respiratory depression and possibly dependence (with opioids). It is understandable that proposition of analgesic agents with fewer adverse effects is desirable. One of the ways to achieve this aim is the use of ...

  14. Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana, Mill (Lauraceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain relief. Based on its ethnomedicinal use in pain management, the seed of the plant was extracted with distilled water and screened for analgesic activity. The analgesic screening was done in mice using four models: acetic ...

  15. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon. Corresponding ... Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol ... advertisements for analgesics in the media. Funding: .... based on awareness of its use, required dosage,.

  16. Analgesic properties of Capraria biflora leaves aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, S L; Muro, L V; Sacerio, A L; Peña, A R; Okwei, S N

    2003-12-01

    The analgesic properties of dried leaves of Capraria biflora were investigated. The aqueous extract (50-200 mg kg(-1)) produced moderate inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. At the same doses, a better analgesic effect was observed on the hot plate test.

  17. The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII. Hospital, Durban. D. A. ROCKE, C. C. ROUT, H. D. RUSSELL, S. SINGH. Abstract The provision of analgesic services to the labour ward at King Edward VIII Hospital was studied during a I-week period. Of249 patients, 113 (45%) received no analgesia whatsoever.

  18. Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, ...

  19. Using analgesics as tools: young women's treatment for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore the context surrounding young women's use of analgesics to deal with headache. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on the young women's experiences with medications within...... performance- and participation-related functions. Accordingly, analgesics were employed as tools to reach these aims. The threshold for turning to analgesics varied across situations and among participants. Some relied heavily on analgesics, whereas others had success with non-medical strategies. This study...... the context of their everyday lives. The central elements in the participants' accounts emerged via a phenomenological approach. Analysis revealed that participants attributed headache to stressful conditions in their everyday lives. Analgesic use in treating headache was found to serve highly valued...

  20. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  1. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  2. Standards of analgesic treatment versus hospital practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain remedying is a fundamental patient law. Modern medicine is acknowledging the mechanism and the warp of pain, commanding more efficient therapeutic means allowing to control the pain.  Multidirectional pain therapy uses variable techniques and medicines which enables to maximize the analgesic effect during the reduction of side effects of each method. Objective: Evaluation of applying standards of analgesic treatment in hospital practice. Material and methods: There were 100 people with severe pain who underwent surgical and orthopedic treatment, as well as, the ones with chronic pain, staying in neurological ward who took part in the examination. Choice of examined patients was random and embraced hospitals patients in the Podkarpackie voivodeship with “Szpital bez Bólu” (eng.: Hospital without pain certificate.  Examined group comprised of : 57% of women and 44% of men, living in rural (56% and urban (44% area. Research methods used in the examinations, were diagnostic opinion poll, records analysis and pain measurements. Results: 42 % of patients can feel the pain intermittently, 37% is not able to estimate how often do pain ailments occur, however, 21% of people suffer from chronic pain ailments. Patients have estimated their pain as follows: severe (26%, difficult to determine (20%, shooting (16%, burning (15%, radiating (10%, dull (8%, stinging (3% and the one which appears when touched (2%. Having estimated the pain intensity, 53% of respondents claimed that they feel medium pain intensity and 33% claimed to have felt great pain. Nurses in the post-op (54% and anesthesiologist (26% are the one, to inform patient about possibilities and eventual methods of post-operative pain management. Conclusions: Pain limits physical functioning of patient. Five-stage scales included in the examination, were VAS and VRS which are sufficient in prophylaxis and pain alleviation but not entirely readable and understandable for all

  3. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA

    2017-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  4. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, I W D; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M

    2013-10-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  5. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  6. Purchasing management experience of Haiyang nuclear power project construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)

  7. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...

  8. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  9. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  10. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among all...

  11. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  12. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  13. 78 FR 37946 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... purchasing credit union may have years of experience dealing with only one or a few originators. These credit...; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... reorganize the loan participation rule and focus on the purchase side of loan participation transactions. The...

  14. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  15. [A novel analgesics made from Cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Kálmán

    2004-01-20

    Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision.

  16. Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Tariq Abdul Razak ...

  17. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  18. Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ... Thirty minutes prior to intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml of 0.1% acetic acid, animals in groups ... (acetaminophen), aspirin and indomethacin while VII received saline water.

  19. The analgesic effect of diclofenac sodium administered via the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-08

    Feb 8, 2016 ... to food and water, feeding, temperature, environment, diurnal, and nocturnal .... to detect the potency of substances that have analgesic potential.[10,11] In this ... Figure 8: Leakage control with Hamilton's syringe. Figure 9: ...

  20. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum

    OpenAIRE

    Das, B. K.; Al-Amin, M. M.; Russel, S. M.; Kabir, S.; Bhattacherjee, R.; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-...

  1. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  2. [Management of opioid maintenance treatments when analgesic treatments are required].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprevote, Vincent; Geoffroy, Pierre A; Rolland, Benjamin; Leheup, Benoît F; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Cottencin, Olivier; Schwan, Raymund

    2013-01-01

    Opioid maintenance treatments (OMT) reduce illicit opiate use and its associated risks. They are often prescribed on a long-term basis. Physiological changes induced by long-term OMT may cause hyperalgesia and cross-tolerance to opioid agonists, which suggests that the dosage of analgesic treatment should be modified in cases of acute pain, especially when an opioid-based analgesia is required. When treatment with analgesics is necessary, OMT must be maintained, except in exceptional cases. If a split-dosing schedule is temporarily employed during OMT, the daily dosage should not be increased for analgesic purposes. Analgesic treatment must be managed differently in case of treatment with buprenorphine or methadone. With buprenorphine, non-opioid analgesics should be introduced first, if possible. If this strategy is inefficient or contraindicated, a temporary or definitive switch to methadone should be considered. In the case of methadone-based OMT, opioid analgesics should be added directly and the dosage should be adapted according to the level of pain reported by the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Attitude of patients and customers toward on-line purchase of drugs--a Hungarian survey by community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittler, András; Bosze, Gergely; Botz, Lajos

    2010-11-28

    As internet is now available to nearly everyone in Hungary, the accessibility of websites offering pharmaceutical products is also increasing. The national and international regulation of these sites is currently an unsolved problem worldwide, thus potentially harmful, counterfeit and prescription only medicines are easily accessible on the market. We aimed to measure and estimate the current situation of the ordering of online medicines. In 5 Hungarian cities 434 self-administered questionnaires were collected in community pharmacies. Our results show that 6.2% of the respondents have already ordered drugs or dietary supplements online and approximately same amount of people are considering this option in the near future. Based on our survey mostly the educated, the 30-49 year old people and women are likely to buy drugs online. Every fifth respondent reported willingness to buy drugs online from abroad if lower prices were offered. Most people do not know that the quality of medicines purchased online could be different from the ones purchased from community pharmacies. We would like to draw attention of healthcare professionals to the rising popularity and potential risks of drugs available online.

  4. Advertising of prescription-only medicines to the public: does evidence of benefit counterbalance harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Since the global withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx) in 2004, concerns about public health effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) have grown. A systematic review of the research evidence on behavioral, health, and cost effects, published in 2005, found four studies meeting inclusion criteria, which showed that DTCA increases prescribing volume and patient demand, and shifts prescribing. From 2005 to 2010, nine studies met similar criteria. These largely confirm previous results. Additional effects include a shift to less appropriate prescribing, differential effects by patient price sensitivity and drug type, switches to less cost-effective treatment, and sustained sales despite a price increase. Claimed effects on adherence do not stand up to scrutiny and are based mainly on negative trials. There is no evidence of improved treatment quality or early provision of needed care. If policy is to be informed by evidence, the strength of research methods and ability to assess causality need to be considered.

  5. Purchasing behavior of Fairtrade customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ambrožová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities is increasing worldwide; the European Union considers CSR to be one of the ways to achieve the most competitive economy and CSR awareness is also rising among companies in the Czech Republic, their customers, and the public. Bearing this in mind, Fairtrade goods, a subset of CSR and sustainable development, is an attractive step for vendors to take towards their customers. In this paper, we try to learn who the buyers of Fairtrade products are and what their motivation is in order to help Fairtrade dealers know their target group better, while at the same time helping expand this target group for organizations such as Fairtrade Czech Republic. We utilize an empirical survey and employ both univariate and bivariate statistical analyses (descriptives, associations, correlations for this purpose. While some previous findings were confirmed, such as (the influence of age and education on Fairtrade purchasing behavior, moral principles and quality of the product being stated as the most important motives to buy Fairtrade products, the significance of the Fairtrade logo and certificate for the buyers’ awareness one was disproved. According to the gathered data, the economic situation of a household does not affect Fairtrade purchasing behavior.

  6. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  7. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  8. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA SIMA; GEORGE BĂLAN

    2014-01-01

    The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Al-Amin, M M; Russel, S M; Kabir, S; Bhattacherjee, R; Hannan, J M A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (Panalgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  11. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  12. A computer-based purchase management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)

  13. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  14. Evolving Purchasing and Supply Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    2018-01-01

    this challenge, a comprehensive contingency framework of PSO structures is presented. The framework is based on existing literature on PSO contingency factors as well as analysis of two case companies. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective for understanding the PSO...... and combining a detailed view of macro-level structural dimensions with micro-level characteristics. These macro-level dimensions comprise category, business unit, geography and activity. The micro-level characteristics comprise centralization, formalization, specialization, participation and standardization....... From a theoretical perspective, the contingency framework opens up insights that can be leveraged in future studies in the fields of hybrid PSOs, global sourcing organizations, and International Purchasing Offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies...

  15. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W

    2003-06-05

    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  16. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - V. Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of pain has very ancient origins, when plant-derived products were used, including mandrake extracts and opium, a dried latex obtained from Papaver somniferum. In the XVI and XVII centuries opium came into the preparation of two compounds widely used for pain relief: laudanum and Dover’s powder. The analgesic properties of extracts of willow bark were then recognized and later, in the second half of the XIX century, experimental studies on chemically synthesized analgesics were planned, thus promoting the marketing of some derivatives of para-amino-phenol and pyrazole, the predecessors of paracetamol and metamizol. In the XX century, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were synthesized, such as phenylbutazone, which was initially considered primarily a pain medication. The introduction on the market of centrally acting analgesics, such as tramadol, sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatic pain. is quite recent.

  17. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  18. POINT-OF-PURCHASE SIGNS, IMPULSE PURCHASES, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE "DESIRE TO TOUCH"

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry

    2000-01-01

    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  19. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  20. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  1. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst

    2016-10-01

    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  2. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity Evaluation of Some Agmatine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of N,N’-disubstituted-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine and N,N’-disubstituted- N’’-cyanoguanidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for in vivo analgesic activity. The blood brain barrier (BBB VolSurf model was used to predict the BBB permeation profiles of our synthesized compounds. Some compounds show both remarkable analgesic activity and good BBB permeation profiles, and these compounds might be developed for treatment of opioid tolerance and dependence.

  3. Purchasing portfolio models: a critique and update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have spawned considerable discussion in the literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing considerable divergence in opinion on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question of whether or not the use of purchasing

  4. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  5. Exploring purchasing involvement in product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.; Weele, van A.J.

    2003-01-01

    With increasing outsourcing and the growing importance of product innovation as a means for creating competitive advantage, the integration of purchasing and product development processes has become a key issue for many firms. Although, consequently, the integration of purchasing and suppliers in

  6. Critical success factors for managing purchasing groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we identify critical success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. The analysis of our data set suggests the following success factors: no enforced participation, sufficient

  7. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.202 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To the...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  9. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: who are the end users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, James A; Surratt, Hilary L; Cicero, Theodore J; Rosenblum, Andrew; Ahwah, Candice; Bailey, J Elise; Dart, Richard C; Burke, John J

    2010-07-01

    Although prescription drugs are readily available on the Internet, little is known about the prevalence of Internet use for the purchase of medications without a legitimate prescription, and the characteristics of those that obtain non-prescribed drugs through online sources. The scientific literature on this topic is limited to anecdotal reports or studies plagued by small sample sizes. Within this context, the focus of this paper is an examination of five national data sets from the U.S. with the purpose of estimating: (1) how common obtaining prescription medications from the Internet actually is, (2) who are the typical populations of "end users" of these non-prescribed medications, and (3) which drugs are being purchased without a prescription. Three of the data sets are drawn from the RADARS (Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance) System, a comprehensive series of studies designed to collect timely and geographically specific data on the abuse and diversion of a number of prescription stimulants and opioid analgesics. The remaining data sets include the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey. Our analysis yielded uniformly low rates of prescription drug acquisition from online sources across all five data systems we examined. The consistency of this finding across very diverse populations suggests that the Internet is a relatively minor source for illicit purchases of prescription medications by the individual end-users of these drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The fundamentals of power purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing Ontario consumers in the year 2000 regarding the purchase of electricity are the focus of this paper. As Ontario's electric power industry changes from a monopoly based public service to a competition-driven supply and demand marketplace, consumers in the province will be faced with the complex and difficult task of buying electricity in an open market. Electricity products will be available as commodities in a desegregated state. That is, consumers will be able to buy electricity from a power generator, as well as arranging its transportation and distribution. Consumers will have to understand the cost factors involved and the components which factor into the pricing of electricity. In this context, the paper defines electricity as a commodity and discusses issues such as supply and demand (given that electricity cannot be stored), energy losses, regional markets, impact of externalities, demand elasticity, and hourly pricing. Non-commodity cost factors such as stranded debt, ancillary services, infrastructure and personnel, metering, electricity trading and futures contracts are also reviewed. 19 refs., 2 figs

  12. Analgesic effects of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nijs; Dr. L.P. Voogt; F. Struyf; M. Meeys; D. Meuffels; J. de Vries

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current evidence shows that manual therapy elicits analgesic effect in different populations (healthy, pain inflicted and patients with musculoskeletal pain) when carried out at the spinal column, although the clinical significance of these effects remains unclear. Also the analgesic

  13. Phytochemical, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and ... The analgesic studies were carried out at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight i.p. using acetic acid-induced writhing and thermally-induced pain in mice. The extract ...

  14. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA (MIQ) LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandaker Amol; Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Ficus arnottiana was used to evaluate the analgesic activity. The above activity was evaluated using the eddy’s hot plate and heat conduction method and acetic acid induced writing in mice. The dose used for the test of activity (100, 200. 400 mg/kg i.p). The extract at all doses tested significantly (P

  15. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  16. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  17. Anti-Inflamatory and Analgesic Activities of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used in many parts of Africa for the treatment of rheumatic conditions, fever, headache and various other inflammatory based diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Securidaca longepedunculata ...

  18. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the antisecretory and analgesic activities of the crude extract of Terminalia bellerica (Tb.Cr). T. bellerica extract inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mice at the dose range of 300 - 1000 mg/kg. The extract also dose-dependently (50 - 100 mg/kg) reduced the numbers of acetic ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  20. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bovine mastitis is one of the most relevant and problematic diseases to treat and control in practice. Puxing Yinyang San (PYS) is a compound of herbs to treat bovine mastitis in China. This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of PYS in mice and rats. Materials and ...

  1. Synthesis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Microbial infections often produce pain and inflammation. Chemotherapeutic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed simultaneously in normal practice. The compound possessing all three activities is not common.The purpose of the present study was to examine whether molecular modification ...

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  3. Investigation of the in vitro metabolism of the analgesic flupirtine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Methling, K.; Reszka, P.; Lalk, M.; Vrána, Oldřich; Scheuch, E.; Siegmund, W.; Terhaag, B.; Bednarski, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2009), s. 479-493 ISSN 0090-9556 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : flupirtine * analgesic * metabolism Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2009

  4. Studies on the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyrexic activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactivity of this compound was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and carrageenan-induced pulmonary oedema in mice for the antiinflammatory activity, while acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and zymosan-induced fever in rats were used for analgesic test. Materials and Methods: Rats ...

  5. Evaluation of Analgesic, Anticonvulsant and Hypnotic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AqPs (100-400mg/kg i.p.) also demonstrated a protective effect against strychnine-induced convulsion. The extract potentiated the hypnotic effect of hexobarbitone following i.p. injection at the dose levels studied. The results suggested that AqPs possesses potential analgesic, anticonvulsive and hypnotic properties.

  6. Stress and use of over-the-counter analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke Jenny; Ekholm, Ola; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use and perceived stress among 25 to 44-year-old men and women from 1994 to 2005; to examine the association between stress and OTCA use over time, and to explore whether the association attenuates when controlled by stress...

  7. Role of Magnesium Sulfate in Prolonging the Analgesic Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antinociceptive effect in animal and human pain models. i.v magnesium ... about 30 min prior to surgery followed by continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h for the next 24 h while the other group received similar ... of analgesia and reduces postoperative analgesic consumption without any significant side effects.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii (Hook

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Key words: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mice, Cyphostemma vogelii, nociception. ... steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the drugs of ..... 44-55. Hughes H, Lang M (1983). Control of pain in dogs and cats In: Kitchell. R, Erickson H (eds.) Animal pain. Baltimore Waverly press. pp. 207-.

  9. Analgesic compounds from Scorzonera latifolia (Fisch. and Mey.) DC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahadir, Ö.; Citoglu, G. S.; Šmejkal, K.; Dall Acqua, S.; Özbek, H.; Cvačka, Josef; Žemlička, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2010), s. 83-87 ISSN 0378-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Scorzonera latifolia * analgesic activity * triterpenes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2010

  10. The analgesic, haematological and some physiological effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to investigate the analgesic, haematologic and some physiological effects of extradural bupivacaine on dogs using six clinically healthy adult male dogs. The method used is by obtaining baseline data for physiological variables from each dogs using the multiparameter patient monitors (GD3, ...

  11. Post- operative analgesic effect of epidural bupivacaine alone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted from December, 2013 to May, 2014 on 12 healthy bitches presented to the University of Gondar Teaching Veterinary Clinic for ovariohysterectomy to compare the epidural analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with tramadol to relieve postoperative pain and asses changes on ...

  12. Comparative Chemical And Analgesic Properties Of Essential Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The Chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume ...

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  15. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  16. The analgesic effect of diclofenac sodium administered via the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... investigate the characteristics of the analgesic effect of diclofenac sodium injected epidurally in single or repeated doses and whether tolerance develops in long‑term use. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 rats were included in the study. The rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal ketamine hydrochloride and an ...

  17. The Analgesic Effect of Pineapple Fruit Juice on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Atiqah binti Hilmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a feeling stimulated by the nervous system which can be suppressed by giving an analgesic agent. Some studies revealed that pineapples have an analgesic effect. This study aim was to determine analgesic effect of pineapple on mice. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect was examined by using a writhing method on the 28 male mice. Subjects were divided into 4 groups with 7 mice each. The control group received aquades and other groups received pineapple fruit juice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration with the dosage of 10 mL/kg/body weight. After 30 minutes, 3% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally to induce pain. Writhing responseswere observed every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: The result for mean of total writhing reaction was 2.39±0.40, 1.92±0.40, 1.50±2.13, 1.66±0.11 respectively for group 1 to 4. These data indicated a significant decrease of total writhing response in mice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration compared to control group (p=0.023;p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Most optimal concentration was40% with the protective percentage equal to 71.8%. Conclusion: Pineapple fruit juice concentrations (20%, 40%, and 80%has an analgesic effect with the most optimal concentration of 40%.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Landolphia owariensis ... rats and the nociception induced by Tail immersion in hot water (50.0 ± 1.00C) and ... (acetic acid) MELO produced the highest and comparable analgesic activity to ...

  19. NSAID and other analgesic use by endurance runners during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. An increasing popularity of ultra-endurance events coupled with excessive or inappropriate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use during such events could pose considerable potential risks to runners' health. Objective. To evaluate the incidence of NSAID and other analgesic use in distance ...

  20. Intravenous analgesics for pain management in post- operative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous analgesics for pain management in post- operative patients: a comparative study of their efficacy and adverse ... patient anxiety, stress, and dissatisfaction. Adequate ... genders who were scheduled to undergo abdominal surgery (hemicolectomy, exploratory ... analysis (n = 48) and separated into three groups.

  1. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria cordata (Linn.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, D. cordata produced significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent inhibition of temperature elevation in the 2,4-DNP and yeast-induced hyperthermia models with ... that the aqueous whole plant extract of Drymaria cordata possesses analgesic and antipyretic properties mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms.

  2. Outlook Analgesic Infusion Pumps Market Size - Trends and Opportunity Forecast to 2023

    OpenAIRE

    nishthavohra

    2018-01-01

    Analgesic infusion pumps are instruments used to carry analgesic drugs directly into patient’s body directly for pain management. Analgesic drugs provide relief from chronic disorders, including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), failed back syndrome pain, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, myocardial ischemia, post-operative pain, and hypertension. Lidocaine, phenol and morphine are some of the common medicines used in analgesic infusion pumps. Explore Report At: https://www.psmarket...

  3. [Analgesic abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F; Irachabal, S; Swendsen, J; Henry, P

    2002-01-01

    Headache patients frequently overuse analgesic medications: 20% of the patients from headache centers is concerned by this problem, which has been estimated to occur in four percent of the community migrainers. Frequent use of various types of headache medication may paradoxically cause an increase in headache attack frequency as well as their chronicisation due to potentially complex mechanisms of sensitization. Patients will enter into a self- perpetuating cycle of daily headaches and use of symptomatic medications which can lead to addiction and to social and occupational impairement. Indeed, many patients will experience pharmacological tolerance and dependence but also by some kind of craving. International Headache Society qualify these patients as abusers referring mostly to the amount of substance ingested. Hence patients are labelled analgesic abusers . However, as many of these analgesic medications contained psychotropic substances (i.e. caffeine, codeine.), these patients may fulfill DSM IV criteria of dependance. Nevertheless, the dependance criteria should be adapted to chronic pain patients. Indeed, if pharmacological dependence and tolerance criteria are easy to apply in such patients, it is not the case for the criteria a great deal of time spent to obtain substances, to use substances or to recover from substances effects . As analgesic medications are legally obtained from medical practitioners, drug seeking behaviours are mostly: obtaining medications from multiple providers, repeating episodes of prescription loss and multiplying requests for early refills. Moreover the detrimental effects of analgesic abuse on psychosocial functioning is likely to be related to pain rather than to medication overuse. Finally the best indicator of addictive behaviors in such patients, is the loss of control over the use of analgesic medication despite the adverse consequences over pain. Comorbidity with addiction to other substances has never been specifically

  4. New models intensify the purchase of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks

  5. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  6. Effects of Analgesic Advertisements on Community in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati binti Shaharuddin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there are numerous analgesic advertisements which have been published in various media and have also attracted attention of the society. The aim of this study is to find out effects of analgesic advertisements on awareness and attention towards these advertisements on the community in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor. Methods: The study used the descriptive method with participants consisting of community members in Hegarmanah Village who have seen, watched or heard about the analgesic advertisements and who were aged 18 years and above. The sample for this study consisted of 100 respondents. This study was conducted in September 2012–December 2012. Results: The results showed that 82% of the respondents have seen the ads in at least the last 3 months and mostly watched them on television. About 52% of respondents agreed that many of the ads did not provide sufficient information. In addition, 50% only read a little bit of the ads rather than the whole advertisement. Fifty three percents of the respondents had the intention to try the medication after seeing the ads. More than 80% were aware about how to use the medication, medication’s side effects, warnings and contraindications and 65% agreed that, they could make a better decision on their health condition after seeing the ads. Conclusions: The analgesic advertisements indeed affected the community by making them aware about the ads and attracted them to buy as well as try the product itself. Further studies on factors which influence intake of over-the-counter analgesic drugs and also about the self-medication are required. [AMJ.2014;1(2:1–6

  7. Imaging drugs with and without clinical analgesic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Anderson, Julie; Schwarz, Adam J; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard; Pendse, G; George, Edward; Nutile, Lauren; Wallin, Diana; Bishop, James; Neni, Saujanya; Maier, Gary; Iyengar, Smriti; Evelhoch, Jeffery L; Bleakman, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-12-01

    The behavioral response to pain is driven by sensory and affective components, each of which is mediated by the CNS. Subjective pain ratings are used as readouts when appraising potential analgesics; however, pain ratings alone cannot enable a characterization of CNS pain circuitry during pain processing or how this circuitry is modulated pharmacologically. Having a more objective readout of potential analgesic effects may allow improved understanding and detection of pharmacological efficacy for pain. The pharmacological/functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI/fMRI) methodology can be used to objectively evaluate drug action on the CNS. In this context, we aimed to evaluate two drugs that had been developed as analgesics: one that is efficacious for pain (buprenorphine (BUP)) and one that failed as an analgesic in clinical trials aprepitant (APREP). Using phMRI, we observed that activation induced solely by BUP was present in regions with μ-opioid receptors, whereas APREP-induced activation was seen in regions expressing NK(1) receptors. However, significant pharmacological modulation of functional connectivity in pain-processing pathways was only observed following BUP administration. By implementing an evoked pain fMRI paradigm, these drugs could also be differentiated by comparing the respective fMRI signals in CNS circuits mediating sensory and affective components of pain. We report a correlation of functional connectivity and evoked pain fMRI measures with pain ratings as well as peak drug concentration. This investigation demonstrates how CNS-acting drugs can be compared, and how the phMRI/fMRI methodology may be used with conventional measures to better evaluate candidate analgesics in small subject cohorts.

  8. Case Report - Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end‑stage renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic nephropathy is a subtle but significant cause of chronic renal failure. There is paucity of data on analgesic nephropathy in Nigeria. This case presentation is to highlight the need to have high index of suspicion in patients at risk of developing analgesic nephropathy. In March 2009 a 55‑year‑old businessman was ...

  9. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...

  10. Exploring Customer Purchasing Intention over Online Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Samadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no significant correlation between perceived risks and online purchasing intention. Implication and limitation of this study also discussed.

  11. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  12. DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marke...

  13. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  14. Finding purchase activity patterns in small & medium enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Finding purchase activity patterns in Small & Medium Enterprises in a research program to enable SMEs to improve their purchase and company performance. Posterpresentatie KCO conferentie, 16 november 2015.

  15. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  16. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  17. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  18. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  19. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  1. A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD. Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, Fear of Pain (FPQ, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10, anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10, and perceived analgesic needs (0–10. Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (r=0.349, anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (r=-0.349, and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (r=0.313. Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (R2=0.443, p<0.0001; expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (R2=0.421, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.

  2. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  3. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  4. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Jovanović; Tamara Vlastelica; Slavica Cicvarić Kostić

    2016-01-01

    Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional an...

  5. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  6. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  7. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  8. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  9. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  10. Comparative Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Sigma, USA) and gum tragacanth (Merck,. Germany) were procured through local sources. (Ahmad Dealers, Lahore). The tested herbal poly-pharmaceutical tablet preparations aujaie. (Hamdard Laboratories, Karachi, Pakistan) and surangeen (Qarshi Laboratories, Lahore,. Pakistan) were purchased from local pharmacy.

  11. Repeated Time-to-event Analysis of Consecutive Analgesic Events in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in consumption of opioid rescue medication is often used as an endpoint when investigating analgesic efficacy of drugs by adjunct treatment, but appropriate methods are needed to analyze analgesic consumption in time. Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) modeling is proposed as a way...... to describe analgesic consumption by analyzing the timing of consecutive analgesic events. METHODS: Retrospective data were obtained from 63 patients receiving standard analgesic treatment including morphine on request after surgery following hip fracture. Times of analgesic events up to 96 h after surgery...... were extracted from hospital medical records. Parametric RTTE analysis was performed with exponential, Weibull, or Gompertz distribution of analgesic events using NONMEM®, version 7.2 (ICON Development Solutions, USA). The potential influences of night versus day, sex, and age were investigated...

  12. Post natal use of analgesics: comparisons between conventional postnatal wards and a maternity hotel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Eskild, Anne; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd

    2010-04-01

    To investigate factors related to analgesic use after delivery, and especially whether rates of analgesic use were different in a midwife-managed maternity hotel as compared to conventional postnatal wards. One maternity hotel and two conventional postnatal wards at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. Data were obtained from hospital records for 804 women with vaginal deliveries. Postnatal analgesic use. Overall, approximately half the women used analgesics after vaginal delivery in both conventional postnatal wards and maternity hotel. The factors that were significantly associated with use of analgesics postnatally in multivariate analysis were multiparity, having a non-Western ethnicity, smoking in pregnancy, younger age, instrumental delivery, analgesic use during labour, maternal complications post partum, and duration of postnatal stay 4 days or more. The use of analgesics is determined by socio-demographic and obstetric factors rather than the organisation of the ward.

  13. Use of common analgesic medications and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with improved survival in some cancers, but evidence for ovarian cancer is limited. METHODS: Pooling individual-level data from 12 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies, we evaluated the association between self......-reported, pre-diagnosis use of common analgesics and overall/progression-free/disease-specific survival among 7694 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (4273 deaths). RESULTS: Regular analgesic use (at least once per week) was not associated with overall survival (pooled hazard ratios, pHRs (95......% confidence intervals): aspirin 0.96 (0.88-1.04); non-aspirin NSAIDs 0.97 (0.89-1.05); acetaminophen 1.01 (0.93-1.10)), nor with progression-free/disease-specific survival. There was however a survival advantage for users of any NSAIDs in studies clearly defining non-use as less than once per week (pHR=0...

  14. Analgesic Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Children with CP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Michelsen, Josephine; Normann, Gitte; Wong, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Experiencing pain is the greatest contributor to a reduced quality of life in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The presence of pain is quite common (~60%) and increases with age. This leads to missed school days, less participation, and reduced ambulation. Despite these alarming consequences...... of disorders and could potentially have an analgesic effect in children with CP as well. Even though most of the studies presented here show promising results, many also have limitations in their methodology as it is unlikely to capture all dimensions of pain in this heterogeneous group using only one...... assessment tool. In this review, we present a new way of examining the analgesic effect of botulinum toxin in children with CP using a variety of pain scores....

  15. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis. Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR and alcoholic (PE fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity.  POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05 reduced abdominal writhes than PE.  In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p

  16. Analgesic effect of butorphanol and levomethadone in detomidine sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzman, U; Armbruster, S; Stucki, F; Busato, A; Kohler, I

    2001-08-01

    The analgesic potency of butorphanol 25 microg/kg bodyweight (BW) and levomethadone 100 microg/kg BW, administered together with detomidine 10 microg/kg BW, was measured in twelve Warmblood horses in a randomized, blinded cross-over study. Detomidine with saline 10 ml 0.9% was used as placebo. The nociceptive threshold was determined using a constant current and a pneumatic pressure model for somatic pair Detomidine alone and in combination with butorphanol or levomethadone caused a significant temporary increase (P detomidine alone to both test methods. No significant difference between butorphanol and levomethadone was registered. It is concluded that the addition of butorphanol or levomethadone to detomidine increases the nociceptive threshold to somatic pain and prolongs the analgesic effect of detomidine in the horse.

  17. Analgesic stairway in the treatment of oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain represents the main symptom in an important group of patients who are in active treatment for cancer and in sick people in a very advanced stage. The objective of this article is to review the basic pharmacology of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, weak opioids, bigger opioids, as well as the different special pharmacological and non- pharmacological techniques that constitute the analgesic stairway in the management of patients who are suffering from oncological pain.

  18. ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF TRAMADOL IN PEDIATRIC TONSILLECTOMY WITH ADENOIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Benedik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical prcedures in childhood. Acute pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy can be treated with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Our hypothesis stated that tramadol iv after induction of anaesthesia has superior analgesic effect compared to acetaminophen.Methods:  In a prospective, randomised study we compared analgesic efficacy of tramadol (group T: 2 mg/kgBW iv and acetaminophen (group A: elixir 15 mg/kgBW before op. procedure in a group of 108 children (age 3-7 years. Exclusion critheria: allergy, liver or kidney failure, epilepsy, febrile convulsions. A standard anaesthetic technique was used: propofol, alfentanil, vecuronium, positive pressure ventilation with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the procedure each child received acetaminophen suppositories (10 mg/kgBW/4-6h and combined suppositories. Monitoring: vital signs during and after op. procedure, pain intensity on the ward (facial pain score.    Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age distribution (mean age 5,2 years, ASA physical status, body weight, operative procedure, pain scores (VAS 6h after operative procedure; group T: 4,21±1,45; group A: 4,06±1,33, oxygen saturation, pulse frequency and the consumption of acetaminophen suppositories. Significant difference was in the consumption of combined suppositories (group T: 1,85±0,79; group A: 1,43±0,69, p=0,003.   Conclusion: Our study has shown, that tramadol is not a superior analgesic for the relief of posttonsillectomy pain in children compared to acetaminophen. 

  19. Joint pain epidemiology and analgesic usage in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samison, Luc Hervé; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Ralandison, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of joint pains and document analgesics usage in an African context. Patients suffering from joint pain were recruited from nine sites located in Antananarivo, Madagascar, including 6 hospital services and 3 clinics. Doctors collected information on the etiology and characteristics of the patients' pain. Analgesics prescribed by these doctors were also documented. In total, 400 patients were enrolled in the study (52.5% women, mean age of 42.34 years ± 17.7 [4-86]). Pain of mechanical type was found in 260 participants, 65%; 95% CI [60.1% to 69.6%] and inflammatory type pains in 128 cases 32%; 95% CI [27.5% to 36.9%]. Mixed pains were found in 12 patients (3%). The median duration of pain prior to the consultation was 6.5 days. The average pain intensity was 57.9 ± 19.9 mm of a total of 100 mm maximum on a visual analogue scale, VAS. The etiologies of mechanical type pains were dominated by fracture, common low back pain and tendonitis. Arthrosis was the dominant cause of inflammatory type pain, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and gout. NSAIDs (74.5%) were the most frequently prescribed analgesics followed by paracetamol (49.5%), weak opioids (23%) and corticosteroids (12.25%). Two-thirds of medical prescriptions (65.3%) were of combined analgesics. These findings demonstrated that mechanical type pains were the main reason for consultations for joint pain in these situations in Antananarivo, Madagascar. The most frequently prescribed pain-relieving medications were NSAIDs, paracetamol, weak opioids and corticosteroids. This descriptive study may be a useful starting point for further epidemiological studies of pain in the African context.

  20. Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Shikha, H A; Sadhu, S K; Rahman, M T; Datta, B K

    2001-08-01

    Scoparinol, a diterpene, isolated from Scoparia dulcis showed significant analgesic (p < 0.001) and anti-inflammatory activity (p < 0.01) in animals. A sedative action of scoparinol was demonstrated by a marked potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sedation with a significant effect on both onset and duration of sleep (p < 0.05). Measurement of urine volume after administration of scoparinol indicated its significant diuretic action.

  1. [Toxicity of analgesics in the family doctor practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Szponar, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Analgesic usage without any consultation with a physician is very common in Poland. It increases the risk of occurrence of the harmful effect or harmful interaction with other medicaments taken by the patient. The abuse of painkillers applies not only to opioid but also to nonopioid analgesics. The largest group of commonly available medicaments are NSAIDs. The most frequent undesirable effect of NSAIDs' is dyspepsia. Among the most dangerous, and very often the ones without any symptoms, are gastric and duodenum ulceration for which the bleeding and perforation may be the first manifestation. Each non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug taken in large doses can be a cause of analgesic nephropathy. Its deceitful course can delay the diagnosis leading to chronic kidney failure. A complex supplements, that include central acting substances, increase the risk of kidney damage, as well as physical and psychological addiction. NSAIDs can cause: the heart failure to be more severe, treatment resistant arterial hypertension, increase an effectiveness of anticoagulants or antidiabetic drugs. The problem is also that some medicaments are available without a prescription (acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, acetaminophen), especially that they are ingredients of many complex supplements considered safe. Taking doses larger than therapeutic or simultaneously taking many supplements of the same active substance had many times led to poisoning and even death. Equally dangerous can be an abuse of tramadol, codeine and COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, prudential prescription of NSAIDs, knowledge of risks related to therapy and informing the patients about their side effects, may decrease the number of patients abusing the analgesics which can lead to lowering the number of deaths caused by serious complications.

  2. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous dexketoprofen in lumbar disc surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Mehmet Akif; Inan, Nurten; Ceyhan, Aysegul; Sut, Esra; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the postoperative analgesic efficacy and effect on total tramadol consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol, a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in patients that had undergone lumbar disc surgery. Sixty patients were included in this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. General anesthesia was applied to both groups. Group D (n=30) received dexketoprofen (50 mg) intravenously 30 minutes before the end of surgery and at the postoperative 12th hour, whereas group C (n=30) received 2 mL of 0.9% NaCL intravenously at the same time points. All patients received a patient controlled analgesia device with a tramadol, 25 mg bolus, 15 minutes lockout protocol, and were followed with visual analog scale, verbal rating scale, modified Aldrete recovery scoring system, and Ramsay sedation scale in the postoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups for demographic data, duration of surgery, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. The time to first postoperative analgesic requirement was significantly longer in group D (151.33±81.98 min) than group C (19±5.78 min) (Pdexketoprofen was an effective analgesic for postdiscectomy pain when used alone or in addition to opioids. It is easy to administer and decreases tramadol consumption and opioid-related side effects.

  3. Preemptive analgesic effects of midazolam and diclofenac in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Hasani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the preemptive analgesic effects of intraperitoneally administrated midazolam and diclofenac, before acute and inflammatory induced pain in rat model.One hundred twenty-eight (n=8 in each group male Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. Paw movements in response to thermal stimulation or paw flinching in response to formalin injection were compared after midazolam (0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal administration. Saline was used as a control.Preemptive analgesic effect was significant in both tests when diclofenac and midazolam was administrated before the pain stimuli (p<0.01 and p<0.001. Intraperitoneal injection of midazolam in doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, increase the response time in hot plate test and decrease the number of flinches in formalin test (p<0.01 vs. p<0.001. ED50 of midazolam (with diclofenac in hot plate test was 2.02 mg/kg (CI95% =-3.47-5.03 mg; and, 0.9 mg/kg (CI95% =-0.87-4.09 mg in phase I and 0.7 mg/kg (CI95% = 0.48-6.63 mg in phase II, in formalin test.Intraperitoneally administered midazolam and diclofenac had preemptive analgesic effects on acute thermal, and inflammatory induced pain in rats.

  4. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, A; Cooper, P

    1981-01-01

    The effect of branding--that is, the labelling and marketing--of a well-known proprietary analgesic used to treat headaches was studied in a sample of women given a branded or unbranded form with either an inert or an active formulation. The sample was also divided according to whether the subjects were regular users of the brand or users of other brands. The findings showed that branded tablets were overall significantly more effective than unbranded tablets in relieving headaches. Differential effects were observed: the effects of branding were more noticeable one hour after the tablets were taken compared with 30 minutes; in the women given the placebo; and in the users of the brand compared with the users of other brands. It is hypothesised that these effects are due to increased confidence in obtaining relief with a well-known brand, and that branding has an analgesic effect that interacts with the analgesic effects of placebos and active ingredients. PMID:6786566

  5. 48 CFR 52.207-5 - Option To Purchase Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option To Purchase....207-5 Option To Purchase Equipment. As prescribed in 7.404, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option To Purchase Equipment (FEB 1995) (a) The Government may purchase the equipment...

  6. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing special equipment. 1753.68 Section 1753.68... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Special Equipment § 1753.68 Purchasing special equipment. (a) General. (1) Equipment purchases are...

  7. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and the...

  8. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can

  9. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  10. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  11. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  12. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  13. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA SIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for both companies. For this reason, the paper aims to present what a partnership is, to show which steps should be taken to build a successful partnership and to exemplify through companies which have implemented correctly this type of collaboration, obtaining exceptional results.

  14. PERAN PRODUCT CUES AND RISK AVERSION PADA PURCHASE INTENTION DAN POST PURCHASE FEELINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rejeki Ekasasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research aimed to investigate the influence of extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues and risk aversion towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. This research study collected data from two populations which are students and employee. Approximately 128 respondents involved to give respond for the survey. The analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM show that product cues and risk aversion give different significant impact towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. The research concluded that risk aversion and extrinsic cues has a significant influence to purchase intention of counterfeited computer software while it does not appear similar result to music CD. Moreover, the study revealed that for both counterfeited computer software and music CD, the purchase intention is proven to have negative significant influence towards post-purchase feelings.Keywords: risk aversion, extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues, purchase intention, post-purchase feelingsAbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh atribut ekstrinsik dan intrinsic produk serta aspek menolak resiko terhadap niat beli dan perasaan paska beli software computer dan CD music bajakan. Penelitian ini diharapkan akan memperoleh sebuah model dengan pendekatan cultural dan strategi bisnis untuk memblokir atau mengurangi produk bajakan yang dapat diakses konsumen di pasar. Data primer akan dikumpulkan dari dua populasi, kelompok mahasiswa dan kelompok pekerja, dari empat kota besar di Indonesia yaitu Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, dan Yogyakarta. Lebih kurang 128 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek atribut produk yang bersifat ekstrinsik dan aspek menolak resiko terbukti memiliki hubungan signifikan mempengaruhi niat beli software computer, akan tetapi lain tidak demikian pada niat beli CD music bajakan

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release Analgesics in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Lon V; Hansen, Ryan J; Dorsey, Kathryn; Kang, Sooah; Lunghofer, Paul J; Gustafson, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Buprenorphine and carprofen, 2 of the most commonly used analgesics in mice, must be administered every 8 to 12 h to provide sustained analgesia. Sustained-release (SR) formulations of analgesics maintain plasma levels that should be sufficient to provide sustained analgesia yet require less frequent dosing and thus less handling of and stress to the animals. The pharmacokinetics of SR formulations of buprenorphine (Bup-SR), butorphanol (Butp-SR), fentanyl (Fent-SR), carprofen (Carp-SR), and meloxicam (Melox-SR) were evaluated in mice over 72 h and compared with those of traditional, nonSR formulations. Bup-SR provided plasma drug levels greater than the therapeutic level for the first 24 to 48 h after administration, but plasma levels of Bup-HCl fell below the therapeutic level by 4 h. Fent-SR maintained plasma levels greater than reported therapeutic levels for 12 h. Therapeutic levels of the remaining drugs are unknown, but Carp-SR provided plasma drug levels similar to those of Carp for the first 24 h after administration, whereas Melox-SR had greater plasma levels than did Melox for the first 8 h. Butp-SR provided detectable plasma drug levels for the first 24 h, with a dramatic decrease over the first 4 h. These results indicate that Bup-SR provides a stable plasma drug level adequate for analgesia for 24 to 48 h after administration, whereas Carp-SR, Melox-SR, Fent-SR, and Butp-SR would require additional doses to provide analgesic plasma levels beyond 24 h in mice. PMID:25255070

  16. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  17. Preclinical Science Regarding Cannabinoids as Analgesics: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Lynch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern pharmacology of cannabinoids began in 1964 with the isolation and partial synthesis of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive agent in herbal cannabis. Since then, potent antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of cannabinoid agonists in animal models of acute and chronic pain; the presence of cannabinoid receptors in pain-processing areas of the brain, spinal cord and periphery; and evidence supporting endogenous modulation of pain systems by cannabinoids has provided support that cannabinoids exhibit significant potential as analgesics. The present article presents an overview of the preclinical science.

  18. SEDATIVE AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF DETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Tunio., A. B. Kalhoro and I.H. Kathio1

    2003-01-01

    The sedative and analgesic effects of three dose rates of detomidine (40, 50 and 60µg/kg body weight) were studied in six goats. Moderate to deep sedation occurred after administration of 40µg/kg of detomidine as compared to deep sedation produced by 50 and 60µg/kg of detomidine. The degree, onset and duration of sedation and onset and duration of maximum sedation were all dose dependent. Skin analgesia and recumbency were produced in all animals with higher doses (50 and 60µg/kg) and in thre...

  19. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.

  1. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  2. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  3. Marketing occupational health: exploring the purchaser perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes-Evans, O; Woods, A

    2013-01-01

    There may be scope for providers of occupational health (OH) services to improve their communication and marketing to those who purchase their services, but the research literature contains little information about purchasers' perceptions of OH. There is no documented overview that fully captures the purchasers' perspective. To explore current and potential purchasers' thinking about OH. Iterative purposive sampling was carried out to identify participants for semi-structured interviews. Respondents were obtained through progressively wider networking, starting with personal and organizational contacts and networking events. This was continued until no major new information was appearing. Health issues were not always recognized as related to OH. Some respondents had little understanding of OH or perceived it with very negative connotations. Some also sought information at first from the internet and personal contacts. The giving of expert advice on a situation was generally seen as a central feature of OH services. Most believed OH included sickness absence management. Respondents spoke of problems such as insufficient, inappropriate or partisan recommendations and also process or turnaround time problems. Clarity and building good working relationships were identified as positive factors. OH providers should review their various activities to address these points, as well as reviewing the knowledge and skills that their staff can contribute.

  4. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  5. Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour of Generation Y. 21 ... Department of Marketing Management. University of Pretoria ... The decision, however, in making ... exactly what role social environment and ... influences on the younger Generation Y are very .... as parents, peers, the mass media, retail stores,.

  6. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  7. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  8. Purchasing to improve health systems performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Ray; Jakubowski, Elke; Figueras, Josep

    2005-01-01

    ... as they formulate purchasing strategies so that they can increase effectiveness and improve performance in their own national context An assessment of the intersecting roles of citizens, the government and the providers * * * Written by leading health policy analysts, this book is essential reading for health policy makers, planners and managers as well as resear...

  9. Surgical lights. Making a purchase decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M M

    1987-11-01

    Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.

  10. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  11. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GNND Sales Program: (a) The person must be employed as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time... to continue employment as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291.520), teacher (as...

  12. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  13. Job profile research for the purchasing profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Wesselink, R.; Bruijstens, H.Chr.J.

    2005-01-01

    The study reported in this article is based on theories about job and competence analysis and a project in which job profiles were developed that were aimed at providing a framework of reference for evaluating in-service training programmes for purchasing professionals (professional buyers of goods

  14. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  15. Dental therapeutic practice patterns in the U.S. II. Analgesics, corticosteroids, and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Nahouraii, Helen S; Zovko, Jayme G; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the prescribing practices for peripherally acting and centrally acting analgesics, corticosteroids, and antibiotics following third molar extraction. A nationwide survey involving the prescribing patterns of a random national sample of 850 practicing oral surgeons was performed in 2004. Ibuprofen was the peripherally acting analgesic respondents used most frequently in the previous month, selected by 73.5% of the respondents. The ibuprofen dose prescribed most frequently was 800 mg, followed by doses of 600 mg and 400 mg. The centrally acting analgesic prescribed most frequently was the combination formulation of hydrocodone with acetaminophen, selected by 64.0% of the respondents. Recommendations for oral analgesics to manage postoperative pain relied on the peripherally acting analgesic ibuprofen or the centrally acting analgesic combination formulation hydrocodone with acetaminophen. Routine instructions to use centrally acting analgesics "as needed for pain" suggest that centrally acting analgesics are offered to manage pain that postoperative peripherally acting analgesics and intraoperative long-acting local anesthetics do not control adequately. The frequency with which oral and maxillofacial surgeons administered antibiotics and corticosteroids varied widely based on perceived patient need and dentist expectations.

  16. Analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis referred to an outpatient center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Jesper; van Tunen, Joyce; van der Esch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although analgesics are widely recommended in current guidelines, underuse and inadequate prescription of analgesics seem to result in suboptimal treatment effects in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed (i) to describe the use of analgesics; and (ii) to determine...... factors that are related to analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center. A cross-sectional study with data from 656 patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center (Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort) was conducted. Self-reported use...

  17. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  18. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  19. Evaluation of the Analgesic Efficacy of Dexketoprofen Added to Paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Dilek; Bilir, Ayten; Güleç, Mehmet Sacit

    2016-12-01

    Multimodal analgesic methods are preferred for the treatment of postoperative pain; as a result, the additive effects of analgesics are provided while probable side effects are avoided. The current study aimed to compare the effects of the combination of dexketoprofen and paracetamol with regard to postoperative pain therapy. Ninety-six patients who underwent non-malignant gynaecological laparotomy operations were included in this study. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group D received 50 mg intravenous dexketoprofen 15 minutes before the end of the operation and 8 and 16 hours after the operation. Group P received 1 g intravenous paracetamol and Group DP received the combination of 500 mg paracetamol and 25 mg dexketoprofen at the same time intervals. All patients received morphine infusion after operation. Total morphine consumption at 24 hours, visual analog scale, patient satisfaction and side effects were investigated. Comparison of the visual analog scale scores revealed that the Group DP presented lower scores at 24th hours compared to the other groups; and the difference between Group DP and Group D was statistically significant. Total morphine consumption was not significantly different between the three groups. The minimum number of side effects was observed in the Group DP. Co-administration of paracetamol, dexketoprofen and morphine provided good analgesia and fewer side effects in gynaecological abdominal surgery.

  20. Analgesic Effect of Tramadol and Buprenorphin in Continuous Propofol Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capík I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare in clinical patients the analgesic effect of the centrally acting analgesics tramadol and buprenorphine in continuous intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA with propofol. Twenty dogs undergoing prophylactic dental treatment, aged 2−7 years, weighing 6−27 kg, were included in ASA I. and II. groups. Two groups of dogs received intravenous (IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride (2 mg.kg−1 or buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.2 mg.kg−1 30 minutes prior to sedation, provided by midazolam hydrochloride (0.3 mg.kg−1 and xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 mg.kg-1 IV. General anaesthesia was induced by propofol (2 mg.kg−1 and maintained by a 120 minutes propofol infusion (0.2 mg.kg−1min−1. Oscilometric arterial blood pressure (ABP measured in mm Hg, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, SAT, body temperature (BT and pain reaction elicited by haemostat forceps pressure at the digit were recorded in ten minute intervals. The tramadol group of dogs showed significantly better parameters of blood pressure (P < 0.001, lower tendency to bradycardia (P < 0.05, and better respiratory rate (P < 0.001 without negative influence to oxygen saturation. Statistically better analgesia was achieved in the tramadol group (P < 0.001. Tramadol, in comparison with buprenorphine provided significantly better results with respect to the degree of analgesia, as well as the tendency of complications arising during anaesthesia.

  1. A STUDY OF ONLINE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR- INVESTIGATING SOCIAL MEANING OF ONLINE PURCHASE IN TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Che-wen

    2008-01-01

    To justify the applicability of previous researches of online purchase in the Eastern culture, 237 samples in Taiwan are examined with questionnaire adapted from previous researches. Based on the assumption of rational behaviour that online purchase intention leads to behaviour, factors influencing them are examined and discussed. The result indicates that demographic attributes, perceived consequence, conspicuous meaning, information sources and reference group are confirmed to impact online...

  2. Analgesics use in competitive triathletes: its relationship to doping and on predicting its usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Dalaker, Robert; Letzel, Stephan; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles

    2016-10-01

    The two major objectives of this study were (i) to assess variables that predict the use of analgesics in competitive athletes and (ii) to test whether the use of analgesics is associated with the use of doping. A questionnaire primarily addressing the use of analgesics and doping was distributed among 2,997 triathletes. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the use of analgesics. Moreover, the randomised response technique (RRT) was used to estimate the prevalence of doping in order to assess whether users of analgesics have a higher potential risk for doping than non-users. Statistical power analyses were performed to determine sample size. The bootstrap method was used to assess the statistical significance of the prevalence difference for doping between users and non-users of analgesics. Four variables from a pool of 16 variables were identified that predict the use of analgesics. These were: "version of questionnaire (English)", "gender (female)", "behaviour in case of pain (continue training)", and "hours of training per week (>12 h/week)". The 12-month prevalence estimate for the use of doping substances (overall estimate 13.0%) was significantly higher in athletes that used analgesics (20.4%) than in those athletes who did not use analgesics (12.4%). The results of this study revealed that athletes who use analgesics prior to competition may be especially prone to using doping substances. The predictors of analgesic use found in the study may be of importance to prepare education material and prevention models against the misuse of drugs in athletes.

  3. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky,2 Stephen M Stahl3 1Institute Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Institute Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1 The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic pain. 2 Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s to be delivered. 3 Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4 Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes, enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects. Keywords: topical, analgesics

  4. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  5. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  6. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  7. Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market: An Empirical Investigation. ... Nigerian consumers to identify their motives for purchasing new mobile phones on one hand, and factors affecting operator choice on the other.

  8. Webinar: Simplifying Sustainable Purchasing Through Guidelines and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar will cover EPA’s effort to simplify green purchasing through recommendations of specifications, standards, and ecolabels. EPA’s work in this area is intended to help federal purchasers identify and procure environmentally sustainable products.

  9. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  10. An agency theory perspective on the purchase of marketing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, W.L.; Ellram, L.M.; Bals, L.; Hartmann, E.; Valk, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    The purchase of business services has become an important part of organizations' acquisition of external resources, and is therefore receiving growing scholarly attention. The supply management function is increasingly supporting more complex service purchases, including a wide range of marketing

  11. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-Eastmunicipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzi, Caroline D; Ackumey, Mercy M

    2017-12-01

    Analgesics also known as painkillers are widely used for pain relief. There are severe health implications associated with excessive use of analgesics. This paper examines factors influencing the use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-East Municipality (GEM) of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This is a cross-sectional study involving 206 construction workers randomly sampled from 7 construction sites in the GEM. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses on knowledge of analgesics, types of analgesics used and factors influencing the use of analgesics. Chi-square test analysis was used to examine factors influencing analgesic use. The majority of workers were aged between 15 to 44 years (89.8%) and 51.9 percent of respondents had completed Junior high school. Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol, aspirin and caffeine as the active ingredients and 31.6 percent of respondents had no knowledge of possible side effects of continuous use of analgesics. Chi square analysis showed that age was significantly associated with use of analgesics (peffects did not influence use (p>0.05). Television and radio advertisements influenced use of analgesics (peffects was inadequate. Pharmacists and chemists involvement in education of clients of the side effects of analgesics is highly recommended to minimise misuse. The Food and Drugs Authority should regulate the proliferation of advertisements for analgesics in the media. None declared.

  12. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  13. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  14. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowska, K.; Gajdzik, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  15. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  16. Determinants of intention to purchase leisure travel over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...

  17. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  18. Scaling Consumers' Purchase Involvement: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kraigher-Krainer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.

  19. The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...

  20. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of n-hexane extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia Sm, family: Violaceace. Methods: The n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (VBHF) was tested for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  2. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  3. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  4. Do caffeine-containing analgesics promote dependence? A review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A R; Heinemann, L A; Dalessio, D; Fox, J M; Goldstein, J; Haag, G; Ladewig, D; O'Brien, C P

    2000-11-01

    Debates about the suspected association between kidney disease and use of analgesics have led to concern about whether caffeine could stimulate an undesirable overuse of phenacetin-free combined analgesics. A committee was asked to critically review the pertinent literature and to suggest guides for clinical practice and for consideration of international regulatory authorities. A group of international scientists, jointly selected by the regulatory authorities of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria and the pharmaceutical industry. All invited experts evaluated relevant literature and reports and added further information and comments. Caffeine has a synergistic effectiveness with analgesics. Although caffeine has a dependence potential, the potential is low. Experimental data regarding dependence potential for caffeine alone may not correspond to the conditions in patients with pain. Withdrawal is not likely to cause stimulation or sustainment of analgesic intake. For drug-induced headache, no single or combined analgesic was consistently identified as causative, and no evidence exists for a special role of caffeine. Strong dependence behavior was observed only in patients using phenacetin-containing preparations, coformulated with antipyretics/analgesics and caffeine. This finding may have led to the impression that caffeine stimulates overuse of analgesics. Although more experimental and long-term data would be desirable to show possible mechanisms of dependence and to offer unequivocal proof of safety, the committee concluded that the available evidence does not support the claim that analgesics coformulated with caffeine, in the absence of phenacetin, stimulate or sustain overuse.

  5. The In Vivo Analgesic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard drug, Piroxicam also produced a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in writhings, producing pain inhibition of 70.3 %. Conclusions: The analgesic effects produced by crude extracts of both experimental plants confirm that they are endowed with analgesic properties. Further work is suggested to isolate active ...

  6. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  7. Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end-stage renal disease in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... He was not a diabetic and did not use mercury-containing soap or cream or herbal ... Grade 2 hypertensive retinopathy. A diagnosis of analgesic .... Early detection of AN and discontinuation of analgesic use stabilizes or ...

  8. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  9. Purchasing power parity a different approach

    OpenAIRE

    Σακελλής, Παναγιώτης

    2001-01-01

    Historically, Purchasing Power Parity (henceforth PPP) provides the simplest explanation of long-run exchange rate determination, according to which the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies equals the ratio between domestic and foreign prices. A few years ago, PPP validity theory seemed like a fairly dull research topic. On the one hand the unavoidable effects of floating exchange rates made it obvious to even its most stubborn defenders that PPP is not a short-ru...

  10. Nonlinear Trend and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    luo, yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...

  11. Analgesic properties of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in visceral and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardíaz, Margarita; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Goicoechea, Carlos; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2007-12-15

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a natural fatty acid amide that mainly modulates feeding and energy homeostasis by binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) [Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M, Gómez R, Escuredo L, Navas F, Fu J, et al. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 2001;414:209-12; Fu J, Gaetani S, Oveisi F, Lo Verme J, Serrano A, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, et al. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha. Nature 2003;425:90-3]. Additionally, it has been proposed that OEA could act via other receptors, including the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) [Wang X, Miyares RL, Ahern GP. Oleoylethanolamide excites vagal sensory neurones, induces visceral pain and reduces short-term food intake in mice via capsaicin receptor TRPV1. J Physiol 2005;564:541-7.] or the GPR119 receptor [Overton HA, Babbs AJ, Doel SM, Fyfe MC, Gardner LS, Griffin G, et al. Deorphanization of a G protein-coupled receptor for oleoylethanolamide and its use in the discovery of small-molecule hypophagic agents. Cell Metab 2006;3:167-175], suggesting that OEA might subserve other physiological roles, including pain perception. We have evaluated the effect of OEA in two types of nociceptive responses evoked by visceral and inflammatory pain in rodents. Our results suggest that OEA has analgesic properties reducing the nociceptive responses produced by administration of acetic acid and formalin in two experimental animal models. Additional research was performed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this analgesic effect. To this end, we evaluated the actions of OEA in mice null for the PPAR-alpha receptor gene and compared its actions with those of PPAR-alpha receptor wild-type animal. We also compared the effect of MK-801 in order to evaluate the role of NMDA receptor in this analgesia. Our data showed that OEA reduced visceral and inflammatory responses through a PPAR

  12. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  13. 5 CFR 4001.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets... SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION § 4001.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System...

  14. 5 CFR 4101.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 4101.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System institution. No covered employee, or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets...

  15. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    OpenAIRE

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  16. Move of Purchasing Offices TS – AB* – AT*

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.

  17. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision

  18. 13 CFR 120.641 - Disclosure to purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to purchasers. 120.641 Section 120.641 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.641 Disclosure to purchasers. (a) Information to purchaser. Prior...

  19. Designing ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Looman, Arnold; Ruffini, F.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a method for redesigning the ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts in a manufacturing firm. The method takes the perspective of the purchasing and logistics manager, defines clusters of purchased items, and subsequently assigns each cluster to a

  20. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5244-1 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970.4403 insert the following clause: Contractor Purchasing System (AUG 2009) (a) General. The Contractor...

  2. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...

  3. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f...

  5. Implications of a classification of forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Dittrich, K.; Jaspers, F.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Our main objective is to classify different forms of cooperative purchasing, i.e. purchasing groups. Based on a literature review, empirical findings, and new institutional economics we employ a classification: the highway matrix. In this matrix we distinguish five forms of cooperative purchasing

  6. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  7. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  8. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  9. Consumers and green electricity : profiling potential purchasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Scott, D.; Parker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  11. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  13. ANTESEDEN PERCEIVED RISK PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Rejeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention  private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.

  14. Photovoltaic power: the inadequate purchase price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The current policy of guaranteed purchase prices applied to photovoltaic power lacks rationality: prices are not graduated, commitment times are too long, there is no capping to capacity developed, subsidies (tax credit, direct subsidy, etc) are complex and give too favourable a return time. The lack of differentiation between products may also delay the emergence of new PV technologies. As a result, it is legitimate to envisage a cost/benefit analysis of future subsidies and to wonder about Frances ability, as a second rank player, to catch up with the leaders (Germany, Japan, United States). The report does not criticize policy based on purchase prices in itself: this is suitable or technology close to commercial operation in that it guarantees stable terms close to wholesale electricity market prices. It does, however, criticize adequacy in terms of less advanced PV technology, which results in purchase prices five times that of wind power. The report proposes re-targeting the system to take account of the significant stakes in PV power. Costly incentives for installing land PV cells and units should be quickly reduced, while industrial demonstration budgets deserve increases to further the development of new technologies (improved crystal silicon and thin layers). The demonstration phase and industrial development should be the primary focus, where a large part of potentially promising reductions in costs are likely to be achieved. (author)

  15. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  16. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities.

  17. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  18. Synthesis and biological screening of 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine derivatives as effective analgesics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, Z.S.; Malick, T.Z.; Mallick, T.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of 4(1-pyrrolidinyl) piperidine analogs 2-6 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic inhibitory potential by tail flick method revealed significant analgesic activity. The synthetic compounds exhibit analgesic inhibitory potential was ranging from significant to highly significant activity. Compounds were evaluated by thermal stimuli (tail immersion method) at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The compounds 2-5 showed significant and highly significant analgesic activity. Pethidine was used as reference drug. Same compounds tested at the dose of 75mg/kg of body weight showed toxicity. The size of the substituent, electron donating or withdrawing affect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl ring affected the activity. These compounds could be considered to develop a new class of analgesics. (author)

  19. Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious.

  20. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  1. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P

  2. Vasorelaxant effect of the analgesic clonixin on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Silva, A; Brito, G; Bustamante, S; Ponce, H; Paeile, C

    1995-03-01

    1. A novel vasorelaxant effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx), analgesic and anti-inflammatory, was studied in rat aortic rings. 2. Clx completely relaxed aortic rings contracted by KCl 70 mM and together with its analog flunixin exhibited lesser potency but equal efficacy than verapamil. In comparison, indomethacin, which is a more potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor relaxed only about 40% of the maximal contraction of aortic rings. 3. Furthermore, Clx antagonized Ca2+ dependent aortic contraction and BAY K-8644 induced aortic contraction suggesting its calcium antagonist character. 4. From these results it can be concluded that the hypotensive effect seen in rats in vivo after Clx i.v. injection arises because of vasodilatory effect of Clx and gives further support to the proposal that the pharmacological mechanism of action of Clx should be calcium antagonism.

  3. The effects of analgesics on central processing of tonic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lelic, Dina; Hansen, Tine M; Mark, Esben Bolvig

    2017-01-01

    to tonic pain is modified by oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (SNRI). Methods Twenty healthy males were included in this randomized, cross-over, double-blinded study. 61-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded before and after five days of treatment with placebo, oxycodone (10 mg extended release......Introduction Opioids and antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) are recognized as analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain, but the central mechanisms underlying their analgesia remain unclear. This study investigated how brain activity at rest and exposed...... b.i.d) or venlafaxine (37.5 mg extended release b.i.d) at rest and during tonic pain (hand immersed in 2 °C water for 80 s). Subjective pain and unpleasantness scores of tonic pain were recorded. Spectral analysis and sLORETA source localization were done in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8...

  4. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  5. SEDATIVE AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF DETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tunio., A. B. Kalhoro and I.H. Kathio1

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The sedative and analgesic effects of three dose rates of detomidine (40, 50 and 60µg/kg body weight were studied in six goats. Moderate to deep sedation occurred after administration of 40µg/kg of detomidine as compared to deep sedation produced by 50 and 60µg/kg of detomidine. The degree, onset and duration of sedation and onset and duration of maximum sedation were all dose dependent. Skin analgesia and recumbency were produced in all animals with higher doses (50 and 60µg/kg and in three animals with lower dose (40µg/kg. Duration of recumbency was 22.66 ± 1.45, 35.16 ± 1.68 and 55.66 ± 1.64 minutes after administration of 40, 50 and 60µg/kg of detomidine, respectively.

  6. Choosing the right analgesic. A guide to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Timothy G; Justins, Douglas M

    1993-09-01

    Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, unique to each individual patient. In the dynamic processes of nociceptive stimulation, signal transmission, central decoding and interpretation there are many potential sites for pharmacological intervention, and there are many drugs which will produce analgesia. An analgesic 'ladder' has been proposed for rational pain relief in cancer and a similar concept should be used in all forms of acute and chronic pain. Continuing research and drug development undoubtedly extends our understanding, but consistent improvement in our clinical ability to relieve pain depends more on our willingness to consider the need of each patient individually, to tailor the drug, route and mode of administration to that patient's requirements, and then to monitor on the basis of the response of the patient to the treatment.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Remifentanil as an Alternative Labor Analgesic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Devabhakthuni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of remifentanil in the management of labor pain. Although neuraxial analgesia is the best option during labor, alternative analgesic options are needed for patients with contraindications. Using a systematic literature search, clinical outcomes of remifentanil for labor pain have been summarized. Also, comparisons of remifentanil to other options including meperidine, epidural analgesia, fentanyl, and nitrous oxide are provided. Based on the literature review, remifentanil is associated with high overall maternal satisfaction and favorable side-effect profile. However, due to the low reporting of adverse events, large, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate maternal and neonatal safety adequately and determine the optimal dosing needed to provide effective analgesia. While remifentanil is a feasible alternative for patients who cannot or do not want to receive epidural analgesia, administration should be monitored closely for potential adverse effects.

  8. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  9. Analgesic synergy between opioid and α2 -adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Doré, A-J; Schuster, D J; Stone, L S; Wilcox, G L

    2015-01-01

    Opioid and α2 -adrenoceptor agonists are potent analgesic drugs and their analgesic effects can synergize when co-administered. These supra-additive interactions are potentially beneficial clinically; by increasing efficacy and/or reducing the total drug required to produce sufficient pain relief, undesired side effects can be minimized. However, combination therapies of opioids and α2 -adrenoceptor agonists remain underutilized clinically, in spite of a large body of preclinical evidence describing their synergistic interaction. One possible obstacle to the translation of preclinical findings to clinical applications is a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic interactions between these two drug classes. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the interactions between different opioid and α2 -adrenoceptor agonist combinations in preclinical studies. These studies have identified the spinal cord as an important site of action of synergistic interactions, provided insights into which receptors mediate these interactions and explored downstream signalling events enabling synergy. It is now well documented that the activation of both μ and δ opioid receptors can produce synergy with α2 -adrenoceptor agonists and that α2 -adrenoceptor agonists can mediate synergy through either the α2A or the α2C adrenoceptor subtypes. Current hypotheses surrounding the cellular mechanisms mediating opioid-adrenoceptor synergy, including PKC signalling and receptor oligomerization, and the evidence supporting them are presented. Finally, the implications of these findings for clinical applications and drug discovery are discussed. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. The use of different analgesics in orthodontic tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shaza M; El-Hawary, Yousry M; El-Hawary, Amira K

    2012-09-01

    To provide a semi-quantitative assessment of the effect of different analgesics (celecoxib, ketorolac, and paracetamol) on tooth movement and bone resorption using immunohistochemical staining of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Forty white male rats (12-weeks old; body weight: 230-250 g) were divided into four groups (10 rats each) and were given the treatment once a day for 2 consecutive months. Group A (control group) rats were given the reverse osmosis water; group B rats were given 10 mg/kg celecoxib; group C rats were given 3 mg/kg ketorolac; and group D rats were given 150 mg/kg paracetamol. A precalibrated closed Sentalloy coil spring was placed inside each rat mouth to deliver a constant force of 50 cN. The magnitude of tooth movement was measured intraorally. After 2 months, the rats were sacrificed, and the sections were mounted on L-polylysine-coated glass slides. Slides from each specimen were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and others were stained with MMP-13. Data were analyzed with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Celecoxib, ketorolac, and paracetamol groups showed tooth movement of 1.81 ± 0.43 mm, 1.13 ± 0.28 mm, and 1.08 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. The mean number of MMP-13-positive osteoclasts was highest in celecoxib-treated group followed by the control group and was decreased in the ketorolac and paracetamol groups. Comparing all groups to the control revealed significant differences (P < .05). Administration of celecoxib did not reduce bone resorption or interfere with tooth movement in rats compared to other analgesics tested (ketorolac and paracetamol).

  11. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  13. MANU. Purchase of Bentonite. Process Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite purchasing process accurately. This will enable efficient and focused use of information related to the purchasing phase and to each individual bentonite batch. This work continues from the work started in the report by Ahonen et al. (2008), Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material, Posiva Working Report 2008-33. The current work includes a short enquiry for all relevant and at the time known producers or re-sellers of bentonite. Questions about relevant products suitable for civil engineering use, more specifically nuclear waste disposal site use, were asked together with test methods, typical test results and test standards. The following aspects and opinions have been processed from the results that were obtained during the project. Each seller/producer has a quality management system, QMS (typically ISO 9001), and ability to perform the basic tests, but there is not an established common set of properties to be tested. Some producers are willing to test according to customers' specifications. Posiva could arrange a network of capable laboratories to carry out tests according to its selected standards. This activity should then be accredited with a reasonable testing volume. Before starting the purchase of bentonite at a large scale, Posiva should go through negotiations and audits with each seller in order to make sure that both parties are testing with the same methods and both understand the range where the values of key parameters may lie. A database is needed for gathering statistically relevant information from the bentonite material parameters over the long run. This is needed for determining the limits within which the material parameters should remain in order to be acceptable. Posiva is encouraged to create a process to optimize the test types and the amount of tests should be identified for immediate and long term use. This process ensures the required quality and costs involved. (orig.)

  14. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheema Siddiqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.

  15. Canadian veterinarians’ use of analgesics in cattle, pigs, and horses in 2004 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Caroline J.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Lemke, Kip A.; Barkema, Herman W.

    2007-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many veterinarians may not use analgesics in livestock for routine surgical procedures or painful disease states. To investigate this, we conducted a national mail survey of a random sample of 1431 Canadian veterinarians (response rate, 50.1%). Questions primarily concerned veterinarians’ analgesic usage for common surgeries and medical conditions in beef and dairy cattle, pigs, and horses, and attitudes toward pain management. More than 90% of veterinarians used analgesic drugs for equine surgeries, for cesarean section in sows and cows, and for bovine claw amputation and omentopexy. However, in these and other categories, the analgesics used were often inadequate, and many veterinarians did not give analgesics to young animals. When castrated, 6 mo of age, and 95.8% of horses. Respondents largely agreed that there are no long-acting, cost-effective analgesics available for use in livestock (median rating 8/10; interquartile range 4–9), and that the long or unknown withdrawal periods of some drugs outweighed the benefits of using them (median rating 7/10; interquartile range 4–9). The results indicate an urgent need for veterinarians to manage pain in livestock better. Continuing education would help, as would an increase in the number of approved, cost-effective analgesic drugs with known withdrawal periods. PMID:17334029

  16. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnic D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Darko Krnic,1 Andrea Anic-Matic,2 Svjetlana Dosenovic,2 Pero Draganic,1 Sasa Zezelic,1 Livia Puljak2 1Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Zagreb, 2Laboratory for Pain Research, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia Background: The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods: Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results: During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids, ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B. The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion: Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in

  17. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decr...

  18. Management of purchase process in realization of building investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radoń

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In building companies process of product and service purchase is one of the main processes of quality management system [1]. Because ofshort time-limits of contract realization, high specialization of works, necessity of fulfillment of high quality requirements and assurance of profitable financial effects the management of purchase process becomes very important element of work of the building company. The serious problem in creating and keeping the efficient system of purchase management is special type of purchase in building companies. Particular investments are realized in different country regions, objects are built based on the individual design documentations and each building becomes independent organization unit that organize purchase necessary for investment realization.An example of the management system of purchase process in building company is described in the paper. Just In Time system is widelyused during the realization of building investment. This system is especially useful in buildings because some investments, especially inbig cities, are characterized by restriction in building site. This makes impossible storing the products. In such cases close synchronization between times of delivery and requirements of purchase schedule and schedule of building realization is very important. Criteria of supplier selection as well as the methods of choosing the supplier are also presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to necessity of valuation of the purchase efficiency and the purchase risk. Basic coefficients of purchase efficiency are also described in the paper.

  19. BHI Purchase Card System user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehden, P. von der.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor

  20. Purchasing control, compliance and the box: purchasing management based on hard data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to

  1. The interrelationship between purchasing maturity, internal customer satisfaction and purchasing performance : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poucke, E.; Weele, van A.J.; Matthyssens, P.

    2014-01-01

    So far, academic literature has paid extensive attention to the importance of purchasing development within the context of the current business environment, emphasizing value creation and delivery and integrated supply chain management. In addition, the contribution of purchasing’s (internal

  2. 76 FR 79548 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., a FICU purchasing a loan participation pool might perform statistical sampling in evaluating the..., since 2007, FISCUs- overall experienced a higher delinquency rate in their loan participation portfolios. At year-end 2010, the delinquency rate for the FISCU-participated portfolio was 4.11 percent...

  3. Defining Project Purchasing Activities - Exemplified by the Purchasing Practices in Offshore Wind Farm Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...

  4. THE NEW PURCHASING SERVICE PAGE NOW ON THE WEB!

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2000-01-01

    Users of CERN's Purchasing Service are encouraged to visit the new Purchasing Service web page, accessible from the CERN homepage or directly at: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/ There, you will find answers to questions such as: Who are the buyers? What do I need to know before creating a DAI? How many offers do I need? Where shall I send the offer I received? I know the amount of my future requirement, how do I proceed? How are contracts adjudicated at CERN? Which exhibitions and visits of Member State companies are foreseen in the future? A company I know is interested in making a presentation at CERN, who should they contact? Additionally, you will find information concerning: The Purchasing procedures Market Surveys and Invitations to Tender The Industrial Liaison Officers appointed in each Member State The Purchasing Broker at CERN

  5. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  6. Role of analgesics, sedatives, neuromuscular blockers, and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jesse B; Schweickert, William; Kress, John P

    2009-10-01

    A major focus on critical care medicine concerns the institution of life-support therapies, such as mechanical ventilation, during periods of organ failure to permit a window of opportunity to diagnose and treat underlying disorders so that patients may be returned to their prior functional status upon recovery. With the growing success of these intensive care unit-based therapies and longer-term follow-up of patients, severe weakness involving the peripheral nervous system and muscles has been identified in many recovering patients, often confounding the time course or magnitude of recovery. Mechanical ventilation is often accompanied by pharmacologic treatments including analgesics, sedatives, and neuromuscular blockers. These drugs and the encephalopathies accompanying some forms of critical illness result in a high prevalence of delirium in mechanically ventilated patients. These drug effects likely contribute to an impaired ability to assess the magnitude of intensive care unit-acquired weakness, to additional time spent immobilized and mechanically ventilated, and to additional weakness from the patient's relative immobility and bedridden state. This review surveys recent literature documenting these relationships and identifying approaches to minimize pharmacologic contributions to intensive care unit-acquired weakness.

  7. Nociceptive flexion reflexes during analgesic neurostimulation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Larrea, L; Sindou, M; Mauguière, F

    1989-11-01

    Nociceptive flexion reflexes of the lower limbs (RIII responses) have been studied in 21 patients undergoing either epidural (DCS, n = 16) or transcutaneous (TENS, n = 5) analgesic neurostimulation (AN) for chronic intractable pain. Flexion reflex RIII was depressed or suppressed by AN in 11 patients (52.4%), while no modification was observed in 9 cases and a paradoxical increase during AN was evidenced in 1 case. In all but 2 patients, RIII changes were rapidly reversible after AN interruption. RIII depression was significantly associated with subjective pain relief, as assessed by conventional self-rating; moreover, in 2 patients it was possible to ameliorate the pain-suppressing effects of AN by selecting those stimulation parameters (intensity and frequency) that maximally depressed nociceptive reflex RIII. We recorded 2 cases of RIII attenuation after contralateral neurostimulation. AN appeared to affect nociceptive reflexes rather selectively, with no or very little effect on other cutaneous, non-nociceptive responses. Recording of RIII reflexes is relatively simple to implement as a routine paraclinical procedure. It facilitates the objective assessment of AN efficacy and may help to choose the most appropriate parameters of neurostimulation. In addition, RIII behavior in patients could be relevant to the understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in AN-induced pain relief.

  8. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  9. Can anaesthetic and analgesic techniques affect cancer recurrence or metastasis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heaney, A

    2012-12-01

    Summary Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the ratio of incidence is increasing. Mortality usually results from recurrence or metastases. Surgical removal of the primary tumour is the mainstay of treatment, but this is associated with inadvertent dispersal of neoplastic cells into the blood and lymphatic systems. The fate of the dispersed cells depends on the balance of perioperative factors promoting tumour survival and growth (including surgery per se, many anaesthetics per se, acute postoperative pain, and opioid analgesics) together with the perioperative immune status of the patient. Available evidence from experimental cell culture and live animal data on these factors are summarized, together with clinical evidence from retrospective studies. Taken together, current data are sufficient only to generate a hypothesis that an anaesthetic technique during primary cancer surgery could affect recurrence or metastases, but a causal link can only be proved by prospective, randomized, clinical trials. Many are ongoing, but definitive results might not emerge for a further 5 yr or longer. Meanwhile, there is no hard evidence to support altering anaesthetic technique in cancer patients, pending the outcome of the ongoing clinical trials.

  10. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  11. Multisteric TRPV1 nocisensor: a target for analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolcsányi, János; Sándor, Zoltán

    2012-12-01

    Cloning of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the heat-gated cation channel/capsaicin receptor expressed by sensory neurons, has opened the door for development of new types of analgesics that selectively act on nociceptors. Here we summarize mutagenetic evidence for selective loss of responsiveness to vanilloids, protons, and heat stimuli to provide clues for avoiding on-target side effects of hyperthermia and burn risk. It is suggested that the complex chemoceptive thermosensor function of TRPV1 (which is modulated by depolarizing stimuli) can be attributed to multisteric gating functions. In this way, it forms the prototype of a new class of ion channels different from the canonical voltage-gated and ligand-gated ones. Several endogenous lipid ligands activate and inhibit TRPV1 and its gating initiates sensory transducer and mediator-releasing functions. Second generation TRPV1 antagonists that do not induce hyperthermia are under development, and a dermal capsaicin patch is already on the market for long-term treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  13. Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ulcer, analgesic and anti pyretic activities in rats and mice. Ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced nociception were used. Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to investigate the antipyretic activity.

  14. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreedhara, C.S.; Vaidya, V.P.; Vagdevi, H.M.; Latha, K.P.; Muralikrishna, K.S.; Krupanidhi, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract. PMID:20336222

  15. Studies on anti-ulcer, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to investigate the antipyretic ... be important in establishing a pharmacological basis for some of the ..... Koster R, Anderson M, De Beer EJ (1959) Acetic acid for analgesic screening.

  16. The evidence of neuraxial administration of analgesics for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Benthien, K S; Nordly, M

    2015-01-01

    related to cancer, pain, neuraxial route, analgesic and side effects. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. Studies were analysed according to methods, results, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 2147, and 84 articles were selected for full reading. The final selection comprised nine articles regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) divided in four groups: neuraxial combinations of opioid and adjuvant analgesic compared with neuraxial administration of opioid alone (n = 4); single...... neuraxial drug in bolus compared with continuous administration (n = 2); single neuraxial drug compared with neuraxial placebo (n = 1); and neuraxial opioid combined with or without adjuvant analgesic compared with other comprehensive medical management than neuraxial analgesics (n = 2). The RCTs presented...

  17. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovicj, M.; Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy ( 60 Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eric O'N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  19. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  20. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  1. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Zendehdel; Laily Hj Paim; Syuhaily Bint Osman

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vi...

  2. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  3. Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project Manager Boston Biomedical Innovation Center 215 First Street, Suite 500; Cambridge, MA 02142 857-307-2441 | rblackman1@partners.org | b...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0480 TITLE: Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain PRINCIPAL...31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tissue Injury

  4. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnic, Darko; Anic-Matic, Andrea; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Draganic, Pero; Zezelic, Sasa; Puljak, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids), ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group) and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B). The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in Croatia corresponds to patient needs. PMID:26357478

  5. Association of Maternal Self-Medication and Over-the-Counter Analgesics for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Fangel; Gottschau, Mathilde; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, such as paracetamol (PCM), among children and adolescents is increasing and constitutes an important public health issue internationally. Reasons for this development are unclear; parental influence is suggested. Our objective was to examine...... whether self-medication with OTC analgesics among school-aged children is influenced by maternal self-reported health and medicine use, taking the child's frequency of pain into account....

  6. Comparative study of the analgesic efficacy of rectal tramadol versus intravenous tramadol for adult tonsillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gadani, Hina N.; Chaudhary, Virendra Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Background: The optimal method for intra- and post-operative analgesia for adult tonsillectomy is uncertain. Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mixed mu and nonopioid activities, having less/no respiratory depression. Aim: The aim of our study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and nausea/vomiting produced by tramadol via intravenous and rectal administration during the first 24 h after anesthesia for adult tonsillectomy. Materials and Methods: The study design was prospective, ra...

  7. PolyMorphine provides extended analgesic-like effects in mice with spared nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lax, Neil C; Chen, Renxun; Leep, Sarah R; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Yu, Lei; Kolber, Benedict J

    2017-01-01

    Morphine is a well-characterized and effective analgesic commonly used to provide pain relief to patients suffering from both acute and chronic pain conditions. Despite its widespread use and effectiveness, one of the major drawbacks of morphine is its relatively short half-life of approximately 4 h. This short half-life often necessitates multiple administrations of the drug each day, which may contribute to both dependence and tolerance to morphine. Here, we tested the analgesic properties ...

  8. Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Sarahroodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students. Materials and Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures. Results: 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%, previously prescribed medications (30.1%, their medical knowledge (13.3% and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%. Conclusion: Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.

  9. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Novel Derivatives of 1,2-Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 2-phenylhydrazinomethyl and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl-benzimidazole derivatives substituted at the N1-position of benzimidazole nucleus were synthesized as well as screened for analgesic activity. Some of these compounds showed promising analgesic activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. The incorporation of a phenylhydrazinomethyl nucleus at 2-position of benzimidazole compound gave a biologically active pharmacophore.

  10. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight)...

  11. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The value of group purchasing organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.

  13. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J

    1995-01-01

    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  14. Purchase Unwillingness and Willingness of Indonesian Consumers towards Israeli Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.

  15. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  16. Purchase intention behavior of Syariah financial product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Agus Setyawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores purchase intention of Syariah financial product. The purpose of the study is to identify factors of consumer’s intention to use Syariah financial product. Framework of the study is TRA model proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980. The design of this study is qualitative approach. This study employs focus group discussion and in depth interview in data collection. Focus group discussion in this study involves 6 Syariah financial products. In depth interview has been accomplished with 3 different managers from Syariah financial institutions. Findings in this study are consumers evaluate Syariah financial product by comparing benefits of the product with conventional financial products. The concept of non economic benefit and religious aspect is also discussed in this study.

  17. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  18. Analgesic efficacy of preoperative dexketoprofen trometamol: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Villalpando, Vicente; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Masuoka-Ito, David; Gaitán-Fonseca, César; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Post-Market Research Clinical evidence supports the use of dexketoprofen trometamol (DEX) to manage acute postoperative pain. However, controversies surround the impact of the use of this drug in preoperative analgesic protocols. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the preoperative administration of DEX under postoperative pain conditions. Electronic and manual searches were conducted through diverse electronic databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX was performed including Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) published between 2002 and 2017. Suitable individual studies were evaluated through a quality system, and the data were extracted and analyzed. Fourteen RTCs were included (12 parallel trials and 2 cross-over trials), published in the English and Turkish languages. Follow-up periods ranged from 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hr. All trials measured the outcome result as Acute Pain Level (APL) (VAS, NRS, VRS), time to requiring a second dose of DEX or analgesic emergency and consumption of opioids via patient-controlled analgesia. When the comparators were other drugs - paracetamol, Lornoxicam or placebo during the preoperative time, preoperative administration of DEX was superior. When the comparison comprised preoperative and postoperative DEX, both alternatives exhibited comparable analgesic effects. The analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX when compared to placebo, lornoxicam, and paracetamol on postoperative pain was evident. Preoperative administration of DEX compared to its immediate postoperative administration showed a similar analgesic effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Post-marketing withdrawal of analgesic medications because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2018-01-01

    Many analgesics have been withdrawn from the market because of adverse drug reactions. Controversy still surrounds the use of some approved analgesics for pain management. However, the trends and reasons for withdrawal of analgesics when harms are attributed to their use have not been systematically assessed. Areas covered: We conducted searches in PubMed; Embase; Google Scholar; clinicaltrials.gov; WHO databases of withdrawn products; websites of the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs; Stephens' Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia; and the Merck Index. We included licensed analgesics that were withdrawn after marketing because of adverse reactions between 1950 and March 2017. We excluded herbal products, non-human medicines, and non-prescription medicines. We used the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria to document the levels of evidence, and chi-squared tests to compare withdrawal patterns across geographical regions. Expert opinion: Pharmacovigilance systems in low-resource settings should be strengthened. Greater co-ordination across regulatory authorities in assessing and interpreting the benefit-harm balance of new analgesics should be encouraged. Future reporting of harms in clinical trials of analgesics should follow standardized guidelines.

  20. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S

    2012-09-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1(st) h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum.

  1. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  2. An assessment of pregnant women's knowledge and use of the Internet for medication safety information and purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Marlene; Lagan, B M; Dolk, Helen; McCullough, Julie E M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's Internet searching activity about medication safety, knowledge and perceptions of medication risk and willingness to take prescribed and non-prescribed medication or make online medication purchases. Online medication advice for pregnant women is complex. The quality and veracity of this data is increasingly important as more midwives report women are bringing retrieved online information to clinical appointments. Pregnant women's use of the Internet for seeking medication advice and purchasing medications has not yet been fully investigated. Online survey conducted from January - March 2013. Of the 284 respondents, 39% were taking a medication when they became pregnant and 76% had searched the Internet for medication safety information. Analgesics were the most commonly searched category (41%). Health service sites were the most common online source and regarded as the most helpful and trusted. Regardless of age and education level, 90% of women agreed that if trying to become pregnant they would reconsider taking any medications because of the potential risk to their unborn baby. Forty-six percent of women with higher levels of education consider buying medication online as safe, a greater proportion than those of lower education. Five percent of women reported buying medication online. The lack of specific recommendations for medication use during pregnancy is challenging for healthcare staff and pregnant women who need robust evidence to make informed treatment decisions. The Internet is a recognized, commonly accessed, source of medication information for pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The influence of marketing communications on the consumer path to purchase for both online and in-store purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Pallant, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the way online browsing and online or in-store purchasing behaviours evolve across the purchases customers make from a brand, and how this is influenced by the marketing communications that customers receive from that brand and its competitors. A sample of customers of three different retail brands are tracked over a two year period, and changes to browsing and purchase behaviour are observed. A model is developed which predicts the way customers are most likely to evolve...

  4. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A

    2012-03-01

    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Nutritionally promoted fast foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  5. Analgesic therapy in postherpetic neuralgia: a quantitative systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hempenstall

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched databases (MEDLINE 1966-2004, EMBASE 1988-2004, CINAHL 1982-2002, and PubMed [29 October 2004] for trials of PHN. We also searched references of retrieved studies and review articles for further trials. We included trials that examined adult patients with PHN of greater duration than 3 mo, that were blinded, randomised, and had at least one measure of pain outcome. Dichotomous pain outcome data were extracted for 50% decrease in baseline pain using a hierarchy of pain/pain-relief measurement tools. Where available, dichotomous data were also collected for adverse events. Calculated estimates of efficacy included relative benefit and number needed to treat. Of 62 studies identified, 35 were randomised controlled trials. Of these, 31 were placebo controlled and suitable for meta-analysis, from which it was possible to extract dichotomous efficacy outcome data from 25. This meta-analysis revealed that there is evidence to support the use of the following orally administered therapies: tricyclic antidepressants, "strong" opioids, gabapentin, tramadol, and pregabalin. Topical therapies associated with efficacy were lidocaine 5% patch and capsaicin. Finally, a single study of spinal intrathecal administration of lidocaine and methyl prednisolone demonstrated efficacy, although this has yet to be replicated. Data suggest that the following therapies are not associated with efficacy in PHN: certain NMDA

  6. Attitude towards the purchase of counterfeits: Antecedents and effect on intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Viot , Catherine; Le Roux , André; Kremer , Florence

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Counterfeiting is a major issue for companies, public institutions and consumers. Despite extensive literature on the subject in marketing, an instrument for measuring the wide variety of the determinants of attitude towards and intention to purchase counterfeit products is lacking. A second-order model comprising thirteen determinants, grouped into three latent constructs, is validated. This model includes a dimension related to the societal consequences of counterfei...

  7. Analysis of the purchase and consumer behaviour towards direct purchase of food

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, Silvia; Wirthgen, Bernd; Altmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented the methodic as well as selected results of own empiric research (face-to-face questionings in seven different questioning regions, n = 1488) to the analysis of the shopping behaviour and the attitudes towards direct purchase. To the analysis of the buying patterns a Kaufverhaltensindex (KVI) was introduced. In the regional comparison will be clear that the questioning regions of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia show KVI by far highest, while the eastern questi...

  8. Effect of intravenous esmolol on analgesic requirements in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritima Dhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Perioperative beta blockers are also being advocated for modulation of acute pain and reduction of intraoperative anesthetic requirements. This study evaluated the effect of perioperative use of esmolol, an ultra short acting beta blocker, on anesthesia and modulation of post operative pain in patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adult ASA I & II grade patients of either sex, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups E or C according to computer generated numbers. Group E- Patients who received loading dose of injection esmolol 0.5 mg/kg in 30 ml isotonic saline, before induction of anesthesia, followed by an IV infusion of esmolol 0.05 μg/kg/min till the completion of surgery and Group C- Patients who received 30 ml of isotonic saline as loading dose and continuous infusion of isotonic saline at the same rate as the esmolol group till the completion of surgery. Results: The baseline MAP at 0 minute was almost similar in both the groups. At 8th minute (time of intubation, MAP increased significantly in group C as compared to group E and remained higher than group E till the end of procedure. Intraoperatively, 16.67% of patients in group C showed somatic signs as compared to none in group E. The difference was statistically significant. 73.33% of patients in group C required additional doses of Inj.Fentanyl as compared to 6.67% in group E. Conclusions: We conclude that intravenous esmolol influences the analgesic requirements both intraoperatively as well as postoperatively by modulation of the sympathetic component of the pain i.e. heart rate and blood pressure.

  9. Analgesic treatment of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Deuis, Jennifer R; Inserra, Marco C; Collins, Lindon S; Namer, Barbara; Cabot, Peter J; Reeh, Peter W; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Ciguatera, the most common form of nonbacterial ichthyosarcotoxism, is caused by consumption of fish that have bioaccumulated the polyether sodium channel activator ciguatoxin. The neurological symptoms of ciguatera include distressing, often persistent sensory disturbances such as paraesthesias and the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia. We show that intracutaneous administration of ciguatoxin in humans elicits a pronounced axon-reflex flare and replicates cold allodynia. To identify compounds able to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced Nav responses, we developed a novel in vitro ciguatoxin assay using the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Pharmacological characterisation of this assay demonstrated a major contribution of Nav1.2 and Nav1.3, but not Nav1.7, to ciguatoxin-induced Ca2+ responses. Clinically available Nav inhibitors, as well as the Kv7 agonist flupirtine, inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive ciguatoxin-evoked responses. To establish their in vivo efficacy, we used a novel animal model of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia. However, differences in the efficacy of these compounds to reverse ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia did not correlate with their potency to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced responses in SH-SY5Y cells or at heterologously expressed Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, or Nav1.8, indicating cold allodynia might be more complex than simple activation of Nav channels. These findings highlight the need for suitable animal models to guide the empiric choice of analgesics, and suggest that lamotrigine and flupirtine could be potentially useful for the treatment of ciguatera. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analgesic effect of bilateral subcostal tap block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, K.; Khan, B.I.

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Methods: In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. Results: We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Conclusions: Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital. (author)

  11. Concerns regarding Direct-to-Consumer Hearing Aid Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…

  12. Developing a typology of organisational forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members

  13. Multi-agent simulation of purchasing activities in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; de Boer, L.; Sitar-Pop, C.E.; Yucesan, E.; Chen, C.H.; Snowdon, J.L.; Charnes, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-agent simulation model to investigate purchasing activities in an organizational environment. The starting point is the observation that the majority of purchasing activities in organizations are usually performed without any involvement of the organization's

  14. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the estimated construction cost of such roads or other developments specified in the timber sale contract, shall...

  15. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  16. 75 FR 1541 - Purchasing of Property and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the... decision process. The SDR Official will promptly provide a copy of a disagreement to the contracting... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM...

  17. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. 5 CFR 2634.303 - Purchases, sales, and exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchases, sales, and exchanges. 2634.303 Section 2634.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH....303 Purchases, sales, and exchanges. (a) In general. Except as indicated in § 2634.308(b) of this...

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers buying merchandise for resale, selecting vendors, bargaining for prices, and purchasing supplies for commercial food and beverage service establishments. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Merchandise Buying and (2) Food and Beverage Purchasing.…

  20. Social modeling of food purchases at supermarkets in teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would

  1. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...

  2. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  3. Buying business services : towards a structured service purchasing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Rozemeijer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to uncover the specific difficulties associated with buying services and proposes a structured purchasing process which can help organisational buyers to overcome the problems associated with services purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  4. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Robert A.

    Purchasing is a practical science and one of the most highly specialized activities of the school administration. Simply stated, it is the process of having the right material or service from the right source, in the right quantity, at the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. The purchasing agent is faced with a formidable task…

  5. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  6. Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.; Verhagen, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores factors that influence consumer's intentions to purchase online at an electronic commerce website. Specifically, we investigate online purchase intention using two different perspectives: a technology-oriented perspective and a trust-oriented perspective. We summarise and review

  7. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  8. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under a...

  9. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  10. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  11. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  12. Customer Satisfaction with Goods and Services Purchased on Deal Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    influence whether customers are more prone to purchase problematic goods and services on deal sites, i.e. to experience problems with purchased coupons. Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Respondents were university students. Data were...... and mistrust. All these statements were measured on a Likert scale. Additional independent variables are age, and gender. In the first model, the dependent variable is if and if so, what problem the respondent experienced with purchased goods or services, such as the company did not exist, it was not possible...... cases. In the second model, the dependent variable is the percentage (predefined intervals) of problematic purchases. Ordinal logistic regression was used to test the model. In the third model, the dependent variable is if the purchased goods or services were of lower quality. Binomial logistic...

  13. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  14. Assessment of ropivacaine postoperative analgesic effect after periapical maxillary incisors surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ropivacaine is a relatively new longacting local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effect of topical anesthetics ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with adrenaline in the postoperative treatment of periapical lesions in the maxilla. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects, divided into two groups. The study-group received 0.75% ropivacaine without a vasoconstrictor, while the control group was treated with 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (1 : 80.000. Block anesthesia for n. infraorbitalis was used and local anesthetics were applied also on the palatine side for the end branches of n. nasopalatinus. The following parameters were observed: time elapsed from the application of an anesthetic until the first occurrence of pain after the surgery and first intake of an analgesic, the intensity of initial pain, pain intensity 6 h after the application of anesthetics and the total number of analgesics taken within 24 h after the completion of surgery. Results. The pain appeared statistically significantly earlier in the patients who had been given lidocaine with adrenaline (p < 0.001, while statistically significantly higher mean values of initial postoperative pain (p < 0.05 and pain intensity 6 h after the intervention (p < 0.01 were also registered in the same group of patients. In the period of 24 h upon the intervention, the study-group patients were taking less analgesics as compared to the control-group subjects (46.6% vs 73.3%, who were given analgesics earlier, although no statistically significant differences were observed related to the number of analgesic doses taken. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate a better postoperative analgesic effect of ropivacaine as compared to lidocaine with adrenaline.

  15. Differential Effectiveness of Clinically-Relevant Analgesics in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L Whittaker

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis is characterized by pain and a pro-inflammatory tissue response. Rat models are frequently used in mucositis disease investigations yet little is known about the presence of pain in these animals, the ability of analgesics to ameliorate the condition, or the effect that analgesic administration may have on study outcomes. This study investigated different classes of analgesics with the aim of determining their analgesic effects and impact on research outcomes of interest in a rat model of mucositis. Female DA rats were allocated to 8 groups to include saline and chemotherapy controls (n = 8. Analgesics included opioid derivatives (buprenorphine; 0.05mg/kg and tramadol 12.5mg/kg and NSAID (carprofen; 15mg/kg in combination with either saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; 150mg/kg. Research outcome measures included daily clinical parameters, pain score and gut histology. Myeloperoxidase assay was performed to determine gut inflammation. At the dosages employed, all agents had an analgesic effect based on behavioural pain scores. Jejunal myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by buprenorphine and tramadol in comparison to 5-FU control animals (53%, p = 0.0004 and 58%, p = 0.0001. Carprofen had no ameliorating effect on myeloperoxidase levels. None of the agents reduced the histological damage caused by 5-FU administration although tramadol tended to increase villus length even when administered to healthy animals. These data provide evidence that carprofen offers potential as an analgesic in this animal model due to its pain-relieving efficacy and minimal effect on measured parameters. This study also supports further investigation into the mechanism and utility of opioid agents in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  16. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K.; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin, and 5 with other NSAIDs) that were performed in 6 countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.28), except for non-US studies (5 studies, pooled RR=1.17, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:23400756

  17. An in vitro analysis of the cariogenic and erosive potential of pediatric liquid analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaam Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analgesics such as Ibuprofen and Paracetamol, which are clinically used for the treatment of fever and/or pain, are among the most frequently used pediatric medicines. However, the properties of these preparations determine their cariogenic and erosive potential. Aims: The main objective of this study was to analyze the pH, viscosity and total sugar content in a variety of Syrian pediatric liquid analgesics (PLA. Setting and Design: A total of 16 available liquid analgesics that belong to the Paracetamol and Ibuprofen group were analysed. Materials and Methods: The endogenous pH was measured using a digital pH meter, the viscosity was measured using a digital rotational viscometer and the total sugar content was performed according to Fehling method. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented by means of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values. Results: The mean endogenous pH of PLA was 4.63 ± 0.57 ranging between 3.93 and 5.68, and almost all of analgesics (93.8% had pH values ≤5.5. The mean viscosity of PLA was 243.56 ± 186.6 cP and varied between 20.5 cP and 640.5 cP. Sugars were detected in 11 (68.75% analgesics, and varied considerably among sugar-containing analgesics from 5.38 to 69.4 (g/100 mL with a mean concentration of 24.97 ± 23.24 g/100 mL. Conclusion: PLA are potentially cariogenic and erosive because of low pH, high viscosity and high total sugar content. This may increase our concerns about the dental health of children who take liquid analgesics frequently or when long-term treatment is indicated.

  18. Prescription of opioid and nonopioid analgesics for dental care in emergency departments: Findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Xiang, Qun; Thorpe, Joshua M; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine trends and associated factors in the prescription of opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations, and no analgesics by emergency physicians for nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related visits. Our secondary aim was to investigate whether race/ethnicity is a possible predictor of receiving a prescription for either type of medication for NTDC visits in emergency departments (EDs) after adjustment for potential covariates. We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1997-2000 and 2003-2007, and used multinomial multivariate logistic regression to estimate the probability of receiving a prescription for opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, or a combination of both, compared with receiving no analgesics for NTDC-related visits. During 1997-2000 and 2003-2007, prescription of opioid analgesics and combinations of opioid and nonopioid analgesics increased, and that of no analgesics decreased over time. The prescription rates for opioid analgesics, nonopioid analgesics, opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations, and no analgesics for NTDC-related visits in EDs were 43 percent, 20 percent, 12 percent, and 25 percent, respectively. Majority of patients categorized as having severe pain received prescriptions for opioids for NTDC-related visits in EDs. After adjusting for covariates, patients with self-reported dental reasons for visit and severe pain had a significantly higher probability of receiving prescriptions for opioid analgesics and opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations. Prescription of opioid analgesics increased over time. ED physicians were more likely to prescribe opioid analgesics and opioid and nonopioid analgesic combinations for NTDC-related visits with reported severe pain. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. The effects of material and experiential discretionary purchases on consumer happiness: moderators and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Millar, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Experiential purchases are differentiated from material purchases in terms of objective; experiential purchases serve the purpose of acquiring a life experience, while material purchases serve the purpose of acquiring an object. Research has demonstrated that experiential purchases are associated with more happiness than material purchases. The current study investigated two explanations for this relationship that focused on the how the purchase influenced the self and how the purchase influenced interpersonal relationships. In addition, the study explored whether social economic status would influence the strength of the relationship between the type of purchase and happiness. Participants were required to recall either a recent experiential or material purchase and rate their happiness with the purchase. Then participants completed scales designed to measure the purchase's impact on the self and interpersonal relationships. Last, participants completed a scale to measure social economic status. It was found that Impacts on the Self mediated the relationship between purchase type and happiness and Socioeconomic Status moderated the relationship.

  20. From point-of-purchase to path-to-purchase : How pre-shopping factors drive unplanned buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, D.R.; Corsten, D.; Knox, G.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Many retailers believe that a majority of purchases are unplanned, so they spend heavily on in-store marketing to stimulate these types of purchases. At the same time, the effects of “preshopping” factors—the shoppers' overall trip goals, store-specific shopping objectives, and prior marketing

  1. 43 CFR 30.164 - What must I do to purchase at probate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS PROCEDURES Purchase at Probate § 30.164 What must I do to purchase at probate? Any eligible purchaser must submit a written request to OHA to purchase at probate before the decision or order is issued. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to purchase at probate? 30...

  2. How resistant to tampering are codeine containing analgesics on the market? Assessing the potential for opioid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; Deluca, Paolo; Hindersson, Peter; Breindahl, Torben

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionMisuse of opioid analgesics, in combination with diversion, dependence, and fatal overdoses, presents a serious problem for public health, which affects many countries worldwide. Within this context, tampering with opioids has been associated with serious harm. The aim of the present study was to assess the tampering potential of codeine combination analgesics on the market (containing codeine/non-opioid analgesics) by the extraction of codeine.MethodsCodeine was extracted from th...

  3. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  4. ERP correlates of simulated purchase decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. But in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for more money than the average price or not to buy a product despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3 was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2, intensify response evaluation (r-P3 and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV. These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  5. Value-based purchasing of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremskey, William T; Dail, Teresa; Jahangir, A Alex

    2012-04-01

    Health care in the United States is known for its continued innovation and production of new devices and techniques. While the intention of these devices is to improve the delivery and outcome of patient care, they do not always achieve this goal. As new technologies enter the market, hospitals and physicians must determine which of these new devices to incorporate into practice, and it is important these devices bring value to patient care. We provide a model of a physician-engaged process to decrease cost and increase review of physician preference items. We describe the challenges, implementation, and outcomes of cost reduction and product stabilization of a value-based process for purchasing medical devices at a major academic medical center. We implemented a physician-driven committee that standardized and utilized evidence-based, clinically sound, and financially responsible methods for introducing or consolidating new supplies, devices, and technology for patient care. This committee worked with institutional finance and administrative leaders to accomplish its goals. Utilizing this physician-driven committee, we provided access to new products, standardized some products, decreased costs of physician preference items 11% to 26% across service lines, and achieved savings of greater than $8 million per year. The implementation of a facility-based technology assessment committee that critically evaluates new technology can decrease hospital costs on implants and standardize some product lines.

  6. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz P Monteiro

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2 evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA, in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design.Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA from OA (n = 15 cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1 peak vertical force (PVF after staircase exercise; 2 telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA; and 3 response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS. After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%.Phase 1: 1 PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5 than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7 (p = 0.005; 2 NMA (no unit was not different between groups; 3 RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28] (p < 0.0001. Phase 2: PVF, NMA and RMTS presented a treatment effect (p = 0.024, p = 0.008 and p = 0.018, respectively. No clinically important adverse-effects were observed.Outcome assessments such as kinetics (PVF and evaluation of central sensitisation (RMTS are discriminant of OA status. Mobility measured by NMA was not discriminant of OA status, however it increased in OA cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  7. A comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, Yucel; Bor, Canan; Kayali, Cemil; Ozturk, Hasan; Kaya, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine with bupivacaine following knee arthroscopy. Forty patients, aged between 20-60 years and undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were enrolled into the study protocol that was carried out in Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January and June 2007. General anesthesia protocol was the same in all patients. At the end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). Group L received 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine and Group B received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine intra-articularly. We evaluated the level of postoperative pain (by visual analoque scale at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery), first analgesic requirement time (period measured from the end of the surgery until further analgesia was demanded), and total analgesic consumption during 24 hours. There were no significant difference in the postoperative pain scores of the patients between groups. The first analgesic requirement times were not statistically different. Twelve patients in Group L (60%) and 9 patients in Group B (45%) needed no additional analgesic during the 24 hours (p>0.05). No complications and side effects were found related to the intra-articular treatment. The results of the study show that intra-articular 20 ml 0.5% levobupivacaine provides effective analgesia comparable to that provided by 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. (author)

  8. Analgesic Usage in Elderly at Public Health Center: A study in West Java, Indonesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Soeyono Putro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various analgesics prescriptions for elderly are not appropriate according to the guideline and can cause the increase of side effects such as gastric problems. Puskesmas as a public health center in Indonesia has an important role in anticipating this problem. The objectives of this study was to identify the analgesic usage in elderly patients at the public health center. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted for 3 months at Tanjungsari public health center, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia, using total sampling. The data was taken from 417 medical records from 2013. The data taken from medical records were: sex, analgesic drug, diagnosis, and drug for gastric problem. Results: From the collected data, the most analgesics prescribed for the elderly patients was paracetamol, followed by Piroxicam, Mefenamic acid, and Ibuprofen. Not all of the elderly patients who received NSAIDs, were given gastric drug. Conclusions: The most prescribed analgesic drug given to elderly patients at the public health center is paracetamol. [AMJ.2017;4(1:16–9

  9. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-04-01

    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Bacterial Toxin with Analgesic Properties: Hyperpolarization of DRG Neurons by Mycolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Kim, Han-Byul; Jouny, Samuel; Ricard, Isabelle; Vandeputte, Alexandre; Deboosere, Nathalie; Marion, Estelle; Queval, Christophe J; Lesport, Pierre; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Henrion, Daniel; Oh, Seog Bae; Lebon, Guillaume; Sandoz, Guillaume; Yeramian, Edouard; Marsollier, Laurent; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-07-18

    Mycolactone, a polyketide molecule produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans , is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. This lipid toxin is endowed with pleiotropic effects, presents cytotoxic effects at high doses, and notably plays a pivotal role in host response upon colonization by the bacillus. Most remarkably, mycolactone displays intriguing analgesic capabilities: the toxin suppresses or alleviates the pain of the skin lesions it inflicts. We demonstrated that the analgesic capability of mycolactone was not attributable to nerve damage, but instead resulted from the triggering of a cellular pathway targeting AT₂ receptors (angiotensin II type 2 receptors; AT₂R), and leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization. This demonstration paves the way to new nature-inspired analgesic protocols. In this direction, we assess here the hyperpolarizing properties of mycolactone on nociceptive neurons. We developed a dedicated medium-throughput assay based on membrane potential changes, and visualized by confocal microscopy of bis-oxonol-loaded Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that mycolactone at non-cytotoxic doses triggers the hyperpolarization of DRG neurons through AT₂R, with this action being not affected by known ligands of AT₂R. This result points towards novel AT₂R-dependent signaling pathways in DRG neurons underlying the analgesic effect of mycolactone, with the perspective for the development of new types of nature-inspired analgesics.

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Hijazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  12. Stakeholder challenges in purchasing medical devices for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John

    2013-03-01

    This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.

  13. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  15. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  16. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  17. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...

  18. Investigating the role of commercialization on purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to determine the role of commercialization on purchase intention in auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who lived in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors including competitive condition, product development strategy, competitive advantage and economic growth on customers’ intention to purchase. Using structural equation modeling the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between each four components and purchase intention. In our study, the highest impact belongs to competitive condition followed by product development strategy.

  19. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  20. Beyond cost: 'responsible purchasing' of managed care by employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, A T; Perloff, L; Schield, J; Murphy, J J; Mortimer, J D; Budetti, P P

    1999-01-01

    We explore the extent of "responsible purchasing" by employers--the degree to which employers collect and use nonfinancial information in selecting and managing employee health plans. Most firms believe that they have some responsibility for assessing the quality of the health plans they offer. Some pay attention to plan characteristics such as the ability to provide adequate access to providers and services and scores on enrollee satisfaction surveys. A more limited but still notable number of firms take specific actions based on responsible purchasing information. Because of countervailing pressures, however, it is not clear whether or not the firms most involved in responsible purchasing are signaling a developing trend.

  1. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study......AIM: Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally...... estimates were identified and effect sizes were calculated from group differences. We combined study-level effects on pain with a random effects meta-analysis and compared effect sizes between exercise trials and trials with analgesic interventions. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane reviews (four...

  2. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can ...... studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.......Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  3. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR, as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-κB and p53. Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  5. The analgesic efficacy of continuous transversus abdominis plane block in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for operations where parietal pain is a major cause of pain. Renal transplant recipients are ideally suited to gain maximum benefit from TAP block as the incision classically involves the lower abdomen. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of continuous TAP block in transplant recipients. Material and Methods: In a prospective double-blind study, 40 chronic renal failure patients undergoing open renal transplant were randomly divided into two groups. At the end of surgery during closure, a multiorifice epidural catheter was placed in TAP plane. Study group (Group S received Inj bupivacaine bolus 1 mg/kg (0.25% followed by infusion 0.25 mg/kg (0.125% through the catheter, whereas control group (Group C received normal saline through the catheter. Inj pentazocine (0.3 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analogue score (VAS > 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS, time of first rescue analgesic, and total analgesic consumption in 24 h. Results: Patients in Group S had significant lower VAS scores, longer time to first rescue analgesic (270 ± 347.96 vs. 42.85 ± 32.27 min and lower pentazocine consumption (9.75 ± 13.95 vs. 56.42 ± 12.46 mg in 24 h. There was significant sedation in Group C. Conclusion: The TAP catheter technique for postoperative pain control after renal transplant has proved to be effective in relieving the postoperative pain after renal transplant with less pentazocine requirement and less sedation.

  6. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  7. [Analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with low back pain syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Ilona; Czernicki, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain syndromes most often occur due to overloading of the musculoskeletal system. The cause is a frequent, improper lifting of heavy objects, most commonly by those working physically, with repetitive movements of bending and straightening of the trunk (turning and bending with load). This problem affects not only adults but also children and adolescents. There is a growing interest in new forms of analgesic therapy nowadays, especially in those that exhibit synergistic therapeutic effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with lumbar--sacrum spinal pain syndromes caused by joints degenerative changes. The examination was carried out in 66 patients of both sexes aged 30 to 76 (average 54.7 +/- 13.8) with low back pain syndrome caused by spinal degenerative changes. The patients were divided into three groups according to the applied analgesic therapy (magnetoledotherapy, magnetostimulation, TENS currents). Level of pain has been evaluated four times in all patients--before the start of therapy and after 5, 10 and 15 applications with the use of the modified Laitinen Questionnaire and Visual-Analoque Scale (VAS). Post therapy levels of pain in the studied patients decreased significantly. According to Laitinen questionnaire, the greatest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetoledotherapy and TENS currents and the smallest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetostimulation. 1. Magnetoledotherapy shows significant analgesic efficacy in patients with low back pain syndrome and shows no side effects. 2. Concurrent application of both the infrared radiation generated by LED's and magnetostimulation synergistically reinforces analgesic effect in patients with low back pain syndrome, especially in level of pain and frequency of its occurrence, which results in the increase of movement activity and decrease in administration of analgesics.

  8. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non-opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and possible assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities vary between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligible for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received "opioid" alone, "NSAID + opioid", "acetaminophen + opioid", or "NSAID + acetaminophen + opioid", respectively. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Additionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  9. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  10. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pourmotabbed; Amir Farshchi; Golbarg Ghiasi; Peyman Malek Khatabi

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)Current study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (P< 0.01) inhibitio...

  12. Analgesic Prescription Patterns and Pain Outcomes in Southeast Asia: Findings From the Analgesic Treatment of Cancer Pain in Southeast Asia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Huy Quoc Thinh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify patterns of analgesic prescription and to explore patient-reported pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among cancer patients with pain in Southeast Asia (SEA. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 465 adult outpatients prescribed analgesics for cancer pain for 1 month or longer at 22 sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Data on analgesic prescription and cancer characteristics were extracted from medical records. Pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life measures were recorded via questionnaires. Results: Most patients (84.4% had stage III or IV cancer. A total of 419 patients (90.7% were prescribed opioids; of these, 42.2% received only weak opioids, whereas 57.8% received at least one strong opioid. The mean worst pain intensity during the past 24 hours was 4.76 (standard deviation [SD], 2.47 on a scale of 0 (no pain to 10 (worst possible pain; the mean current pain intensity was 4.10 (SD, 2.61. More than half of patients (54.8% reported sleep disturbance caused by pain in the past 7 days. The majority of patients reported problems with pain/discomfort (82.3%, usual activities (65.8%, mobility (58.2%, and anxiety/depression (56.3%. The median daily dose prescribed in oral morphine equivalents was 30 mg for both morphine and tramadol. Conclusion: Despite unrelieved pain, sleep disturbance, and issues with quality of life, a notable proportion of patients were prescribed only weak opioids, and opioid doses prescribed were generally low. Efforts focused on encouragement of prescriptions with analgesic strength and/or doses proportional to the pain management needs of patients are vital to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region.

  13. National Association of State Procurement Officials - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  14. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  15. Purchasing Supplies, Equipment and Services Under EPA Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this guidance to help ensure you meet EPA requirements when making such necessary purchases. With very few exceptions, you must follow a competitive process when you use EPA grant funds to acquire equipment and professional services.

  16. Who is the purchaser of nutrition-labeled products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach We estimate probit models using a representative panel of households registering all their daily purchases during a year, three years after the introduction of a nutrition symbol in Denmark and the Netherlands (the Keyhole and the Choices). The purchase data is matched...... with information about labelling status. Other product and purchase characteristics, such as store-type and organic, are controlled for. Findings Households with children tend to have a lower probability of purchasing labelled products compared to other household types, while urbanity increases the probability...... that other aspects as the underlying attitudes and general health awareness may be of greater importance in identifying these consumers. Originality/value There is a lack of studies analyzing the effect of Front-of-Pack symbols on households’ product choices based on observed data as most previous studies...

  17. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  18. DoD Purchase Card Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... We prepared this summary report at the request of the Director, Defense Procurement to provide a central repository of purchase card audit report findings and to identify misuse trends and problems...

  19. U.S. Green Building Council - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  20. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  1. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION DAN DAMPAKNYA PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Banjarnahor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the effects of service quality and customer experience to customer satisfaction and its impact on purchase intention of costumer internet services in West Jakarta. This research used hypothesis testing as a research design. The primary data were obtained through questionnaire distributed to 180 respondents who should be users of internet services from Telkomsel, Telkomsel Grapari West Jakarta. Data was anlyzed by Structural Equation Method (SEM. The results showed there were positives service qualities and customer experience effects to customer satisfaction. There were positive customer satisfaction effects to purchase intention. There were positive effects of service quality and customer experience to purchase intention. Implications for managers are to increase purchase intention through fulfilled customer satisfaction led from good service quality and customer experience. For reasearch, it can be done in other service providers and by adding extra variables, such as coporate image and brand trust.

  2. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  3. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.39... for this purpose. It is the policy of the Board not to recognize equipment purchase deposits in an air...

  4. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  5. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  6. Electronic word of mouth influence on consumer purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This type of e-marketing affects consumer on its purchase intention of product or service. ... influence and how these factors influence the buying decisions of consumers. ... This paper is expedient for marketers in creating effective promotional ...

  7. 76 FR 34229 - Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... costs incurred at the Site, the settlement would require the Purchasers to, among other things, conduct... available only in hard copy form. Additionally, the PPA Amendment and additional background information are...

  8. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that could inform such strategic purchasing decisions. 14 We used the unique contract identification number to check for cross -organization...beds, mattresses, dressers , footlockers) Other (stools, rugs, seats, cabinets, tables, folding chairs, paintings) Generators Various power generators

  9. Purchasing efficiency in a mining food service organisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 27: No 2, 1999. 85. Purchasing ... Although the pro- curement process for all types of food service units, ... Clients are more satisfied and management control improves ...

  10. Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.

  11. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.501-3 - Consolidated purchase program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT..., purchased in the aggregate by group to the extent practical. These procurements are designed to obtain the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... price quotations, and the like may be used to minimize paperwork. Retention in the purchase files of these documents and of written quotations received, or references to catalogs or printed price lists...

  14. Analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block using different volumes and concentrations of local analgesics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ayça Sultan; Ay, Necmiye; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper; Akay, Mehlika Kocabaş; Demiraran, Yavuz; Derbent, Abdurrahim

    2017-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of an ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (US-TAP) block used for postoperative pain relief by comparing the efficacy of two different volumes/concentrations of the local anaesthetic bupivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods This randomized study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They were randomized to two groups: group A received a 20 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine +10 ml saline solution) and group B received a 30 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine + 20 ml saline solution). The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, the requirement for postoperative rescue analgesics, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain as measured by a visual analogue scale at 20 min, 12 h, and 24 h were recorded. Results A total of 60 patients enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and patient satisfaction scores. The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, postoperative VAS scores (20 min, 12 h and 24 h) and the requirement for postoperative analgesics were all significantly lower in group B who received a larger volume but a lower concentration of local anaesthetic solution compared with group A. Conclusion A US-TAP block can form part of a balanced postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter

    2015-10-27

    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  16. Effect of Store Atmosphere on Consumer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Riaz; Ali, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying the effects of atmosphere on the consumer purchase intention in international retail chain outlets of Karachi, Pakistan. This was the first study, which investigated the collective impact of atmospheric variables at one point in time on purchase intention. This research was causal in nature. A sample of 300 consumers was taken who usually visited these outlets. Data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed through regression a...

  17. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  18. The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Christian; Ohms, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm‐activation‐model by Schwartz is used to predict self‐reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports the results of a field study with 63 customers of a German supermarket. A combination of covert observation and in‐store interviews was applied to obtain reli...

  19. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  20. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  1. Investigating shopper behaviour in a routine food purchasing situation.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making is more complex and even more important for consumers today than in the past. Today’s consumers has a wealth of information sources to their disposal, through advertising, news articles, direct mailings and word of mouth , in addition, there is a variety of stores and shopping malls that has broaden the sphere for consumer choice, and in the process complicated decision - making. Consumers purchase intentions and decision that lead to the purchase are closely related to their ...

  2. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriyani, Dwi Meilia; Yuliati, Lilik Noor; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements) for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor) influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to ...

  3. Competitive Effects of Purchase-Based Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Zhang; Weijun Zhong; Shue Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a two-period sales model to investigate the competitive effects of purchase-based targeted advertising. In the model, two competing firms gain consumer information during the first period sales, which allows them to target advertising based on consumer purchase history. Advertising is assumed to be persuasive in terms of consumer valuation enhancing and product differentiation increasing. The authors find that the firm’s ability to target can damage industry profits, con...

  4. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING PURCHASE INTENTION IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    AĞAOĞLU, Mustafa; YURTKORU, Emine Serra; ŞAHİN, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors, ethical behavior, product involvement, attitude, perceived sacrifice, and perceived benefit, impact on purchase intention in music industry. A model is constructed and tested empirically. A sample of 255 individuals are collected and a multi-item questionnaire is used. It is found that purchase intention is relatively low for both CD/DVD and digital music whereas illegal downloading is perceived as an acceptable behavior in the society. The...

  5. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour : Case study of Etisalat Nig.

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olaitan

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at elicit attention to present marketing environment in Nigeria and as regard the importance of consumer purchasing behavior and this is also to ascertain if product brand, taste, personal income, and price and the what relationship it also have on consumer behavior toward Etisalat product. However, every company must develop new products that suite consumer pur-chase decision. This informed behavior affects how certain consumers react to new products and thereby af...

  6. Building brand awareness for products with low purchase frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kenneth; Bjørnstad, Tord Røise

    2014-01-01

    The importance of marketing and information flow is growing every year, and in increasingly competitive markets, it is more important than ever for brands to be present in the customers mind in the purchase decision. Therefore, to build and maintain brand awareness is important as this is the first step in creating brand equity. Most studies have focused on building brand awareness for products with high purchase frequency. In this thesis, it is identified drivers of brand awareness for pr...

  7. VIRTUAL PURCHASE INTENTION: INFLUENCE OF SECURITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Asma javed*, Dr Wasif Ali Waseer, Dr Babak Mehmood

    2018-01-01

    The fast growth of online transaction and e-commerce inspired many companies to setup their business on web pages. It is fact that online purchasing is still poor as compared to other online activities. Research study will explore factors that affect consumer’s virtual purchase intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) are the groundwork theories that are used in research to investigate those factors that affect the virtual...

  8. Evaluating mergers and acquisitions with a purchase investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E A; Giniat, E J

    1988-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are risk transactions. Therefore, a well-planned and executed purchase investigation that considers financial, personnel, legal and risk management, third-party payer, and medical staff issues is imperative. Organizations that can successfully complete a purchase investigation will be able to make better informed, lower risk, financial decisions, and will have a competitive advantage in achieving strategic goals. This article is the third in a series on mergers and acquisitions. Other articles will include legal issues and capital planning.

  9. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Bhanudas Pandhare

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole ring were subjected to study their in vivo analgesic activity. Chloro, nitro and methoxy, hydroxy and bromo substituted derivatives showed excellent analgesic activity and dimethylamino, furan and phenyl substituted derivatives showed moderate analgesic activity in both of the methods. Compounds IIIa, IIId, IIIf, IIIi, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVj IV3a and IIj were found to be superior analgesic agents after screening by Acetic acid induced writhing method. Compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIf, IIIh, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVi, IV3c, IV3e and IIj were showed analgesic potential after screening of Hot plate method. Conclusion: All tested compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole were found to be promising analgesic agents, for this activity pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine leads might be supported.

  10. Isometric Contractions Are More Analgesic Than Isotonic Contractions for Patellar Tendon Pain : An In-Season Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rio, Ebonie; van Ark, Mathijs; Docking, Sean; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Kidgell, Dawson; Gaida, Jamie E.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zwerver, Johannes; Cook, Jill

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the immediate analgesic effects of 2 resistance programs in in-season athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT). Resistance training is noninvasive, a principle stimulus for corticospinal and neuromuscular adaptation, and may be analgesic. Design: Within-season

  11. Do analgesics improve functioning in patients with chronic low back pain? An explorative triple-blinded RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica; Geertzen, Jan. H. B.; van Wijhe, Marten; Boonstra, Anne M.; Molmans, Barbara H. W.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    Treatment of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) aims to reduce disability, improve functional capacity, and participation. Time contingent prescription of analgesics is a treatment modality in CLBP. The impact of analgesics on functional capacity is unknown. Aim of the study was to explore

  12. Clinical Analysis of Analgesics and Steroids Use for Extraction of Teeth in Patients with Intellectual Disability Under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shigeru; Honda, Yuka; Tanimura, Hiroshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Murata, Naomichi; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    The extraction of lower wisdom teeth is often performed under general anesthesia in patients with intellectual disabilities. However, the choice of analgesics has not yet been investigated. To analyze the use of analgesics during general anesthesia for extraction including lower wisdom teeth in patients with intellectual disabilities. This research is a retrospective observational study. The study population was composed of all patients presenting for extraction of lower wisdom teeth under ambulatory general anesthesia in the clinic of Special Needs Dentistry in Okayama University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2016. The distribution of the combination of analgesics and the relationship between the use of analgesics and the type of extraction were investigated. One hundred and twelve cases were enrolled in this study. Intravenous injections of flurbiprofen, acetaminophen and betamethasone were used in 96 (85.7%), 12 (10.7%) and 26 cases (23.2%), respectively. Flurbiprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Acetaminophen is an old analgesic, but an injection of acetaminophen is new, which was released in 2013 in Japan. And betamethasone is not an analgesic, but a steroid. Betamethasone was used in combination with other analgesics, and was used at a higher dose in a case in which four wisdom teeth were extracted. Flurbiprofen was the main analgesic used for extraction of wisdom teeth under general anesthesia in patients with intellectual disabilities. Betamethasone was used to support flurbiprofen or acetaminophen for extractions of multiple wisdom teeth, with the aim of controlling swelling rather than relieving pain.

  13. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  14. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  16. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers' product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making.

  17. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  19. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Purchases of food in youth. Influence of price and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Handley, Elizabeth A; Dearing, Kelly K; Cho, David D; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A; Raja, Samina; Pak, Youngju; Spring, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old youth were given $5.00 and allowed to purchase multiple portions of a healthy food (fruit or vegetable) and a less healthy food (higher-fat snack). The price of one type of food varied from $0.50 to $2.50, while the price of the other type was held at $1.00. Increasing the price of a type of food reduced purchases of that type of food, but did not lead to substitution with the alternative type of food. In Experiment 2, twenty 10- to 14-year-old youth were given $1.00, $3.00, and $5.00 to purchase healthy and unhealthy foods. The price of each food was raised and lowered by 25% and 50%. Raising the price of healthy or unhealthy foods resulted in decreased purchases of those foods, and income available interacted with price to predict the pattern of substitution of alternative foods. These results show the potential for controlled laboratory studies of price and food purchases, and show that the substitution of healthier for unhealthy food is related to available money.