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Sample records for preschoolers eric digest

  1. Language and Literacy Environments in Preschools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Burns, M. Susan; Griffin, Peg

    Because of the variation in support for literacy development in different homes, many children need high-quality preschool and school environments and excellent primary instruction to be sure of reading success. This Digest discusses the research on preschool literacy environments and their contributions to reading skills development. The overall…

  2. Ambientes de lenguaje y alfabetizacion en programas preescolares (Language and Literacy Environments in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Burns, M. Susan; Griffin, Peg

    Because of the variation in support for literacy development in different homes, many children need high-quality preschool and school environments and excellent primary instruction to be sure of reading success. This Spanish-language Digest discusses the research on preschool literacy environments and their contributions to reading skills…

  3. La Evaluacion del Desarrollo de los Alumnos Preescolares (Assessing the Development of Preschoolers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    To help parents address those aspects of their child's development which may need special encouragement, support, or intervention, this digest delineates 11 categories of behavior for assessment. Parents should not be alarmed if their children are having difficulty in only a few categories, and they should not judge their children's permanent…

  4. Coaching for Tests. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara

    The term "coaching" applies to a variety of types of test preparation programs which vary in length, instructional method, and content. Most research on the effectiveness of coaching has examined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a measure of academic abilities used to predict college performance. This ERIC Digest reviews studies of…

  5. On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Vito

    This ERIC Digest was adapted from the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) 1991 position paper on standardized testing. Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk" in 1983, standardized testing programs have expanded greatly. Tests may be of pencil-and-paper or performance-oriented varieties. The purposes of tests…

  6. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  7. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  8. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  9. Working with Working Families. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    This ERIC Digest offers tips for understanding the needs, concerns, and feelings of employed parents, and discusses ways child caregivers can involve working parents in their children's lives while the children are enrolled in child care facilities. Competition with the caregiver, guilt over leaving children in the care of others, and little time…

  10. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  11. Risk Management. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to protect an…

  12. Indicadores educacionales (Educational Indicators). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Educators use informal theories and assumptions to guide their actions, yet often fail to evaluate these beliefs. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature and purpose of educational-indicator systems and discusses the design of report cards by which schools can inform the public of their performance. An indicator is any statistic that casts…

  13. Testing in Literature. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Pointing out that student testing in literature should take into account each school's philosophy concerning the literature curriculum, this digest explores the broad domain of literature study and looks at specific objectives and outcomes in literature testing. The digest discusses answers to the following questions: (1) Where are the broad…

  14. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  15. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  16. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  17. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    The issue of drug testing is the focus of this ERIC Digest. Several aspects of drug testing discussed in question-and-answer format: (1) What is the current status of drug use in the schools? (2) What legal questions arise when schools consider drug testing? (3) How might drug testing be applied in a fair, economical, and legally safe manner? (4)…

  18. Constructivist Views of Learning in Science and Mathematics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Drew K.

    Many educators may or may not be familiar with the term constructivism, but probably recognize it as something to do with learning. The main tenet of constructivist learning is that people construct their own understanding of the world and in turn, their own knowledge. This ERIC Digest examines the constructivist view of learning and how it…

  19. Consejeria de los directores (Principal Mentoring). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although…

  20. Capital Outlay: A Critical Concern in Rural Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James; Howley, Craig B.

    This digest, which is based primarily on the 1989 ERIC/CRESS monograph entitled "Achievement of Equity in Capital Outlay Financing: A Policy Analysis for the States," by D. Thompson G. Stewart, D. Honeyman, and R. Wood, addresses possible solutions to the emerging problem of capital outlay financing, with special attention to facilities…

  1. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  2. Restructuring the Schools. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This ERIC digest focuses on school restructuring as the central issue in the school reform movement by answering five questions: (1) What is "restructuring?" (2) What characteristics of the current educational system are the objects of reform? (3) How can restructuring attend to new skills students will need? (4) How can individual schools…

  3. Recruiting and Selecting Principals. ERIC Digest Series Number EA27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This ERIC Digest is an overview of the process of recruiting and selecting principals. Criteria for selecting a principal should include problem analysis, organizational ability, decisiveness, effective communication skills, and stress tolerance, along with personal qualities such as dedication, creativity, and enthusiasm. Innovative steps that…

  4. Preparing School Administrators. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    Issues involved in improving administrator preparation programs are described in this ERIC Digest. A literature review identifies appropriate skills and methods for administrator training and summarizes recommendations such as application of theory to practice and development of full-time internships, school/university collaboration, mentorships,…

  5. Working with Shy or Withdrawn Students. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Jere

    This ERIC digest focuses on students who are commonly described as shy (inhibited, lacking in confidence, socially anxious) or withdrawn (unresponsive, uncommunicative, or daydreaming). Symptoms of shyness or withdrawal may appear as part of the student's overall personality or as a situation-specific response to a particular stress factor.…

  6. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count…

  7. Student Mobility and Academic Achievement. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    Student mobility--students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level-is widespread in the United States. This digest examines the research on the academic consequences of mobility for elementary school students and discusses what schools and parents can do to mitigate the possible negative…

  8. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  9. The Adult ESL Teaching Profession. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest examines the emerging profession of teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults who live and work in the United States, offering suggestions for beginning a career in this field and continuing to grow professionally. The fundamental duty of an ESL teacher is to facilitate development of communication skills in English, in…

  10. Violence and Young Children's Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community racked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  11. Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

    Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

  12. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  13. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  14. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  15. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  16. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  17. Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    This Digest describes matrix sampling of test items as an approach to achieving broad coverage while minimizing testing time per student. Matrix sampling involves developing a complete set of items judged to cover the curriculum, then dividing the items into subsets and administering one subset to each student. Matrix sampling, by limiting the…

  18. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  19. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  20. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  1. The School District Management Audit. ERIC Digest Series Number EA31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This ERIC Digest discusses the issue of the school district management audit--a comprehensive examination of an organization in order to assess efficient use of resources and program effectiveness. Several aspects of the management audit issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) What is a management audit? (2) What areas are covered by…

  2. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…

  3. Trends in Library and Information Science: 1989. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael B.

    Based on a content analysis of professional journals, conference proceedings, ERIC documents, annuals, and dissertations in library and information science, the following current trends in the field are discussed: (1) there are important emerging roles and responsibilities for information professionals; (2) the status and image of librarians…

  4. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…

  5. Supporting Students with Asthma. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest briefly describes the symptoms and "triggers" of asthma, which is an increasing problem among urban students. The digest also presents some suggestions for maintaining a school environment conducive to the attendance of children with asthma and for developing a curriculum that supports their academic achievement. Children in poor urban…

  6. Handwriting Instruction: What Do We Know? ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenke, Karl

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the state of research into handwriting instruction and the printing versus cursive writing dilemma. After examining how handwriting is currently being taught, the digest discusses research supporting various kinds of printing instruction--block, italic,…

  7. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  8. Depression and Disability in Children and Adolescents. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetzloe, Eleanor

    This digest discusses the most frequently diagnosed mood disorders in children and adolescents, including major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder. The symptoms of these disorders are described, along with family and genetic causal factors, biological causal factors, and cognitive causal factors. The digest then…

  9. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  10. Mental Health Counseling: Identity and Distinctiveness. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    This digest describes the uniqueness of one of the youngest service provider professions in existence, mental health counseling (MHC). A history is given of how the founders of this profession were able to establish a professional organization and identity. The identity of the mental health counselor is described as an aggregate of educational,…

  11. Improving Adult ESL Learners' Pronunciation Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest reviews the current status of pronunciation instruction in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes. The current focus on communicative approaches to ESL instruction and the concern for building teamwork and communication skills in an increasingly diverse workplace are renewing interest in the role that pronunciation plays in…

  12. Critical Literacy for Adult Literacy in Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest examines critical literacy and discusses why it is important to include it in instruction for adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Critical literacy takes learners beyond the development of basic literacy skills such as decoding, predicting, and summarizing and asks them to become critical consumers of the information…

  13. Psychodiagnosis for Counselors: The DSM-IV. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    This digest notes that there has been an increase in the number of graduate community mental health counseling programs requiring course work in abnormal behavior, psychopathology, and psychodiagnosis and that, as a result of this increase, utilization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) also has…

  14. Ausencia estudiantil sin permiso (Student Truancy). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKalb, Jay

    This Digest in Spanish examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential. The causes of truancy…

  15. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  16. Mass Communication: Technology Use and Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildssen, Shawna

    This Digest reviews the literature on recent attempts to incorporate technology into the instruction of journalism and mass communication. It first discusses the four main categories of current technology use in journalism and mass communication: classroom instruction; online syllabi/materials; distance learning; and technological literacy. It…

  17. Standards for the High School Psychology Course. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganett, L. Lee

    The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…

  18. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  19. Lexical Approach to Second Language Teaching. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudraia, Olga

    This digest provides an overview of the methodological foundations underlying the lexical approach to language teaching and the pedagogical implications suggested by them. The lexical approach has received interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar-based approaches. It concentrates on developing learners' proficiency with lexis, or…

  20. Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Bonnie

    Critical thinking skills figure prominently among the goals for education proposed by educational researchers, parents, and employers. This digest discusses the skills related to critical thinking and three specific strategies for teaching these skills. The first, Building Categories, is an inductive reasoning tool that helps students categorize…

  1. Doing Mathematics with Your Child. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Martin D.; Brosnan, Patricia A.

    Parents have the wonderful opportunity and responsibility for nurturing children. This digest presents resources that will enable parents to fulfill their responsibility for developing their children's abilities to do mathematics, while at the same time encouraging more positive attitudes towards mathematics. The resources are divided into three…

  2. Approaching Standards for Mathematics Assessment. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Patricia A.; Hartog, Martin D.

    Current assessment practices in the classroom can affect the movement toward a child-centered curriculum in mathematics education. The mathematical community is addressing the challenge to implement standards in the areas of testing, assessment, and accountability in order to maintain this movement. This digest: (1) discusses what makes current…

  3. Dropout Intervention and Language Minority Youth. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaznaugh, Adriana

    This digest describes three programs for middle and high school language minority students at risk of dropping out of school. Two of the programs are geared toward limited-English-proficient Hispanic youth, and the third, a vocational program, involves African-American students as well. The first program described is the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  4. Can Cutbacks Leave School Programs Viable? ERIC Digest, Number 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    Most public schools, out of financial necessity, have had to reduce costs while maintaining facilities and essential programs and remaining accountable for student outcomes. School downsizing can mean making painful decisions about program elimination and staff layoffs. This digest offers suggestions for using downsizing to some…

  5. Score Normalization as a Fair Grading Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, R. Scott

    This Digest outlines an appropriate way to handle score normalization in a fair and equitable manner. Using raw scores to calculate final grades may not entirely capture a student's true performance within a class. As variation in performance evaluation increases, so does the impact on the student's final ranking. Ideally, the distribution of…

  6. Grading Students' Classroom Writing: Issues and Strategies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Bruce

    This digest examines issues related to the grading of students' classroom writing, including the relation of the writing process to the grading process, ways to construct effective writing assignments, fairness and professional judgment, ways to include students in the assessment of writing, and guidelines that professors can use to provide…

  7. Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Sandra; Farber, Naomi

    This digest reviews trends in adolescent sexual activity and discusses conceptual and programmatic approaches to pregnancy prevention. It discusses a pregnant adolescent's choices for resolving an unplanned pregnancy (i.e. abortion, adoption, keeping the baby, and marriage), and the challenges faced by teenage parents. The final section touches on…

  8. Costs of Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    Matrix sampling of test items, the division of a set of items into different versions of a test form, is used by several large-scale testing programs. This Digest discusses nine categories of costs associated with matrix sampling. These categories are: (1) development costs; (2) materials costs; (3) administration costs; (4) educational costs; (5)…

  9. Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…

  10. Managing Inappropriate Behavior in the Classroom. ERIC Digest #E408.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest of information on classroom techniques for managing students with behavior problems highlights ways to prevent misbehavior; establish rules; increase student motivation for academic tasks; establish token economies; decrease unwanted behavior; evaluate the role of punishment; use timeout, extinction, or response cost; use group…

  11. Science Classrooms for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest summarizes research on teaching special needs students relative to the concerns of K-12 science teachers. Guidelines for instituting inclusive policies and practices are presented. Strategies for preparing science classroom materials and adapting teaching methods for students with physical and learning disabilities are also discussed,…

  12. Evaluacion entre colegas profesores (Peer Review of Teachers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines peer review, focusing on how these types of reviews can improve teacher competence. Peer review is often linked to peer assistance, which helps new and veteran teachers improve their knowledge and skills. In peer-review programs, consulting teachers conduct formal evaluations and recommend whether the participating…

  13. Children's Literature in a Time of National Tragedy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This digest is intended to guide parents and teachers in helping children deal with the attacks of September 11, 2001 through the use of literature. It begins with suggestions, guidelines, and strategies which parents and teachers can use to help children deal with the tragedy, and it discusses the role of literature in helping children at a time…

  14. Trends and Issues in Digital Reference Services. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasowitz, Abby S.

    The concept of digital reference is emerging as its own domain within the field of librarianship. This digest discusses issues that have surfaced recently in practice and research: provision of real-time reference service, collaborative efforts among networks of libraries and organizations, and development of quality and technical standards. Many…

  15. Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walqui, Aida

    This digest discusses the contextual factors that affect students' learning of a second language. These individual, social, and societal factors can be considered from the perspective of the language, the learner, and the learning process. These perspectives are discussed as they relate to learning any second language, with a particular focus on…

  16. The Evolving Status of Photojournalism Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Claude

    Noting that new technologies are resulting in extensive changes in the field of photojournalism, both as it is practiced and taught, this Digest reviews this rapidly evolving field of education and professional practice. It discusses what digital photography is; the history of digital photography; how digital photography has changed…

  17. Developing Curriculum for Democracy through International Partnerships. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    The fall of communism in eastern and central Europe inspired the call for curriculum development in citizenship education throughout the growing democratic world. Many programs between U.S. institutions and newly developing democracies continue to produce curricula for democratic citizenship suited to local needs. This digest discusses: (1)…

  18. Students with Disabilities in Correctional Facilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary M.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Leone, Peter E.

    This digest presents the major findings of a national survey of public and private facilities and state agencies on the prevalence of youth with disabilities in juvenile and adult correctional facilities in the United States and the educational and related services offered to them. Findings include: (1) a preliminary estimate of the prevalence of…

  19. Promoting Reading among Mexican American Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose

    Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…

  20. El Desarrollo Social de los Ninos: Una Lista de Cotejo. ERIC Digest. (Young Children's Social Development: A Checklist. ERIC Digest.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Diane E.; Katz, Lilian G.

    The best childhood predictor of later adult adaptation is the adequacy with which a child gets along with other children. Because social development begins in the early years, it is appropriate that early childhood programs include regular formal and informal assessment of children's acquisition of social competence. This digest presents the…

  1. K-12 Single-Sex Education: What Does the Research Say? ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Pamela

    Although research on the effects of K-12 single-sex education is inconclusive in general, some common themes emerge in the research literature. This Digest reviews that research with particular attention to effects on girls' attitudes and achievement. The Digest first discusses attitudinal variables (i.e., self-esteem and attitudes toward academic…

  2. Juegos de videos: Investigacion, puntajes y recomendaciones (Video Games: Research, Ratings and Recommendations). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…

  3. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  4. Eating Disorders: Counseling Issues. In Brief: An Information Digest from ERIC/CAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Deborah, Comp.

    This digest describes the characteristics and extent of anorexia and bulimia, and provides psychosocial and family profiles of the victims. The role of counseling programs in treating these disorders is discussed. (BH)

  5. El Fomento de la Elasticidad en los Ninos (Fostering Resilience in Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Bonnie

    This digest summarizes studies that provide evidence that youth with multiple and severe risks in their lives can develop into confident and competent adults, and discusses the critical role schools can play in this process of development. Resilience is the term used to describe a set of qualities that foster a process of successful adaptation and…

  6. Motivacion y estudiantes de secundaria (Motivation and Middle School Students). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  7. Incorporating Family Work into Individual Counseling: Establishing a Relationship with Families. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Cole, Melody J.

    This digest provides an overview of basic family counseling concepts for counselors whose specialty is in an area other than marriage and family counseling. The author notes that there are two pivotal areas the counselor and client must address upon deciding to involve a family in the client's counseling sessions: how to get the family to come…

  8. Capitalizando en los cursos pequenos (Capitalizing on Small Class Size). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This digest in Spanish examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Although…

  9. Exploring the Function of Heroes and Heroines in Children's Literature from around the World. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjari; Lu, Mei-Yu

    The purpose of this Digest is to explore how heroes and heroines in children's literature from around the world help young learners understand and appreciate different cultures. It considers how protagonists can serve as role models for children; discusses how it is possible to obtain insights into universal and culturally specific values and…

  10. Evaluando la competencia social en los ninos (Assessing Young Children's Social Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Diane E.; Katz, Lilian G.

    During the past two decades, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated to indicate that unless children achieve minimal social competence by about the age of 6 years, they have a high probability of being at risk into adulthood in several ways. This digest presents a checklist of attributes of child social behavior that teachers are encouraged…

  11. College Student Records: Legal Issues, Privacy, and Security Concerns. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    This digest briefly reviews the provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 (the Buckley Amendment), which sets out legal guidelines regarding the privacy of student records and the provisions of the U.S. Patriot Act, along with the measures some colleges are implementing to comply with these laws and improve the…

  12. Tecnologias mas nuevas para la seguridad escolar (Newer Technologies for School Security). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    This digest in Spanish describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that…

  13. Using Critical Thinking To Conduct Effective Searches of Online Resources. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Boyes, Andrea J.

    This digest complements guidelines addressing the mechanics of online searching by considering how treating information searches as exercises in critical thinking can improve our use of online resources. It addresses the use and application of metacognition, hypothesis testing, and augmentation. Improving metacognition means improving the ability…

  14. Building Leadership Skills in Middle School Girls through Interscholastic Athletics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly

    For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…

  15. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Joseph E.

    Among the behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees, and Maslow developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of human needs and how people pursue those needs. This digest briefly outlines both theories and then…

  16. Nuevos patrones en el gobierno de los colegios (New Patterns of School Governance). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renchler, Ron

    This digest in Spanish explains why public-school governance is receiving increasing scrutiny. It identifies who is held accountable for results in the current governance system and describes recent proposals for transforming governance structures. Since many reforms of the past decade bypassed the school board and district office, reformers are…

  17. Marketeer: New Role for Career and Placement Specialists. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Garry R.

    This digest discusses the importance of marketing in the field of career planning and placement. It explains the use of marketing techniques in counseling and the human services, lists major relevant marketing concepts, and provides a marketing list for career planning and placement counselors. (NB)

  18. Estandares: El medio ambiente de las politicas (Standards: The Policy Environment). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish offers a snapshot of the standards movement: its origins, the definitions of standards and which ones matter, its successes at the district and state levels, the backlash against the movement, and possible policy directions. While a broad coalition of constituencies has embraced standards-based reform as a means of improving…

  19. Career Guidance, Families and School Counselors. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Deborah

    The need for a collaborative effort between school and family in the area of career guidance is considered in this digest. Issues relevant to this effort are discussed, including family determinants of children's career development, stages of children's career development, counselor guidelines for starting parent programs, and counselor…

  20. Poststructuralism as Theory and Practice in the English Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    This digest provides a historical review of some current literary theories and practices which developed from contemporary philosophy. Structuralism, associated with Ferdinand de Saussure and Claude Levi-Strauss, with a seemingly scientific view of language and culture posited a systemic "center" that organized and sustained an entire…

  1. Los limites de las decisiones compartidas (The Limits of Shared Decision-Making). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Since the 1980s, shared decision making (SDM) has become a significant part of school-reform efforts. Advocates say that SDM will improve student learning, create teacher satisfaction, and develop new forms of leadership. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of research that investigated whether SDM delivers on these promises. Studies…

  2. Contratos de rendimiento para administradores (Performance Contracts for Administrators). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish explores the strategy of paying school administrators based on performance contracts. A performance contract is an agreement between an administrator--typically a superintendent--and the school board that links the administrator's pay to indicators of job performance. Most commonly, performance contracts include bonuses for…

  3. Violence in Audio-Visual Media: How Educators Can Respond. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    Over the past 20 years there have been numerous studies and frequent warnings about violent television programs and movies arousing young people to act violently. Researchers have pointed to many hours of viewing excessive violence as a potential contributor to violent behavior by youngsters. This digest examines evidence of violence in television…

  4. Performance Standards for School Superintendents. ERIC Digest Series Number EA34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of performance standards for school superintendents. School districts are discovering that developing performance standards for administrators can be cost effective, reduce crisis management, set and maintain direction, and give the community a standard for measuring school success. Several aspects of the issue on…

  5. Choice in the Public Schools. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This Digest advocates alternative educational programs as ways to reduce dropout rates, increase academic and personal satisfaction and achievement, provide real options for struggling students, and generate improvement in all grade levels. The study discusses five concerns in relation to alternative school programs: (1) issues raised regarding…

  6. Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning. ERIC Digest. [Korean Version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This Korean-language digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4)…

  7. Outdoor Centers and Camps: A 'Natural' Location for Youth Leadership Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielsmeier, James C.

    This digest offers camp leaders, outdoor experiential educators, school and college faculty, or youth agency staff who are interested in nurturing youth leaders a framework for designing youth leadership programs which employ an outdoor setting as a "leadership classroom." Basic categories for leadership theory are defined: trait theory,…

  8. The Biculturation of the Vietnamese Student. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 152.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Bankston, Carl L., III

    This digest discusses the impact of traditional Vietnamese culture, family relationships, and bicultural conflicts on children's development and adjustment. Vietnamese parents tend to have relatively low levels of English language proficiency and education, low-paying jobs, and few financial resources. Although they work hard to improve their…

  9. Politicas de uniformes y codigos de vestuario (Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals…

  10. Mejora de la escuela mediante informacion (Data-Driven School Improvement). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    With accurate information, educators are better able to make effective decisions. Besides being used to assess student performance, a complete program of data collection and use can also show educators how management skills, individual learning styles, and other elements affect student achievement. This digest in Spanish provides an overview of…

  11. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  12. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how to inform high school students and their parents about the human genome project (HGP) and how the information from this milestone finding will affect future biological and medical research and challenge science educators. The sections include: (1) "The Emerging Legacy of the HGP"; (2) "Transforming How…

  13. Prices, Productivity, and Investment: Assessing Financial Strategies in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This digest of a full report of the same title critically examines the cost controversy in higher education to better understand the types of financial strategies that can help resolve the crisis in college costs. A look at why these costs are so controversial finds that rapid rise in tuition, public debate about educational expenditures and real…

  14. Participacion de los padres en las escuelas (Father Involvement in Schools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Christine Winquist

    Until recently, fathers were the hidden parents in research on children's well-being. Research stimulated by the new interest in fathers suggests that fathers' involvement in their children's schools does make a difference in their children's education. Using data from the 1996 National Household Education Survey (NHES:96), this Digest looks at…

  15. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…

  16. La Violencia y el Desarrollo de los Ninos (Violence and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community wracked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  17. Perfilando a los estudiantes en relacion con la violencia (Profiling Students for Violence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish discusses student profiling and describes strategies for reducing the risk of violence in schools. "Student profiling" refers to a process in which checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youth who have perpetrated violence are used to determine a student's potential for future…

  18. Forging Partnerships between Mexican American Parents and the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Gonzalez, Dora Lara

    This digest examines barriers to parent participation in the education of Mexican American students, and successful programs and strategies for overcoming those barriers. Research has found family participation in education to be twice as predictive of academic achievement as family socioeconomic status. Mexican American parents care about their…

  19. Radios in the Classroom: Curriculum Integration and Communication Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninno, Anton

    Teachers have explored the use of radio in the classroom almost since radio technology entered into the mainstream of society, yet radio remains a relatively unused mode of instruction. This Digest describes several radio applications and summarizes various radio activities to assist teachers in integrating technology into the curriculum.…

  20. Bayes' Theorem: An Old Tool Applicable to Today's Classroom Measurement Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This digest introduces ways of responding to the call for criterion-referenced information using Bayes' Theorem, a method that was coupled with criterion-referenced testing in the early 1970s (see R. Hambleton and M. Novick, 1973). To illustrate Bayes' Theorem, an example is given in which the goal is to classify an examinee as being a master or…

  1. Learning Disabilities: Glossary of Some Important Terms. ERIC Digest #E517.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerson, Jean

    This digest presents definitions of 30 important terms in the field of learning disabilities. They are: accommodations, assistive technology, attention deficit disorder, brain imaging techniques, brain injury, collaboration, developmental aphasia, direct instruction, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, dyslexia, dysnomia, dyspraxia, learned helplessness,…

  2. Mental Health and the Adult Refugee: The Role of the ESL Teacher. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Myrna Ann; Sample, Barbara; Birman, Dina

    English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers are often among the first people available to help refugees and other immigrants cope with a new cultural and linguistic environment. Although the identified role of the teacher is to teach English language skills, the teacher's role as cultural broker is also important. This digest focuses on how…

  3. Counselors' Use of Tests: Process and Issues. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert M.

    This digest on test uses in counseling discusses the selection, administration, and scoring of tests; the interpretation of test results; and communication of results to clients. It examines such issues in testing as confidentiality, counselor preparation, client involvement in the testing process, computerized testing, and ethics. (NB)

  4. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  5. Los fundamentos de la seguridad escolar (The Fundamentals of School Security). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    This digest in Spanish presents ways that school administrators can realistically assess their schools' security needs. It opens by reporting that some types of school violence are declining, such as self-reported weapon carrying and fighting on school property, which reflects an overall decline in youth violence. However, schools still must…

  6. Using Personal Computers To Acquire Special Education Information. Revised. ERIC Digest #429.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest offers basic information about resources, available to users of personal computers, in the area of professional development in special education. Two types of resources are described: those that can be purchased on computer diskettes and those made available by linking personal computers through electronic telephone networks. Resources…

  7. Community Schools. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 15. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    Utilizing material in the ERIC network, this paper briefly investigates the theory, history, and current state of community schools. Planning guidelines for alternative uses of school facilities are discussed and some examples are given of effective shared facilities. Financial requirements for starting a community school and possible sources of…

  8. Homeschooling. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Patricia M.

    Homeschooling has grown over the past several decades. It is estimated that 923,700 to 1,275,098 children will be homeschooled by the 2001-02 school year. Homeschooling families come from all major ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds and all income levels. Homeschooling parents are commonly active in their communities and join community…

  9. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  10. La calidad del cuidado infantil: Un resumen para padres (Child Care Quality: An Overview for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Peggy; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Many parents want to know how important the quality of care is to children's social, emotional, and academic development. This Digest synthesizes some major recent research on child care quality. First, the Digest explains what features contribute to quality of care. The Digest also explains the differences between studies of how quality is…

  11. Modelos de instruccion para la educacion en la ninez temprana (Instructional Models for Early Childhood Education). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Susan L.

    As teachers, researchers, and policy makers strive to ensure that all children enter school "ready to learn," no question is more pressing than: "What is the best approach for teaching young children?" This digest discusses the existing knowledge base on the differential effects of various approaches to early education. The digest first summarizes…

  12. Reggio Emilia: impulsor del dialogo y del cambio (Reggio Emilia: Catalyst for Change and Conversation). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Rebecca S.

    International perspectives on the care and education of preschool children that seem to be of greatest interest in the United States are those directly linked to prevailing concerns in American early childhood education. In this context, many early childhood specialists have explored the implications of Reggio Emilia's work for the theory,…

  13. Reforzando a los Alumnos Diversos Culturalmente y Linguisticamente con Aprendizaje. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #E500. (Empowering Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Learning Problems). Translation of ERIC EC Digest #E500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    This digest describes ways in which professionals who work with students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds can create an educational climate that accepts and respects the language and culture of its students and empowers them to feel confident enough to risk getting involved in the learning process. Methods of creating such an…

  14. Estrategias para mejorar los resultados academicos para las latinas (Strategies for Improving the Educational Outcomes of Latinas). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    The educational experiences of Latinas are affected by the interaction of many factors, including poverty, racism, sexual harassment, and lack of English language proficiency. This Spanish-language digest presents a range of strategies that schools can employ to promote the academic achievement of Latinas. Schools should communicate that Hispanic…

  15. Touching the Past, Enroute to the Future: Cultural Journalism in the Curriculum of Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Kathryn

    This digest describes the development of cultural journalism and its place in the contemporary curriculum. In the field of cultural journalism, the traditional skills and values of many different groups are chronicled, defined, for example, by ethnic origin, origin, occupation, or environment. The term "cultural journalism" was first…

  16. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  17. BaoLi Yu ErTong De FaZhan (Violence and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community racked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  18. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  19. Making a Community Interesting to Itself: Providing a Social Education through Urban History and Neighborhood Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    Community studies and an urban focus are returning to the social studies. This digest reviews urban studies from a historical perspective. The first section discusses the value of studying cities, noting that city living is becoming fashionable again, and a movement called the New Urbanism has brought a new appreciation for the social, cultural,…

  20. Pueden las reducciones no afectar la viabilidad de los programas escolares? (Can Cutbacks Leave School Programs Viable?). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    Most public schools, out of financial necessity, have had to reduce costs while maintaining facilities and essential programs and remaining accountable for student outcomes. School downsizing can mean making painful decisions about program elimination and staff layoffs. This digest in Spanish offers suggestions for using downsizing to some…

  1. Evaluando los resultados de la reforma escolar total (Evaluating the Results of Whole-School Reform). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines what is involved in evaluating whole-school reform programs. Such evaluations are necessary to renew Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) program grants and are intended to help schools determine what is working and what needs to be changed. Two primary goals of CSRD evaluation are to create a flexible…

  2. Los estudiantes que se mudan de escuela y el logro academico (Student Mobility and Academic Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    Student mobility (students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level) is widespread in the United States. This Spanish-language Digest examines the research on the academic consequences of mobility for elementary school students and discusses what schools and parents can do to mitigate the…

  3. El juego de aparentar y el desarrollo de los ninos pequenos (Pretend Play and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris

    Although pretend play has long been part of the early childhood curriculum, recent emphasis on accountability in education seems to have led to a decline in the general understanding of the contribution that high-quality play can make to children's cognitive development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest defines the cluster of…

  4. Igualdad y suficiencia en las finanzas de la educacion (Equity and Adequacy in Educational Finance). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish discusses efforts to achieve financial equity in education. It describes the extent of financial disparity and how, after 3 decades of litigation, such disparities among districts and among states remain high. In New Jersey alone, the per-pupil expenditures ranged from $5,900 to $11,950. Even with such inequities, some…

  5. Women and Entrepreneurship. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…

  6. Integrated Library Systems. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Cynthia L.

    An automated library system usually consists of a number of functional modules, such as acquisitions, circulation, cataloging, serials, and an online public access catalog (OPAC). An "integrated" library system is an automated system in which all of the function modules share a common bibliographic database. There are several ways the…

  7. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  8. The Eric Cantor Upset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business......US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business...

  9. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  10. Eric Foner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hammond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Foner is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University. Born in New York City to a family that included union organisers, political activists, and historians – his father Jack was a scholar of military history – Foner has gone on to become one of the leading historians of his generation. His most recent book, for example, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (2010, won the Pulitzer Prize, the Bancroft Prize, and the Lincoln Prize, while he has been one of only two figures to have been elected  President of  the American Historical Association, Society of American Historians, and the Organisation of American Historians. Previous works have included Free Soil, Free Labour, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988, and The Story of American Freedom (1998. While two strands run throughout his intellectual trajectory, the first being the abolition and legacy of slavery, it is the second theme that I wish to take up here.Photo credit:  Daniella Zalcman

  11. El recreo en la escuela primaria: Que indica la investigacion? (Recess in Elementary School: What Does the Research Say?) ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga S.

    Compared to the rest of the school day, recess is a time when children have more freedom to choose what they want to do and with whom. In light of the current climate of school accountability, this Spanish-language Digest discusses research on recess and its relationship to learning, social development, and child health, as well as research on…

  12. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  13. Enfoque en las horas despues del dia en escuela para la prevencion de violencia (Focus on After-School Time for Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Peggy; Robertson, Anne S.

    Perhaps 8 million children spend the after-school hours at home alone. In the absence of adult supervision, many of these youth are likely to engage in delinquent or other high-risk activities. This Spanish-language digest reveals research that suggests after-school programs can help to prevent youths from engaging in these activities in two ways:…

  14. Manejando las burlas: Como los padres pueden ayudar a sus hijos (Easing the Teasing: How Parents Can Help Their Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Judy S.

    Children who are teased on a school bus, in class, or during recess often do not want to return to school. Unfortunately, teasing can occur anywhere, and it is difficult to prevent--despite the best efforts of parents, teachers, and school administrators to create a more cooperative atmosphere. This Spanish-language Digest discusses different…

  15. La intimidacion en el comienzo de la adolescencia: La funcion del grupo social (Bullying in Early Adolescence: The Role of the Peer Group). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.

    One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting such behavior by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully. This Spanish-language Digest looks at the limited research available on…

  16. Alternatives to Standardized Tests. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    Five alternatives to standardized testing of student achievement are described in this brief overview. The first, criterion-referenced tests, are designed to evaluate the accomplishment of specifically stated instructional objectives. Student performance is judged on the basis of the objectives, rather than in comparison to other students taking…

  17. Parenting Style and Its Correlates. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy

    One of the most robust approaches to researching parents' influence on children's social competence is the study of what has been called "parenting style." Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental…

  18. Self-Mutilation. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Chris

    Self-mutilation has been most commonly seen as a diagnostic indicator for borderline personality disorder. However, practitioners have more recently observed self-harming behavior among those individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, multiple personality disorder, borderline personality disorder,…

  19. Organizational Communication: Research and Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In colleges and universities business students learn about organizational communication in order to function well in the business environment of which they will become a part. Although the organizational environment or culture is inextricably interwoven with the academic discipline of speech communication, the field of organizational communication…

  20. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  1. Critical Thinking in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Shannon

    Practitioners at all levels of education have begun to recognize that addressing the complex social and environmental problems of the future will require individuals capable of reflective and critical thought. Critical thinking has been defined as utilizing a number of cognitive processes and attitudes that undergird intelligent action in diverse…

  2. Second Language Classroom Research. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of second (or foreign) language classroom research is to answer important questions about the learning and teaching of foreign languages. This kind of research collects data from genuine language classrooms or from experimental settings sometimes established to replicate what takes place in the classroom. Classroom research can focus…

  3. Sexual Harassment Interventions. ERIC Digest No. 206.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Recent Supreme Court rulings are motivating employers to take actions reflecting their compliance with federal laws protecting against sexual harassment. Three key steps employers can take to counter sexual harassment are as follows: develop a strong company policy specifying outlawed behaviors and penalties for their demonstration; establish…

  4. Retirement Policy. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Patricia Worthy

    While the Federal Government has been involved in the care of the elderly since the depression, a comprehensive and unified national retirement policy has never been established. Federal programs for the aged have avoided cutbacks, but adaptations in present retirement policy are required to meet the needs of young and old alike. Although public…

  5. Grabbing ERIC by the Tail: Introducing the ERIC Commissioned Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David

    2001-01-01

    Explains the origin of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) commissioned papers that appear in this journal issue that assess the ERIC program. Discusses the need to unify the system by transforming the database into a knowledge base with a unified metadata framework that would include a variety of multimedia materials. (LRW)

  6. Bibliographical References from ERIC Citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; Bowlby, Sylva M.

    The educational document and journal citations found in the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) system are explained and the proper translation into standard bibliographic form is given for the usual and irregular cases. Section 1 explains the meaning of each part of an ERIC citation and, in parallel fashion, the parts and order of a…

  7. Retraso Mental. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #528. (Mental Retardation. Translation of ERIC EC Digest #528).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…

  8. Remembering Eric Hobsbawm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Matthews

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Hobsbawm died in London on October 1, 2012. He was among the leading historians of the twentieth-century. Indeed at the time of his death he was almost universally described as “arguably Britain’s most respected historian,” (Kettle and Wedderburn, 2012 and this despite his long-standing commitment to Marxism. It’s not hard to see why. His productivity was extraordinary, stretching from the 1940s to the 2010s, and his intellectual range was immense, moving effortlessly from the Swing Riots and the Industrial Revolution to popular rebellion and global terrorism. In these terms, comparisons don’t come easily to mind.

  9. Information for Education Writers from ERIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Charles H.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system provides information to education writers for newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. ERIC can be used to find the names of reliable sources in a given field, as well as background information for an in-depth article or broadcast. The ERIC collection of documents on microfiche is…

  10. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  11. Perspectives on ERIC and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Imel is retired from Ohio State University. From December 1981 until December 2003, she was the Adult Education Specialist at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education and Director from 1987 through 2003. This essay begins with a brief overview of the ERIC system including goals for the clearinghouses, followed by a…

  12. Microcomputers in the School Office. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ERIC Digest, Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    Microcomputers can vastly improve the efficiency of data management, data analysis, and communications in the school office, but implementation should be carefully planned, with attention to relative cost for benefits obtained, appropriateness of software and hardware, and potential security risks. (TE)

  13. Youth in Adult Basic and Literacy Education Programs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    The increase in the number of youth under age 18 enrolling in federally funded adult basic and literacy education programs is a trend that is putting increasing pressures on programs designed to serve an adult population. Documenting the extent of the trend is difficult due to the way in which federal statistics on age of program participants have…

  14. Creating a Professional Workforce in Adult ESL Literacy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, JoAnn

    Most teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) face a number of challenges: large and heterogeneous classes, specialized student needs, and poor funding and employment continuity. Many work part time, often in more than one program and serving simultaneously as administrator and teacher. While most have college degrees, their training is…

  15. One-Stop Career Centers. ERIC Digest No. 208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Since the introduction of one-stop employment systems, many states have attempted to merge traditional employment and training services to provide consolidated programs and easier customer access to services. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), passed in 1998, requires the formation of locally based one-stop service delivery systems to deliver…

  16. Parenting and Career Development. ERIC Digest No. 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Research indicates that parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-child interaction influence career development. The authoritative parenting style is associated with self-confidence, persistence, social competence, academic success, and psychosocial development; parents provide a warm family climate, set standards, and promote independence…

  17. Alternative Assessment: Implications for Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat

    Alternative forms of evaluating student progress are changing testing or assessment in U.S. schools. From the teacher-made to the standardized test, the familiar over-emphasis on multiple-choice items is giving way to expanded generative formats in which students are called upon to demonstrate mastery through applications in which they use complex…

  18. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  19. Selecting Materials To Teach Spanish to Spanish Speakers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winke, Paula; Stafford, Cathy

    Rapid demographic changes and an increasing recognition of the critical need for professionals who are proficient in languages other than English have led to an interest in developing language programs and classes for "heritage language learners" students who are raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken and who speak or at least…

  20. Reflective Teaching Practice in Adult ESL Settings. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    For those working in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) settings, finding practical options for professional development is a concern. The field has a range of program types, a largely part-time workforce, limited financial resources for training, and varied policies and requirements for professional credentialing or certification.…

  1. Improving Adult English Language Learners' Speaking Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    Listening and speaking, the most used language skills in the classroom, are critical for functioning in an English language context, and are logical starting points for language instruction for low-literacy learners. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. A…

  2. Communicable Diseases in the Schools. ERIC Digest, Number Sixteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James

    Parents fear the possible exposure of their children to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and herpes in the classroom. Yet infected children cannot simply be kept out of school; under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, "handicapped" children must be accorded the same educational opportunities, in the same…

  3. Working towards Effective Practices in Distance Career Counseling. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, James F.

    The time is ripe to focus on early field reports from practitioners who are using distance methodologies in career counseling. The focus is the actual establishment of a working alliance or counseling relationship through the use of technology and then the continuation of the counseling work using technology-assisted methodologies such as…

  4. Anger Management 2: Counselors Strategies and Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen K.

    Many different strategies and skills for anger management intervention have been tried and tested. Some of the most empirically supported interventions are cognitive-behavioral interventions including relaxation coping skills, cognitive interventions, behavioral coping and social skills training, and problem-solving skills training. This digest…

  5. Magnet Schools. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    In order to facilitate the transition to a multiracial community and to meet the prevailing desire for academic excellence, magnet schools have arisen in urban areas throughout the country. These schools meet racial quotas through voluntary enrollment and open access, promote integration through cooperative learning practices, emphasize personal…

  6. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA35 (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy; Hadderman, Margaret

    Despite privacy concerns, school administrators are feeling pressure to adopt urgent measures to keep drugs and alcohol from further endangering our youth's well-being and undermining staff performance. This urgency is reinforced by a national anti-drug campaign and Congressional passage of the Drug-Free Workplace Act (1988) and the Drug-Free…

  7. Coping with Changing Demographics. ERIC Digest Series Number EA45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    Studying local and national population distribution, as well as economic and social patterns, is becoming crucial for educators who serve rapidly changing communities. School officials should take into consideration the tremendous diversity in cultures, economic and family situations, and educational levels existing within an ethnic group. Several…

  8. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  9. Politicas de tolerancia cero (Zero Tolerance Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  10. El Metodo Llamado Proyecto (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic…

  11. New Learning Strategies for Generation X. ERIC Digest No. 184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    The gap between Generation X and earlier generations represents much more than age and technological differences. It reflects the effects of a changing society on a generation. Social changes such as the increase in single-parent households and households with both parents working, corporate downsizing and layoffs, limited opportunities for career…

  12. Cooperative Education: Characteristics and Effectiveness. ERIC Digest No. 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Cooperative education can enhance classroom instruction by providing practical work experience that is relevant to students' career goals. Among co-op's benefits to students are increased relevance of learning and motivation for study; improved self-reliance, self-confidence, and responsibility; contacts with potential employers; and higher…

  13. Helping Students Cope with Test Anxiety. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Henry L.; Coy, Doris R.

    One of the most threatening events that causes anxiety in students today is testing. When students develop an extreme fear of performing poorly on an examination, they experience test anxiety. Test anxiety is a major factor contributing to a variety of negative outcomes including psychological distress, academic underachievement, academic failure,…

  14. Remuneracion alternativa para los profesores (Alternative Teacher Compensation). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    Legislators and school districts are reviewing alternative compensation plans in an effort to attract and retain qualified teachers. Limited merit-pay based plans have been abandoned, and the single salary schedule remains in place nationwide. A tight labor pool, greater scrutiny by legislatures, and new laws create pressures to raise salaries…

  15. Telecommunications in Foreign Language Education: A Resource List. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Julie

    Foreign language and bilingual educators are in the unique position of being able to bring the world to their classrooms via the telecommunications technologies. Telecommunication is electronic communication over long distances by means of an online computer service, a telephone, a television, a satellite, or other long distance technologies. This…

  16. Academic Departments: How They Work, How They Change. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Barbara E.; Carey, Anna K.; Smith, Hoke L.; Soled, Suzanne Wegener; Way, Philip K.; Zorn, Debbie

    Academic departments across the nation must reinvent new forms of collegiality and become more outward-oriented, more focused on results, and more entrepreneurial. They must develop new systems to reward their members, enhance productivity, and assure the quality of their work. Change strategies in the literature fall into six categories: (1)…

  17. Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  18. Administrator and Faculty Ethics Codes in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Tronie

    The role of ethics in institutional management and instruction and the need for ethics codes have been identified as major issues currently facing community colleges in the United States. In general, ethics codes represent professional ideals, serving as guides for behavior and establishing principles of performance. A study was recently conducted…

  19. Multiracial Students: What School Counselors Need To Know. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Henry L.

    Multiracial individuals represent an expanding population of Americas diverse society. Results from Census 2000 showed that of the total 281.4 million people in the United States, 6.8 million of the population indicated their background consisted of more than just one race. Nearly 3 million of respondents within the two or more races population…

  20. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  1. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  2. Improving Chapter 1 Delivery. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    Researchers and educators have begun to question whether Chapter 1 pull-out programs are the most effective method of delivering extra help to the students who need it. Pull-out programs are still the predominating type, but may be declining in popularity as in-class programs gain favor. This document summarizes a variety of program designs which…

  3. Self-Esteem and Narcissism: Implications for Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    While the development of children's self-esteem is a worthwhile goal in early education, many practices designed to reach this goal may instead be encouraging narcissism. Such practices include those that direct children's attention to their own inner gratifications, or encourage children to believe their specialness is dependent on trivial…

  4. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  5. La auto-regulacion y la preparacion para la escuela. ERIC Digest. (Self-Regulation and School Readiness. ERIC Digest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    Self-regulation of behavior generally refers to controlled, cognitive monitoring of the actions and steps required to obtain a goal, or to bring about a desired response from the environment. Age-related changes in self-regulation as well as individual differences at a given age or developmental stage play fundamental roles in shaping children's…

  6. O MAL EM ERIC WEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benevides Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O mal ocupa a condição de problema para a filosofia desde a Antiguidade. Passando pelas ponderações dos estóicos e de Santo Agostinho, tratado no contexto da teodiceia por Leibniz, o mal aporta como objeto de preocupação para a moral em Kant. Muito conhecido por sua definição como um kantiano pós-hegeliano, é com Kant, mas indo além dele que Weil trata do mal, pensando-o como formas de violência. Considerada como o outro do sentido e da razão, a violência se manifesta de maneiras variadas. Nosso intuito é determinar o conceito de mal em Eric Weil enquanto forma de violência. Para isso, nos propomos a situar no esquema conceitual da violência duas formas de mal discutidas por Weil nos seus textos: o mal radical e o mal diabólico.

  7. ERIC User Services: Changes and Evaluation for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) user services and evaluation efforts of them. Identifies changes that would increase ERIC's competitive edge in the networked environment and recommends an evaluation framework for ERIC to monitor progress to its strategic goals. (LRW)

  8. 76 FR 39844 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; ERIC COHEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    .... 783 (2002)), as extended most recently by the Notice of August 17, 2010 (75 FR 50,681 (Aug. 16, 2010... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; ERIC COHEN 10-BIS-0005 Eric Cohen, 1631 East 10th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11223, Respondent. Order Relating to Eric Cohen The Bureau...

  9. Reminiscences from the Field: The Continuing Story of ERIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colker, Laura J.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) was born in the mid-1960s and is today the world's largest and most popular educational database. The history of ERIC's early development has been told in Del Trester's 1981 narrative, "ERIC--The First Fifteen Years: 1964-1979, A History of the Educational Resources Information Center."…

  10. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  11. Indexing. ERIC Processing Manual, Section VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jim, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for subject indexing in the ERIC system. The principle of "subject access" is discussed with particular reference to "coordinate indexing," which involves designating subject content by unit terms (or tags) that may be put together or "coordinated" for subsequent retrieval. The nature…

  12. Eric Garcia: Warrior with a Pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Eric Garcia's large-scale oil paintings, drawings, installations, prints, and political cartoons examine versions of American history that have been overlooked and whitewashed. Aware that dominant history reflects a strategy of power, Garcia embraces the confluence of history, culture, and politics to challenge historical mythologies and…

  13. Virginia Tech Distinguished Lecture Series: Eric Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Associate Professor - Music Technology, Composition Eric Lyon is a composer and computer music researcher. Major areas of focus include computer chamber music, spatial orchestration, and articulated noise composition. Recent compositions include "Spirits", a 43-channel electroacoustic piano composition for the ZKM Kubus,"Noise Variations" for ensemble mise-en, and “The Book of Strange Positions” for the violin duo String Noise. Subject: Distinguished Lecture Series

  14. Adult ESL Literacy Resources in the ERIC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    The guide provides a quick reference to the database, services, and additional resources of the ERIC System that may be of use in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy work. It first explains the role of the National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education, then describes the ERIC database and the kinds of adult ESL literacy materials…

  15. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  16. Computer Cache: ERIC and the Library Media Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Erica K.

    1986-01-01

    Description of how library media specialists can assist teachers and administrators in retrieving useful information by using ERIC highlights its organization, the types of materials available that are especially useful to classroom teachers, and ways that it can be accessed online. A list of ERIC Clearinghouses with addresses is included. (EM)

  17. Catalog of ERIC Clearinghouse Publications, 2000. A Catalog of Free and Low-Cost ERIC Clearinghouse Materials Currently in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Silvia, Ed.

    This Catalog highlights more than 1,200 available education titles produced directly by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. The titles are arranged by ERIC component and cover a broad range of subject areas related to education. The Catalog provides ordering information and prices (subject to change) for each title and…

  18. Eric Hobsbawm: historia social e historia militante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Pozzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This piece is a brief and critical historiographical discussion ofthe contribution of the great English historian Eric Hobsbawm. Its main thesis is that Hobsbawm built his history on a particular relationship between history and society to develop a peculiar vision that articulated academic soundness with political advocacy. At the same time, he succeeded in making significant contributions to historical studies, politics, and even theoretical Marxism. In the end the fall of the USSR became a watershed that strongly influencedHobsbawm’s historical works.

  19. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  20. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  1. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  2. Eric Kandel: the future of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Erik

    2005-04-01

    Watching ice floes glide by on the Hudson River from Eric Kandel's office, one gets a sense of placid reflection tempered by constant action-an apt analogy for Kandel's ability to calmly manage several ongoing projects and commitments at once. In addition to his well-lauded, ongoing research at Columbia University Medical Center's New York State Psychiatric Institute, Kandel has written several books on neurobiology, behavior, and memory. In addition to being a Nobel Laureate Scientist, he is well-known as an editor of the seminal textbook Principles of Neural Science. He and his colleagues are in the midst of working on a new edition of Principles, and he is working on a scientific autobiography. MI sat down with Dr. Kandel and discussed with him a range of topics including childhood and early career influences, intramural research at the NIH, the HHMI, ethical considerations of altering memory and, of course, Aplysia.

  3. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  4. Eric Soovere fotodest sõjafotograafia kontektis / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2011-01-01

    Püütakse selgitada Eric Soovere piltide ja teksti tausta põgenemisel kodumaalt, näidatakse tema töö tähtsust Eesti visuaalkultuuris ja käsitletakse ka sõjafotograafia ajalugu ning sõjafotograafia peegeldusi kunstis. Praktilise tööna sündis DVD, kuhu on koondatud Eric Soovere päevik ja fotomaterjal kaasaegse formaadina

  5. Eric Soovere fotodest sõjafotograafia kontektis / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2011-01-01

    Püütakse selgitada Eric Soovere piltide ja teksti tausta põgenemisel kodumaalt, näidatakse tema töö tähtsust Eesti visuaalkultuuris ja käsitletakse ka sõjafotograafia ajalugu ning sõjafotograafia peegeldusi kunstis. Praktilise tööna sündis DVD, kuhu on koondatud Eric Soovere päevik ja fotomaterjal kaasaegse formaadina

  6. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  7. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  8. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  9. Puede afectar la instruccion en musica el desarrollo cognitivo de los ninos? ERIC Digest. (Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  10. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on the Use of Futurism in Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Thirty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Futurism is a process of speculation on alternative possibilities for the future. Such a process leads to a clearer conception of future needs and resources. Applied to education, futurism can aid in longrange planning on a local, district, State, or national level. ERIC abstracts on the application of futurism to educational planning, announced…

  11. Saladusi mäletavad pildid : järelvaade Eric Soovere fotograafilisele dokumentalistikale / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Eric Sooverest ja tema fotoloomingust. Eric Soovere ja Johannes Pääsukese loomingu võrdlus. Katkendeid Eric Soovere raamatust "Käru ja kaameraga : pilte ja päevikulehti põgenemisteelt 1944-1949". Pikemalt emigreerumisest Ameerikasse

  12. Quality of Researchers' Searches of the ERIC Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Hertzberg

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last ten years, end-users of electronic databases have become progressively less dependent on librarians and other intermediaries. This is certainly the case with the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC Database, a resource once accessed by passing a paper query form to a librarian and now increasingly searched directly by end-users. This article empirically examines the search strategies currently being used by researchers and other groups. College professors and educational researchers appear to be doing a better job searching the database than other ERIC patrons. However, the study suggests that most end-users should be using much better search strategies.

  13. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volume 1 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 2 is filled wit

  14. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 4 is

  15. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1 and 2 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 3 is fil

  16. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  17. Entrevista com Eric McLuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLuhan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshall McLuhan faria 100 anos em 2011. Para marcar esta data, que já provocou uma recente revisitação à obra do teórico, o XI Seminário Internacional da Comunicação, promovido pela PUCRS, destacou temas como as relações do homem com as tecnologias e os efeitos psicológicos das mídias para nortear às discussões dos três dias de evento. Mas se engana que acredita que entender a obra mcluhiana é tarefa fácil. Mesmo tendo se dedicado com afinco a explicar metáforas como ‘o meio é a mensagem’ e ‘aldeia global’, McLuhan nunca chegou a ser completamente entendido. Ou as pessoas não sedavam ao trabalho de entendê-lo, ou, simplesmente, não conseguiam enxergar as mudanças que estavam acontecendo com a mesma clareza que o pesquisador. Numa tentativa não só de entender a obra do ‘profeta da globalização’, mas de ampliar os entendimentos sobre as tecnologias e as extensões do homem, Eric McLuhan, filho do teórico, participou como palestrante do Seminário para falar, entre outros assuntos, da percepção acadêmica quanto a obra de seu pai, além de introduzir novas ideias sobre televisão, globalização e ecologia

  18. Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  19. Advisory Committees. The Best of ERIC, Number 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This annotated bibliography contains selected sources on advisory committees indexed in the ERIC system. The 11 documents and journal articles deal with various aspects of this topic, including the utilization of advisory committees for vocational and occupational education, the role of the school principal as committee leader, and how to obtain…

  20. Mastery Learning and Mastery Testing: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M., Comp.

    This 136-item annotated bibliography on mastery learning and mastery testing is the result of a computer search of the ERIC data base in February 1977. All entries are listed alphabetically by author. An abstract or annotation is provided for each entry. A subject index is included reflecting the major emphasis of each citation. (RC)

  1. Integrating 21st Century Access to ERIC Services and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the development of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) dataset and the relationship between that dataset and the disparate services that have emerged as a result of the Internet and the Web. Discusses the technical infrastructure; database content; services and resources; creating a unified knowledge base; and metadata…

  2. Information Technology in Education: The Best of ERIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Donald P.

    This publication highlights 48 recent ERIC listings which help to explain the variety of emerging technologies for the delivery of information in educational settings. Specific technologies addressed include cable television, electronic mail, satellite communication, teleconferencing, videodisc, and videotex. Entries were selected for inclusion…

  3. The Making of a Missionary: Eric Ashby and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Examines the work of Eric Ashby, a missionary of the technology age in Great Britain, an analyst of status quo and change proponents of higher education,; and an implementer of technology curricula. He warned in the 1950s that if Western academies did not adapt to/with technology, they would not survive. (KDR)

  4. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  5. Sport in History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a sampling of eight entries from the ERIC database that deal with the history of sport. Includes works discussing baseball as a representation of societal value, lesson plans, and works dealing with race and cultural themes. Provides instructions for obtaining the documents listed. (DK)

  6. DSM-5 and ADHD - an interview with Eric Taylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    2013-09-12

    In this podcast we talk to Prof Eric Taylor about the changes to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 and how these changes will affect clinical practice. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Taylor.mp3.

  7. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 3, Lessons 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    The last half of a course in subject indexing for the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system is presented in this volume. The demonstration of indexing techniques, lesson 3, uses a typical document (given in full in an appendix in volume 1) to show how indexing concepts are chosen in practice and converted into terms contained in…

  8. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  9. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  10. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) File Partition Study: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Cynthia C.; Wanger, Judith

    A study to provide the National Center for Educational Communication (NCE) with information that could be useful in making the ERIC data base more relevant to the needs of educators and more efficiently usable by them is discussed. Specific purposes of this project were to use an empirical field-survey study as an armature around which to: (1)…

  11. Facilitated Molecular Typing of Shigella Isolates Using ERIC-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gilman, Robert H.; Vela, Henry; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Calderon, Maritza; Bao, Juan Perez; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Burga, Rosa; Sanchez, Graciela Meza

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) typing versus the current standard for the typing of Shigella pulsed gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we typed 116 Shigella isolates from a village in an endemic setting over a 20-month period using both methods. PFGE identified 37 pulse types and had a discrimination index of 0.925 (95% confidence interval = 0.830–1.00), whereas ERIC-PCR identified 42 types and had a discrimination index of 0.961 (95% confidence interval = 0.886–1.00). PFGE and ERIC-PCR showed a 90.4% correlation in the designation of isolates as clonal or non-clonal in pairwise comparisons. Both systems were highly reproducible and provided highly similar and supplementary data compared with serotyping regarding the transmission dynamics of shigellosis in this community. ERIC-PCR is considerably more rapid and inexpensive than PFGE and may have a complementary role to PFGE for initial investigations of hypothesized outbreaks in resource-limited settings. PMID:22665611

  12. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  13. Kunst elada piiri peal / Eric Kluitenberg ; interv. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kluitenberg, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Võrguteoreetik Eric Kluitenberg Amsterdamist valgustab 'Interstanding 3' 'Ülalpool piire' tagamaad ja seost Eestiga. Üritus toob Eestisse rahvusvahelisi tippteoreetikuid, kes analüüsivad elu piiri peal, ja kunstnikke, kes seda seisundit oma loomingus kajastavad. Osalema kutsutuid. Piiripealsuset seoses poliitika, interneti, meediaga, äärealadest.

  14. Including Students with Disabilities. ERIC Mini-Bib EB14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 19 publications to help educators more effectively include students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The publications, including books, journal articles, videotapes, and reports, are dated from 1993 through 1999, and most are available through the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)…

  15. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  16. Distance Education at the Elementary and Secondary Level. A Select ERIC Bibliography. ERIC/IR Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nancy R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 10 articles and documents selected through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. They are: (1) "The Use of Computers in the Instructional Process in Australian Distance Education" (Geoff Arger and Debbie Clayton); (2) "Distance Education Technologies: All That Glitters Is Not…

  17. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Phenotypic characterization and ERIC-PCR based genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae isolates recovered from American foulbrood outbreaks in honey bees from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Stefano; Formato, Giovanni; Milito, Marcella; Trevisiol, Karin; Salogni, Cristian; Carra, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a widespread and severe bacterial brood disease of honey bees. The genomic characterization of P. larvae strains by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) is able to differentiate four genotypes (ERIC I, ERIC II, ERIC III, ERIC IV). The information on the presence of P. larvae ERIC genotypes worldwide is few. We have characterized P. larvae strains isolated in Italy from AFB outbreaks to obtain information on ERIC genotypes and phenotypes of the strains circulating in the country. A total of 117 P. larvae isolates from 115 AFB outbreaks occurring in 2008-2012 were subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization. The genomic characterization allowed the identification of ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes. Examining the data of Northern and Central Italy separately it was noted that in Northern Italy most outbreaks were caused by the ERIC I genotype (78.6%), followed by the ERIC II genotype (18.6%) and by co-infections (ERIC I + ERIC II) (2.6%). In Central Italy, only outbreaks caused by the ERIC I genotype were observed. With regard to phenotypic characteristics all examined strains of ERIC II genotype fermented fructose while no strains of ERIC I genotype possessed this ability. Both P. larvae ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes were isolated from the AFB outbreaks, but ERIC II genotype was isolated only in Northern Italy. The fermentation of fructose seems to be a genotype-specific biochemical marker.

  19. Eric Hobsbawm, sociólogo do milenarismo campesino Eric Hobsbawm, sociologist of peasant millenarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Graças à problemática do milenarismo, a historiografia de Eric Hobsbawm integra toda a riqueza da subjetividade sociocultural, a profundidade das crenças, sentimentos e emoções em sua análise dos acontecimentos históricos, que não são mais, nessa perspectiva, percebidos simplesmente como produtos do jogo "objetivo" das forças econômicas ou políticas. Ainda distinguindo cuidadosamente os milenarismos primitivos dos revolucionários modernos, não deixa de mostrar sua afinidade eletiva. Isso não quer dizer que todos os movimentos revolucionários sejam milenaristas em sentido estrito ou, pior todavia, que respondam a um quiliasmo de tipo primitivo. Isso não impede afirmar que a afinidade entre os dois seja um fato fundamental na história das revoltas camponesas contra a modernização capitalista. Trata-se de uma das hipóteses de investigação mais interessantes esquematizadas em seus trabalhos desta época. Hobs-bawm ilustra seus propósitos com dois estudos de caso apaixonantes: o anarquismo rural na Andaluzia e as ligas camponesas da Sicília, os dois surgidos em fins do século XIX com prolongamentos no XX.Thanks to the problematic of millenarianism, Eric Hobsbawm's historiography incorporates all the richness of socio-cultural subjectivity - the depth of beliefs, feelings and emotions - into his analysis of historical events, which, from this viewpoint, are no longer perceived simply as products of the "objective" interplay of economic or political forces. Although he makes a careful distinction between primitive millenarianisms and modern revolutionary movements, Hobsbawm nevertheless shows their elective affinity between them. This does not mean that all revolutionary movements are millenarian in the strict sense or - which is even worse - that they are connected to a primitive type of chiliasm. All the same, the affinity between them is a basic fact in the history of peasant revolts against capitalist modernization. This

  20. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards' National Teacher Certification. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ann E.

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was founded in 1987 in response to recommendations regarding the central role of teachers in educational quality. NBPTS establishes rigorous standards for what accomplished teachers should know and be able to do; operates a national voluntary system to assess and certify teachers…

  1. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  2. Las estrategias de un lider (The Strategies of a Leader). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    A decade ago, principals were asked to become instructional leaders who exercised firm control by setting goals, maintaining discipline, and evaluating results. Today, they are encouraged to act as facilitative leaders by building teams, creating networks, and "governing from the center." Rapid shifts in administrative philosophy can be…

  3. Los Pactos entre Padres y Maestros (Teacher-Parent Partnerships). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    Research provides insight into parent attributes that support partnerships with teachers. These attributes include warmth, sensitivity, nurturance, the ability to listen, consistency, positive self-image, personal competence, and effective interpersonal skills. Researchers have cited positive attitudes, continuous teacher training, involvement in…

  4. Exemplary Career Development Programs & Practices: The Best from Canada. An ERIC/CASS Digest Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Bryan, Ed.

    The inspiration for this document came from the "Creation and Mobilization of Counseling Resources for Youth Project (CAMCRY)" sponsored by the Canadian Guidance and Counseling Foundation (CGCF), which sought to provide the ideas and resources requisite for launching a nationwide initiative in career development and career counseling.…

  5. Repairing and Renovating Aging School Facilities. ERIC Digest Series Number EA28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    Recent influxes of baby boomers coupled with state reforms reducing student-teacher ratios are stretching the limits on available school facilities across the country. Several aspects of the school facilities issue are covered in question-and-answer format; (1) What is the current status of aging school buildings? (2) What are the financial…

  6. Information Literacy Instruction in Higher Education: Trends and Issues. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby; Pasqualoni, Michael

    Students today face a daily explosion of information resources and the challenge of using these resources effectively and responsibly. Information literacy instruction (ILI) requires a shift in focus from teaching specific information resources to a set of critical thinking skills involving the use of information. ILI in an academic setting…

  7. El estres y los ninos pequenos (Stress and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Jan; Peterson, Karen

    Traditionally, stress has been defined in terms of its source (internal, such as hunger, pain, sensitivity to noise and external, such as separation from family, change in family composition, exposure to conflict or violence). Although the research literature tends to focus on the impact of single-variable stressors on children's development, in…

  8. Liderazgo para la cultura escolar (Leadership for School Culture). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, Stephen

    The concept of school culture offers principals and other leaders a broader framework for understanding problems and relationships within the school. School culture can be defined as the historically transmitted patterns of meaning that include the norms, values, beliefs, and myths understood by members of the school community. Researchers have…

  9. Effective and Ethical Recruitment of Vocational Education Students. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michele

    Vocational education has suffered enrollment problems simply because there are fewer students today than a few years ago. Other factors that have hurt vocational enrollments include recent efforts to increase the number of academic credits required for graduation, and in the case of area vocational-technical schools, negative attitudes toward…

  10. Adult Development: Implications for Adult Education. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michele

    Various researchers, including Carl Jung, Charlotte Buhler, Erik Erikson, and Robert Havighurst, have formulated sequential models of adult development. More recent investigators, such as Daniel Levinson, Roger Gould, and Gail Sheehy have formulated age-related sequential models of adult development that view the various stages of adulthood in…

  11. Thematic Literature and Curriculum for English Language Learners in Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Betty Ansin

    The incorporation of age- and language-appropriate thematic literature into the early childhood curriculum can stimulate content-based academic learning for English language learners (ELLs). This systematic approach is particularly beneficial to young ELLs ages 3 through 8, because it provides background knowledge and cultural information along…

  12. Uncovering the Hidden Web, Part II: Resources for Your Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Marcia

    Too often, search engines don't see and directories can overlook clearinghouses, digital libraries, full-text databases, and learning objects. In contrast, the hidden Web is rich with these high quality and cutting-edge learning materials. By integrating resources from the hidden Web into the classroom, educators extend their instruction in new…

  13. Uncovering the Hidden Web, Part I: Finding What the Search Engines Don't. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Marcia

    Currently, the World Wide Web contains an estimated 7.4 million sites (OCLC, 2001). Yet even the most experienced searcher, using the most robust search engines, can access only about 16% of these pages (Dahn, 2001). The other 84% of the publicly available information on the Web is referred to as the "hidden,""invisible," or…

  14. Managing the Incompetent Teacher. ERIC/CEM School Management Digest Series, Number 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Edwin M.; Groves, Barry

    An eight-step organizational approach to the problem of identifying, remediating, and, if necessary, dismissing incompetent teachers is described. Addressed to school superintendents, the eight steps are as follows: (1) establish "excellence in teaching" as a high priority for the district, (2) adopt and publish reasonable criteria for evaluating…

  15. Paraprofessionals. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Seven. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Nan; Templeton, Ian

    This paper outlines the history of paraprofessionals and reviews the reasons for their use. However, its main focus is on the specific ways in which these people are currently being used in the schools. The authors discuss the two major kinds of paraprofessionals -- service-oriented and instructional -- and analyze the various methods that have…

  16. Prevencion de la violencia en las escuelas (School Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    Tactics to deal with growing violence in schools have usually relied on removal of the offender by suspension or placement outside of the mainstream classroom. However, educators and psychologists are considering the prevention of violent behavior as both a more humane and cost-effective response to the problem. The relationship between school…

  17. Planning for Success: Common Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtain, Helena; Dahlberg, Carol Ann Pesola

    There has been a significant increase in new foreign language programs at the elementary school level in recent years. Many of these programs, often referred to as foreign language in the elementary school or FLES programs, have been implemented to comply with state mandates, while others have been developed in response to parental pressure for…

  18. Linking Schools with Human Service Agencies. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    A number of factors put pressure on schools to work more closely with health, social service, and other youth-serving institutions but poor communications, program redundancies, fear for job security, and concerns about parent and community support for controversial services inhibit close collaboration. Recent successful collaborative school,…

  19. Animal-Assisted Therapy in Counseling and School Settings. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia

    The integration of animal-assisted therapy into clinical psychology is a growing phenomenon. These "co-therapists" may be of assistance to counselors when working with withdrawn and non-communicative counselees. The presence of an animal has been found to lower anxiety and motivate the counselee's participation in therapy.…

  20. The Leadership Compass. Values and Ethics in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, John R.; Ebbs, Susan L.

    This brief report summarizes a longer document with the same title. It explains that institutions of higher education have a moral responsibility as disseminators of knowledge to foster proper values and ethical thinking in its students for the well-being of society. The collegiate ethos, the practices and customs of the institution, are important…

  1. Faculty Compensation Systems: Impact on the Quality of Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Terry P.; Bergerson, Peter J.

    Faculty compensation is a critical management tool for increasing faculty productivity, improving cost efficiency, and enhancing an institution's public image. Factors that determine faculty compensation include academic rank, faculty productivity, discipline market pay, ability to obtain external grants, seniority or length of service, service in…

  2. A New Framework for Teaching in the Cognitive Domain. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    At mid-twentieth century, the dominant framework for lesson design--the programmed instruction format--was derived from efforts to apply operant conditioning to human learning. Cognitive psychology soon offered an alternative view, represented by Robert Gagne's Events of Instruction, which became the dominant framework through the end of the…

  3. Positive Uncertainty: A Paradoxical Philosophy of Counseling Whose Time Has Come. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, H. B.

    Positive Uncertainty is a flexible, ambidextrous approach to managing change, which encourages the use of both the rational and intuitive mind, and incorporates techniques for both making up one's mind and changing it. Positive Uncertainty, as a new philosophy for counseling, will require a paradigm shift for counselors. It is possible that a new…

  4. Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic Workplace: Recruitment, Retention, and Academic Culture. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    Institutions of higher education have attempted to diversify their faculty by recruiting women and minorities. However, recruitment has taken place without an understanding of the social forces that shape the professional socialization and workplace satisfaction of women and minority faculty. Conclusions drawn by the author about the plight of…

  5. El Apoyo a las Ninas en la Temprana Adolescencia (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  6. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O.; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®. Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digest...

  7. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  8. Developmental biologist Eric H. Davidson, 1937–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Leroy; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2015-01-01

    Eric H. Davidson, a world leader in developmental biology, demonstrated that most of development is, indeed, regulated by the genome. He was a pioneer researcher and theorist of the gene regulatory networks that execute the most complex biological processes, such as the cascade of molecular mechanisms that transform a single-celled egg into a complex creature. He insisted that the seemingly infinite details of classical developmental biology had to be explained in terms of the function of DNA...

  9. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-01-01

    On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while t...

  10. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  11. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  12. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  13. At Home with ERIC: Online Searching from Your Home Computer. "Knowledge Index" Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Stupp, Emma; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This manual provides information to aid home computer owners in performing literature searches of ERIC and other education and social science databases, such as the DIALOG Information Services "Knowledge Index" System. Assuming some familiarity with printed ERIC indexes or online searches, this manual is divided into five chapters. It is…

  14. At Home with ERIC: Online Searching from Your Home Computer. "After Dark" Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Stupp, Emma; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This manual provides information to aid home computer owners in performing literature searches of ERIC and other education and social science databases using the BRS Information Technologies "After Dark" system. Assuming some familiarity with printed ERIC indexes or online searches, this manual is divided into five chapters. It is…

  15. ERIC--The First 15 Years. A History of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trester, Delmer J.

    This account of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) provides information on its background and origin, and traces the development of the system from initial planning in 1962 through mid-1979. Although this is essentially an overview of the growth of the system, some of the more complex aspects of the ERIC story are included in the…

  16. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  17. Eric A. Posner and David Weisbach, Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, J. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even when this book was first published in 2010, there was a large literature on the nature of climate change justice. (The 2015 paperback release that occasioned this review makes no changes to the 2010 text.) Of course not all of the climate justice literature to that date was penned by philosophers, but a great of it was and naturally philosophers claim to have much to say about climate justice. So it is somewhat surprising how infrequently Eric Poser and David Weisbach engage with the phi...

  18. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  19. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  20. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  1. Forging Partnerships with Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Patti Ensel

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Head Start program for preschool children directed by the Nature Center at Shaker Lakes in Cleveland, Ohio. Presents information on the content of this program, which is also aligned with the regular Head Start curriculum. Lists contact phone numbers for more information. (YDS)

  2. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  3. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  4. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  5. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  6. Eric Hobsbawm y su lectura marxista de la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilatowsky, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief survey of the contributions made by the historian Eric Hobsbawm to the field of History and his Marxist stance, both in his academic work and political practice. According to the author, the circumstances in which the researchers live are determinant to their study; hence this analysis includes a review of his biography. This perspective discusses his interpretation of Marx and Marxism, his understanding of History, his militancy in the Communist Party, his Jewish identity, and how he addresses nationalism in relation to the study of capitalism.En este ensayo se presenta un breve estudio de las aportaciones del historiador Eric Hobsbawm en el campo de la historia y de sus posturas marxistas; tanto en su trabajo académico como en su práctica política. El análisis incluye una revisión de su biografía ya que según el autor los investigadores y su manera de investigar responden a las circunstancias que les toca vivir. Desde esta perspectiva se aborda su interpretación de Marx y del marxismo, su forma de entender la historia, su militancia en el Partido Comunista, su identidad judía y el tratamiento del nacionalismo en su relación con el estudio del capitalismo.

  7. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D

    2005-11-15

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  8. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  9. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  10. Modelling grass digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plan

  11. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  12. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  15. Physics and medicine: at Erice the new perspectives of an ancient cooperation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From April the 15th to the 17th, at Ettore Majorana Foundation in Erice, in the context of the International School on Physics and Industry, there will be a congress entitled "Particle accelerators and detectors: from physics to medicine".

  16. Helping Children Deal with Trauma and Terrorism. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes selected ERIC documents, journal articles, and World Wide Web resources that discuss ways to help children deal with traumatic events, both natural and human-caused, including the effects of terrorism. (DLH)

  17. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  18. 全能吉他手——Eric Johnson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bird Hey

    2012-01-01

    目前,Eric Johnson正在酝酿一张名为《旋风计划》的专辑。参与者有世界知名鼓手杰尔·马罗塔和知名贝司手兼吉他手崔·耿。杰尔·马罗他不仅是鼓手,而且是制作人,曾和彼得·加布里尔、保罗·麦卡特尼、爱尔维斯·卡斯特罗、“印地哥女孩”乐队、“恐惧眼泪”乐队、“奥提斯大厦”乐队和琼·阿马楚丁等大腕合作过。

  19. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  20. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of…

  1. 空肠弯曲杆菌ERIC-PCR分型技术研究%Study on construction and application of ERIC-PCR method for typing Campylobacter jejuni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐梦君; 高玉时; 张小燕; 陆俊贤; 施祖灏; 唐修君; 陈大伟

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立空肠弯曲杆菌肠杆菌科基因间重复一致序列PCR(ERIC-PCR)的分子分型技术,快速分析空肠弯曲杆菌指纹谱。方法本研究提取空肠弯曲杆菌ATCC33560的基因组DNA作为模板,采用对优化项目设置梯度其它条件不变的方法,对ERIC-PCR反应中的模板量、引物浓度和退火温度等进行优化,建立空肠弯曲杆菌的ERIC-PCR分型技术,并采用该技术对20株空肠弯曲杆菌的指纹图谱进行了分析。结果 ERIC-PCR反应体系中DNA模板量96ng/25μL,ERIC1、ERIC2引物浓度各0.8μmol/L,退火温度40℃时,指纹图谱条带清晰、明亮;20株空肠弯曲杆菌临床分离株ERIC-PCR指纹图谱差异较大,可在160bp~32000bp范围内出现2条~13条条带,分为14型。结论研究显示成功建立了空肠弯曲杆菌ERIC-PCR指纹图谱分型技术,应用该方法可从分子水平上对空肠弯曲杆菌基因组DNA进行快速指纹图谱分析,具有简便和快速等优点,能够为空肠弯曲杆菌流行病学调查提供科学依据。%Objective To generate an efifcient enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC-PCR) typing and analyze molecular type of different food-borne Campylobacter jejuni.Method Genomic DNA of Campylo-bacter jejuni reference strain ATCC33560 was used as the template for PCR. Target sequences in Campylobacter jejuni genomic DNA were amplified with the primers designed according to the reference. To obtain optimum fingerprint maps,template and primer concentration of the reaction system and annealing temperature of PCR,the factors to be optimized were designed in different concentration grads and other factors were ifxed. Then 20 Campylobacter jejuni isolates were classiifed by PCR.Result The optimal concentration of template DNA was 96ng/25mL,the concentration of primers was 0.8mmol/L each primer and annealing temperature of PCR was 40 ℃.The ERIC-PCR ifngerprint maps of different isolates

  2. Preschool Screening: An Examination of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Preschool Teacher Form (BESS Preschool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Chin, Jenna K.; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical time to identify and treat early emotional or behavioral problems. Universal screening can be used to identify emotional and behavioral risk in preschoolers and fits well within current service delivery frameworks. This criterion-related validity study examined the use of a brief teacher-rated screener, the…

  3. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen (NPN) in the rumen, the effect of digestible energy on the rate and .... Fahey, 1982) and inhibitors of amino acid deamination. (Chalupa & Scott, 1976). ... the omasum, although both urea and ammonia may be absorbed (0,9 gld.

  5. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  6. ERIC Documents on Foreign Language Teaching and Linguistics: List Number 15. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Peter, Comp.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of catalogues of ERIC documents of interest to teachers and researchers in foreign languages and linguistics. The documents cited in the present list appeared in "Resources in Education" from January through June 1975. Titles are listed under the following headings and subheadings: (1) general: administration,…

  7. Eric Hermelin and mystical hermeneutics: interpretation beyond itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Hermelin (1860-1944 translated more than 10.000 pages Persian Sufi poetry, German texts by Jakob Böhme and Latin texts by Emmanuel Swedenborg. In the translation process Hermelin shaped his strategies and perceptions in ways which served their patterns of desire, and what they constructed reflected and served their own unique identity. Added up, the devices which constitute strategies of reading set in motion by the selfs defense of its identity are: Defenses, Expectations, Fantasies, and Transformations. Hermelin's mystical hermeneutics produced not only understanding of texts, but often no less produced an increased awareness, with appropriate hermeneutical sensitivity, of self-perception and self-identity. A self-awareness and a strengthening of an individual and corporate identity as one who has a stake in the texts and that to which they bear witness constitutes an important reader-effect in this case of Sufi poetry. But without any principle of suspicion, in Gadamer's terminology a premature fusion of horizons will take place before Hermelin has listened in openness with respect for the tension between the horizons of the text and the horizon of Hermelin. The textual horizon has col-lapsed into that of Hermelin's narrative biography, and is unable to do more than to speak back his own valnes and desires. Something socio-pragmatical was after all woven into the controversial bon vivant, when he used literary works to replicate himself. At the same time, the texts spoke from beyond the self.

  8. Eric Hobsbawm: A historian in search of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author interpreted the historiographic span of work of Eric Hobsbawm, one of the most famous and most influential contemporary historians. Bearing in mind the extensiveness and complexity of this span of work, the author limited his analysis to two theoretical problems - Hobsbawm's view of the concept of 'social history' and the exploration of the function of 'historical materialism' in the emergence and realisation of this concept. In the author's opinion, Marxism served Hobsbawm as a productive theoretical standpoint in the thematisation of the history of the 'long 19th century', but it prevented him from understanding more fully the 'short 20th century' (The Age of Extremes. The basic reason for this lies in the fact that the 'Soviet experiment' which in essence defined the 20th century cannot be explained from the 'historical-materialistic' perspective. It is precisely in the theoretical deficits of the Marxist theoretical paradigm, and not in Hobsbawm's political bias, that the author identifies the basic cause for the weakness of his interpretation of the epoch of Communism. For this reason, in the final part of the paper the author formulated the thesis on the necessity of formulating a new theoretical framework and conceptual apparatus which would provide us not only with a better understanding of the past, but of the present and the future as well.

  9. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  10. A QUESTÃO ESTATISMO HEGELIANO SEGUNDO ERIC WEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benevides Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A visão de Hegel como um pensador conservador não é um fenômeno isolado. Para alguns críticos, Hegel é comumente considerado um apologeta do Estado prussiano e um filósofo daquilo que comumente se denomina estatismo. Eric Weil, contudo, não considera essa definição como condizente com uma retratação fiel do filósofo alemão, assemelhando-se mais a uma caricatura. Nesse sentido, Weil defende uma leitura do pensamento político hegeliano que põe em xeque essa visão, fazendo uma crítica da crítica que, tal como Kant é o rigorista moral, ou Platão é o filósofo das Idéias, coloca Hegel como o filósofo do estatismo e para quem o indivíduo é nada e o Estado é tudo. Para determinar até que ponto essa perspectiva possui lastro, Weil advoga em favor de uma análise do pensamento político de Hegel, inquirindo sobre a real dimensão que o Estado possui no seio desse pensamento. É dessa maneira que é possível delimitar até que ponto esse retrato comumente traçado de Hegel corresponde com a realidade.

  11. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    ; and as a communication and documentation tool. In addition, by addressing the teachers’ values and attitudes to the role of ICT in early childhood, the paper also unpacks the stances of teachers who consider ICT to be unsuitable for early childhood education. The findings of this study may bring some clarity......This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...

  12. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 2, Lesson 1-Introduction to Indexing; Lesson 2-How to Index a Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    This volume contains the first two lessons of a course in subject indexing based upon the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Thesaurus, Lesson 1 is an introduction to indexing, containing definitions and concepts related to the theory of indexing and information retrieval as well as an introduction to the ERIC Thesaurus. Lesson 2 is…

  13. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  14. Pedagogical documentation: Preschool teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović-Breneselović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy shapes the positions of all stakeholders and their mutual relations in the system of preschool education through its attitude towards documentation. The attitude towards the function of pedagogical documentation in preschool education programmes reflects certain views on children, learning and nature of the programmes. Although contemporary approaches to preschool education emphasise the issue of documentation, this problem is dealt with partially and technically in our country. The aim of our research was to explore preschool teachers’ perspective on documentation by investigating the current situation and teachers’ preferences related to documentation type, as well as to study the purpose, meaning and process of documentation. The research was conducted on the sample of 300 preschool teachers. The descriptive method, interviewing and scaling techniques were used. Research data suggest that the field of documentation is marked by contradictions in perceiving the meaning and function of documentation, as well as by discrepancy and lack of integration at the level of conceptions, practice and educational policy. Changing the current situation in the field of documentation is not a technical matter of elaboration of certain types and forms of documentation; it demands explication of the purpose and function of documentation in keeping with the conception of preschool education programmes and a systemic approach to changes originating from the given conception. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja u Srbiji

  15. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  16. Saladusi mäletavad pildid : järelvaade Eric Soovere fotograafilisele dokumentalistikale / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    Ameerikas elanud eesti fotograafi Eric Soovere (sünd. Erich Soeson, 1916-2008) eluloolisi andmeid. Tema loomingust, mis jaguneb kolme perioodi: etnograafiline fotokooslus Lõuna-Eesti külaelanikest (1930ndate lõpp), Sooverede perekonna põgenemisteekond Eestist USA-sse (ca 1944-1949), perekonna elu Cincinnatis USA-s (1950ndad). Fotod eestlaste põgenemisteekonnast on avaldatud raamatus Eric Soovere. Käru ja kaameraga : pilte ja päevikulehti põgenemisteelt 1944-1949. Tallinn : Olion, 1999

  17. Professor Eric Can't See: A Project-Based Learning Case for Neurobiology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Judith Mosinger; Ribbens, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Professor Eric Can't See" is a semi-biographical case study written for an upper level undergraduate Neurobiology of Disease course. The case is integrated into a unit using a project-based learning approach to investigate the retinal degenerative disorder Retinitis pigmentosa and the visual system. Some case study scenes provide specific questions for student discussion and problem-based learning, while others provide background for student inquiry and related active learning exercises. The case was adapted from "'Chemical Eric' Can't See," and could be adapted for courses in general neuroscience or sensory neuroscience.

  18. Saladusi mäletavad pildid : järelvaade Eric Soovere fotograafilisele dokumentalistikale / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    Ameerikas elanud eesti fotograafi Eric Soovere (sünd. Erich Soeson, 1916-2008) eluloolisi andmeid. Tema loomingust, mis jaguneb kolme perioodi: etnograafiline fotokooslus Lõuna-Eesti külaelanikest (1930ndate lõpp), Sooverede perekonna põgenemisteekond Eestist USA-sse (ca 1944-1949), perekonna elu Cincinnatis USA-s (1950ndad). Fotod eestlaste põgenemisteekonnast on avaldatud raamatus Eric Soovere. Käru ja kaameraga : pilte ja päevikulehti põgenemisteelt 1944-1949. Tallinn : Olion, 1999

  19. Critical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Krombholz, H; Gibson, E L; Vögele, C; Nixon, C A; Douthwaite, W; Moore, H J; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten studies added physical activity lessons into their curriculum, one study provided more time for free play, eight studies focused on the social and play environment. Studies reporting positive outcomes implemented physical activity sessions that lasted at least 30 min d(-1). Several studies showed that children are most active in the first 10-15 min. The existence or installation of playground markings or fixed play equipment had no effect, whereas the presence or addition of portable play equipment was positively correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Teacher training may be a key element for successful interventions. To overcome time constraints, a suggested solution is to integrate physical activity into daily routines and other areas of the preschool curriculum.

  20. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  1. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  2. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  3. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  4. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  5. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  6. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  7. Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis R.; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2010-01-01

    The preschool facility is a critical element of an effective preschool program. The recent economic downturn in the United States makes it difficult for states and individual school districts to consider developing new preschool programs or enhancing current programs or facilities. Yet many Americans still agree that public investment in preschool…

  8. Emergent Literacy: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Jenny Miglis; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Adèr, Herman J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on the construction of a research instrument developed to examine preschool teachers' beliefs and practices in relation to emergent literacy. A 130-item survey (Preschool Literacy Survey, PLS) was completed by a total of 90 preschool teachers in Norway. Items were grouped into homogenous scales, and the relationship…

  9. Preschool Evaluation Report: Year 1 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen.

    The report documents activities and findings of the Preschool Evaluation Project which is developing a model for evaluating program provision to handicapped preschoolers and creating a longitudinal data base to track the short- and long-term progress of preschool children receiving special services in Montgomery County, Maryland. During the first…

  10. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  11. The Seneca Falls Convention: Teaching about the Rights of Women and the Heritage of the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Elizabeth R.

    Different groups at different times have turned to founding documents of the United States to meet their needs and to declare their entitlement to the promises of the Revolution of 1776. At Seneca Falls, New York in the summer of 1848, a group of U.S. men and women met to discuss the legal limitations imposed on women during this period. Their…

  12. Como los colegios asignan y utilizan sus recursos? (How Schools Allocate and Use Their Resources). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    School finance has traditionally concentrated on the distribution of resources to school districts, focusing primarily on the equitable distribution of funds within a state. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the issue of productivity--how effectively school districts use the funds they receive to provide education to students. This…

  13. Motivation of Teachers. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 18. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sydney

    This publication discusses intrinsic teacher motivation by reviewing human resources literature and making use of educational literature and interviews with working educators. First it provides sketches of the work motivation theories of McGregor, Maslow, Herzberg, and Deci. Next, the paper examines the work and problems of teachers. Finally, it…

  14. La Participacion de los Padres en los Programas Preescolares. (Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs.) ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Linda M.

    To determine effective strategies for involving Hispanic parents in their children's early childhood programs, educators need to develop a greater understanding of the features of the Hispanic culture that influence parents' childrearing practices and orientation toward formal education. Educators should be aware of Hispanics' diversity in terms…

  15. Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age 14 in 28 Countries: Results from the IEA Civic Education Study. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Amadeo, Jo-Ann; Lehmann, Rainer

    What do 14-year-old students know about democratic institutions and processes? What skills do they possess to understand and interpret political communication? Do they hold concepts of citizenship and democracy similar to those held by adults in their societies? What role do schools and other civic organizations play in the civic development of…

  16. Playground Facilities and Equipment. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Nine. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    A good playground stimulates a child by offering a variety of interesting, challenging, and rewarding activities. Children learn from play and what they learn can be controlled by careful design of playgrounds. Topics discussed include theories of equipment; design; playground planning and concern for the needs of children, parents, and community;…

  17. Evaluation of School Administrators. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Five. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Terry

    Administrators have always been evaluated in one way or another. Decisions on hiring, training, promotion, and firing of administrators have always been necessary; such decisions are based on some sort of evaluation, whether formal or informal, of administrative performance. The concept of accountability has also affected administrator evaluation.…

  18. Accountability and Testing. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 5. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    What is meant by "accountability" varies a great deal. It is not, however, the tools such as merit salary plans, voucher plans, and management techniques that are used to achieve accountability. Accountability has from its earliest days been tied to testing. In discussing testing, it is necessary to discuss the pros and cons of standardized, or…

  19. Community Schools. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Four. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    By making educational opportunities available to all segments of society, the community school narrows the gap between "in school" experience and "real world" experience. This analysis of the research outlines the history and implementation of the community school concept and its relationship to that of community education. Ways to insure full…

  20. Student Rights and Student Discipline. School Leadership Digest Series, Number 13. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    This analysis of the research outlines the history of the conflict over student rights--a conflict that has its basis in American political and social philosophy. The author views the tension between those who favor the expansion of civil rights for students and those who advocate a return to discipline based on the in loco parentis doctrine as…

  1. Vandalism Prevention. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 2. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    Estimates of the precise costs of school vandalism vary widely, but the seriousness of the problem is beyond dispute. It is possible to get a general idea of the nature and motivation of most vandals and, in doing so, begin to understand the problem and devise solutions for it. There are two basic approaches to vandalism prevention. Currently, as…

  2. Inservice Training for Staff and Administrators. School Leadership Digest Series, Number Eight. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Jerry

    The individual growth brought about by a principal's informal reading, writing, consultation, and travel is simple to accomplish but hard to control and evaluate. The demand for accountability has made it necessary for the schools to engage in more formal methods of inservice training. In addition to being a means of keeping principals up-to-date…

  3. Middle Schools. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number 2. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Nan

    Along with increasing numbers of middle schools, the past decade has seen the emergence of a middle school philosophy. The present document explores this philosophy which takes into account the wide range of physical, intellectual, and emotional differences among pupils who are between childhood and adolescence. Among the labels applied to these…

  4. Management by Objectives. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Pierre

    This review of the literature briefly outlines the history of management by objectives (MBO), describing the Madison, Wisconsin, school district's application of this systems approach to school management, as well as alternatives to the Madison MBO plan developed by other districts across the country. Although there are many variations of MBO and…

  5. Alternative Schools. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 13. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    An alternative schools "explosion" is currently producing a large number of diverse educational choices for parents and students. Alternative schools, or those schools that offer all students a distinctive choice of educational programs, can be classified by philosophy, curriculum, or governance. This report defines, explains, and…

  6. Women and Minorities in Administration. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series Number 11. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    Literature on the role of women and minorities in school administration indicates that they both suffer from role stereotypes, although the stereotypes are somewhat different. Current literature on minority groups is limited almost entirely to discussion of blacks; the status of other racial minorities has been largely ignored. The role of blacks…

  7. Year-Round Schools. School Leadership Digest Series, Number One. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    The first of a series of 13 monthly reports, this paper reviews the issue of the year-round school -- a variety of calendar changes aimed at increasing the educational and economic efficiency of the school system. The author first reviews the major pros and cons of the year-round controversy, focusing on the questions of potential learning…

  8. Issues in Basic Education. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 12. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    The back-to-basics movement in part has resulted from public alarm over the increase in functional illiteracy--students' inability to solve everyday problems requiring basic language and mathematics skills. Although not all its adherents are politically and educationally conservative, those who support fundamentalist schools certainly are. These…

  9. Promoting the Professional Development of Teachers and Administrators. ERIC/CEM School Management Digest Series, Number 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Glen D.; Schalock, H. Del

    This monograph highlights important findings and guidelines that have emerged from over a decade of research at the University of Oregon's Center for Educational Policy and Management (CEPM) concerning the continued professional development of school personnel. After a brief introduction, the booklet is divided into three sections. The first,…

  10. The Busing Controversy. [NAESP] School Leadership Digest [Second Series, Number 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    To understand the controversy over busing, it is necessary to understand the relationship between busing and the issues that are actually at the root of the controversy: desegregation and freedom of choice. Much of the political activity surrounding busing is a subtle transfer of attention away from the basic issue of desegregation. Other…

  11. Vandalism Prevention. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, No. 1. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    There are two basic types of vandalism, malicious and nonmalicious. Both types can be controlled, but the methods of control differ. Most of the literature deals with malicious vandalism. Perhaps because security appears to be the only way to control malicious vandalism, it is often made the focal point of antivandalism programs. The most…

  12. Class Size. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Three. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    This analysis outlines the generally inconclusive nature of class size research. In the area of achievement as it relates to class size, the research is demonstrated to be especially inconclusive. In addition to analyzing the problems and weaknesses of class size research, this paper summarizes the effects of class size on the educational process…

  13. Student Rights and Discipline. ACSA School Management Digest, Series l, Number 5. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee; Dunn, Pierre

    The conflict between authoritarianism and democracy is almost nowhere more obvious than in the controversial area of student rights. In loco parentis, long an integral part of educational practice, is no longer an accepted role for educators to assume toward students. Directly counter to in loco parentis is the concept of due process of law for…

  14. Management by Objectives. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 3. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Pierre

    It is possible to remain faithful to the general intentions of management by objectives (MBO) while boiling it down to four major points. First, MBO places the emphasis on results rather than on resources or the ways in which resources are utilized. Second, responsibility for achieving these results is shared jointly by the superior and his…

  15. Implementing Title IX. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 8. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the HEW implementing regulations cover two major areas: sex discrimination in school courses, athletics, extracurricular activities, employment, and counseling, and sex descrimination in hiring, promotions, and benefits for school personnel. The author of this review examines the progress (and lack…

  16. Conflicting Moralities in Education. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 11. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    This booklet examines various problems involving the moral content and implications of education and discusses some of the difficulties school officials face in trying to accommodate the diverse moral values of different segments of American society. The author argues that, because unintentional moral training takes place in all schools through…

  17. Differentiated Staffing. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, No. 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ian

    This report gives a brief history of a differentiated staffing (DS) and outlines the major differences between horizontal and vertical differentiation. The Temple City model provides an example of vertical differentiation, while the Top of the World Elementary School plan is given as a model of horizontal differentiation. Obstacles to DS…

  18. Middle Schools. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 4. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Nan; Hale, Norman

    Inherent in the middle school philosophy is the recognition that students vary widely in their stages of physical, cognitive, and affective development. A special school is needed to meet the unique requirements of these transitional youth. The history and present trends of the middle school reflect dissatisfaction with the junior high school. A…

  19. Administrative Implications of Mainstreaming. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 7. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    "Mainstreaming" is defined as a program whereby handicapped children are placed in regular classrooms for all or part of the school day, with steps taken to see that their special needs are satisfied within this arrangement. Key court decisions are cited because the implications of mainstreaming for contemporary education can be properly…

  20. Conflict Management in Education. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number 10. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    Since the school administrator cannot avoid conflict, it is imperative that he or she be prepared to cope with it when it arises and, if possible, before it develops. More than simple coping with conflict, an administrator needs to know how to channel conflict toward constructive ends. Conflict theory is given primary attention in this paper in…

  1. Leadership Effectiveness. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 16. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series Number 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    Many educational administrators are too overwhelmed by paperwork and too short of time, resources, and training, to be effective leaders. Yet some educators and schools are finding ways to make good leadership easier through improving time management skills, providing assistants, instituting administrative training programs, and cutting paperwork.…

  2. Conflicting Moralities in Education. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 1. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    The author begins by noting that if morality depends on how one sees the world, everything that teaches about the world is ultimately a moral question. A number of examples of conflict in textbook selection act as illustrations of moral issues in education--the controversy in Kanawha County, West Virginia; the controversy over evolution and…

  3. Playground Facilities and Equipment. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 7. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    Modern educators and playground designers are increasingly recognizing that play is a part, perhaps the decisive part, of the entire learning process. Theories of playground equipment design, planning the playground, financial considerations, and equipment suggestions are featured in this review. Examples of playgrounds include innovative…

  4. Class Size. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 12. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sydney

    While the desirability of small classes seems an article of faith among educators, a review of the research indicates that class size in itself has rarely shown a substantial effect on educational achievement. The research itself has been flawed by the impossibility of determining or measuring all the variables that changes in class size can…

  5. Enriquecimiento del horario extra-escolar de los ninos (Enriching Children's Out-of-School Time). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltin, Lillian

    School-age children between the ages of 5 and 14 spend up to 80% of their time out of school. These hours represent an opportunity to help children grow and acquire important social, emotional, cognitive, and physical skills and to help them develop lifelong interests. This time can also be used to provide support for the academic challenges faced…

  6. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  7. Finding Education and Training Technology: A Gap between ERIC and NTIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Clesson B.

    1993-01-01

    Shows civilian applications for Department of Defense education and training efforts and instructional technology. A search showing a gap between the ERIC and NTIS (National Technical Information Service) databases covering government documents is described. Suggestions for additional research and an overview of federal statutes which include…

  8. Racism in African Children's Literature: A Critique of Eric Campbell's "The Year of the Leopard Song."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Osayimwense

    Eric Campbell, an English teacher, spent most of his working life in New Guinea and in East Africa, where he lived in the shadow of Kilimanjaro. He now lives in England and writes about Africa. People could expect an objective, and perhaps, a dispassionate account or depiction of African children and adults--their individual lives and…

  9. Socioeconomic and Social Aspects of Rural Youth: A Selected Topics Bibliography of ERIC Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    Resource materials, research documents, and developments related to the socioeconomic and social aspects of rural youth both in the US and internationally are cited in this bibliography of ERIC documents (including such subjects as status projections, mental health, occupations, dropouts, ethnicity, abortion, delinquency, education, environmental…

  10. Michael Eric Dyson: A Scholar and a Hip-Hop Preacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Michael Eric Dyson, an African American man who grew up in the ghetto and eventually received a PhD from Princeton University. Today, he is a professor at DePaul University, the author of a radically revisionist new biography of Martin Luther King, Jr., a lecturer and talk show guest, a Baptist preacher, and a self-styled hip-hop…

  11. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  12. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  13. ERIC-PCR genotypic characterization of Haemophilus parasuis isolated from Brazilian swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Zanolli Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis infection, known as Glässer's disease, is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in piglets. Although traditional diagnosis is based on herd history, clinical signs, bacterial isolation and serotyping, the molecular-based methods are alternatives for species-specific tests and epidemiologic study. The aim of this study was to characterize H. parasuis strains isolated from different states of Brazil by serotyping, PCR and ERIC-PCR. Serotyping revealed serovar 4 as the most prevalent (24 %, followed by serovars 14 (14 %, 5 (12 %, 13 (8 % and 2 (2 %, whereas 40 % of the strains were considered as non-typeable. From 50 strains tested 43 (86% were positive to Group 1 vtaA gene that have been related to virulent strains of H.parasuis. ERIC-PCR was able to type isolates tested among 23 different patterns, including non-typeable strains. ERIC-PCR patterns were very heterogeneous and presented high similarity between strains of the same animal or farm origin. The results indicated ERIC-PCR as a valuable tool for typing H. parasuis isolates collected in Brazil.

  14. Encore: A Selction of Articles from ERIC/ECE Newsletters (Jan. 1971-Dec. 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This compilation of articles from newsletters issued by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, (January 1971 - December 1972) includes a wide variety of topics such as: teachers' developmental stages, family day care in Pasadena, television violence, children's altruistic lying, and the Home Start program. Also included is a complete…

  15. Reflecting on Attention-Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder and Disablement in Education with Eric Fromm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veck, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon the thought of Eric Fromm, this paper argues that efforts to understand and counter behaviour that causes difficulties in education should begin in a critical and reflective engagement with both the conditions of human freedom and the character of educational institutions and society as a whole. Fromm's critique of dominating ideas…

  16. ERIC Resource Management Workshops--Final Report on Workshops for Standing Order Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. Nevin

    A series of workshops was conducted to enhance the information management capability of organizations maintaining complete files of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) materials, such as microfiche collections, indexes, and related materials. Invitations to attend meetings in their respective regions were extended to 677 organizations…

  17. ERIC Resource Management Workshops--Special Report on School System Standing Order Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. Nevin

    This report summarizes descriptive information on school systems and school system-related organizations that maintain complete files of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) materials. The data reported were provided by participants in a series of regional workshops held throughout the United States on information management practices…

  18. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  19. Access Education Literature with ERIC on CD-ROM: An Introductory Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Deanna

    This report provides instructional materials for a voluntary introductory workshop in the use of the Educational Resources and Information Clearinghouse (ERIC) database on CD-ROM. The workshop instruction is based on Leslie J. Brigg's Theories of Instructional Design with instructional objectives based on Robert Gagne's Learning Taxonomy. Library…

  20. Automating the School Library Media Center. A Select ERIC Bibliography. Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nancy R., Comp.

    This 13-item annotated bibliography was compiled through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database using the following descriptors: Library Automation, Bibliographic Databases, Bibliographic Utilities, Online Catalogs, Machine Readable Cataloging, and Integrated Library Systems. Among the issues addressed are the…

  1. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  2. ERIC-PCR genotypic characterization of Haemophilus parasuis isolated from Brazilian swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Castilla, Karina Salvagni; de Gobbi, Débora Dirani Sena; Coutinho, Tania Alen; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2011-10-01

    Haemophilus parasuis infection, known as Glässer's disease, is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in piglets. Although traditional diagnosis is based on herd history, clinical signs, bacterial isolation and serotyping, the molecular-based methods are alternatives for species-specific tests and epidemiologic study. The aim of this study was to characterize H. parasuis strains isolated from different states of Brazil by serotyping, PCR and ERIC-PCR. Serotyping revealed serovar 4 as the most prevalent (24 %), followed by serovars 14 (14 %), 5 (12 %), 13 (8 %) and 2 (2 %), whereas 40 % of the strains were considered as non-typeable. From 50 strains tested 43 (86%) were positive to Group 1 vtaA gene that have been related to virulent strains of H.parasuis. ERIC-PCR was able to type isolates tested among 23 different patterns, including non-typeable strains. ERIC-PCR patterns were very heterogeneous and presented high similarity between strains of the same animal or farm origin. The results indicated ERIC-PCR as a valuable tool for typing H. parasuis isolates collected in Brazil.

  3. Using Film To Teach History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on using film to teach history. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as using documentary films, the use of film and television to teach history, and teaching history using the film,"JFK," by Oliver Stone. (CMK)

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  5. EMSO ERIC - Ocean Consortium Facility for Europe and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Mairi

    2017-04-01

    EMSO is forging ahead through the next challenge in Earth-Ocean Science: How to co-ordinate ocean data acquisition, analysis and response across provincial, national, regional, and global scales. EMSO provides power, communications, sensors, and data infrastructure for continuous, high resolution, real-time, interactive ocean observations across a truly multi- and interdisciplinary range of research areas including biology, geology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science; from polar to tropical environments, through the water column down to the abyss. 11 deep sea and 4 shallow nodes span from Arctic through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea. The EMSO Preparatory Phase (FP7) project led to the Interim phase (involving 13 countries) of forming the legal entity: the EMSO European Research Infrastructure Consortium (EMSO-ERIC)-officially created by the EC in 2016. The open user community, originally developed through ESONET (European Seafloor Observatory NETwork), follows on scientific community planning contributions of the ESONET-NoE (FP6) project. Further progress made through the FixO3 project (FP7) also contributes to this shared infrastructure. Coordination among nodes is being strengthened through the EMSOdev project (H2020) which is producing the EMSO Generic Instrument Module (EGIM) - standardised observations of temperature, pressure, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll fluorescence, currents, passive acoustics, pH, pCO2, and nutrients. Early installations are now being upgraded; in October 2015 EMSO-France deployed a second cable and junction box serving the Ligurian Sea Node in order to monitor slope stability offshore Nice; in 2016 the EMSO Azores Node receives a major upgrade that will double its observing capacity; for EMSO-Italia the Capo Passero site is being installed and the Catania site is being upgraded. EMSOLINK will continue the expansion work. EMSO is a key player in international coordination

  6. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  7. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  8. Evaluation of the ERIC-PCR as a probable method to differentiate Avibacterium paragallinarum serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julius Eduard; Hitzeroth, Arina Corli; Bragg, Robert Richard; Boucher, Charlotte Enastacia

    2017-06-01

    Infectious coryza, an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, leads to huge economic losses. The disease is controlled through vaccination; but vaccination efficacy is dependent on correct identification of the infecting serovar, as limited cross-protection is reported amongst some serovars. Current identification methods include the heamagglutination inhibition test, which is demanding and could be subjective. To overcome this, molecular typing methods proposed are the Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-PCR, but low reproducibility is reported. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR has been suggested for molecular groupings of various bacterial species. This study focuses on evaluating the ERIC-PCR as a probable method to differentiate between different Av. paragallinarum serovars by grouping with reference isolates, based on clonal relations. The ERIC-PCR was performed on 12 reference isolates and 41 field isolates originating from South Africa and South America. The data indicate that the ERIC-PCR is not ideal for the differentiation or for molecular typing of Av. paragallinarum serovars, as no correlation is drawn upon comparison of banding patterns of field isolates and reference strains. However, the results do indicate isolates from the same origin sharing unique banding patterns, indicating potential clonal relationship; but when compared to the reference isolates dominant in the specific area, no correlation could be drawn. Furthermore, although the ERIC-PCR serves a purpose in epidemiological studies, it has proved to have little application in differentiating amongst serovars of Av. paragallinarum and to group untyped field strains with known reference strains.

  9. RAPD- and ERIC-Based Typing of Clinical and Environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auda, Ibtesam Ghadban; Al-Kadmy, Israa M S; Kareem, Sawsan Mohammed; Lafta, Aliaa Khyuon; A'Affus, Mustafa Hussein Obeid; Khit, Ibrahim Abd Aloahd; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infection in children and adults, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality due to its ability to acquire drug resistance. The ability of P. aeruginosa in the environment to cause infection in individuals has been reported previously; henceforth, surveillance of the emergence and transmission of P. aeruginosa strains among patients is important for infection control in a clinical setup. Various gene-typing methods have been used for epidemiological typing of P. aeruginosa isolates for the purpose of surveillance. In this work, the suitability and comparability of two typing methods, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprinting, were studied to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources. Forty-four clinical and environmental bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected between October 2015 and January 2016. DNA extraction, ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, and phylogenetic analyses were carried using the unweighted pair-group method with mean. RAPD typing revealed less clonality among clinical isolates, whereas the ERIC method showed greater similarity in comparison with RAPD. Environmental isolates, however, showed greater similarity using RAPD compared with ERIC typing. With only a few exceptions, most clinical isolates were distinct from environmental isolates, irrespective of the typing method. In conclusion, both the RAPD and ERIC typing methods proved to be good tools in understanding clonal diversity. The results also suggest that there is no relationship between clinical and environmental isolates. The absence of clonality among the clinical isolates may indicate that most P. aeruginosa infection cases could be endemic and not epidemic and that endemic infections may be due to nonclonal strains of P. aeruginosa.

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  11. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  12. The EMSO-ERIC Pan-European Consortium: Data Benefits and Lessons Learned as the Legal Entity Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, M.M.R.; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Blandin, J.; Cagatay, N.M.; Cannat, M.; Dañobeitia, J.J.; Delory, E.; de Miranda, J.M.A.; Del Rio Fernandez, J.; De Stigter , H.; Gillooly, M.; Grant, F.; Hall, P.O.J.; Hartman, S.E.; Hernandez-Brito, J.; Lanteri, N.; Mienert, J.; Oaie, G.; Piera, J.; Radulescu, V.; Rolin, J.-F.; Ruhl, H.A.; Waldmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    The European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) provides power, communications, sensors, and data infrastructure for continuous, high-resolution, (near-)real-time, interactive ocean observations across a multidisciplinary

  13. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......Research and innovation are key pillars of the EU’s strategy to create sustainable growth and prosperity in Europe. Research infrastructures (RIs) are central instruments to implement this strategy. They bring together a wide diversity of expertise and interests to look for solutions to many......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  14. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  15. Physical Activity Lessons in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia Sem

    2010-01-01

    A review of the current literature indicates that childhood obesity is on the rise. What is more disconcerting is that this epidemic has significantly affected the preschool-age population, with the percentage of overweight children increasing from 5.0% to 12.4%, as indicated by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys…

  16. Preschool Integration: An Experimental Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Linda; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study compared four methods of increasing quantity and quality of play interactions between nonhandicapped and 11 moderately/severely handicapped children in an integrated preschool. Results of contingent reinforcement, reinforcement plus modeling, reinforcement plus behavior management, and reinforcement plus modeling plus behavior management…

  17. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  18. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  19. Preschoolers' Quarantining of Fantasy Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Smith, Erin I.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are exposed to fantasy stories with the expectation that they will learn messages in those stories that are applied to real-world situations. We examined children's transfer from fantastical and real stories. Over the course of 2 studies, 3 1/2- to 5 1/2-year-old children were less likely to transfer problem solutions from…

  20. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  1. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  2. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  3. Evaluation of Praxis in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, L. Diane

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and procedures are presented for occupational therapy evaluation of the preschooler whose problems suggest dyspraxia. Two evaluative domains are examined: sensory processing (assessment of tactile, proprioceptive, vestibular, auditory and visual functions) and praxis (ideation, motor planning and execution). Procedures include…

  4. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  5. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  6. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Digestive health in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.

  9. Interview with eric R. Kandel: from memory, free will, and the problem with Freud to fortunate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R

    2008-04-24

    Eric R. Kandel shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard in 2000 for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Eric Kandel was rewarded for his discoveries of molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. He is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Senior Investigator at Columbia Universities Center for Neurobiology and Behavior. In this interview given at Hertie Foundation's Neuroforum 2008 on April 18, 2008 in Frankfurt, Germany, Nobel Prize Laureate Eric R. Kandel takes us on an enlighting journey ranging from memory, free will, the problem with Freud , to scientific challenges and the rise of European science. Starting with short- and long-term memory basics, underlying molecular mechanisms, and events affecting the formation of long-term memory, Eric Kandel then shares his thoughts on the issue of free will and makes a strong case for its existence. In addition to his outstanding scientific career, Eric Kandel developed an interest in business and today serves as scientific advisor at Memory Pharmaceuticals. Eric Kandel then talks about the use and abuse of drugs in children and the merging of scientific disciplines. In one of the most intriguing parts of the interview, Kandel shares his thoughts on Freud, Freud's mistakes, and the unique situation that the generations following Freud did not develop Freud's work further. The interview then turns to more scientific aspects and Eric Kandel talks about his confidence and courage during the initial phases of his scientific career, studying learning and memory, and employing a strictly reductionistic approach, best characterized by his simple model organism Aplysia. Eric Kandel then describes one of the most challenging phases in his scientific career when adult neurogenesis was discovered in the hippocampus, a structure so integral to Kandel's work. The final parts of the interview cover today's absence of epic battles and

  10. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  11. The Effects of Los Angeles Universal Preschool on Quality Preschool Teacher Retention in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Stevens, Holly Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) programs has a positive effect on the retention of quality preschool teachers in Los Angeles County. In prior work, preschool teacher retention is associated with wages, program structure, program process, professional development, and…

  12. Emotional Competence and Emotion Socialization in Preschoolers: The Viewpoint of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to thoroughly investigate preschool teachers' opinions about emotional competence and emotion socialization. The study group was comprised of 20 preschool teachers working in preschools in the city-center of Aksaray. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used as the data collection tool. Data…

  13. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Views on Competence in the Context of Home and Preschool Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tuula; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss preschool teachers' views regarding competence within their profession in the context of home and preschool collaboration. The question addressed is as follows: In what situations do preschool teachers perceive that their competence becomes visible for parents? The results, based on interviews…

  15. Coordination in orientation games of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Erika

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis we studied how orientation games have effect on preschool children whilst growing up. Even though the games in available litterature are meant for school children some authors stress that the games are appropriate for preschool children though you do have to have be careful when implementing them for preschoolers. Orientation games in their original form improve orientation, endurance and encourage competition. With participation we can improve all motor functions but for presch...

  16. Isotopic separation through ion cyclotron-resonance: results from the ERIC experiment; La separation isotopique par resonance cyclotron ionique: resultats obtenus avec l`experience ERIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compant la Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement

    1994-12-31

    Stable isotope separation by the means of ion cyclotron-resonance is studied at CEA since 1981. Results from the ERIC experiments are of two types: parameter measurements which help characterizing the plasma and optimizing the process, and isotopic separation results. For example, the selective feature of isotope heating was verified in the cases of zinc and calcium using an electrostatic analyzer. The separation factors of various elements (calcium, zinc, barium, chromium...) are depending on the mass relative difference of the isotopes to be separated, difference which must be large compared to the magnetic field inhomogeneities and the Doppler broadening. 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  17. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  19. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  20. Escaping institutionality: rebellion and gendered space in Eric, or Little by Little and A Little Princess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Soyoun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the convention of nineteenth-century school narratives, students are supposed to grow up in the school while their characters are being molded by the standardized educational system. Eric, or Little by Little and A Little Princess both resist the very idea of linear growth that is a trope of the Bildungsroman through endowing their protagonists with the rebelliousness and outsider status of the unruly child. This essay examines how Eric Williams and Sara Crewe, disobedient students who leave their schools after deriving no benefit from the institutional education, illuminate the ways in which institutionality is incorporated with the gendered agendas of nineteenth-century England. Eric and Sara both challenge the authority of the central adult in each tale by exploiting and changing the interior space of the schools; not only the inner structures of each school but also the connection/disconnection between school and home differ in the two stories. My proposition is that in the nineteenth-century school narratives discipline and character-building in the institution are not viewed as inevitable in reaching adulthood for girls, while for boys there is neither exit from the institutionality nor way to recover their lost home and childhood.

  1. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Cucina, Mirko; Folch, Montserrat; Tàpias, Josefina; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-05-15

    Microalgae anaerobic digestion produces biogas along with a digestate that may be reused in agriculture. However, the properties of this digestate for agricultural reuse have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to characterise digestates from different microalgae anaerobic digestion processes (i.e. digestion of untreated microalgae, thermally pretreated microalgae and thermally pretreated microalgae in co-digestion with primary sludge). The main parameters evaluated were organic matter, macronutrients and heavy metals content, hygenisation, potential phytotoxicity and organic matter stabilisation. According to the results, all microalgae digestates presented suitable organic matter and macronutrients, especially organic and ammonium nitrogen, for agricultural soils amendment. However, the thermally pretreated microalgae digestate was the least stabilised digestate in comparison with untreated microalgae and co-digestion digestates. In vivo bioassays demonstrated that the digestates did not show residual phytotoxicity when properly diluted, being the co-digestion digestate the one which presented less phytotoxicity. Heavy metals contents resulted far below the threshold established by the European legislation on sludge spreading. Moreover, low presence of E. coli was observed in all digestates. Therefore, agricultural reuse of thermally pretreated microalgae and primary sludge co-digestate through irrigation emerges a suitable strategy to recycle nutrients from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  3. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  4. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  5. Setting the stage for the EPOS ERIC: Integration of the legal, governance and financial framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Freda, Carmela; Giardini, Domenico; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kohler, Elisabeth; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Lauterjung, Jörn; Pedersen, Helle; Saleh, Kauzar; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2017-04-01

    EPOS - the European Plate Observing System - is the ESFRI infrastructure serving the need of the solid Earth science community at large. The EPOS mission is to create a single sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework. Thematic Core Services (TCS) and Integrated Core Services (Central Hub, ICS-C and Distributed, ICS-D) are key elements, together with NRIs (National Research Infrastructures), in the EPOS architecture. Following the preparatory phase, EPOS has initiated formal steps to adopt an ERIC legal framework (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). The statutory seat of EPOS will be in Rome, Italy, while the ICS-C will be jointly operated by France, UK and Denmark. The TCS planned so far cover: seismology, near-fault observatories, GNSS data and products, volcano observations, satellite data, geomagnetic observations, anthropogenic hazards, geological information modelling, multiscale laboratories and geo-energy test beds for low carbon energy. In the ERIC process, EPOS and all its services must achieve sustainability from a legal, governance, financial, and technical point of view, as well as full harmonization with national infrastructure roadmaps. As EPOS is a distributed infrastructure, the TCSs have to be linked to the future EPOS ERIC from legal and governance perspectives. For this purpose the TCSs have started to organize themselves as consortia and negotiate agreements to define the roles of the different actors in the consortium as well as their commitment to contribute to the EPOS activities. The link to the EPOS ERIC shall be made by service agreements of dedicated Service Providers. A common EPOS data policy has also been developed, based on the general principles of Open Access and paying careful attention to licensing issues, quality control, and intellectual property rights, which shall apply to the data, data products

  6. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  7. PPT: The Preschool Preparation and Transition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary Jo; Ratokalau, Nancy B.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Hawaii Department of Special Education conducted the Preschool Preparation and Transition Project, a federally funded demonstration program, to support families and their children with special needs in the transition from infant programs to least restrictive preschool placements. The program addressed this goal through three…

  8. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  9. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  10. Preschool Teachers' Constructions of Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning preschool teachers' constructions of early reading has potential to influence teachers' curricular decisions and classroom practice. Six preschool teachers in North Texas were interviewed in regard to what they think about early reading and how they develop these understandings or constructions. The systematic, inductive…

  11. Phonological Production in Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…

  12. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  13. Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  14. Creative Inspiration for Preschoolers from Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Marja-Leena; Aerila, Juli-Anna; Grönman, Satu

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the learning outcomes of preschool children produced through visits to an historic house museum environment. The new Finnish preschool curriculum identifies the importance of arts-based approaches for children and that these approaches should be closely aligned to experiential and holistic education. The aim of the research…

  15. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A

    2015-01-01

    (ERIC), in order to investigate the number of ICUs using SDD and the factors that prevented the use of SDD. METHODS: One invitation to the electronic survey was sent to each ERIC unit. The survey focused on department characteristics (intensive care type, local resistance levels), local treatment...

  16. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  17. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  18. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  19. Interventions to prevent and manage overweight or obesity in preschool children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    The preschool period is a pivotal time for lifestyle interventions to begin the establishment of long-term physical activity and healthy eating habits. This systematic review sought to (a) examine the effects of prevention and management interventions on overweight/obesity among children aged 2-5 years, and (b) explore factors that may influence intervention effects. A systematic review of randomized controlled studies was conducted. Six databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane library, were searched for relevant studies. Data were extracted and checked by two reviewers. Each study was appraised based on 4 quality indicators adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A narrative summary technique was used to describe the review findings. Thirty-seven articles describing 32 randomized controlled trials and 29 unique interventions were retained. Eight of 23 prevention and 4 of 6 management interventions resulted in significant weight loss, with 3 prevention and 5 management interventions showing sustained effects over 6 to 24 months. Of the 12 efficacious interventions, 10 included physical activity and nutrition components, 9 actively involved parents, and only 4 were theory-based. Interactive education was the most common strategy used for parents in prevention interventions, compared to behavioral therapy techniques in management interventions. For children, interactive education and hands-on experiences involving physical activity and healthy eating were equally used. Management interventions showed greater effects in weight loss compared to prevention interventions. Future prevention interventions in preschool children should target both parents and children, and focus on physical activity and nutrition through interactive education and hands-on experiences, although intervention effects were less than optimal. Management interventions should focus on parents as the "agents of change" for physical

  20. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  2. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  3. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  4. 米醋中蜡状芽孢杆菌DNA提取及其ERIC-PCR体系建立%Extraction of Bacillus cereus DNA in Vinegar and the Establishment of ERIC-PCR System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永红; 任文雅; 孙宝国; 徐瑾; 沈晗

    2011-01-01

    以蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为试验材料,比较细菌基因组DNA的提取方法.将ERIC-PCR应用于醋液分离菌的研究,对此反应体系的主要因素进行优化,最终建立了适合于此菌种的ERIC-PCR体系.采用改良的传统细菌基因组DNA提取方法,所提取的DNA质量较高,能够满足ERIC-PCR反应的需要.反应体系:25μL反应体积10×扩增缓冲液(含Mg2+)2.5 μL,20 pmol/μL ERIC-PCR引物E1 1μL,20 pmol/μL ERIC-PCR引物E2 1μL,DNA模板2μL,2.5 mmol/LdNTPs混合液2.0 μL,taq聚合酶1.1 μL,双蒸水补齐;PCR反应程序为:94℃变性3min,1个循环;94℃变性30 s,55℃退火40 s,72℃延伸1min,30个循环;72℃延伸4min.%Bacillus cereus was used as experimental materials. Hie method of genomic DNA extraction was studied in Bacillus and the conditions of ERIC-PCR. Finally, ERIC-PCR reaction system suitable for our lab was established. The results showed that high-grade genomic DNA which could meet the requirements of PCR reaction was obtained by the modified methods. The established ERIC-PCR reaction system was as follows: 10×Buffer (Mg2+) 2.5 μL, 20 pmol/μL primer E1 1 μL, 20 pmol/μL primer E2 1 μL, DNA template 2 μL, 2.5 mmol/L dNTPs 2 μL, Taq polymerase 1.1 μL, ddH2O 15.4 μL, 25 μL reaction volume. The reaction program of PCR was devised as follows: 3 min degeneration at 94 ℃ (one cycle), then 30s degeneration at 94 ℃, 40s annealing at 55 ℃, and 1 min extension at 72 ℃(30cycles), and then 4min final extension at 72 ℃.

  5. Quality of preschool education in preschool institution and children's social competence

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lešnik; Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-01-01

    The present study addressed the relation between the quality of preschool education and children's social competence. The main purpose of the study was to examine how professional workers (preschool teachers and preschool teachers' assistants) evaluate their work with children in the context of stimulating children's social development, and to determine the relationship between the professional workers' self-evaluations and children's social competence. Professional worker...

  6. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  7. Covert radar and signals interception the secret career of Eric Ackermann

    CERN Document Server

    Hayson, David

    2014-01-01

    Of German stock dating back to 1530 in Saxony, Eric George Ackermann GM was born on the Isle of Wight in 1919 and became a leading figure in the world of signals and electronic intelligence. As a Junior Scientific Officer at the Telecommunication Research Establishment, Boscombe Down, with an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force, he made numerous flights over occupied territory searching for, monitoring and destroying Germany's Wuerzburg, Knickebein and X Band radar systems. Much of his research was passed to the highest levels of wartime government, and was highly prized, ensuring that

  8. Genetic diversity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Brazil analyzed using an ERIC-PCR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Paixão, R D V; Queiroz, C B; Santana, M F; Souza, A; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2014-09-26

    The Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) marker was used to analyze the genetic variability of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants. A total of 123 isolates were used, which were divided into populations based on their original hosts and collection sites in Brazil. A total of 9 loci were amplified, 77.8% of which were found to be polymorphic. The genetic diversity found in the population was 0.20. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that the highest level of genetic variation is within populations. Cluster analysis revealed three main groups in Brazil, with no correlation between geographic and genetic distance.

  9. The Happiness of an Abandoned Excellence. From Eric Weil's Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Guibal

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available ls it possible to fit the ancient meaning of virtue into the modem parameters of liberty andautonomy? To answer that question we will lean on the thesis expounded by the Moral Philosophy of Eric Weil. This work, guided by Hegel, will help us measure the size of the antagonism between Aristotle and Kant, leading us through a meditation on historical action, and leading moral reflection to its vital and existential self-realization. Finally, we will assert the value and fertility, in absence of proofs, of this philosophical gesture.

  10. Gregory Bateson and Eric Voegelin – Silent Dialogues across the Human Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that two important thinkers of the 20th century, Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) and Eric Voegelin (1901-1985), developed a set of ideas that are of importance to the history of the human sciences. The article also argues that their ideas display similarities that have not yet been...... discussed within the larger history of the human sciences. The aim of the article is to show how the diagnostic terms provided by Bateson and Voegelin complement each other toward an understanding of underlying tensions and social pathologies of contemporary civilization....

  11. The Happiness of an Abandoned Excellence. From Eric Weil's Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Guibal

    1998-01-01

    ls it possible to fit the ancient meaning of virtue into the modem parameters of liberty andautonomy? To answer that question we will lean on the thesis expounded by the Moral Philosophy of Eric Weil. This work, guided by Hegel, will help us measure the size of the antagonism between Aristotle and Kant, leading us through a meditation on historical action, and leading moral reflection to its vital and existential self-realization. Finally, we will assert the value and fertility, in absence of...

  12. The Happiness of an Abandoned Excellence. From Eric Weil's Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Guibal, Francis

    2013-01-01

    ls it possible to fit the ancient meaning of virtue into the modem parameters of liberty andautonomy? To answer that question we will lean on the thesis expounded by the Moral Philosophy of Eric Weil. This work, guided by Hegel, will help us measure the size of the antagonism between Aristotle and Kant, leading us through a meditation on historical action, and leading moral reflection to its vital and existential self-realization. Finally, we will assert the value and fertility, in absence of...

  13. Acoustical evaluation of preschool classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray

    2003-10-01

    An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.

  14. Application of NVC to English Teaching for Preschool Education Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-rong

    2014-01-01

    In view of the present situation of college English teaching for Preschool Education Major is rather unsatisfactory, this paper briefly introduced Nonverbal Communication (NVC) and laid the emphasis on guiding college English teachers to apply useful nonverbal stimuli to inspiring Preschool Education major’s English-learning interest, improving their learning results, and helping them master various preschool English teaching skills. It further proved the nonverbal means and relative training meth-ods are helpful and practical to improve Preschool Education majors’nonverbal communicative competence and develop their preschool English teaching ability. Therefore, it will contribute to the study of English teaching for Preschool Education Major.

  15. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  16. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  17. Naps May Sharpen a Preschooler's Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163510.html Naps May Sharpen a Preschooler's Language Skills Kids who slept after learning new verbs understood ... have an advantage when it comes to developing language skills, a new study suggests. Researchers assessed 39 youngsters ...

  18. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  19. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  20. Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sjödin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  1. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  2. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  3. Social and Ideological Entanglements of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address a phenomenon that I call “neo-liberal entanglements” of preschool education, clearly observable in the project “Enterprising Preschooler” currently underway in Wroclaw's preschools. I provide a critical analysis of the project, exposing the ideological mechanisms that contribute to the commercialization of children’s life worlds and their early socialization into the mechanisms of market consumerism.

  4. Library and Information Services for Literacy. A Select ERIC Bibliography Prepared on a Theme of the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services. ERIC/IR Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nancy R., Comp.

    Documents and journal articles featured in this nine-item annotated bibliography concern the role of library and information services in developing and expanding literacy at all levels in an increasingly information-oriented society. Citations were selected through a computer search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database.…

  5. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  6. Balancing Biography and Institutional History: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cushing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available When a young naturalist opened his new wildlife park at Wyoming on the NSW Central Coast in the late 1950s, he gave it his own name: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park. Through the park, Worrell made a significant contribution to environmental education, the development of knowledge of captive animal care and display and the provision of antivenoms for the bites of a range of dangerous creatures. More than this, it was the geographic and emotional centre of Worrell’s world: the fulfilment of a childhood dream, a home for his family and a site for forming new personal and professional relationships. In preparation for the jubilee of the park, its history is being written by two academics from the University of Newcastle. An attractive means of creating the necessary narrative structure and human interest to ensure the wide appeal of this history is to follow Worrell’s lead and place his life at the centre of this institutional history. This is the direction suggested by the written sources on the park and it is accentuated by many of our oral informants who organise their memories of the park around Worrell. To what extent can an institutional history be a biography of the person at the heart of that institution? Is it possible to disentangle the life from the institution? This article offers some preliminary answers to these questions through a case study of the writing of a history of Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park.

  7. Molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains by the ERIC-PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Maryam Afkhami; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ERIC-PCR method for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from hospitalized patients. In a cross sectional study, 98 E. coli samples were collected from urine samples taken from patients admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital from June 2014 to January 2015. The disk agar diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic sensitivity. DNA proliferation based on repetitive intergenic consensus was used to classify the E. coli strains. The products of proliferation were electrophoresed on 1.5% agarose gel, and their dendrograms were drawn. The data were analyzed by online Insillico software. The method used in this research proliferated numerous bands (4-17 bands), ranging from 100 to 3000 base pairs. The detected strains were classified into six clusters (E1-E6) with 70% similarity between them. In this study, uropathogenic E. coli strains belonged to different genotypic clusters. It was found that ERIC-PCR had good differentiation power for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from the patients in the study.

  8. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  9. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  10. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...

  11. State Assessment and Testing Programs: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography. Volume I: General References. Volume II: Individual State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Deborah Elena; Wildemuth, Barbara

    There is a growing body of literature in the ERIC data base pertaining to state educational assessment and testing programs. Volume I of this bibliography includes abstracts of 39 documents and journal articles describing the design and implementation of programs, as well as the technical and political issues which have been addressed by the…

  12. Molecular typing among beef isolates of Escherichia coli using consensus repetitive intergenic enterobacteria-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoolkifli, Nurliyana Wan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd

    2013-11-01

    Genomic DNA of Escherichia coli were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-Polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the presence of Shiga toxin gene-I (Stx1) and Shiga toxin gene-2 (Stx2). These isolates were originated from imported raw beef which are come from two countries namely Australia and India. The isolation of E. coli was conducted by using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMBA). A total of 94 strains had been isolated from 30 samples of imported raw beefand 42 strains had been detected positively E. coli by doing biochemical tests. All strains had been tested and the results of biochemical tests showed that 3 strains were from Australia samples while the other 39 strains were from India samples. The biochemical tests used are Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test and Citrate test. All the 42 strains were examined for Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) gene detection by two pair primers which are stx2F (5'-TTCTTCGGTATCCTATTCCC-3'), stx2R (5'-ATGCATCTCTGGTCATTGTA-3'), stx1F (5'-CAGTTAATGTGGTGGCGAAG-3'), and stx1R (5'-CTGTCACAGTAACAACCGT-3'). The results showed that none of the strains are positive for Shiga toxin gene. Application of ERIC-PCR method towards E. coli had successfully shown the high diversity polymorphism in 21 different genome types of DNA with primers ERIC1R (5'- CACTTAGGGGTCCTCGAATGTA- 3') and ERIC2R (5'- AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGACGC- 3').

  13. Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 for Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, and William E. Moerner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möckl, Leonhard; Lamb, Don C; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2014-12-15

    A big honor for small objects: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was jointly awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy". This Highlight describes how the field of super-resolution microscopy developed from the first detection of a single molecule in 1989 to the sophisticated techniques of today.

  14. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order....

  15. Comparative analysis of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and orally infected ducklings with Salmonella enteritidis by ERIC-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Yan Cao; De-Kang Zhu; Qi-Hui Luo; Xiao-Yue Chen; Ming-Shu Wang; An-Chun Cheng; Xue-Feng Qi; Xiao-Yan Yang; Shu-Xuan Deng; Nian-Chun Yin; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Deng-Chun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the difference of intestinal microbial community diversity between healthy and (S.enteritidis)orally infected ducklings.METHODS:Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to analyze the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change including duodenum,jejunum,ileum,cecum and rectum from healthy ducklings and 7-dayoold ducklings after oral infection with S.enteritidis at different time points.RESULTS:The intestinal microbial community of the control healthy ducklings was steady and the ERIC-PCR band numbers of the control healthy ducklings were the least with rectum and were the most with caecum.ER[C-PCR bands of orally inoculated ducklings did not obviously change until 24 h after inoculation (p.i.).The numbers of the ERIC-PCR bands gradually decreased from 24 h to 72 h p.i.,and then,with the development of disease,the band numbers gradually increased until 6 d p.i.The prominent bacteria changed because of S.enteritidis infection and the DNAstar of staple of ERIC-PCR showed that aerobe and facultative aerobe (Escherichia coli,Shigella,Salmonella) became preponderant bacilli in the intestine of orally infected ducklings with SE.CONCLUSION:This study has provided significant data to clarify the intestinal microbial community diversity and dynamic change of healthy and S.enterltidis orally infected ducklings,and valuable insight into the pathogenesis of S.enteritidis infection in both human and animals.

  16. A simple and rapid method for extracting bacterial DNA from intestinal microflora for ERIC-PCR detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Long Yang; Ming-Shu Wang; An-Chun Cheng; Kang-Cheng Pan; Chuan-Feng Li; Shu-Xuan Deng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To develop a simple and convenient method for extracting genomic DNA from intestinal microflora for enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR detection.METHODS: Five methods of extracting bacterial DNA,including Tris-EDTA buffer, chelex-100, ultrapure water,2% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 10% Triton-100 with and without sonication, were compared with the commercial fecal DNA extraction kit method, which is considered as the gold standard for DNA extraction. The comparison was based on the yield and purity of DNA and the indexes of the structure and property of micro-organisms that were reflected by ERIC-PCR.RESULTS: The yield and purity of DNA obtained by the chelex method was similar to that obtained with the fecal DNA kit. The ERIC-PCR results obtained for the DNA extracted by the chelex method and those obtained for DNA extracted with the fecal DNA kit were basically the same.CONCLUSION: The chelex method is recommended for ERIC-PCR experiments in view of its simplicity and costeffectiveness; and it is suitable for extracting total DNA from intestinal micro-organisms, particularly for handling a large number of samples.

  17. Adamson-Eric 100 : XX sajandi kunsti- ja kultuurilugu ühe inimsaatuse kaudu / Ülle Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Ülle

    2002-01-01

    Näitus "Adamson-Eric 100" Eesti Kunstimuuseumi Rüütelkonna hoones ja Adamson-Ericu muuseumis. Koostajad Ülle Kruus, Kersti Koll, Hanno Soans, kujundajad Leonhard Lapin (EKM), Jaak Soans (Adamson-Ericu muuseum). Adamson-Ericu teosed väljaspool Eestit ja Eestisse tagasi jõudnud tööd

  18. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  19. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  20. Poor Sleep in Preschool Years Could Mean Behavior Troubles Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164075.html Poor Sleep in Preschool Years Could Mean Behavior Troubles Later ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Preschoolers who get too little sleep may be more likely to have trouble paying ...